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Abdul Rahman Al-Ayeài

A thesis subrnitted in conformity with the rquirements for the degree of Master of Arts
Graduate Department o f N a and Middle Eastern Civilizations,

University of Toronto

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THARU: THE STARTINO POINT OF THE "WAY OF HORUS" Master of Arts, June 2000 Abdul Rahman Al-Ayedi Depariment of Near and Middle Eastern Civilizations University of Toronto


This thesis concentrates on the identification of the fortnss of '"ïhani", the capital of the
14* nome of Lower Egypt and the starting point on the Ways of Homs in North Sinai. It

attempts to comlate the ancient Egyptian sources with archaeological fieldwork, in order to ülustrate the importance and role of Tharu in ancient Egyptian history.

In Chapter 2, ancient references to the "Ways of Homs" are discussed. In addition, an
interpretation of the inscriptions of Seti 1is presented; these reliefs constitute a major source,

because they depict the fortresses, stations and waterwells dong the Ways of H r s Recent ou.
mhaaological ahdence provides an identification of at least the Brst two fortresses mentioned,

"Tharu" and the "Dweiiin~ the Lion". of

Chapters 3 and 4 foas on mcient references to "Thacu". as well as the orthognphy and manhg ofthe m e . Chapter 4 aiso teviews the scholars' debate ngudiig the identification of

Thru; the pdominant view behg that Teli Abu-Seifa w u ancient Thm. The hypothesis that

Teîi Hiabou 1is acturlty Tham is put focward.

Chapter 5 disaisses the SCA excavations et TeU Abu-Seifk, revealing a Graeco-Roman

fortress, settlement, magazines and hahour.

In Chapter 6, the SCA excavations at Tell Haboua 1are reviewed. The remains inciude
a New Kingdom f0rtms buiit on Hko mmains - settlement, magazines, granaries and tombs. yss


Chapter 7 briefîy highiights the recent discovenes at Tell Haboua [,which revealed a I

d e r New Kingdom f t r s datuig to the timt of Seti I, as well as magazines and a settlement. ofes

This Fomeat mry k identifieci as the "DweUingofthe Lion", the second station on the Ways of Hrs ou.

nie discovcfies at Td Haknia 1and I, samgthen the argument that Tell Haboua 1 may I
be identifiw as mcient Tham, the starting point on the Ways of Horus.



Thae M a nrimba of people who have hdpai me in complethg thhi thesis. I would like to th& each of my cornminet manban: Proferut Lcprohon, for his help and support; Professor Gnymski for l i s archaeologid insights and understanding; and Professor Millet, for hW encouragement.
Speciai thanks are due to Professor Northnip for taking an interest in my studies âom the b q h i n g . A h , my appmiüion to Ptoféssor HoWay extends back to the early days at T l ele Maskhuta, wheie 1w u 6rst introduccd to rny Canadian colieagucs.

To Dr. Larry Pavlish my dtepest thanks and appmiation for his fnendship, help and
encouragement during the tough times.

M thanks also to Elspah WiIliams for her wistance and support. y
Thanks to my coiieagues at the Supmne Councii of Antiquities, with whom 1 have worked closeiy o v a the years in undertaking the excavations pubüshed h m . Speeial acknowledgement is due to Dr. Mohanunad Siigbir, Undersecretary of State, Chief Sector of Egyptian Archaeology. Finally, 1 apprseiate the unfaiüng avaiiabüity and assistance of Mm*ade M t a Graduate ot, CwrdDitor Assistant, and Kang MeiWang at the Libnry of the h i a n and New E s e n Arts, atr Royai Ontario Museum.
1dedicate this thesis to the spint of my fathet, my funily and my belovcd country, Egypt.

u Maliawi. niae arc a numba ofancientE y t a plrce names that hclude the (-sound. It is noteworthy that none of the modern pronunciations use the 'yï" sound. ratha than as the mon common "Tjrni". it appean that these bowids may replace each other. In m y anciait Egyptian words. voi.p -&(p W (modern Touneh. k ~ )near .t3r (modem T i +) a D œ 1 . ' H Gauthier.PREFACE The discussion set out in this thcst's fo1 have chosen to translate the wm of 13nv upon the idaaincation ofThcuu. In my work.' In classical Arabic. ne province of Assiout. Ibici. the t and t weit used intcrchmgeably. (modern Thch. as "Thant'. which have gpin Junm*d into m h tria v u t d y unchangecl.. .Dictionmiin drs noms giopyhiqws (Cab* 1925). 72. these place names wodd k pronound with a 'W.66. exœpt that the modem pronunciation uses a 'Y. 'Ibid 77. It appears that the & sound nom the ancient E y t a langage h u survived in modem Arabic. the letter a ("th") occun in classical Arabic and is pronouncd by modem Egyptians as 'Y'. b= . For example.##t (modem Tou* t. w). Thus. 'Ibid 77. @ 0. ^ L Matarieh and Lake Mcnzalah2.j&).neir ~ardis'and D 4r a . W. dong with a gpin number of other l m of the ancient Egyptian alphabet Indeed.

..... .. 13 @) Stela of Memphis (1 2' Dynasty) .......... .... -16 Iaicription on a statue ofSen& Ovacar of the S d (18 I Dywty).............. 12 ..................Il b 'H m @) T h e ~ d t e x t o f K i n g T e t i ( 6 * ~ y n u t..... ............. . F d intermad'iate P a i d .............................. ................................... .............................. ........... 16 inscription fiom the tomb of Senufcr......... Kii List of Phtes List ofFigures ....... .......... ... ...... ............ iv Mc .............. . ............'13 (a) Theinsûuctioll~ad~toKingMaikare(1ûthDynasty) ........... x i ........ ............. ................... . ............... 1 THE WAYS OF HORUS I ANCENT'EGYPTIAN SOURCES ......n w at Gin(5' Dyniaty) ... 1 7 (d) (e) (0 T w b o f ~ a t T h ~ ( 1 8 * ~ y n u c .................. ....... ......................... ......... ........ 13 3.. . ..... .... .... . ..... v ae List of Tables ... Dynuty) ...TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstracî .............. ... 2... 19 ) ..... ..................... .. .. (a) M u... .. ........ ....... ........ . ... ...........1 y) 7 InthUtiC~*gnofSetiI......4 N 1.................................... ....................... .. UV Abbreviations .......... ....... . ..... ...... .... 11 Sarcophagus from the tomb of the "ovenar of the desert"......... KMik(1pDynasty) ............................................ ..... ........ Mkyor of Thcbes (18' (b) (c) 4................................ ....... ... .................. ii Acknowldgements .. ..... ...................................... ......... 15 Newfigdom .. mi INTRODUCTION . .. ............. 1 8 P a p y m s ~ I ( 1 9 * ~ y n u t y ..... Old Kingdom ..... ............................... Middle Kingdom ..... ..... ............. 13 (a) ThestoryofSinuhe(l2~Dynissy) ........ ...................................... ... 16 Inscription on the w d of Hathor chape1at Di el-Bahari (18' er (a) Dynisty) .......... ............ ...... ...... ..y ) ....... ....... ......

.... 20 THARU IN ANCIENT EGYPTTAN SOURCES ......2 6 Tha A n l of Thutmose III (18* Dynasty) ...... 26 nie Rhhd Mathematical Papyrus (Year 33 of King Ausem (a) (b) (c) (d) () t (f) (g) (h) (i) 0) 0) (R) (k) (m) (O) @) (q) (r) (s) (t) (u) '~pophis'. Orthographyof the Name of “Thuu" ..... 3 1 Wine Jar Seslings relatcd to Tham nom Malkata (Amenhotep III... . 35 SteJaofyerr400(RainesstsII......... 34 Wme Jar S a h g from the tomb o f Tutankharnun (18 Dynasty) . .. the Mayor of Tham at Serabit d-~hadcm(Thutmose IV...... 32 Shawabti of Menna.................34 Decra of Horemhcô at Kun& (1 8 Dynasty) ... ... ...... ...... .......... ............ ........ ....... ... ........ ......MayorofThanr-stIV.BritishMuseum 9994 (20' Dynasty) ......... 42 P ~ p yLansing.......... .. ................late 18" Dynasty) ........................... 5....... .................... 51 2..... . .37 G d e n j ~ c h c f f 1P4liasty). ............. . . .. .. .27 nas Rock-cut stela of Neby......... ......... 18" Dynasty) ............ ..... 38 ~ ~ ~ ~ .. New Kingdom ....4 3 ~l Inscriptions ffom 11# temple ofDendara (Roman period) ......... late 186qnritV) .............. ................ . .... .... .. .............. 39 P ~ ~ I V @ a m e s s i d . 18* Dynrsty) ... .... .... ..... ......... TH€ fDENTIFICATIONOF "THARW' .... ........ 41 e ) Papyrus Awnui V (Seti 4 19%ynasty) ... (Thutmose IV.... ... ....... the Oversecr of Goldsmiths (AmenhotepII.. . 31 Block-stitue fiagnatnt ofHatre. 3 6 Asiatic campaigns of Rarncssts II (19 Dynasty) ................. UtsningoftheNuac'W . ........ ...~ &rlinstelaofHuy..17332(19*Dynrsty) .4 5 Inscripionson a sucophagus Born el-Kantarah (Roman period) ................ 1 8 ~ ~ y w t y ) .............................. .................... lPDynuty) ...... 28 StdaofNeby..... .... .. 51 1.4 7 ' N. the commander of the troops of Thmu (18'Dywty) ... 38 PqymsAnastasiIII(Mertnpt&.... 34 Fragment of i Taxation Dcctee Born the Aten Temple at Karnak (Akhenaten........... ..... ..... ...he18*-) .......... .. ......2 6 1... .. 29 Canopic Jar of Ncby.................The Main Sources ....... P.. ............... ...... the Mayor of Tharu.... 15 ~ynasty) ........... 52 ... I9%ynasty) ...... ...........................

