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# CHART NO.

1111

Heat Losses From Bare Steel Pipe and Flat Surfaces
TILIZING A C O M P L E X F O R MULA developed from extensive
U
tests, engineers of the Philip Carey
Manufacturing Company, well-known
manufacturers of insulation, have computed two very interesting tables of
heat losses from pipe and flat surfaces.
These tables and complete information on the method used appear in a
Carey technical bulletin entitled “Heat
Transmission from Surfaces.”
The Carey Company has kindly given
us permission to reprint these useful
tables
How to Use the Tables
Table A was developed
to make it possible to determine quickly
the cost of heat losses by radiation and
convection from horizontal bare steel
pipe of various sizes in still air. As
pointed out in the table, the figures are
for 100 lineal feet of pipe per 30 day
month with steam in the pipe 24 hours
per day. They are based on coal delivering 13,000 Btu per pound, priced
at \$7.00 per ton. Labor and boiler room

expense are assumed to be \$1 .OO per
ton additional. Boiler efficiency is assumed at 70%. Air temperature is 80°F.
EXAMPLE; You wish to know the
monthly loss from 100 ft. of 2” horizontal steel pipe carrying 120 lbs. of
steam, Enter the table on the 2” pipe
size line and move over to the 120 lb.
column. Read dollar loss as \$17.41 per
month for the conditions outlined. Coal
as 2.038 Btu’s per lineal foot per “ F
temperature difference per hour.
Table B expresses
heat losses from horizontal bare steel
pipe and flat surfaces in terms of Btu’s
per square foot of surface per hour per
“ F temperature difference between the
surface and the air in still air at 80°F.
EXAMPLE: You wish to know the
heat loss from 3” pipe with a surface
temperature of 430°F. With an air temperature of SOoF, the difference in
temperature between the surface and
the air is 350°. Enter the table on the
3” pipe size line and move across to the
350° temperature difference column.

This shows a heat loss of 3.69 Btu’s per
square foot of pipe surface per hour
per “ F temperature difference between
pipe and air. Thus, with a 350°F temperature difference the heat loss is
1291.5 (350 x 3.69) Btu’s per square
foot per hour. Using the lineal foot
factor of .916 given in the table, this
can be converted to 1183 Btu’s per hour
per lineal foot of pipe (1291.5 x .916).
Table B can also
be used to determine heat loss from
flat surfaces.
EXAMPLE: You wish to know the heat
loss from the 2'x 4’ top of a rectangular tank with a temperature of 230°F.
With an air temperature of 80°, the
temperature difference between the top
of the tank and the air is 150°F. Enter
the table on the “Horizontal Surface
Facing Upward” line and move across
to the 150” temperature difference column. Read 2.67 Btu per square foot of
surface per hour per “ F temperature
difference between the surface and the
air. Total Btu loss per hour thus is 2.67
times 8 (sq. ft.) times 150 (OF temperature difference) or 3204 Btu’s.

Table A. - Losses From Horizontal Bare Steel Steam Pipes
From 100 Linear Feet of Pipe per Month of 30 Days With Steam in Pipes 24 hours per Day.
Coal at \$7.00 per Ton of 2000 Lbs.
Gage
Press ~

Hot Water
180 “F.
7

Temp

‘/I

I’

1.73

I”
2.60
I I/? “, 3.64
2 ” 4.47
2 ‘/z ”
5.32
3”
6.38
3%” 7.22
4” ~ 8.06
41% ” 8.07
5”
9.79
6”
11.52
7”
13.13
8”
14.72
9” ’ 16.31
1O”
18.08
12"
21.16
14" ; 23.14
16"
26.22
18"
29.27

432

.546

649 .820
909 1.149
1117 1.411
1331 1.682
1594 2.015
1804 2.280
2014 2.546
2218 2.804
2448 3.094
2880 3.640
3282 4.148
3680 4.651
4077 5.153
4520 5.712
5291 6.699
5785 7.312
6556 8.206
7318 9.250

10 Lbs.

80 Lba.

239.4”F.

324.0”F.
2
-.

