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School of Politics and International Studies READING LIST -

PIED 3602 2008 sem 1

Contents: Module description/structure Recommended texts Lecture & Seminar schedule Seminar readings Assessment Supplementary reading list Rules and procedures

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Critical Theory

Lectures: Seminars:

Tuesdays 4-5 pm [Room RS 4] STARTS 30/9 Monday mornings [Room 13.33] STARTS 6/10

Voluntary Discussion Group: Wednesdays 2-3pm [Room SS 9.01] - STARTS 8/10 Office hours: Mondays 1-2pm [Room 13.33]
Dr. Ricardo Blaug Office 13.33 ESS email:
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Module Description and Structure

Critical Theory is a third level theory module. It has no pre-requisites, but it does require consistent work. Objectives: To introduce contemporary issues in Western social and political thought by looking at the seminal debate between Critical Theory (Horkheimer, Adorno, Habermas) and Postmodern theory (Foucault, Lyotard, Deleuze and Guattari). To examine their respective critiques of enlightenment and modernity. To inspect the relation of radical political theory to practice. To gather critical resources and explore political possibilities and obstacles. To sharpen intellectual skills and gain confidence in critical reasoning, accurate communication, textual and conceptual analysis. To encourage students to develop their own critical position.

Assessment: Two essays of 3000 words, due mid-term and first day of exam period respectively. Each essay is worth 50% of the final grade. Syllabus: The course begins with an exploration of the strengths and weaknesses of Critical Theory as it developed from the Frankfurt School to Jrgen Habermas. Particular attention is paid to the critique of Enlightenment reason and its relation to a radical politics. Students then choose an area of practical concern to which Habermasian Critical Theory has been applied, and analyse it in an essay. The second section inspects the claim that we have moved into a period of Postmodernity, and concentrates on those theorists who have sought both to reject Enlightenment reason and to challenge the very nature of the political. Third, the acrimonious debate between Habermas and the Postmodernists is assessed and inspected for its political implications. Finally, theoretical advances in both modernist and postmodernist Critical Theory are used to explore the future of radical politics and participatory democracy. The literature of both camps offer rich seams of theory, giving students scope to explore individual interests in areas such as psychiatry, education, media, international politics, feminism and language. This is a course in radical political philosophy. It makes contemporary theory approachable, useful, personal and political. The weekly lecture on Tuesdays introduces a topic. Students then do the required reading on that topic and explore it further in the following Monday seminar. Attendance at Monday's seminar is compulsory. In addition, there is a weekly discussion group on Wednesdays between 2 and 3pm. Please note that attendance at the discussion group is entirely voluntary. For more details on attendance, please see the section 'Rules and Procedures' at the end of this module pack.


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Recommended Texts
You will need some way of getting primary material by Habermas and Foucault, as well as a range of secondary material on each. Most of these titles are available from the University Student Union Bookshop. [PRIMARY MATERIAL] W. Outhwaite (ed.), The Habermas Reader, Cambridge: Polity, 1996. [In library, also being reprinted, also in Student Union Bookshop.] P. Rabinow, (ed.) The Foucault Reader, London: Penguin Books, 1991. [In library and Student Union Bookshop]. Good overall introductions to the first and second parts of the module respectively are: D. Kellner, Critical Theory, Marxism and Modernity, Cambridge: Polity, 1989. S. Best, D. Kellner, Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, London: Penguin, 1991. Introductory texts that offer good introductions to Habermasian theory are: W. Outhwaite, Habermas: A Critical Introduction, Cambridge: Polity, 1994. D.M. Rasmussen, Reading Habermas, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1990. A. Brand, The Force of Reason, London: Allen & Unwin, 1990, pp. 1-64. J.G. Finlayson, Habermas: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: OUP, 2005. More challenging and more rewarding are: S.K. White, The Recent Work of Jrgen Habermas, Cambridge: CUP, 1988. T.A. McCarthy, The Critical Theory of Jrgen Habermas, Boston: MIT Press, 1978. S.K. White, Political Theory and Postmodernism, Cambridge: CUP, 1991. Anthologies of secondary literature that cover issues pursued in this module are: F. Rush (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Critical Theory, Cambridge: CUP, 2004. D.M. Rasmussen (ed.), The Handbook of Critical Theory, Oxford: Blackwell, 1999. P. Dews (ed.), Habermas: A Critical Reader, Oxford: Blackwell, 1999. D. Held, Introduction to Critical Theory, Oxford: Polity, 1980. Reference works are: A. Edgar, Habermas: The Key Concepts, London: Routledge, 2006. D. Macey, The Penguin Dictionary of Critical Theory, London: Penguin, 2000. The sheer number of theorists we look at in this module is such that it is also helpful to buy a decent dictionary of ideas, or of political thought, philosophy, or the history of ideas. You might also use the Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy Online at and the excellent, indeed life-saving, Penguin Dictionary of Critical Theory. Also helpful is the open-source collaborative encyclopedia at A time-tested dictionary of the history of ideas is now available at If you find any good sites, do let other students and the lecturer know. Liberal use should also be made of the Dear Habermas site at