... . . ...... .. . .. . . . . . . ... .... ... .. . .... ... . ..... . . . . .. .. ..... . ... . .. . . ... .. ..... ..... .. .64 The Roman Fortress (Zone A) ... .. . . 66 Thc Roman Settlement (Zone C) . .. 95 2...S e d i o n G . . .. . .SEIFA .. .... ...... ..... . ... . .. ... .... . .. . .... ... .... .... .... . .. .... . ... .. .... .. 54 Tell Hibou 1: a New Theoty ... . ... . ... . . . .. . . 105 TmichiV-SactionD-D . 82 1.. . . .......114 TmiehLScctionRB .. . .. . .. ..... ... . . .. 114 (ii) Tbs Saconbry Endosue ..... .. . . . . ..... 98 (a) Straîigraphy o f Zones A and B . .. .... .... ... . . ... .. ..... . .. .. ... The E s e n Frontier Canai . .0 .. . . ... Introduction . . .. . . .. . ... .. . . . .G . ....... . .. ..... .... .. ... ..... . 102 T d I l I ... . . . ...... . .. 4. ... .. ... ..... .. . .... . . . .... .... .. . The Identification of Tharu: the Scholars' Debate . .... .. . .. .. . . .... ....3.53 (a) @) The Ramesside Pynmidion ...... ..... ...... ...... .... ..... . . .. . .... ... . . .... . . 102 ci) (Üi) (iv) (v) (vil (d) (vüi ( i TrenchW-SectionF-F .. ... . . . . . -109 a ' ï b e F ~ ( 2 o n e A .. .. . .. .... TELL AI3U..... 4. . . . ... .. ....... 60 V. . 73 The Gmco-Roman Settiement (Zone B) .. .... ..... ... . .... . ... 98 3.. . ....... .. .. . ... . 63 The Supmm C (a) 3.S e c t i o n G . . . . . . ... .. :...... ... .. ..... .. -105 T d V ...... 61 2...... . ... . .. .. . .. .... .. . . ... . .... ... .... .. ..... .. ... . . ... .73 The Ptolemaic Fortregs (Zone A) . .. ...9 8 (b) StratipphyofZonaC(nwoccavatdum) . . . . ....... ... . . 112 ) @ TbcMiinEnclomre. ....7 8 The Ptoiemaic Hubw (Zone C). ... .... .. . .. The Nam of Tell Abu-Seifa ... .. . (b) (c) (d) (e) (9 d of Antiquities Excavations . ... . 101 (c) TheTrenches ...... . ... . . .... . . .. . ... .. . ... . ... . .. .. . . ... .. . . ... . . .... .... . ... .. .... .. . .. .. .. . . . ...64 Stratipphy . . . .. . .... .... ... ... .. ...101 (i) Th[-ScctionA-A . ... . .. .. ... The Supreme C o u d of Antiquities Excavations .. . .... 97 atr Previous Excavations .. .. ... .. .... . ...... . . . ..... .. . . .. . . . . .M o n C C ... . ..... .... .. . ... .. .... .. . 108 . .... . ..... ....... . IO5 T d V . . .. .. .. . .. . ... ... . 61 Previous Excavations . .... .. ..... ... .... ...... . . .. . 109 TdW-SectiConE-E ... . . .. . . . .... .. .. . . ..

. ................ .. 142 (i) W K . ...... ..... ..... ........... . . .......... ....... ....... ....... . ... ..... ..... ...... ... ................. .... ..... ... . m m o u A I I .......................... 142 h c C . . 158 (b) The...... . 136 Gmup 2ofFuma~es(Zone . . ...................... . 148 TheRoomsinBUL.ïI (Zone C) ............. ......... ........ 121 ) nie Settiunent(Z0neB) ............................. ...II .................... 140 CU) W b ... ....... 118 TheM@a&a(ZoneB) ................... 141 (v) W g ......... 121 (Ü) L e v d 2 ~ 1 .............. ..... ... .. 159 (c) TheSettlanait ....... ..... ......... ....... .. 140 (iii) Raom c ... .................... ................................... ..... .............. ... .. .......... . M A .... .... ..... ........ 129 (Üi) GRwy GRII ............................ The Superne C o u d of Aniiquaies Excavations ..... .. .......... .. .... .. . ........ 116 I @) .............. .......... 133 (v) G l s l l l l y G W .............................. . ........ . . .. .... ... 134 Omup 1 ofFumces(ZoneB) . .... .... 118 (i) Levdl(MA1........... .... ......... ... ............... . 2 U d M A 3 .........The Gate of the Ulin Enclosure . ................. ............. .. ........ 163 ..... ...... ... ... ....... ..... .. ........ 115 (i ü) 'IbGrarranes (Zone A) .. ...... ....... ............ ...... ......... ..... ... 122 () u HowtHI ( P h 2) ... ...... . ..... ............ ... .. . .. 142 Building BüL... .... ....... .1...... ..... . ............. . 141 (iv) Room d ..... 115 (i) C ~ W Y G R................ ..... .............. ................. 144 Commmtacy .......... ........ .............. ..... 141 Othe Fessues ofzone B ........ 144 (ü) ZoneD .... ......... ............. 138 (i) W a .............. .... . ..... ......... ......... 163 1.. ... ............ ........... .. MA2andMA3) ......... .. ........... ........ .. ............. ............................. .................... ..... ..... . ............. . ....... .................. .............. 141 (vi) H i l l x ... .. .... .... 147 Tornbs and Burials .. 158 (a) TheForttem ..... .... . .. 116 ZoneB . .......... ..................... 124 'IheGranariesAm(Z0neB) ... ...... ..... ... 122 (i) HwscHI(Pb 1) ... ....... 129 (iv) OrPwy GRI[I ....... 162 m.. .... .......... ... 127 (u) HouseHV .... .... ......... 125 (i) oraDuyGR... ........... ... .... 137 B) Building BULd (Zone B) .. . .... .................. .......

...... CONCLUSION ......... 167 ....................................VITI...

. 161 . ... . . . . . . .. .. .. . . .LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Approxirmtcclprcityofthe~esat -1.

Al-Aycdi) Tell Abu-Seiâi: liistone statue of a recumbent lion (photognph by A R AlAyedi) Tell Abu-Seifâ: magazines. showing the cut into the dariter Ptolemaic enclosure w d (photognph by AR. showing watchtower and bumess (photograph by kR Al-Ayedi) Tell Abu-Se*: remains of the limestone pavement in &ont of the westem gate (photogrsph by AR.R. showing an intenial room (photognph by AR Al-Ayedi) Tell Abu-Seifii: detail of westem enclosure waü. Al-Ayedi) Tel Abu-S& detail of the northem enclosure w d i and the north-eastem tower @hotopaphby AR Al-Ayedi) Tell Abu-Seih: detaii of the south-western corner. Al-Ayedi) : Td Hibaii 1 the n* : o Aydi) enclosure wal ofdw fbctress (photognph by A.R. AY* . showing wata gauge(?) at right angie @hotopaphby AR Al-Ayedi) Tell Abu-Seifà: d d ofwater gauge(?) (photograph by AR AdAyedi) Tell Abu-Seifii: store magazines in the harbour a m (photognph by AR AlAYW Teli Haboua 1 detd of crocodile skeleton (photopph by A R Al-Ayedi) : Tel! Haboua 1 Tmch 1(photograph by A.R.LIST OF PLATES Plate 1 Plate II Plate III Plate IV Plate V Plate VI Plate VII Plate Vm: Plate I X Plate X Plate XI Plate XIf Plate XIIIA Plate YUIIB North-eastem corner towar of the Roman Fortmss. houses and dos inside the fomess @hotograph by AR Al-Ayedi) Tell Abu-Sc&: hsibour platform. Al- : m Zone B (north-eut side) (photognph by A R AlPlate XIVA Tell Elhua 1 1pliwes a . Al-Ayedi) TeIl Abu-Se& d d ofthe wuth-westeni tower (photognph by A.

116. Al-Ayedi) . d Al.aoa : Plate X~VB Teil H b u 1 Plate XVA Plate W B Plate WC Plate XVIA Plate XVls Plate XVIC Plate XVII Plate XVIlI Plate X E es ma. Al-Ayedi) .157. Al-Ayedi) Teii Haôoua 1 Tomb T. objects @hotopaphby AR.R. 11 in granary GRI. 107 in silo S1.2 (photogrciph by AR Al-Ayedi) : Tell Haboua 1: Tomb T IO8 in silo S1. TeU Haboua 1 Tomb T. Zone B (east side) (photographby AR. siIo SI.2 (photogrciph by AR.6 (photograph by AR.Ayedi) Teil Haboua Iï: a horse bunal inside the fortress (photograph by A. 116 (photograph by AR Al-Ayedi) Teil Haboua 1 Tomb T.R. Al: 1 Ayedi) Teii Haboua 1 Tomb T. Al-Ayedi) : Tell Haboua 1: T r b T. 117 (photographby AR Al-Ayedi) : Tell Haboua 1: Tomb T.limestone sarcophagus (photograph by AR Alon Ayedi) T d Haboua II: the n e w i y ~ v e New Kingdom fortma bhotograph by A.

AlAWi) T l Abu-Sa: r d objects f?om the maguinem a (dnwn by E. 5 Map ofthe Eastern Delta and a reconstruction of the ancient environment and Nie branches (aftet Bietak 1996) Map of Nrh S i m i (after B r i ot et) Map of the iuchaeological sites betwan el-Kantrvcih and Balouza (according to the Franco-Egyptian Survey) (courteay of K A ) Map of the a of Haboua (counesy of SCA) m Representation of fortresses and stations dong the "Ways ofHorus". Williams) d T l Haboua 1 topographie pian ( d m by V. lob Fig. d : M Vinçon) Tel Hiboua 1 Zone B. 2 Fig. Zayat) Fig. 4 Fig. Youscfand J . 1 1b Fig 12 Fig. 7a Fig. 13 Harbour Am: Wattrgauge(?) in section. 7b Fig. Section A-A (drawn by AR AlAyedi) Hubour Am: Watcrgauge(?) in section. Reliefs of Sai 1on the north waii ofthe great Hypostyle Hall in the temple of Amun at Karnak (aftcr ûardiner 1920) Teil Abu-Sesa: site plan (dnwn by AR Al-Ayedi) Tell Abu-Seiâi: Ptolemaic coins (drown by AR A l . 3 Fig. 8 Fig. Section A-A (dnwn by U. Tmch I. 10a Tl Abu-Seifà: plan of the hPrbour (dnwn by A R Al-Ayedi) el Teii Abu-Seifr: the hubour. Section B B ( d m by AR. Section A-A ( n nby AR AdAydi : dw Fige 14 .(drawn by AR. Section B-B (dnwn by U.Fig. Al-Ayedi) Fig. Zayat) Tell Abu-Sek the harbour. 9 Fig. 6 Fig. 1 Fig. lla Fig.N.A y d ) Teli Abu-Ssa: Ptolcmaic coins (drawn by AR Al-Ayedi) Tell Abu-Sefi: plan o f the industrial quart.

Trench III. GR11 (Zone A) and the north: western part of the fortification (drawn by AR Al-Ayedi) Tell Haboua 1: plan of difEerent areas ofzone B ( d m by AR Al-Ayedi) Tefl Haôoua 1: Zone B. diachronie plan (dnwn by A. 30 Tell Haboua 1 plan of house H. 27 Fig. 25 Fig.1(dnwn by A R Al-Ayedi) Tell Haôoua 1: Zone C. Tell Haôoua 1: Zone B. Section C-C( d m by AR Al-Ayedi) Tell Haboua 1 Zone B. house 8 0 2 ( d m by AR Al-Ayedi) Tell Haboua 1: Zone D. Seaion F-F(dmwn by AR.R. Trench V. 16 Fig. house 8 0 3 (dmwn by AR Al-Aydi) Fig. Section E-E (drawn by AR Al-Ayedi) Tell Haboua 1: Zone B.LI (drawn by AR AdAyedi) Tell Haboua 1: Zone D.1 (Zone B). Al-Ayedi) : . 18 Fig-19 Tell Haôoua 1 Zone B Trench ïi. Section G-G (drawn by AR Al-Ayedi) : Tell Haboua 1: Zone B. Section B-8(drawn by A. Section D-D ( d m by AR Al-Ayedi) : Tell Haboua 1 Zone B. 22 Fig. 15 Fig. &st phase (drawn by AR Al: AY Tell Hoboua 1 Zone B. situation ofdierent tombs and burials (dnwn by AR Al-Aycdi) Tdl Haboua 1 Zone D. 24 Fig. 28 Fie. 29 Fig. Trench VI. 17 Fig.Fig.Al-Ayedi) Tell Haôoua 1: plan of the New Kingdom fortress (diawn by AR. Al-Ayedi) Fig. 20 Fig. Al-Ayedi) : . granoiy GR& second phase (drawn by AR Ai: Ayedi) Tel1 Haboua 1: Zone B. 23 Fig. Al-Ayedi) Tell Haboua 1 plan of the granaries GR. 21 Fig. 3 1 Teii Haboua 1: Zone B. Trench W. building BUL.R.1. building BUL. 26 Fig. iimestone sucophagus (dnwnby AR. Trench IV.