3.17

792

4.76 1191
6.67 1669
8.21 2052
9.79 2446
II.73 2933
13.27 3319
14.81 3702
16.33 4082
18.03 4507
21.21 5303
24.18 6046
27.13 6782
30.06 7514
33.32 8330
39.10 9774
42.68 10670
48.38 12094
54.01 13503

.628

5.74 1435
.743
6.66
1666
8.65 2164 1.121
10.06
2515
.944
1.323
12.16
3039 1.574 14.14 3535
1.627 14.96 3740 1.938
17.41 4353
1.940 17.86 4466 2.313 20.79 5198
2.325 21.44 5359 2.776 24.96 6241
2.631
24.28 6069 3.144 28.28 7069
2.936 27.10 6774 3.509 31.57 7892
3.237 29.90 7475 3.872 34.84 8710
3.574 33.02 8256 4.276 38.49 9622
4.205 38.89 9722 5.036 45.34 11334
4.794 44.37 11092 5.745 51.74 12934
5.377 49.81 12452 6.450 58.10 14524
5.958 55.22 13805 7.151
64.42 16105
6.605 61.25 15313 7.932 71.47 17867
7.750 71.94 17985 9.316 83.97 20992
8.460
78.56 19641 1O.174 91.71 22928
9.589 89.09 22273 11.537 104.04 26009
10.707 99.57 24891 12.893 116.28 29071

.780 1 7.44 1861
1.177 11.24
2811
1.655 i 15.81
3954
2.038 19.48
4871
2.433 23.27 5818
2.921 27.95 6988
3.309 31.66 7916
3.694 35.36 8839
4.077 39.02 9756
4.504 43.13 10782
5.306 50.81 12702
6.055 ~ 57.99 14498
6.799 65.13 16283

.809
1.222
1.719
2.118
2.530
3.038
3.442
3.843
4.242
4.688
5.522
6.303
7.079

7.539 ~ 72.23 18057
8.364 80.14 20036
9.826 94.18 23545
10.733 102.87 25718

7.851
8.711
10.236
11.182

12.175 116.73 29184 12.688
13.608 130.49 32623 14.184

8.13
12.28
17.28
21.30
25.44
30.56
34.63
38.67
42.69
47.18
55.60
63.47
71.29

2031
3070
4320
5324
6361
7641
8657
9668
10673
11796
13900
15868
17823

.834 ’
1.260
1.773
2.185
2.611
3.136
3.553
3.969
4.381
4.842
5.706
6.514
7.316

79.07 19769 8.115
87.75 21937 9.004
103.14
112.67
127.87
142.95

25785
28167
31967
35738

10.584
11.562
13.122
14.670

In these Tables Coal has been figured at 57.00 per Ton of 2,000 Lbs.--l3.000
Btu. per lb. of Coal--Labor. Boiler Room Expense, etc. Taken at \$1 .00 per Ton.
Making Total Value of Coal Fired at \$8.00 per Ton. Boiler Efficiency taken at
70 Per Cent. Air Temp. 80°F. Experimental Data Obtained at Mellon Institute.

12.86
19.51
27.54
34.00
40.68
48.93
55.50
62.05
68.54
75.81
89.45
102.21
114.93

3216
.996
4878 1.511
6884 2.133
8499 2.633
10170 3.151
12232 3.790
13875 4.299
15512 4.806
17136 5.310
18951 5.872
22363 6.929
25554 7.918
28732 8.903

24.59
37.52
53.20
65.86
78.99
95.23
108.21
121.12
133.97
148.35
175.39
200.73
225.99

6147 1.330
9380 2.029
13299 2.877
16464 3.561
19748 4.272
23809 5.150
27054 5.852
30281 6.550
33493 7.245
37088 8.022
43848 9.485
50181 10.855
56497 12.221

127.55 31887 9.880
141.67 35416 10.914

251.15
279.26

62788
69814

166.70
182.22
206.98
231.59

329.12 82279 17.798
360.14 90034 19.475
409..6 4 102409 22.152
458.89 114723 24.815