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Lecture and Seminar Schedule

Lecture: Seminar week 2: Lecture: Discussion Group Seminar 3: Lecture: Discussion Group Seminar 4: Lecture: Discussion Group Seminar 5: Lecture: Discussion Group Seminar 6: NO LECTURE: Discussion Group NO SEMINAR 7: Lecture: Discussion Group Seminar 8: Lecture: Discussion Group Seminar 9: Lecture: Discussion Group Seminar 10: Lecture: Discussion Group Seminar 11: Lecture: Discussion Group [Tues. 30th. Sept.] [Mon. 6th. Oct.] [Tues. 7th. Oct.] [Wed. 8h. Oct.] [Mon. 13th. Oct.] [Tues. 14th. Oct.] [Wed. 15th. Oct.] [Mon. 20th. Oct.] [Tues. 21st. Oct.] [Wed. 22nd. Oct.] [Mon. 27th. Oct.] [Tues. 28th. Oct.] [Wed. 29th. Oct.] [Mon. 3rd. Nov.] [Tues. 4th. Nov.] [Wed. 5th. Nov.] [Mon. 10th. Nov.] [Tues. 11th. Nov.] [Wed. 12th. Nov.] [Mon. 17th. Nov.] [Tues.18th. Nov.] [Wed. 19th. Nov.] [Mon. 24th. Nov.] [Tues. 25th. Nov.] [Wed. 26th. Nov.] [Mon. 1st. Dec.] [Tues. 2nd. Dec.] [Wed. 3rd. Dec.] [Mon. 8th. Dec.] [Tues. 9th. Dec.] [Wed. 10th. Dec.] Introduction: reason, radicalism, relativism The Problem of Justification The Frankfurt School The Critique of Reason The Critical Theory of Jrgen Habermas Exploring Habermasian Theory Critical Theory and its Practices (i) Applying Habermasian Theory Critical Theory and its Practices (ii) Essay Preparation Critical Practice? FIRST ESSAY DUE: 10th. Nov. 2008 March, 2006 A Transition to Postmodernity? Feedback on Essays Postmodern Questions Exploring Postmodernism Critical Theory and its Practices (iii) Postmodern Politics and Critique Accusations and Counter-Accusations Focusing the Debate The Organisation of Resistance


12th. Jan. 2009

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Required Reading for Seminars

_____________________________________________________________________________ Seminar Week 2: [Monday, 6th. Oct.] The Problem of Justification Bring definitions of The Enlightenment; normative; relativism and universalism from a dictionary or website.

Required Reading:

Discussion: Do we have, or need, normative grounds for social criticism? _____________________________________________________________________________ Seminar 3: [Monday, 13th. Oct.] The Critique of Reason

Required Reading: Discussion: Seminar 4:

Horkheimer & Adorno, The Dialectic of Enlightenment, pp. 3-42. What's wrong with Enlightenment reason? Is the DofE a usable critique?