'CNécropolede KanWah. 1954).scient Antiqity ASAE Annales d Services des Antiquitds de I gwte (Cako) Bulletin of the Americcm Scrbwl of CkieritrrI Resewch ( J e d a n ) BASOR BIFAO Bj6rkmui 1974 Bulletin & l 'lnsriiutfiimçaisd 'wcMoIogte orientale (Caiso) G. Clédat. BjOrkmur. Cd'E Clédat 1909 Chronique d 'Egypte (Bruxelîes) J. 9 Clédat 1910 Ctédat 1912 J. D e b u : Les ckpeIles miriemes (Cairo. Clédat. S. CauMlle. the Mayor of Tjm in the reign of Tuthmosis IV". ASRE 10 (19 1O). JARCE XI (1974). Cl- "Notes sur l'isthme de Sud'. ASAE 12 (19 12).RT 38 (1916). 34-5 1. "Notes sur l'isthme de Sua". 1997). 1 13-20. J. Caminos 1954 CauviUe 1997 R Camhos. Lare E&~tian Miscellanies (London. CICdat. bbFouillesQur Cheit". . J. fàuiüos de mai 1914". 'Ze temple de Zeus Cassios i PCluse". 4 Clédat 191 Clédat 1915 Clédat 1916a Clédat 1916b J. ASAE 13 (1 9 14). 21-3 1. "&y. 145-68.Amer. 7985. ClCdrt. RT 3 (1909). 209-3 7.

198 1). rH JAOS Isaef ~Iwution i I (Jenisaiem) J J J i o Americm On'entai Suciety (Baitirnote. 99-1 16. de Guis Davies.I l Tho Mastabas of the Sewnth l: Seawn d their Descriptions (Cairo. f AH. Hhssan. Hikton'cal land Geogqphical Sludes (Jemsafem) RO. Late E t n Miscelhmies (Bmssels. Gardiner.M. Dictionnrnie &s mwnr gdqruphipes. Gardiner 19 16 Gardiner 1918 AH. VI (1920). "The Delta Residence of the Rarnessides". A Concise Dictiomy of M i d e Egyptian (Oxford.JZ3 5 (1918). 1888). 1957). ï k Tornb o Puyemre at Thebes (New York.F. 19 1 1). . JE4 AH. E&yptian Grmmar: Being an InItahction to the Study of Hierogiyphs. Ercdon ot Gisq vd. 242-71. 1916). 1937). Notes on the Stoy o Sinuhe (Paris. Nebeskir (Am) andDe~nneh ('Ziihrmesr. Emtirrn Hieratic T i (Leipzig. Fauher. GtiflLith 1888 Hassan 1953 S. Archaeoiogical. Gardiner. "The ancient military road between Egypt and Palestine1*. New Hiven) f i o the Amerim Research Cenferin E m t (Boston) f JRRCE . m i a Gauthier 1925 H Ouithier. T i i s If (London. 1925).CRAIBL CRIPEL DE Comptes r e d i s ck 1Xcadémie cles inscriptions et belles-lettres (Paris) Cahiers rks Recherches IFe 1'institut (dp Pqyrologie & Lille (Lille) Discussions in Egyproiogy (Mord) 1918). f Eretz I d . ûrifiith in W.Gardiner. Petrie. Gardiner Gardiner 1911 A Gardiner. (Mord. Gardiner. Gardiner 1920 Gardiner 1937 AH. 1953). de û a r i s Davies 1918 N. Vï (Citiro. FU. Gardiner. 3rd ed.

Rumessiide I&ptiom. vol. I (Oxfiord. (Berlin. 1975. Jmml of the Su& Antiguities Service (Khartoum) Lexikon &r ~g)ptoiogie (Wiesbaden.A. Den&mbier tata Agypten und hiopien. . J M ffichten. K A Kitchen. New Kingdom 191-2 t S. Lichtheim. K2mi N (193 1).Kitchen. et Copte K. .Monta.L 988) R Lepsius. vol. Middle Bronze II Middle Bronze IIB M i m s Ptrbiids p w ies membres da I 'Iii*tutfirtnçaisd'01chéoIogie Orientale ( C h ) P. Historical and Biogrc~phicd. 1993). Le Décret d'Horemheb (Bruxelles.m m s JSSEA JmmI of Egyptian Archaeology (London) J i m I of New Earern Sîudies (Chicago) J i m I of the Societyjbr the Stdy of Emtim Antiguities (Toronto) KAT K&mt Kitchen 1979 Kleine À w s c h e Texte K M . "La stde de l'an 400". 1(Oxford. 198 1). Revue archéo@ique. ak PM et d'~chéo&''. "La stèle de Pan 400 retrouvée". Ancient Eg~)tim Ltterature. 169-90. i 849-58). Mariette 1865 M.Mariette. 1979).. 6 vols. 1976). Kush.~~t. v01. Ramesi& Inscn'ptioon Tranriation.I (Berkeley. Lichtheim 1976 LSIP M. X ( l865).Rev.

et à I '~~chéoIogie Recueil & Travrnac relatifs à lu philologie é&yptienneset assyriennes ( a i ) Prs SAK U C O Shaban 1912 Shrdien rtlr AItd&yptischenKKulhr (Hambourg) Slrdes in Ancient Oriental Civifizaiions (Chicago) MX. Shupe. Eg)ptiirm inrcriplimfiom the British Museum d o t k r sowws (London. Egypt. second edition. Rewe d 'dsyptoiogie(Cairo) M o r d 1992 DB. Peeî. 1987).Shaban. me Rhimi Muthem~tt'ai Pqynrs. Urkunden. C 1992). VOIS. 1926-3 1). Peet 1923 T.ED.F. i. 69-75. Ocen. Quack 1992 ~ d * F.Redfotd. 1837). Urkunden der 18. "Fouillesexecutées prés d'el K a n t d ' .I. S. 69-1 19. 4 vols. vol. historisch-biographiscbe . Dynastie.E. The "Ways o f Homs in North Sinai" in A. SIP S2MR Second Intemediate Period UrkW K Sethe. (Liverpool. (LeipPg. Shrdien rlir fehrefir Merikare (Wiesbaden. (Leipzig 1906-09). Israek Sind (Tel Aviv. E m t . 1992). 1927-30. A Erman and H Gnpow. W6rterbuchcler dgypischen Spmche. Quack. 5 . ASAE 12 (1912). Rainey. 1923). Zeitschritfpr ~ t i s c Sptack und Alterttrmskuinde (Leipzig and k Berlin) . m andlirael in Ancient Times (Princeton.

As a strategic highway. The 6rst archafologicil tewuch in the eastem Delta and dong the Meditmanean wast of North Sinai wris conductcd by Jean ClCdrt betwcen 1904 and 1914.L INTRODUCTION The North Sinai region i the major lrndbrid~e s which made possible communicrtion with Asia throughout the difftrent periods of anciait Egyptian history. His excavationsprovideci valuable ar&mlogicai data on the history of the u a but mainly tiom e.' In 1920. the Gr--Roman and Byzantine paiods. the North Sinai played an important role in Egypt's history and puticululy during the Second Intamedate Paiod and New Kingdom. ALn Gvdina stuclied the mM sources on the 'Ways ofHorus" during the New . no archeologicai remains carlier than the Roman period wen revded. and i an attcmpt to reconstrud the Mlitary organization gp n of Anaent Egypt in North Sinai. Many archaeological anci textuai studics collccnttafingon the 'Wap of H r s have been ou" carricd out for the purpose of identification of the stations and fortresses dong the ancient hïghwayktweaiE y t Md Palestine. Archaeological resconh in Nonh Simi has proved that it was always a vitai border area that witnesscd muiy politid and military con8ücts.

2 Kingdom. a considaable ambunt ofarchaeologicd research has since b a n undataken in North Sinai.nrsity airveyed the ngion and discovered many new sites dating to the New Kingdom. the &on of the Ben W o n Uni. From 1980 to present. For t a yeur (1972-1982). Anothcr projcct. howeve. Fominately.^ î h e shoctcoming of this study. Saite and Byzantine periods. his study has nmained the main reference on thit subject for de cade^. this was foUowed ahortly t h a d l a by the start of operations at TeU Abu Sein and Tell Hibou II ("Haboua II") under the author's direction as part of the 'Ways of Horus"Project. the excavation at Tell Haboua I ("Haboua I")was commcnd. the archawlogid missions of the Egyptian Antiquities Organization (now the Suprune C d of Antiquities or "SCA")undertook many projects to investigote North Sinai. Rather. . the "Saivap Ploject of North Sinai". was mounted concunently unda the direction ofthe Egyptian archoeologist Mohammed Abdul Maksaud.' in 1979. Gardiner bascd his identification solely on the interprctation of sometimes - ambiguous ancient sources. K a s r a . Teil el-Luii and Pelusiwn. SCA excavations have ban conducted at many siteq such as Tell el- Kan- Katya. in 1984. to rectify the one-sided view taken by Gardiner. is that the identification of the fortresses and their location - and consquentIy the alignent of the ancient route were not baseci on any archaeologid evidence.

in an attempt to corcelate them with the ficldwork. - . the f h station and starting point on the Ways of Homs. by the excavation of Haôoua II. This thais sedu to p m a i t the n u t of this tnmid review together with the s 1s archaaological evidace h m the ex~~~vaiiow SCA and othm and to argue that contrary of the - to previous scholm' conclusions Haboua 1 is actually the site of Tham.3 ïhe goai of the fint stage ofthe Ways ofHoms Project wu the identification of6'Tharu". the statting point on the "Ways of Homs". as weU as the capitai of the 14'" nome of Lowa Egypt. The pmject first conccnaatedon the cccivieion of two sites: Haboua 1and Tell Abu-SeiA. The results of al1 such research in North Sinai have ken documented in the archives of the SCA. i the summer of 1998. As part ofthis project. 'ïhis work was folowtd. A n pre-excavation s w e y was conducted and various samples w m ad@ and recordeci. all of the rcfences Born the ancimt inscriptions on the Ways of Horus and T h were coiicctcd and reviewd.

Meanwhile. the Sinai desert did not have the kind of natunl baniers which could have easüy protected the eastem fiontier of Egypt.who coveteâ the land of the Delta for its fatüty and meUow ponures. For this reason. it was open to attack by an enemy either by crossing the desert or saüUng dong the meditemean coastai strip. defensive masutes had to be taken by the nilem of Egypt. Hence. as well u supply and custom stations that . M In the Deka. (Fig. 1) The fertility of this land did not escape the notice ofneighbouring people. The "Ways of Horus" was secured by a nttw~rk offbtmws and provided with wata weils. Rather. Over the centumg hembnnches hve s d course and position ud have flually buiit up a delta plain.I L THE WAYS OF HORUS IN ANCIENT EGYPTIAN SOURCES From &y timts. the Mie. the land o f the eastem part is the mast fertile. The route dong the Maditennean mut ofNorth Sinai bom el-Kantarah to Raphia w u known in the - - E m wums as "the Way ofHoms".' h wrs the vital utery through which the militacy and commercial t d c botwwn Egypt and Aaia fiowed. the eastern borda of Egypt was its most thteatened. was divided into several branches. To the east. Egypt w u an apiailtunl country dependhg entirely on products of the lrnd The main source of irrigation. the desat was inhabited by nomadic tnks refktted to as S - h in the d e n t Egyptian records' .