41674 12.913
45554
14.115
51744 16.033
57898 17.940

13.582
15.101

07 2.677 AMTRAP B - .85 3.00 16.82 13.29 22.70 3.69 7.09 22.32 7.07 16.67 4.15 5.18 11.74 1.99 13.27 2.01 1.00 3.99 19. 58 6.12 3.09 11. The losses per sq.88 6.40 23.51 4.79 3.93 1.49 I20.93 8.81 15.69 4.72 7.22 12.35 2.86 16.16 5.92 12.52 14.51 2.16 1.734 1.67 21.07 15.34 22.94 7.51 11.56 12.77 18.89 13.87 21.20 18.80 2.64 11.47 4.96 6.61 21.54 11.74 4.94 4.01 14.28 20.81 13.71 11.497 .68 20.93 14.66 4.17 13.00 7.95 16.89 2.84 8.344 .85 2.30 18.84 2.13 9.62 4.28 14.84 21.20 6.88 8.64 23.04 2.14 4.04 15.61 8.79 10.43 19.59 22.63 2.45 5.622 .338 3. Between Pipe Surface and Surrounding Air.42 250 300 500 550 350 400 450 3.29 9.73 2.86 4.28 5.02 11.21 9.97 5.62 9.89 12.56 20.31 8.24 2.46 17.61 2.39 10.54 15.84 2.93 ' 6.07 17.57 7.22 14.52 20.02 8.62 11.18 12.00 4.54 7.37 17.35 2.26 11.97 4.70 22.11 11.99 21.84 6.75 13.81 2.02 8.309 1.02 6.31 4.23 9.77 2.70 5.80 9.25 9.41 5.34 13.99 2.18 10.68 5.10 15.68 6.40 4.81 3.07 17.47 7.31 2.00 3.65 6.96 4. Chart No.Table B .67 2.26 ~6.23 8.68 86.61 8.23 6. Michigan 49093 Telephone(616)273-1415/273-8651 Telex 224445 ARMTRAP/THRV 4400 Herstal-Belgium HerstalTelephone(041)640861 Telex41.05 6.47 2.21 2.94 3.46 19.80 9.84 7.236 6.17 17.32 11.01 2.46 20.15 18.37 4.26 20.47 9.25 6.05 1. Temperature Difference Between Pipe and Air Lineal Foot Factor* Pipe Size %” %” 1” 11% ” 1 1/2” 2” 2 1/2 " 3” 3 1/2"” 4” 41/2” 5” 6” 7” 8" 9" 10” 12” 14” 16” 18" 20" 24” Vertical .58 11.92 4.30 12.29 4.59 2.01 17.69 21.67 15.34 20.76 10.22 13.51 6.46 20.59 8.04 2.07 23.38 18.75 14.10 5.62 19.69 2.20 1.05 6.99 8.17 16.49 19.90 18.66 1.72 21. 30 3.258 2.06 12.62 18.31 1.06 15.72 2.814 3.10 9.50 18.38 19.96 10.95 23.79 4.81 12.83 2.14 20.49 2.94 2.96 1.47 12.09 23.05 9.18 9.09 14.46 3.66 16.19 3.68 10.60 2.88 3.189 4.73 2.57 16.73 12.94 9.32 3.91 21.53 2.79 12.08 3.74 21.41 16.56 6.44 2.72 8.12 4.61 1.79 4.66 3.07 3.94 6.05 3.56 2.11 3.79 8.56 4.85 2.11 2.78 14.52 10.56 8.89 11.79 2.61 6.62 ~ 12.14 13.95 2.40 19.06 9.62 15.97 3.99 23.81 4.58 5.10 18.48 2.66 19.73 3.00 2. *To secure losses per lineal foot.11 2.15 2.14 5.1111 .46 ~ 13.06 14.55 4.23 1.57 10.52 7.69 19.33 3.38 20. ft.40 13.64 21.95 5.12 5.87 2.26 11.73 14.20 2.25 13.07 3.05 11.14 15.75 15.51 8.84 13.40 4.11 4. 28 3.08 9.94 17.916 1.89 2.12 20.06 1.81 21.35 i 10.53 13.22 600 650 700 750 6 .77 17.97 21.15\3.76 19.10 6.70 18.38 7.22 5.03 13.61 3.20 20.87 13.36 2.47 5.92 13.275 .96 14.17 3.54 18.31 23.99 7.38 12.57 8.26 800 850 8.30 9.62 4.61 11. multiply sq.87 8.61 3.14 10.16 18.97 8.86 21.72 5.90 6. of Pipe Surface per Hour per °F.08 5.67 17.19 2.15 10.36 16.80 2.24 18.64 2.25 5.35 14.22 20.70 1.10 5.41 5.60 3.29 11.17 4.31 20.42 2.82 - - - - - - - - -.85 9.08 18.55 19.64 14.97 4.35 5.33 15.75 2.47 7.54 8.64 10.97 16.48 22.30 2.5.40 5.75 3.44 6.03 1.21 7.34 2.68 2.88 3.02 5.98 12.12 8.84 3.23 3.99 5.38 2.82 11.13 5.456 1.435 .37 3.57 4.13 11.54 10.04 16.15 9.45 2.94 12.44 18.86 2.13 1200 1250 1300 1350 1400 1450 1500 1550 1600 14.22 4.21 17.02 4.52 2.047 1.996 2.24 2.26 15.91 8.51 22.73 15.41 3.85 8.93 3.67 11.58 13.12 14.81 16.95 1.74 13.12 4. losses in table by this factor.13 1.78 3.48 5.18 1.78 15.12 4.39 3.90 9.91 16.81 3.34 18.03 4. 