[Monday, 20th. Oct.]

Exploring Habermasian Theory

Required Reading: Discussion: Task: Seminar 5:

W. Outhwaite,(ed.), The Habermas Reader. pp. 28-40; 160-168; 180-191; 248-264. Rehearsing Habermasian arguments and concepts. Students take list of applications.

[Monday, 27th. Oct.]

Applying Habermasian Theory

Required Reading:

W. Outhwaite, (ed.), The Habermas Reader, pp. 278-303. R. Blaug, "Habermas' Treatment for Relativism," Politics, Vol. 14, no. 2, 1994, pp. 1-22. What use is critical theory? Students select one application from list to read for next week.

Discussion: Task:

Seminar 6:

[Monday, 3rd. Nov.]

Essay Preparation Critical Practice?

Required Reading: Task:

Your chosen article applying Habermasian theory to practice. Working in pairs on chosen applications of Habermasian theory.


10th. November, 2008

_____________________________________________________________________________ Seminar 7: [Monday, 10th. Nov.] NO SEMINAR

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_____________________________________________________________________________ Seminar 8: [Monday, 17th. Nov.] None Exploring Postmodernism Feedback on Essays Required Reading: Seminar 9:

_____________________________________________________________________________ [Monday, 24th. Nov.]

Required Reading:

M. Foucault, The Foucault Reader, pp. 141-166. M. Foucault, "Two Lectures," in Power/Knowledge, pp. 78-108.

Discussion: Clarifying issues around power and knowledge. _____________________________________________________________________________ Seminar 10: [Monday, 1st. Dec.] Required Reading: Postmodern Politics and Critique

Best & Kellner, Postmodern Theory, ch. 6. AND EITHER C. Mouffe, "Radical Democracy: Modern or Postmodern? in Universal Abandon, pp. 31-45, OR N. Fraser, L. Nicholson, "Social Criticism without Philosophy: An Encounter between Feminism and Postmodernism," in Universal Abandon, pp. 83-104, OR Deleuze & Guattari, 1000 Plateaux, pp. 351-404; 416-423.

Discussion: Clarifying the differences between critical theories. What are the strengths and weaknesses of the postmodern approach? _____________________________________________________________________________ Seminar 11: [Monday, 8th. Dec.] Required Reading: Focusing the Debate

J. Habermas, "Modernity Versus Postmodernity," New German Critique, pp. 3-14, Best & Kellner, Postmodern Theory, ch. 7.

Discussion: Rehearsing the arguments and counter-arguments. _____________________________________________________________________________


12th. January, 2009

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Both essays should be 3000 words long, typed, double-spaced, single-stapled and please number your pages, as this assists feedback. You should give page number references for quotes and a full bibliography. Each essay constitutes 50% of final grade. Please check Rules and Procedures at the end of this pack for more details on assessed essays, particularly on how to hand your work into the office.



10th. November,

Having chosen an article from the list of 'Applications of Habermas,' please write your first essay using the following title: "Applying Habermas: A Critical Assessment of {your chosen application}." Possible Essay Plan: Open with the importance of applying critical theory to social problems State your central argument and the plan by which you will deliver it Briefly outline Habermas's intellectual project Clarify Habermasian concepts used in your chosen application Describe and assess your chosen application What did this application reveal about the social problem it examined? What did this application reveal about Habermas's theoretical project? ____________________________________________________________________________ SECOND ESSAY