6 were estabüshed dong the route between the Eastem Delta and South Paiestint. (Fig. The inhabitants of thh place have dso givcn the neuby city the name d-Kointarah.' From this strategic point the "Ways ofHoms" starteci and led to G a a 9(Fig.'' Similady.' Thm was a drategicaUy important poht at which the lagoons south-east ofLake M e d a h and south of the ancient Pelusiac branch of the Nüe leA o nmow tongue of land to the north of Lake Baiiah. meuiing "thebridge". as i indicated by the title "ovenar ofthe Way of ho ni^'''^ found on s a limestone sorcophsgus fhm the tomb of the "overseer of the desert" &kni-Hnnnu at Gia." .i3bt. the instruction aâdressed to King Merikare ofthe 10' Dynasty mentions the defena of the eastem frontier dong the "Way of Horus". This tongue ofiand mwt have ban crossed by bridge and. its capitd is given as Thm. it is known as Gisr elKiaralr or el-lüantaroh. 3) It appears that dafcMive measufes dong the Ways of Homs were taken as early as the 6rst haif ofthe 5" Dynarty. 2) The eastem frontîer region oonstituted the 14' nome of Lower Egypt. wnsequently.' In the lia ofnomes inthe shrint of Senwosret 1 at Kamak. Hnt.


3 -Map ofthe ~tcbeologicol betwan el-Kantatah and Balouza (according to sites the Franco-Egyptian Sumy) .Fig.

Morcover9from the mals of Thutmose III we know that in his first campaignto Asia he marcheci h m the border fortress of Thoni to G z about 250 km away aa - - in a mord the of ten days. The 'Ways of Homs" was ovemen by the Egyptian müitary organization. as we know fiom n the following titles: impr W31-w. and cach entrant haâ to idente . From the description of the ûight o f SinuheU we reaiize how effective the defensive system must have been. T h e Overseer of the Way of Homs" 2-b. O bM 1 Wly-Cn 13m. "TheMayor of niaru"." This fcit testifies to the efnciency of the organktion of the "Ways o f Homs".9 The historicaî sources conceniing the Ways o f Horus in North Simi indicate that an extrtmcly weil orgIiUUZed system of fomesses and road stations wu estabüshed by the kings of Egypt to secure the major art- of communCcation the Aslltic provinces whüe also guarding with Egypt's eastcm fkontier. and Evey traveiiet was checked a! the fiontier posts. High officiais were placed i charge of the'ways o f Horus" and the fortmm dong the roaâ.

91-92. travelling officials and officers leaving the country:" Year 3. day 17. Nonh S h i kumc v e y important as the major "Grdincr 1916. arriva1 of the captain of the troops of the well of Merenptah. which is on the highland. l8 Bmsted. op. amading the Egyptiui sphere ofinfluence as fàr as the Euphrates? The m i t i o n s of Thumose J. dating kom the 3" year of the n npof Merenptah. . fint month of summer. 0) J Wcbteh. 1. Then he was compeüed to wait untii his entry had kaiapproved. In this mumer. Thutmose ïIl undenook seventeen campaigns into Asia.h. until he was sent for and conducted to the residence of Senwosret 1.H. Anciemt &cor& o E~ypp~ (New Y f voLm & 196. " J. strong kings to the thnm of Egypt a new chapta in the history of Egypt began. and the subsequent campaigns of Seti 1and Ramesses Iï strengthened the Egyptian empire.l6 A h p e n t ofa diary kept by a fiontier officiai i Tham. Comap~entIy. the homacornhg Sinuhe w u detained at Than.U pved the way for the establishment ofhperiai Egypt.. 270-7 1. ci&.10 himsafand to darify the purposeofhis enûy. 18-21. The kings of the early 18' Dynasty conducteci miiitary campaigw into Palestine to recapture the rmence of Egypt and to regain its ptescnce in the Asian provinces. i especiaily messengers. contains the names and the business of l passersby on theu way to Syria. during the New mgdom. to investigate in the fortress which is in Thanl. "'ik E~ypîian M Emph inPalcsth&"'&19DR 241 ( B ) LI.p. With the expulsion of the Hyksos and the accession of ambitious.

i p . The references corne Erom various types of t a : papyri. One of the main rcasons for my küefis thPt the referenccs to the "Way o f Homs" are incidentai to the main purpose of the text - and would not have been a Iikely target for exaggeration or self-aggrandizing editing. statues. op.42. Although some texts - Uicluding piimiuily the royai wu inscriptions rnight tend towards aggeration. samphagi. 49-52. but the portions dating to the Ways of Hom appeu to k diable anci accurate. The "Ways o f Horus" is rnentioned in many ancient Egyptian sources.7 x 1 2 x lm)was found near the western waii ofthe burial chmikrofthe tomb ofykU&mu. and political role the "Ways of Horus" played ind e n t Egyptian history. n A ibnestone sueophagus (2. p h t e titles. cit. The followhg section of this chrpter wiii provide an overview of the refermees to the Ways of Honis i the textuai sources. The references contain much important information regarchg the stratepic. ûn the eastem side of the sucophagus is a horizontal row of hierogiyphic inscriptions reading:" " Himm 1953. etc.Il land bridge between Egypt and Asia. economic. royai war insctiptions. over which military expeditions were dispatched and commerce flowed. f 40.

"Way of BONS". . director of the Mitr. One of the titles which the owner of the tomb hul. overseer of the Great Court. overseer of the hunters. i @ipzig 1908). makt reaây your tait for Teti. ~ n O. director of aîi the scribes. 6070-b. greatest of the ten ofUpper Egypt. priest. overoecr of the desert. csptrin of the crrw. 326. chamberlain.ovasser of the ~ n yjudge and nome adrninistrator.wt. Bad . king's aquaintarice. Die airorgpt&ckn &umi&n&xte. the earliest mention of the road in the ancimt Egyptian sources. Hhi-mm. ovemer of the UWayo f HOC US^. and which concems us hem is that ofutha ovemer of the W y of Horus".The disaict chiefof the demt. 0. 24. K Seibe.Mrpi4"Lipyraridcdu m Teh". stdF of the people. Iwn-Knm.W V (1883). a (b) The pyramid text of King Ttti (6* Dynuty) The "Way of Horus" is mentioncd i the pyramid text of Tai of the 6& D y n a s t ~ .

1drove i my (. so as to repcl t& attackr.. The inscriptions contain the 'instructionsof the father. The part of the inscriptions that concems us deals I with the eastem Delta and the Asiatics. the heredituy many of Egypt: Behold. cite 52. h 3. 1976).182-83. 103 L ~ op.) mooring post i the region (?) that 1 made (?) on the est. cquipped with cities. the toyd cou* "Mljdakm~rr*ilr&jipptfun i k r i a h r his son anci successor Merikare. King " Khety U .2.i (Bakcley. (a) The inrtructionr a d d m d to King Merikvc (IOa Dynasty) The text is presc~edin a fhgmenteci papyrus wndsting of 3 âagmems: Papyrus Leningrad 11 16 A (second haif of the 18'" Dynasty). Papyrus MOSCOW and Papyrus 4658 Carlsberg 6 (Iate 18' D y ~ ~ t y ) .. . fiiled with people of the best of die entirt luici.. Licbtbcim 1976).. Qudr 1992. n n Fmmthe boundariesofH&mu to the W a y of Hom".. (a) 8tOtoy o f S ~ U (12"C ~ mm) fied fiom Egypt in a moment of panic &et he In the story of Sinuhe.

" The 'Ways of Horus" is mentioned in his journey back to Egypt: 1hPhed at the Wap of Hom*.the commanda thme. the geography of the ûight of Sinuhe is correct as fw as ttaceaôle. sent a message to the palace to let it be known Hi. as Sinuhe spent muiy yeus in Paîestint until he wrs pembttedto retum to Egypt by Senwosrct I inold age? In my opinion. ships were loadcd behmd him with prcsents of the royal bounty for the Asiatics. who iccornpanied me to the Y W i ) s oCHonu? . majesty causeci an eflticient overseer of field worken of the palace to corne. who was in charge of the fkontier patroi.14 oMiheini that the 01d King Amenemhat had died unexpectedly. The honor of this moment and his expcritnœ away âom the court ue descnied in grcat dctril.

Kheperkare. Temple of the King ofUpper and Lower Egypt. lexicogrsphy. geography. as well as the determinative is omitted . confirming that it was not just a roaâ. 1pmôabIy f o n d a of an inscn'pecî temple wdi rather than a d a * The inscription gives the chronologid sequence of events at the court of Amenemhat I. which is in the town of Senwosret on the UWayof Horusw.Sm) w u found in the Ramesside temple of Ptah at Memphis. and cuits. . From the tex& the exhtmce ofa temple of Senwosnt 1on the "Way of Horus" can be inferneci. but aiso that it compnseâ a welsrguiized social structure.and a phonetic of a city. including the expeditions sent I abroad either fot militivy or rnining purposes. The orthography useâ here is not fhiiiar: the sign complunent ( a ) is useci.15 (b) Stda of Memphic (12" D y n a ~ t y ) ~ A phk granite blodr (2 x 2. The inscription is very important to the determination of the history of the 12' Dynasty and to the study of Egyptian economy.

4. saying: I havc corne h m Pe. Mayor o f Thebes (laa D y m ~ t y ) ~ On the tomb (Theban Tomb 96) of Senufer at Thebes. (b) inscription from the tomb of SCnuCer. there is produce with a texî rncp~tioning "W8y of Homs": the a scene of his garden's L lm- I ihxz~ . (a) Inscription on the w d of Hathor chi@ at Deir &Bibiri (laa Dynasty) A religious text W found on the waii of the chape1 of Hithor at Deir where a bovine goddess Hathor addresses Hatshepsut.1 have traveUed through the m m h g and the lands of the UWiysof Horuam. 1have marcheci through Dep.

CS. 1939). found in Thebes (Theban Tomb 99) and now in the British Museum. It is mentioned on Senufer's statue.Beholding the meadows and travershg the manhes and mrking arrangementsat the "Way of Homsw the Mayor of the Southem city.R o d b t Enpe C O I W ~ Ismf in Ancient Tïmes and (Pruiceta2 1992). 153 (bneiniftaRcdfoid 1992). "Sbrp 1837. ihid 56.ûO-û2. (d) Tomb of Puyemm at Thebcr (18" Dynuty)= On the West wiU of the tomb of Puyeme at Thebes (Theban Tomb 3) then is a 9.PI.~XL(berouiitk . had the title: "Director of the place on the 'Way o f Homs'". by (c) Inscription on a statue of Senutet. Edwrrds.DB. U i IK W:4. the justifieci. Ovenccr of the Scil(18" D y ~ u t y ) ~ Senufer's father.PL V. LES.]OW.Hiemg&phic T c x l ~ f i m Emilan S t e k a n d o t h e r ~ u ~ e s de Goris Davies 1918). Djehuty-hay. h k B n ' hMwurr P i t Vm (Lmb. Senufer. representation of the reception of tribute âom Retenu and the registration of tribute for the "Ways of Horus". =N-&OlirDrviftTkTanbof~mmaTkk~(NcwY~ 19L8). U iIVI 523.