1000 1050 1100 1150 9.56 23.00 3.62 10.57 14.04 19.17 20.08 12.43 11.51 5.76 4.57 18.12 6.31 .46 2.-- - - -- Values are for Flat Surfaces four square feet or more in area.72 3.65 2.43 4.14 j Ii I I- 150 200 2.26 2.04 5.8/83 New Braunfels Texas 78130 Telephone(512)625-2394 Telex767604 ARMTRAP/NBRF Three Rivers.00 6.12 5. 08 1.06 21.35 4.79 16.36 3.13 19.69 3.53 4.27 12.86 10.23 4.99 3.19 23.53 6.43 9.87 4.37 11.38 5.77 2.15 7.82 I 6.16 12.46 5.37 3.49 2.13 16.16 8. of pipe surface for pipes larger than 24" can be considered the same as the losses for the 24” pipe.28 '5.39 14.43 2.53 3.46 3. 50 100 2 12 ' 2.79 5.91 3.76 120.77 9.77 19.69 9.47 3.90 3.05 5.92 4.43 6.71 10.66 13.56 6 14.14 17.70 5.71 6.71 11.19 9.21 19.87 18.05 4.70 16.48 3.90 5.69 1.24 4.02 3.79 6.25 13.64 13.48 7.91 7.97 6.13 18.34 1.14 2.41 12.99 15.07 6.96 7.24 10.05 22.72 4.283 Surface Horizontal Surface Facing Upward Horizontal Surface Facing Downward Temperature Difference °F.90 14.09 16.16 9.56 5.17 6.80 7.55 10.64 3.24 7.54 2.96 17.86 8.21 3.09 11.44 23.89 21.04 15.21 13.02 6.74 3.68 6.69 5.10 1.37 23.50 23.70 9.70 7.83 13.73 6.39 11.77 18.36 5.49 17.30 17.22 23.92 6.65 5.37 2.84 4.57 17.71 14.99 11.10 22.41 7.717 5.02 21.67 8.51 4.86 10.08 2.54 7.48 4.178 1.38 15.07 4.95 23.33 2.02 9.08 4.05 7. 79 7.87 6.15 6.67 19.95 15.55 15.43 3.59 3.34 23.35 7.21 22.36 6.19 21.32 4.08 20.50 3.79 2.80 5.78 18.52 3.86 19.45 15.30 19.97 3.00 4.39 8.93 3.77 3.24 3.00 12.51 12.39 8.12 9.90 15.95 13.57 2.83 16.37 ~6.98 2.63 8.25 5.07 7.89 12.14 10.93 11.77 3.01 22.30 2.63 8.45 11.00 1.70 10.92 2.99 9. ft.37 2.17 7.69 8.36 5.74 3.17 6.69 23.59 19.98 17.42 3.89 7.76 2.59 4.11 12.19 7.36 9.83 2.41 22.79 21.40 2.48 14.85 9.77 5.55 9.28 3.16 14.64 5.62 20.77 23.13 23.71 6.62 10.48 9.89 10.45 8.34 12.753 .39 5.42 6.04 23.65 17.43 20.30 3.28 20.07 ~ 10.22 2.46 4.87 900 950 Air at 80°F.52 7.87 14.56 6.19 4.60 7.07 5.69 12.40 6.52 19.87 15.96 21.44 17.34 11.75 8.03 2.05 7.33 4.46 15.51 10.31 13.30 7.57 16.52 ~5.51 8.98 1.04 18.80 14.94 11.44 12.61 7. Ft.96 9.86 3.38 4.21 8.59 3.74 12.43 16.68 1.26 7.14 7.73 10.Heat Losses From Horizontal Bare Steel Pipes and Flat Surfaces In Btu per Sq.02 5.75 7.17 4.55 3.73 ’17.31 19.83 15.88 9.69 14.665 4.21 5.34 11.03 17.10 3.27 4.19 6.03 8.39 23.83 9.76 12.70 4.92 10.14 1.63 5.63 13.80 19.59 10.47 10.87 2.97 2.95 8.89 16.99 22.25 17.220 .49 16.34 3.15 22.75 2.67 4.42 11.13 6.78 13.48 8.31 5.92 19.83 10.64 2.98 4.91 2.54 8.31 j6.20 15.11 17.84 3.16 23.55 3.92 15.92 5.46 10.01 10.62 4.97 12.75 8.02 12.08 5.65 4.95 20.70 2.04 3.86 23.26 4.43 5.48 11.80 21.41 12.26 23.94 3.520 2.27 1.73 13.22 7.77 6.35 19.23 16.