12th. January, 2009

Please write your second essay on one of the following titles: 1. What theoretical problems arise for those who claim the West has entered an age of postmodernity? 2. How might Foucaults analysis of power inform a radical politics? 3. Describe and assess (Deleuzian) nomadic organisational forms and their relevance to contemporary politics. 4. Must there be a normative basis for social criticism? 5. Why does Habermas accuse postmodern theorists of crypto-normativism, performative contradiction and/or conservativism? (i.e. all three or focus on just one) 6. Is modernity doomed? Discuss with reference to both French and German critical theory. 7. Critically assess a selected case-study article in which postmodern theory is applied to a current social problem (please see seminar leader with your suggestion and make sure you state your chosen area of application at the beginning of your essay)
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Supplementary Reading List

The Problem of Justification: K. Baynes, "Rational Reconstruction and Social Criticism: Habermas's Model of Interpretive Social Science," The Philosophical Forum, Vol. 21, no. 1/2, 1989, pp. 122-145. K. Baynes, The Normative Grounds of Social Criticism: Kant, Rawls, and Habermas, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992. R.J. Bernstein, The New Constellation, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1991. H.L. Fairlamb, Critical Conditions: Postmodernism and the Question of Foundations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. B. Fay, Social Theory and Political Practice, London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. A. Ferrara, "Universalisms: Procedural, Contextual and Prudential," Philosophy and Social Criticism, Vol. 14, no. 3/4, 1989, pp. 243-269. M. Kelly, "MacIntyre, Habermas, and Philosophical Ethics," in Hermeneutics and Critical Theory in Ethics and Politics, M. Kelly (ed.), Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990, pp. 70-93. S.K. White, "The Normative Basis of Critical Theory," Polity, Vol. 16, 1983, pp. 150-164. The Frankfurt School S. Benhabib, Critique, Norm, and Utopia: A Study of the Foundations of Critical Theory, New York: Columbia University Press, 1986. S. Benhabib, "Modernity and the Aporias of Critical Theory," Telos, Vol. 49, 1981, pp. 39-59. Benjamin, W. & Adorno, T. The Complete Correspondence 1928-1940, Cambridge: Polity, 2003. R. Geuss, The Idea of a Critical Theory, Cambridge University Press, 1981. P.U. Hohendahl, "The Dialectic of Enlightenment Revisited: Habermas' Critique of the Frankfurt School," New German M. Horkheimer, Critical Theory: Selected Essays, New York: Herder and Herder, 1972. M. Horkheimer, T. Adorno, The Dialectic of Enlightenment, New York: Seabury Press, 1972. M. Horkheimer, The Eclipse of Reason, New York: Continuum, 1947. M. Jay, The Dialectical Imagination, Boston: Little Brown, 1973. D. Kellner, Herbert Marcuse and the Crisis in Marxism, London: Macmillan, 1984. T. Adorno, History and Freedom, Cambridge: Polity, 2005. H. Marcuse, One-Dimensional Man, Toronto: Beacon Press, 1966. H. Marcuse, Negations: Essays in Critical Theory, London: Free Association Books, 1988. H. Marcuse, Eros and Civilization: A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud, New York: Vintage, 1962. S. Muller-Doohm, Adorno: An Intellectual Biography, Cambridge: Polity, 2005.