Puyexxuc. by the prince and mayor. chiefkaor priest. sole cornpanion rich in love. which (my)lord had assigneci to the temple of Amun. royal chanceUor. D On the mcth w d of the grcat Hypostyb HiII in the temple of Amun at Km& t k e are a raig ofmicfb raeordingthe Bnt CMiPygn of Seti 1to Aga The reiiefs represent the roul between Egypt and Palesthet the "Ways ofHoms". [second] pnest [of Amun]. above the jars is Writtee Wme of the vinayards of the "Wiys of Homs". another scene reptesents the loaâing of wine jars.Receivhgthc tribute ofthe products of the northcm lands and of the U W ~ yof H r s . tme ofvoicc. (e) Tbe Ashtic umpaip of Seti 1 b m r k (le y n a a t ~ ) ~ . in the same tomb. r ou" t o m with the gifts of the Southem and Northern Orsis. with a detailed registntion of all the .

below. The d& of Seti 1constirne a main rdbrence for the subject of the "Ways i ofHorus" and will be discussed in detail. (f) Papyrus Anaatui 1(19* Dynastr)ll Papyrus Anasta6 1b r n the nign ofRamesses II.19 stations ofthe road.It mentions the "Ways of Homs". U a kind of"gwgrzrphic guide" written in a satkic l~guage.and lists the stations in Nonh Sinai and the major fortined cities i Southem Palestine: n .

of tacwl refetcnces. Herd toward the f m s of the 'LWiysot Horus".h. In particular. 1. O thaî 1hght r e d to you H s y n Whereabouts is its t uai. I begin for you with o es the Dweiiing of Sese. who knows how to use your hands. and [to] Seba-El and Ibes~eb. You have not set foot in it at dl.p. (Fig.. we d y d y on this relief in this study.h. dm s d above. Corne. fortress? Corn now to the region of Edjo of Sese.p. m l. into its stmnghold of Usennue. In temu. w wül attempt to correlate this retief to the fiddwork. I have describeci to you the hiil counüies of the nocthem ruches of the land of Canaan. but you have not answered me in any way nor have you rendereû a report to me.O G o d Sul you elite scribe and M'r-warrior. You have not eaten fish h m [its pool?] nor bPthed in i. The main t d sowccs niath8 to the " a sofHoms" are a series of reliefs executed Wy on the exterior no& waU of the great Hypostyle Hall in the temple of Arnun at Kamak fiom the tirne of Seti 1.h. i se . and WUdescribe many things to you.p. 5. 1. 4) The second main soura is papyrus Anastasi 1h m the nipofRamesses II. a leader of N&n-trioops at the hcad of the soldiery.

4 .Pig.Map of the u a of Haboua e .

Md Y . Z'he Rood ro b & s h (Chiago. oihr A Kitdm 191% op. W. in the centre of which stands the enlarged figure of Seti 1 in his chariot dragging groups of captives and marching dong a mad marked at intends by fortressa. (Fig. 1985). 8:SP.33the submission offoreign citics. I. Rameut& Imsdpiioll~: Tbulorron.--WI Bdit. The nü& represent the campaign h m east to west in three related seenes. VOLC. The reliefs. ICA. with the accmmpanying inscriptions. "thediviâing and" or "the d The ncds continueta die border of the reüefb.h. The accompanling text refèrs to it as a -& &! & -. Ycar 1 of the King of Upps and Lower Egypt Men-maat-Re. T h y are shown about to enter Egypt across a wltter-way or a canai.The destruction made by the mighty arm of pharaoh. and the prcsentuion of the prisoners to Arnun. 1976). characterizing a fiesh-water environment. etc. show die military action in the field. fkom the e fortress of Thani to PaXanaan.22 The Kimik r d & provide a geogmphid record of the Grst campaign of Seti L h t o Asia. running north-south.. h o rnother body of water which " .A. 7 (haehdk Kitcbai 1993).. 5) The openhg statement in the Karnak reliefs is? . 10092. G.1993).p.J. a victorious renirn to Egypt. 1( i . whost water is infesteci with crocodiles and its banks lincd by reeds and swamps. vol. OIWr N n p i in Egvp1~11n (Miinz an Rboia. 55. amongst the Mn enemies of the Shanr.

Reliefs of Seti 1on the north wdl of the gceat Hypostyle Hdl i the temple of Amun n at Karnak - . S Rcpresentation of fortresses and stations dong the "Ways of Horus".Fig.

In both the Karnak reliefs and Papynu Anastasi I.107. guarding the road. .--bis p3 O hdn n 13m: * "thefortress of Tham". The bridge fortress is numd: 9 xed. ci&. 266 ( h c r e h k Cliaioos 1954). "the dwellllig ofthe Lion". by: Y Olrdiiier 1920. "the dwebg of the lion". the majority of which took the names or epithets of either Seti 1 or Ramesses 1 . dcven fbrts ead nine wds are üsted. The L n in the Karnaâ reliefis naturally refers to the o phanoh Seti 1 In Papyrus Anastasi 1this fortras or town is rcprc~ented .8 94.35 which was reachable by boat fmm the fomess "Thad.mtc3. 1911.op.24 has a b m shore and contains marine species. The other one. C06. Consequently the identification of these stations with any s p d c site is 1 very dicult. while a smaller one guards the road to the it üsts the stations and brtresses inNorth Sinai and Southern Palesthe." Papyrus Anastasi 1 provides a son of "topographic record". One of the depicted Egyptian-style fortmses straddles a bridge over the water-way. 103. is nmed: n n$Aaxm t3 Y p3 m3t. L 5 ) Y24. except for Gaza and Raphia at the Pdestinian end of the "Ways of Horus".All~~la~i inR CimmQLo* EpypimMucelImiers(Lambo. In Seti I's reliefs. the fortress ofthe second station is a@ named: t3 Y p3 m3i. This body of -ter repnssnts the salt water of the Mediterranean.29.

38-39. The 6fk. as seen in the d e n t suurces and the archaeologicai evidence. n Mn-m37-t-R: "the d e of Menma're". 0. the ancient sources provide evidence from euliest times of the network of fortresses and stations rettmd to as the " a sof HO&'. and nain in papyrus Anastasi IJ8as the '?rad ofButo of Sese". op. The foiiowing chapters wül focus on a review of Tharu. .hstation is named: (Seti I " whüc the reventh station is a fomess cailed: ). These references also indicate that Wy the focriess of Tham lay at the starting point. p3 bSp.Ramesses U. 1494~- w3& n S t i M i P t h ''But0 of Seti Merenptnh". * lbid * Climoa 1954. ln Paynis Anastasi V" the name takes the fom of: . CU. the latter being the Rickname of Rsmesses 4which replaces the officiel name of Saci 1 The eighth nation is a fortras ulled: . beloveti of Amun". Thus.

15"' D w) p ' The Rhllid Mathematicai Papyrus consists of a series of mathematid problems written on the ncto of the papyrus. ~ ." Subsequently. (a) The Rbiad Matheartical Pipyms (Yar 33 o f King Ausem 'Apop4is9. as discussed below. and it is statai that the author included materiais copied nom the r e i p of King Ny-maat-Re (Amenemhat W.THARU IN ANCIENT EGYPllAN SOURCES a number of New Kingdom soums. The date teof writing is includd as "the fourth month of year 33 of King Auoarr (ApophU)". a series of enoies were mitten on the veno of the same papyrus by another m i e in the early 1 8 Dynasty.

The birthday of Isis. the sky rained. they record the müitary campaigris of Thutmose Ri to Asir. a roar was emitted by the rnijesty ofthis god. Day 2[5].dry 23. Regnal year 11. the birthday of Seth. second month of S o m . and fonn the longest and the most important hinorical inscriptions of ancient Egypt. The Annals contein more thon 223 lines of entries. this southan prince broke into Thrr. Aon (Hcüopolis) was entereâ. b e g h h g with the Grst and the most important of them: . . (b) The Annab of Tbutmow ïII (le Dyauty) The Armais of Thutmose iIi occupy the interior waüs of the enclosing comdor that sucrounds the Holy ofHolies of the great temple of Amun at Karnak. it was heard that Tham haâ ban aitacd. Fint month of e AWiet." As a complete document of military achievements.R @ year 11. first month ofAhet.

( d e ) ta extend the frontien of Egypt. PI. South Sinai. while the officiai Neby is foilowing the king canying a loafof bread and a smaü bird. dry 25. fourth rnonth of the second season. o 20. Bj6dmm. ML II. tbe MiyocofTjuu i t& n ( h a t b a k Bj6rbnrn 1974).Pœt. Mayor of Tham. the Mayor of TLiru i t -bit iate 18" Dynuty) cCKbadtm (Thatmose IV. steward of the Huem of the royal wife.Ya 22. "Ncby." The inscription &ove the officiai raids: The Royal Messager in rll fomgn lands. aâT* I " JARCE M (1974). 34-5 1 V. N b ey The inscription below the king reads: Y m 4 under the Majesty of the king ofupper rnd Lowa Egypt. 81. Theiwcnpa~nsf Sinai Radm. Merrkheperure. vol. . found in the mining area at Serabit el-Khadem. 1952). Skh #SB. his majesty was in (paased) the er fonress of Tbina on the nnt campaign of victory.A H GrdLvrad TE. G. (c) R o c k u t stda oCNeby. given üft. I. A rock-cut stela with a corniced top. npresents King Thutmose N offerhg mik to Hathor. chiid of the Nursery. " U k M 1634: 6 7 .

(d) Stda of Neby. ey Twswert. nie troop captain and mayor of Tbuu. Iate IV Dynasty) A limestone stela of the sune Neby mentioncd in the previous refé~ence. the lady of the house.'~ kept in now Leiden Museum (Lciden V 3 . His sister. Tauswedt reosiving offerin@âorn "his son Huemhab". in the top register with the foiiowing Uucnption: Giving p h [to Osiris] and kiasing the ground Mon Wenneftf by the chief police and troop capuin of Tôani. "the troop captain of T'bu" and "the lady of the house. his dearly beloved. Tht main inscription of the stela ~ e a d s : ~ . The midde aad 10 rqbtas are offeMg m e s representing Neby. the Mayor of Tbrru (Thumose W. shows an hase of Neby with his wife adorhg Osiris. Lord of 4) Abydos. N b . It is notmorthy that this text reveais Ncby to have b a n the oversar of both the northem and southem frontier.Neby.

ovmccr of the r s fortress. clothing. and d good and pwe things to the ka ofthe prince l and mayot.ovenar of the d rad myor of Thru. to drink of water at the river eddy. an important man i his office anâ magnate i the palace. n n ovemer ofthe h m ofthe lrndof Wawat. that s kcmsq oii. tmop captain of Thrru. . cool wmr. the gnit god and nilm ofetaniDty he may prit invocation o f f e ~ gofbrcad and beer. fomnost of westetmn. Neby. dabaster. (aise) to hhak the swœt breath of the north wind. winc and mük.An ofking tbit the king givu to Osiris. chief of poüce.

Sweden (klonging t the same Neby ofthe previous two n o references) b w s an inscription reading: T be recited: Isis. op. ci. 4 3 5 1. protect Imsety who is o inside yoy the Mayor ofTbwu. with a cova i the shape of a human face with n d e d femirrs i Ronneby CoUege.25550) there is a block-stahie of quartzit'e. (Thutaiore IV. (1 974). put your amis around what is hide yau. U~~de~vd. justifid.u~tcidcs&~a~~. (9 Block-statue fripient of Ham. the head and parts of the base and foot are missing.. Neby. The four sides of the statue are inscribed. The inscription on its dord pülar yields a reference to Thuu and includes various titles for Hatre:" " ~ 19 a~m # ' " I ~ ~ V ~ Q ~ I ~ ~ P ~ ' O O Q ~ Bj6rianrn 1974. PL IV. It measures 47cm in height and has a cartouche with the name of Amenhotep II engraveci on the right m.2555~dpm~du~om"t~d'E17(1%~ 15-20. lite laa Dynuty) An alabaster canopic jqu 34cm high. .31 (e) Canopic Jar of Neby. the Mayor of Tbaru. the Overseer of Goldsmiths (Amenhotep LI. I8* Dun-tr) In the Louvre Museum (E.

"The wine of Thini".to the servants of this temple: I am a competent(?) n artisanfOP Upper ud Lowa E y t the work ofmy snnr rtached Elephanthe and Tbim gp. for the goddess W d j a of Imet. to the north. rcsiding in Lower Egypt". @ [. for the chiafof goldsmiths Hatre. ip n 13nu. irp n 23m. This seaiing wss found at site D. (ü) A jar sceling h m an arnphora with a seal impression. 18' Dynuty) Two hundnd and fotty-fiveinscnbed jar seaüngs were discovered at Makata. The details of these d n g s are as follows: (i) A jar seaüng b m an arnphora with a scol impression.].S. n (v) A jar s g & h m an amphora with a seal impression. justifid. Lord of Mesen.Bat Malkata. "The wine of Thini". nb Mm hry ib m..* These 13 sealings came &omarnphorae and indicate an association with Thsni and environs. . Hr nb M n s ib Lord ofMesen. reoidiig i Lower Egypt?.5. the palace and asociated complex of Amenhotep III on the West Bank at Thebes. 13 of which consist ofcyündncaî types. . at Makata. This sealhg was found at site D.The o f f i g s that [the king] gives to Atum."Horus.'Horus. He gays to those who a on euth. m. (iii) A jar s&g fiom an amphora with a sed impression. in the monuments which his majesty macle for Amun in this place. 4 b H ~[Lord of Mesen ~s.. Mesen is beiieved to have been near or at Thini? This scaüng w u found at site K at Malkata (iv) A jar sahg fiom an amphon with a seal impression. for Homs lord of heaven. lord of Mesen. (g) Wint Jar S d i n g rdateâ to Tbiru fmm Maikata (Amenbotep IiI.B. This seriüng w u found at site K at Maikata.

' wine This seaihg was found at site K at Malkata. hs A jar d g h m an amphora with a seal impression. ip n p3 hm. A jar sealing h m an amphorawith a seai impdon. '"te fortress of 'L'har~". A jar sealing h m an arnphora with a strl impression. This d n g was found at site K at Malkata." wine of the fortress". A jar serling h m an mphon with a seal miptCSSion. irp np3 hbn. iip np3 &me '%ne of the foctress". T i seaihg was found a site K at Miilkata. A jar scsliag fmm an unphon with a sal irnpmsion. "the wine of y the fomess" . '%vine the fomess". found at site K at Makata.~This sealing w u found at site K at Malkata. . This d n g wu.This scrling was found at site D at Malkata. which is o h calleci p3 &m n 13m. kp np3 +bn. hp np3 k ' of the fortress". w niir seriiag wu found at site K at Maikata. irp np3 hn. A jar sealhg h m an Mphorawith a s i m p d o n . '%he of the fortress". d possibly Than. A jar d g h m an amphon with a seal Unpression. . rip np3 ha* %ne of the fortnss".33 (?)Y. "wine of the fortress". A jar sealing h m an amphora with a double scil impression. This seaiing w u found at site K at Malkata. iip np3 hûn. of This seaihg was found at site K at Malkata.

Mrirnrne. m t Amatm Period in Egypî. JO WJ. which were to be supplied by cultic establishments throughout Upper and Lower Egypt. h h W U . no. two men-container of wine. u with neck and stopper missing. the cornminder o f tht tmopo of Thim (laa Dpasty) The inscribeci shawabti of en na. and two rectangdu lengths ofthick cloth. was fomd in tte tomb of TutlllljChamun.34 (h) Shawabti o f Menna. 18" T i largely unpubüshed fiagmentary text was found in the Aten temple at Karnak and hs dates to the reign of ~khenaten? Enough of the text remains to indicate that it imposed a tax on temples a muricpaüties throughout Egypt to suppott the dgious innovation of Akhenaten. Commander of the troops of Tham. PI.T i i f i r . Among the gods refemed to in this document is Homs of Tham a) Wine Jar Scrliag fmm the tomb of 'lût~nkhamun (laa Dyiuty) A wine j .Shb& 1939. (i) m-Y) Fragment of a Tiuaon Decree fmm the Aten Temple at Karnak (Akhenaten. (Atimta.Vm. k . 49. 30. 6. d 'Ibis tax includcd one deben of alver. chüd of the Nursery. Menna.Pe(n*e.'^ the commander of the troops of Tham reads: Givm as pcaise h m the h g . one who is greatly tnisted by the Lord of the two Lands. for the praised one. Overseer of the Horses. 1995). one men-container of incense.

J.~. [and there is anyone who intafieres] ((17) and he takes away the boat ofany Mlitary man (or) of any (otba)[palson in any part of the cauntry.@^ -Plea~. (k) D e c m of Horemheb rt Karnak (18" Dynrrty) A v q large stela of diirk sandstone (CG 34162) was found on the last wall of the temple ofl(iimik towards the south. aa 8 tat. and by dm* him to niaru.22. ~iemtic 18crfptio~&m rk Tomb D lonoa. J N E T S (1946). PI. 2-64." It appears that Than.PL 1. Year 5.m. tbO.2146:8-lkK P f h g e r . u T b o E d k t o f ~ ~ n . i t y I. fiinctioned M a deportation place and possibly had either a pend settîernent or labour cmps where prisonen were placed.86 ( k r e b î k Krpebtca 1 8 ) d t 91. f8. he being sent to Thiru.. 8. JEMO 20 (1977). (Now) i then i[s the man] who (wanta to) deliver dues [for] the breweries (?) And f abbatoirs (?) of pharaoh. Chief witncr Penamun..26l.& D m d'Homnkwb. at the 11. pylon of Horemheb? The inscriptions contain a üst of various crimes.4748. sweet d e of the House=of-Aten[tiom] Tbim. the Iaw SUapplied agahst him by cutting be off his no#.Thejar bem an inscription mentionhg the wim of Tham:'' Il* -pl. 28."'ib . some of which were punishable by severance of the nose of the culprit.M KNcbfen.. m 25. * uhn?21#:10-17. 2 . (1 %a. on behrif of the two deputics [of the iiumy] . ireaimat d C M in AmScnt Egyptm..((1981).

The high officer has the title "ovemer of the fortress of Thant"' . ' .= 9 d u ALStla = t O E n~%IBllwSR9b''Rz9flxla. 60539) has an inscription relatng to an act of homage to the god Seth from a high officer named SetLin the reign of Ramesses IL The stela gives an intewal of 4OO years between his reign and that ofthe Rile ofthe Hyksos.and those who are supplying the harem.l*lI II.. (1) Stdi o f year 400 (Ramcrres l... a. (22) n the law [shall be appiied] against him by cutthg off his nose.~ % (21) . he being sent to Tharu. as weii as the oflerings of al1 ( b d s 09 gods i that they ddiver dues on behaif of the two deputies of the anny.a[nd he] . I f Dynasty) I A red gnnite stelaMfound in the mins of Tanis and located in the Cairo Museum (No..

justüied. mayor of the . royal scnie.4' month of the third season. high pries of Wadjet. his beloved: The Ombite. Passing the fortof T h u y he led his army overland through Piaiesthe and south Syria up to Hs inscription rads: i . o v e n m of the fortrem of Thini. troop captain. master of the hone. master of the hone. chief of the poiice. city govanor apd viper. the-great-o'strength: the son of Re.and o v a ~ c of the ptophets of aii the gods. troop captain. Seti. h-beater on the right h a d of the king. of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt: Seth. overseer of the desert. O Seth. commander of the tortmr o f Thini. overseer of foreign countries. city and vipa. day 4. e Ramesses II marched with his umy h m Egypt. S t . chantrem of Pre. city governor and vines.For yout spirit.justifieci. Year 400. fortress-commander of Thant. Prarnesse. (a) Asiatic eampaigns of RImesses IL (lgO Dynasty) In his 6fth year wnpaign to Kadesh. she-who-opens the two luds. Tiu. overseer of desen lands. beloved of Re-Hrakhti. a ei Son of the hereditary noble. royal scribe. royal scribe. son ofNut! May you givc a happy üfa t h e in foUowing your will (k3) the spint of the tiered'hary noble. justified. master of for the hone. conductor of the fecist of the Rnm-the-Lordsf-Mendes. and bom of the lady of the house. d r the preparation of the troops and chariots. rnay he exist forever and M Now ihae came the hereditary prince. justified.

his infmt~~ chariotry with him. equippcd with d their weapons. e (O) Berlin r t d i of Huy. m w in Moscow. 781. 17332 (19* Dynuty) A round-top@ steîa of sudstone" in the Berlin M u .79.80an high and 65cm wide - hm i the lower regiaer an inscription consiaiag offive horiwntai lincs that r d : n 'Kite)ia 1979. n . VOLiï.Now t&rS b @esîy hiid p q a d (8) hU infantry. i. aa 282 "L. no. 8. III. lp Dynuty) I A scarab dating to the reign of Ramesses ïi. c & vol. and (is) given ) W k e Re forever. H bcgan to nuirch on the good way in and e Yc 5. his chaxiotxy. op. o Kck 9 (1% ui 2 1%. whom he hpd d e d off by the victories ofhis ann. t whom the orders of combat had ban given. (when) his tnujesty p a s d the f o r t m s er o f Tham. His majestyjoumeyed i o northward. Kitchen t 979. b w s an inscription refecring to Tham? The inscriptionn i d s : Usirmare Setepenre. o . (n) Golenlscheffsurab (Rimcsra J. and the shedkm of hW ma~*esty's capturing."Fm Objcfo &bngbg t Vcmys ofKu&rd ûfbhhAnoc*tcd with hW. Wrcbi. Ramases ( l IMery-Arnun. who provides for Thrru. op. second month of the third seuion. dry 9. ck. I).

the pnised by the Good God. p l e a d with Tcuth. 19" Dynasty) Papyrus Anastasi'l @ dates to the second half of the 19 ~ynasty. H y u. the one who cornes fiom Khatti. hm n m t exi*sted. a person s who cur report when it (Khatti) is. that they may give the reeeiving of offerings coming forth before (them) at the kginmg of evezy season which happens in th«r temple. the troop captain. (p) Papyrus Aautasi III (Mtmnptib. the royal scribe. the fm-bearer on the right hand o f the king. to the ka o f the prince and the myor. the deputy ofhis majesty in the chariotry. the highest authonty in Nubia. the troop captain of Tham. the royal messenger to avay fore@ iarxi. to Ihoth. mentions Tham and in many parts of it. to the Honises pre-emirient in Wawat and to aii the gods of Nubia. the viaroy. The fht m n i n of Tham occun at the beginning of the papyrus in the eto epithets and titlcs of a m i ' s master: . lord of the-Throness'the-.An offaring that the king gives to Amun-re. who b ~ g its great one. the overseer of the homs.WO-lands.