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J.T. Nealon (ed.), Rethinking the Frankfurt School, Albany: SUNY Press, 2002. Critique, Vol. 35, 1985, pp. 3-26. F. Rush ed., The Cambridge Companion to Critical Theory, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. M. Schoolman, Reason and Horror: Critical Theory, Democracy and Aesthetic Individuality, New York: Routledge, 2001. G. Therborn, "Critical Theory and the Legacy of Twentieth-Century Marxism," in B.S. Turner (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Social Theory, Cambridge: Blackwell, 1996, pp. 53-82. G. Therborn, "The Frankfurt School," New Left Review, Vol. 63, 1970, pp. 65-96. R. Wiggershaus, The Frankfurt School: Its History, Theories and Political Significance, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1994. R. Wolin, The Frankfurt School Revisited, London Routledge, 2006. Habermas S. Benhabib, F. Dallmayr, (eds.) The Communicative Ethics Controversy, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990. S. Benhabib, "The Methodological Illusions of Modern Political Theory: The Case of Rawls and Habermas," Neue Hefte fur Philosophie, Vol. 21, 1982, pp. 47-74. R.J. Bernstein, (ed.) Habermas and Modernity, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1985. J.M. Bernstein, Recovering Ethical Life: Jrgen Habermas and the Future of Critical Theory, London: Routledge, 1995. R. Blaug, "Habermas' Treatment for Relativism," Politics, Vol. 14, no. 2, 1994, pp. 1-22. J. Braaten, Habermass Critical Theory of Society, Albany: SUNY Press, 1991. A. Brand, The Force of Reason, London: Allen & Unwin, 1990, pp. 1-64. S. Chambers, Reasonable Democracy, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996. N. Crossley, & J.M. Roberts, (Ed.) After Habermas, Oxford: Blackwell, 2004. P. Dews, (ed.) Habermas: A Critical Reader, Oxford: Blackwell, 1999. P. Dews, (ed.) Habermas, Autonomy and Solidarity: Interviews with Jrgen Habermas, London: Verso, 1986. J.G. Finlayson, Habermas: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. K. Gnther, The Sense of Appropriateness: Application Discourses in Morality and Law, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993. J. Habermas, "A Philosophico-Political Profile," New Left Review, Vol. 151, 1985, pp. 75-105. J. Habermas, 'Hannah Arendt's Communications Concept of Power', Social Research, Spring, 1977, pp. 3-24. J. Habermas, Hannah Arendts Communications Concept of Power in S.Lukes ed. Power, New York: New York University Press, 1986.
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J. Habermas, "The Public Sphere: An Encyclopedia Article," New German Critique, Vol. 3, 1974, pp. 49-55. J. Habermas, "Towards a Reconstruction of Historical Materialism," Theory and Society, Vol. 2, 1975, pp. 287-300. J. Habermas, Moral Consciousness and Communicative Action, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1990. J. Habermas, The Theory of Communicative Action, Vol. 1, Cambridge, MA: Beacon Press, 1984. J. Habermas, The Theory of Communicative Action, Vol. 2, Cambridge, MA: Beacon Press, 1987. J. Habermas, Between Facts and Norms: Contributions to a Discourse Theory of Law and Democracy, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1996. J. Habermas, Time of Transitions, Cambridge: Polity, 2005. J. Habermas, The Future of Human Nature, Oxford: Polity, 2002. J. Habermas, Truth and Justification, Cambridge: Polity, 2003. R.C. Holub, Jrgen Habermas: Critic in the Public Sphere, London: Routledge, 1991. A. Honneth, Communicative Action: Essays on Jrgen Habermass The Theory of Communicative Action, Cambridge MA: MIT Press, 1991. M.B. Matustik, Jrgen Habermas, Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001. T.A. McCarthy, The Critical Theory of Jrgen Habermas, Boston: MIT Press, 1978. W. Outhwaite, Habermas: A Critical Introduction, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1994. O.A. Payrow Shabani, Democracy, Power and Legitimacy: The Critical Theory of Jrgen Habermas, Toronto: Toronto University Press, 2003. A. Pinter, Public Sphere and History: Historians Response to Habermas on the Worth of the Past, Journal of Communication Inquiry 28:3 (July 2004): 217-232. D.M. Rasmussen, Handbook of Critical Theory, Oxford: Blackwell, 1996. D.M. Rasmussen, Reading Habermas, Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1990. W. Rehg, "Discourse and the Moral Point of View: Deriving a Dialogic Principle of Universalization," Inquiry, 34, 1991, pp. 27-48. J.B. Thompson, D. Held, (eds.) Habermas: Critical Debates, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1982. S.K. White, The Recent Work of Jrgen Habermas, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. S.K. White (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Habermas, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Habermasian politics and social criticism [Also see the handout "Areas of Application of Critical Theory" for further references.] N. Adams, Habermas and Theology, Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2006. K. Baynes, R. von Schomberg, eds., Discourse and Democracy: Essays on Habermass Between Facts and Norms, Albany: State University of New York Press, c2002.