33 1. ci^.. op.10) the p ~ c e of the foreign lands of Khor s staning fkom Thim to Iupr. .. Another nEaence to Thni in Papyrus Anastasi ïII is found in the extract fiom a joumd ofa border official:" G d k 1937.. king's envoy to (1. Crpmia 1954..(1... op. üeutenantcommander of chariotry.9) Fan-bearer on the right of the king. first charioteer of his majesty. 108-12 . to the princes of the Asiatics.. ci&.

( ~ 6 ~ Regnid-year 3. e From the section of Papyrus Anastasi N called "command to make preparations for Pharaoh's arrival" we find a reference to Tham: (15.h.7) and hM-fish of she.2) what he took to Khor: 2 dispatches. s son o f D a e o o f Gaza. Ooing up by the retainer Bac*. 1937. bg-fhh of the pW-watct. 1 dispatch. op. WJifh of Mi-wà: guned bulti-fish of Tbrru. op.l)Relgirtl-year 3. Mz (for) the jpr garrison-commander Khai. a 17. ci&. in order to investigate (matters)in the fortress which is at Tbina. ci&.6) muiy birds.6. +fish of the hi-waters.6. k t month of Shom.3) (for) the prince of Tyre Bacaiteme&1 dispatch. . 1. (vs. dry 1S. 51-52. (vs. Cmhos 1954. first month of Shonnr. iw3-fish (15. 19û-99. Amval effected by the 4) captains oftroops of the wdls of Merenptah-hotphima'e. (vs.S) which are in the M s . kni4Ws of the papyrus-marshes.p.(w.6. (q) Papyrus Anastasi I (Rameaide) V Papyrus Anastasi contains r e f m c o to the conditions of garrison W in general.

19°Dyn~CY) i Papyrus Aiussrsi Va dating to the reign of Seti II contains a reference to Tharu in one - - of its sections. op. 26566.() t Papyrus Anastasi V (Seti I . op. ci&. namely a mention of transporthg t beyond Thant: h stelie by ship to be encted in a fortress "G e . . 1937.69-70: C a a s h ~ 1954. cit.

1. <to> the king's butler Maat-men: In We. kingofand the kas of the king of Upper and Lower Egypt Usinniire-setepenre.1.h.h.h.4) and their pünths.p. second month of (24. 1..I)your good lord..of Rarne~~~~~rniamun.h.p.reach h m youmlves. Anolher (24. which ir at Tbuu in regnai-year 33.The iieutenant~~~mmander anny. Papyrus Lansing appeafs to have bca wrinai as a student's Uutniaion piece and is atitied "(1.5) pharaoh.. we (24. passed the fort." Thus spoke the king: Look.(24-2)our g d lord i health. day 23. Any.p.h..p. 1.3) topic: We set out fkom the place where the king iq berring thia stelac together with their i p (24. (24.p.1) (Beginnhg ofthe Instruction in iettcr-wnfjng made by the royai scribe and chia .6) to ail that he says so that he may set thun up in their plice forever. I.p.h. in aü possible haste with the e stelae: reach him in aii haste with them that you may listai (24.. write to us about all that we are to do. I say to PR-H~takhti.Z) the butler o f i Pharaoh..7) I. Let him debrate millions ofjubüees (and n may you be) in his favour daiiy.h.8) S ' .. The king said to us: "Go afbrthe Mr0f(24. Let (25. prosperity and health! In the fkvour of Amen-Re. and the lieutenant-commander of the anny of the (23. and we SM to empty the ships at Thego Dwellingo'Rarn~~~e~~miamun. I.keep pharaoh.p. Bakenmun.8).

&. 168. -- . op.op ci&.44 overseer of the cattie o f Amun-Re.q. I .vol. Cmiiiior 1954. I. 401. Nebmare-nakht] for his apprentice. LichtMm 1976. the scribe?W In this instruction the tacher compares the cornforts ofthe scribal life to the suEeMg of soldiers: . 10748. ci&.- 1937.king o f the gods.

it defends (np) Egypt. one is after hirn as a donkey. he ia dead while yet alive. He toils until the Atm sets in his darkntss o f Mght. the troop crptPin. The (t) Inrriptioni from the temple of Dendira (Roman period) The inscriptions fiom the temple of D n a a contain many references to Thini. (9. the great god. s H is d e d up for Syria and may not rest. it i not good for grinding. the commander of fHy.' m )st")image oftbe Ba ofHotus.6) the lieutenant. [who rcpulses] Be (=Seth) h m Baqet (=Egypt). the saibe. The majority of these texts relate to the fact that Thini as the capital o f the 14th - nome was sacreci to Horus. (9. Whni he receives the grain ration. . the main deity associatecl with this nome: - (152-54) [Words spoken by] Hom lord ofMesen. lord of Mesen and lord 3-2 rm s l "t of Thrm has corne Mort you. They go in and out of the hrlls ofthe palace. and how many are his superion: the gaienl.Co- leâ me tell you the w a s of (9. Then are no clothes. He is hungry. and the garcison-captain. having b a n releaPed from duty. ( 0 3 )The hc ot (lit.h.7) sayiag: "Get labourers".. his beUy hurts. e weapons of w u are assembled at the fomess of Tbiru.p. no sandals. lord of Thiru. the lion foremost of Khenty-iabct. He is wakened at any hour.the officer who leads.s) the soldier. oh Osiris. l." It is edr noteworthy that the word Tharu is written in dEerent orthographies in the various Dendara inscriptions. it protccts (mk) (its) monuments64and it throws Seth out ofBaqet (=Egypt). the standard-bearer.

.~ h v e taken the harpoon to aii the cattle. O Osiris..] has come before you. Djeba of the North holds your bauty/perfCCtion. and your son proteas the (two) doon of B a t p (=Egypt). (1-6) The r@g(?) Ba[ .(1 1. lord of Maen. .. The buU of the North (=Seth) is cut up in his form of The One Whose Namc is Hidden (=hippopotlunus).. Your son hides them.] [august phoenix] in Ncdyi: '"i?&c for youmlf the mu-setef flood that originrtes in (the d nameci) SheHot ("Lake of H n " . T brings you Khcnty-iabet and the Region-of-Horus-in-theow) t rniâst4Bay wtDch brings the pmduds "things") of the mil ofTha[m].." (21-22) If you are in Tban in Khenty-iabet.. lord of [. You are the scarab who origuully came fkom the W t e nome.14) Words spoken by Homs.. the great god and lord of T b a r ~ "1 ~ ." m.

(u) Inscriptions o a iirropbigus fmm d-Kintimh (Roman period) n In 1911.' The large sarwphagus besn i s r p i n accompanied with rdigiow rvrnes and the name of a person d e d ncitos Padiamenemope with the titles "phce of Tharu". it is again clear that Tharu was asdaal with the cuit ofHorus-Behdct. which dthough unidentifiecl as yet may have been a place. Mohamed E&di Shaban acawattd a number of tombs at Tell Abu-Seih. mentionhg Horus as "lord of Mesen. The main shrim of this god was at Mesen. somewhere - - i the vicinity of Tham n . The second sarcophagus belonging to Henti who algo bears the title 'prince of Tharu" - - provides us with evidence of Thuu during the Roman period: From this inscription. or perhaps a temple. The excavations yielded thne inscribeci sorcophagi dating to the Roman period. lard of Thant'.

his majesty pasad the brtrcss o . Comacaoar As mentioncd. which his rnajesty made t atend the fiontiers f o of Egypt. in the Annals o Thutmose III. dey 25. This k t is confirmed by many tex& n o . m read: f Yeu discussed in this chapter . Alsa. and the starting point of the Egyptian m i e s i their campaigris t Asia. where the mit and conmerciai highway started and crossed Nonh Sinai dong the iiw Meditmean Coast to Gaza. w maci: . fiom the insaipions of the KPdtsh Cpmpnign o Rpm#ses f II. f 'Lbiiuon the hnt campa@ a victory. o Similuly.2. Tharu was the f b t station on the "Wlys of Horus". t Pa-Canaan.including the relie& o Seti 1 at hm&. 4 month of the second month. T h hdr gteatly important strategic location on the eastem fiontier of Egypt. which indicate that the f campaign w: Startllig h m the fortrcss of Tbiim.

The ~ m ofthis region. e u mentîoned in the map ~ m t h t u ~ & ~ s ~ . ~ G ~ e 4 ~ ~ c r o ~ o f t h c b n d Now . îhe siege of these two cities took place within a pend of thrce months. and that indicates the stntegic importance o f these two - cities. and it was m dby bridges. Avaris has been identifid as Teii el-DabCa68 thus. T h m must have and. Thiu wu locrtd at the point where the road t n v d a m w strip of land between Lake M e d e h on the north-west and Lake BIUah on the south-eut. Accordiig to the Rhind Mathematicai Papyrus. Kamose undertook Mlitary actions against Tham" to stop any supplies or aid the Hyksos might have received horn the Syrio-Paiestinian side. bem located by the ancient Pelusiac NiNi branch with aaxss to Avarîs. Two canais fan through this saip of land.He began to m9ich on the good way in the year 5. During the überation of Egypt. the capture of Avaris the capital of the - Hyicsos ocaimd &a the conquest of Heliopolis and Thm. fkom where thy originated. day 9. ( w h ) his majesty pas& the fbrtms of Tham. 2d month of the third oaison.

gp.the city located in this same a r a is called el-Kiffitwcrh. As this chapter has shown. the yisld of which was sent to the Theban temples. a deportaîionplace. the starting point fcom which Egyptian arcnies marcheâ to Asiq the military headquatcrs for the d e f i v e system and the wtern gate of Egypt. From s such ancient mords.. The texhiai references and the strategic location of ancient Tham have suggested severai possible locations. Thsni i n f dto in a wide range of ancient sources. Tharu is known to have b e n : the capital of the 14' nome of Lower E y t &t-i3bp. However. aimiaols were punished by nose severance and deportation to h . recent excavations discussed in subsequent chapters give a clear indiution that the site and type of construction of ancient Tharu may be - - ddinitively identifiecl with the temains found at modem Teil Hoboua 1. a fàmous source of buIti-fish . a h o u s centre ofMdw k production. I the Kamak die& the fortress of Tharu is depicted as a rectangular construction with n an entmce through a luge gate on the Egyptian side. the fint station on the miütary and commcrciai highway between Egypt and Paiestine.meaning the bridge. as hiown fhm the d e a a of Horemheb. the reiigious centre of Horus of Mesen wonhip. a central miiitary pst for the preparation of the miiitary campaigns to Asir. a tax station for the coUection of taxes for the ben& of Amun. as shown in the scholars' debate set out in the nad chapter.

Die aItk.Imch. - 8î 1b Papym Anraasi iII and Papyrus Anastasi V. nt. Berlin.. Burchardt. 69-70. cil. ÉmPtien djr Vatrcun (Paris. Zeiischrr~ plr digptiscche Sprache und Alterhrmskunde. Carninos 1954. H . &?. no. 11 (1909-19 I) 58. Guide Ciu M e & 56-57. 2 12 and no.1943) . O.NI G. Roeder. op. c&.239. fie. op. bhs . I B-\@ b \*O 1 M n a 1931. 17. ot 169-90..anoonriiischen Fremâivotte wd Eigenmmen im Àgyptischen. 17332. ZOK. op. 1927). 10899. Manette 1865.. 2-3 (herehafter Brugsch M . . 191-215. J (1924)..The narne of Thuu was wn*ttenin various onhographies in the ancient sources: hlfr)@ Mmcchi. Brugsch. W ( 1 863. R"sypt. op. G u d k 1937. 1158. cit.