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S. Benhabib, Situating the Self, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1992. R. Blaug, "Between Fear and Disappointment: Critical, Empirical and Political Uses of Habermas," Political Studies, 45/1, 1997, pp. 100-117. R. Blaug, "The Distortion of the Face to Face: Communicative Reason and Social Work Practice," British Journal of Social Work, Vol. 25, no. 4, 1995, pp. 423-439. R. Blaug, "New Theories of Discursive Democracy: A User's Guide," Philosophy and Social Criticism, Vol. 22, no. 1, 1996, pp. 49-80. R. Blaug, "New Developments in Deliberative Democracy," Politics, 16/2, 1996, pp. 71-77. R. Blaug, Democracy, Real and Ideal: Discourse Ethics and Radical Politics, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1999. C. Calhoun, "Social Theory and the Public Sphere," in B.S. Turner (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Social Theory, Cambridge: Blackwell, 1996, pp. 429-470. C. Calhoun (ed.), Habermas and the Public Sphere, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992. J.S. Dryzek, Democracy in Capitalist Times: Idea, Limits, and Struggles, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. J.S. Dryzek, Discursive Democracy: Politics, Policy, and Political Science, Cambridge: CUP, 1990. J. Forester, (ed.) Critical Theory and Public Life, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987. N. Fraser, "What's Critical About Critical Theory? The case of Habermas and Gender," New German Critique, Vol. 35, 1985, pp. 97-131; also in Unruly Practices, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1989. C. Gilligan, In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982. L. Goode, Habermas: Democracy and the Public Sphere, Pluto Press, 2005. J. Habermas, "Three Models of Democracy," Constellations, Vol. 1/1, 1994, pp. 1-10. J. Habermas, "New Social Movements," Telos, Vol. 49, 1981, pp. 33-37. J. Habermas, "The New Obscurity: The Crisis of the Welfare State and the Exhaustion of Utopian Energies," in The New Conservatism: Cultural Criticism and the Historians' Debate, S.W. Nicholson (ed.), Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1989, pp. 48-70. R. Howard, "A Politics in Search of the Political," Theory and Society, Vol. 1, 1974: 271-306. A. Linklater, Beyond Realism and Marxism: Critical Theory and International Relations, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1990. J. Meehan (ed.), Feminists Read Habermas: Gendering the Subject of Discourse, London: Routledge, 1995. A. Phillips, "Dealing With Difference: A Politics of Ideas or a Politics of Presence?," Constellations, Vol. 1, no. 1, 1994, pp. 74-91. L.J. Ray, Rethinking Critical Theory: Emancipation in the Age of Global Social Movements, London: Sage, 1993, pp. xii-xxi J.J. Rodger, "On the Degeneration of the Public Sphere," Political Studies, Vol. 33, 1985, pp. 203-217.

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J.F. Sitton, Habermas and Contemporary Society, Houndmills: Macmillan, 2003. B. Walker, "Habermas and Pluralist Political Theory," Philosophy and Social Criticism, 18, 1992, pp. 81-102. M. Waller, S. Marcos, Dialogue and Difference, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. M.R. Welton, (ed.) In Defense of the Lifeworld: Critical Perspectives on Adult Learning, Albany: State University of New York Press, 1995. J. Whitebook, Perversion and Utopia: A Study in Psychoanalysis and Critical Theory, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1995. R.E. Young, A Critical Theory of Education: Habermas and our Children's Future, Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1989. Postmodernity P. Anderson, The Origins of Postmodernity, London: Verso, 1998. Z. Bauman, Intimations of Postmodernity, London: Routledge, 1992. Z. Bauman, Modernity and Ambivalence, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1991. Z. Bauman, Liquid Modernity, Cambridge: Polity Press, 2000. H. Bertens, The Idea of the Postmodern: A History, London: Routledge, 1995. S. Best, D. Kellner, Postmodern Theory: Critical Interrogations, London: Macmillan, 1991. S.E. Bronner, Of Critical Theory and Its Theorists, London: Routledge, 2002. L. Cahoone, (ed.) From Modernism to Postmodernism, Oxford: Blackwell, 2003. T. Carver, J. Martin, (eds.) Palgrave Advances in Continental Political Thought, Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. W. Connolly, Political Theory and Modernity, Oxford: Blackwell, 1989. T. Dant, Critical Social Theory, London: Sage, 2003. P. Dews, "The Limits of Disenchantment," New Left Review, Sept./Oct., 1995, pp. 61-75. D. Harris, Teaching Yourself Social Theory, London: Sage, 2003. D. Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity, Oxford: Blackwell, 1990. A. Huyssens, "Mapping the Postmodern," New German Critique, 33, 1984, pp. 5-52. F. Jameson, "The Politics of Theory: Ideological Positions in the Postmodernism Debate," in D. Lodge (ed.), Modern Criticism and Theory, London: Longman, 1991. F. Jameson, "Postmodernism, or The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism," New Left Review, Vol. 146, 1984, pp. 53-92. J.F. Lyotard, The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984. D. Latimer, "Jameson and Post-Modernism," New Left Review, Vol. 148, 1984, pp. 116-128. D. Lyon, Postmodernity, Second Edition: Open University Press, 1999.
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Outhwaite, M. (Ed.) The Blackwell Dictionary of Modern Social Thought 2nd Edition, Oxford: Blackwell, 2002. G. Ritzer, B. Smart, (ed.) Handbook of Social Theory, London: Sage, 2001. M. Silverman, Facing Postmodernity: Contemporary French Thought, London: Routledge, 1999. J. Sturrock, Structuralism and Since: From Lvi Strauss to Derrida, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979, pp. 1-18. E.M. Wood, "Modernity, Postmodernity, or Capitalism?" Monthly Review, July/August, 1996, pp. 221239. Foucault T. Besley, Counseling Youth: Foucault, Power, and the Ethics of Subjectivity, Praeger Publishers, 2002. T. Carver, J. Martin (eds.), Continental Political Thought, Houndmills: Macmillan, 2006. G. Danaher, T. Schirato, J. Webb, Understanding Foucault, London: Sage, 2000. G. Deleuze, Foucault, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2006. M. Foucault, The Birth of the Clinic: An Archaeology of Medical Perception, London: Tavistock, 1973. M. Foucault, The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences, New York: Vintage, 1973. M. Foucault, Language, Counter-Memory, Practice: Selected Essays and Interviews, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1977. M. Foucault, Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, Brighton: Harvester, 1980. M. Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, New York: Vintage, 1979. M. Foucault, Remarks on Marx, New York: Semiotext(e), 1991. M. Foucault, Power: Essential Works of Foucault 1954-1984 vol. 3, London: Penguin, 2002. M. Foucault, Psychiatric Power: Lectures at the College de France, 1973-74, Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. N. Fraser, "Michel Foucault: A 'Young Conservative'?" in Unruly Practices, pp. 35-54. G. Gutting, Cambridge Companion to Foucault, Cambridge: CUP, 2005. G. Gutting, Foucault: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. J.X. Inda, Anthropologies of Modernity: Foucault, Governmentality and Life Politics, Oxford: Blackwell, 2005. J. Johnson, "Communication, Criticism, and the Postmodern Consensus," Political Theory, Vol. 25, no. 4, 1997, pp. 559-583. G. McNaughton, Doing Foucault in Early Childhood Studies: Applying Post-Structural Ideas, London: Routledge, 2005. J. Moss, The Later Foucault: Politics and Philosophy, Sage, 1998. M. Philp, Foucault on Power: A Problem in Radical Translation? Political Theory, Vol. 11, no. 1, 1983, pp. 29-52.
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