T e vclb Or h bl-C) means ~ or %' keep W. Thus. it is my position that it should k transiatai as ?he one who fasttns"or . as a Pprticipie. and wïth the tnding ' (w).. it m y be i n k d that Tham mis not f only a bttiiess on the ancient highwy. 'Gardiner. "Tham". and temple at Ibli Haboua 1 the site that is as discusscd belw .the best candidate tbr Thani. Nothing has kai writtcn about the meaning c$ the city's name. settlement. administrative buildings. Thvu et. and the role it played as the eastem f gatc of Egypt. nie prchamlogical evidare uncovcnd îo chte and discussed k w al00 l o - - confwms to the meaning of the word miyu"pmpoacd hacin. sto~housecornplex. 1 propose that its name rcflecta the stratcgic importance o Tharu.\\hBl-llIwi n 3 hmr D P - m Bw. or the deteminative iwi (sandy hill-country aver edgc of grœn cultiwtion. This impmsion ha9 ken strengthened lately with the diwwety of a large New Kingdom fbrtress. it was al= a hrtified city on the edge of the cultiwtcd Md of the U t e m D l a and the capital of the 14' nome of Luwer Egypt.or nn Xlèagh@. 'the tE. Rather. Tharu may be written h with the determinative of the city @ .rîms that is i n Fmm these ciifferait writings o the city's name.T e determitllltivts usai with the name ''Tham" dso vary. . appan t have contained ali the main elements of architecture that characterize a major city o and a capital. - 2. N 25"). Thani is also writttn as follows: p3 @ z Bw. "thefiortress of Tham". palnce.

ngbiba 1912. CCIaIii 1914. d&. C ~ " N o * n r l ' i r ( b m c d e W . op elt.ang gr ah? 303. C& "NaC a ' & . 35s. J . 9 op. l@ i-= BIMO XM11(1921). op. thewxbtlr meaning 'entrachcd campm" . O* op el&.'O In addition. S. Idding the determinative o f f thccityattheend: . . the headquarters of the Egyptian -y's defaisive stratcgy on the eastem hntitr. 8.251. ci&. mte 132. 4km east of the presmt city of el. 47.69-75. T h has ban identified by a numkr of scholars as 'RU Abu-Se*.thus nhmng t the fortifications at Thyu. the same combination of signs of .99-104. m. 24244. considerhg that the main role of Tham mw b pmtect the eastern border of Egypt against any attack or infïitration of the üibcs frorn t e neighbouring desert t the east h o of Egypt . "* F rnV.ardLwr191&0p. 2948.the orthography of niani o am&mnst the anciait o 'one who keeps W. C k U S I P a p h i p d % MIHO XI (l9t3). collception of the fDrtifïed city as reflecteû i the meaning n Much scholarly debate has focuscd on the location of Thm. On many occasions the o name Unv was miriai with the saxne orthography c the 17107%KNchtc~ 1981. is fbund with the addition o the detenninative c f i Thus. l~ BllUOXVI(1919)* 1 .53 'the aie who hepg saïen.and consequently t keep the whole country saft .

completai the monument which w a ~ unfinished at Seti's left death.fbilowing his rfih survey o the pmi in 1 W and again in 1888.'' In 1908. swmounted with a colossal mon. &turing a m e of Setî I &ring to a hawk-headeâ Horus . ( i the brue wene two horizontal lines of inscriptions.(a) Tbc Ramemide purimidionn The identification of RI1Abu-Sei% as Tham was bascd primady on a Ramesside wrpmidicm (ïsmaiiia Museum no. which Seti S 1had intendcd t dedicate in the temple of Homs in mernory of his fàther." Griffith descnbed this monument as a 'kind f 8 of tmcatcd oklisr. Griffith determined that it may have senmi as 'the f pedcstal d a colossal hPwk mPde in a separate blocr and that: the monument W ~ a monolith figure of Honu as a hawk u p n a pedestal.3m high and plaœd on a m t a q p h base o 1. Cléâat published the tatt on this pyramidion. This monument consisteci of twno fiagrnena fining tog~thcr?~ sida of which were the straight and surmountad by a cornice with thne Lines of inscriptions. lih a dutifbl son. It was 2. and joinai in the dedication.1 x dm. 2249) invcstigated and published by G i f t . n nie main Jide of the pymnidion is the hkio vues hont southem ride. Ramesses o II. which compnsed two pans.

Lord of Mesen. ou f tic hm ma& (Uiis) as his monumaïts fbr hu fptba Homs.Loid o Mesen. i eiilcellent and etmai wrkmanship. Lon1 o Cmwns. r d Mnim3iq bodily Son d Re. b ~ g i n g to the two Lands. Lord of the two Lands. pwrful of ul li6i stritngth.In front of the king it says: W w are five verticai coIumns of UisCn~tions:~ o Horus-nlcon. king of n Uppa and Lomr Egypt. Seti O Mcritnptah. the f klavrd of H n . Nebty-Ruler. whom he loves. subduing the Nine Baws. rich in fiorces i ail lands. the bshioning o his ixnagc in quamite. Smng B l . b who pcrhrms the rituais. Golden Horus. Now his f n .

the king of Upper and Lomr o Egypt.Lord of Mesen. Son of Re. In front of the king ue the! wods: Homs. Menpehtym. King of Upper and Lawer Egypt. ci&. Strong Bull. R[arnesses] II. Lord of H-n. Usimare Setepenrie. befiorc this g d . op. enduring and abiding etemally. beloved of Mat. . ûn the 1&-wwt side King Seti 1 is heeiing and bcing c m e d by Homs and W j e t . is the main tat Kitchen 1979. Ramases 0. i 105407. "given LW'.majesty d e s a t pcrpehiate the name of his iàther. the great god. Btlw. fwmr and ever* The base! of the front southem side has the foiicnuing inscription: (Long) live: Horus-fàlcon.

h Menmarc. subduing the Nine Bw. b e i d of him.h hshioning of his image of quartpte. upon the Homs-throne. Lord of the 'hm Luids. pmrful of lia o sangth. M y son of R . Lord of the two LYids* Lord who perfbrms t e rituais. Lord of Mesen. Nebty-Ruler.Horus-Falcon. ail offixings h m me. stiong Buii. . nch in forces in aii lands. <ba> the king of U p ~ and Lawrr Egypt. aii t pwisions k m me. king of Upper anâ Lowa Egypt. e RPmssa 1 @enLiée likc R forever. the b d w d o€ Homs. aü health h m me. Lord of Mesen: ''1g m t to p u a million jubiks and a rnyriod of pacchil yeprs. aii flat lands and hili countrEeJ m g unitcd unda ynu smdals*. aü heaith nMn me. Wds s p o h by Hom. Mrds spoken by Re-Horalrhti: '1 gnnt io yw . Lord of m r Mesen. upoa the Honu-thronc. lord of cnnmis. Lotd of ws Heliopolir: '1 g ~ n to p u ail ~ustcsiancefrom me. a Lord of Cmmony. formidable of a . Son of Re. He has made as his monuments k his m e r HOM. e a l i lifé and dominion fiom me. Menpehtyre. in exceîîent and te mrlasting worhnsnship as does a son who peitoms bendinions and who seaiches out excelience. and P joy from me. iike W. Golden Horus.W d spolocn by Atum. lüoc Rc". fbrmiâable of am. b ~ g i n g t the two Lands. Seti O Mercnptah.

holding a paim branch in his nght hand. Belcm dime are eight ünes of inrripti~ns:~ . and behind the king the wrds: Behind Rarnesses 1 stands a hawk-hded Horus.5s On the left-east side is a sane of Rarnesses I witti the Atef c m kneeling before a deity.

He publisid his study in a doctoral dissertation entitied: Die . Mrds spoka by Re-Horakhti: '1 grant to rvt yw aU W and dominion h m me. Ramesses 0. bodily son of Re. Lord of Mesen: '1 pnnt to p u a m l i n jubiiees and a myriad of ilo p e a d d p r s . the belavcd o Homs. upon the Homs-throne. Lord who pcrCwms the rituais. subduing the Nine Bam. l t 01 rem-north si& are traces of a kneeling h g . Lüce Re". M d rs spokcn by Homs. and R Haboua II. Son of Re. LüUt Re".Honu-Falcon. <6pt> the king of Uppcr and Lcmer Egypt. ~tmidable a . d flat h d s and Mi countries m g united undet y ~ i sandals. W o n i n g of his image of quutzite. in aralient and o€ m the everlasting workmanship as does a son who performs kncktions and who searches out arcelicnœ. He has made as his monuments fot his Mer Homs Lord of f Mesen. in 191 1 Kùthm~nn d d e d early identification of p Tbam as 'RI1 Abu-Wh. Seti ( ) I Mtrenptah. Hbrds q o k n ôy Atum. lord of cnnnrns.Golden Hom. bringing liîe t the ~IWLands. aU pmvisos from me. where a New Kingdom N n temple wu ncaitly discmred. Lotd o the T h Lands. Mcnpehtyre. Lord of Heliopolis: '1 grant to p u ail s u h m me. Lord of the two Lands. p m r f u l of o smngth. bel& of him. f Lord of Ccrcmony. the The source of this pyramidion is unhawn. f formidable o a m . Nebty-Ruler. and aü joy h m me. R Haboua 1. aii health From me. h g of Uppa and Lwr Egypt. but aecording to our recent exmations at %Il Abu-Se&. Bostd iPrge1y on this -dion. rich in fiorces in a i l lands. given lifé like Re be e. Menmase. 1 suggest that this monument could have U U k e n rem& h m R Haboua 1 i the vkinity of el-Kantarah. strong Bull. Loid of Mesen. aîi &rings from me.

L . ci&. and the accompanying interpretation of the new archaeologicai midence. the excavations conducted by the SCA provide a new uiterpretation for the identification of T h . Based on this evidena. o The temaining chiptcrs of this thesb wül outhe ncait excavations. e : The i d a his rcceivaiwida occeptance. M . it will be shown that Tell Abu-Sei& aught t be excluded Born considention as ancient Thini in favour of Tell Haboua 1. and mnUndthe prevaifing theory for decades. op.60 In 1920 Aian Gudiner pubiished his d a r ü d study on the "Ways o f Horus" and rcafjinnd the identification of Tell Abu-Sei& aj Thamg1 (b) T ü Haboua I a New Theor). Ordmer 1920. discowries at TeII Abu-Se* Teii Haboua 1and Tell Haboua II have yielded ncw uchocologicaî evidence.indeed. However.

2.a contempomy geognphid compendium. a large quantity of s mudbricks end c o d e d coins of bronze. The surfoce of the tell is covered by pottery sherds of various types and glass vessels. Tell Abu-Se8a lies 4 km to the east of e l . a gimson wrc stationed at Tell Abu-Seüà or as it was then known Sile according to the Notitia Dipitdum (dating to the beghhg of the 5* century).5 Engüsh d e s ) Born Pelusium on the road v a Serapeum to Clysma i (Suez). The - Antottine Itinemy.K a n e it is a low mound bounded on its southan side by Me Baüah. There are d a luge blocks of ümestone. has bccn written about the mason for naming the site TeU Abu-Sefi . The tell mcaswts 600m no&-south by 5ûûm uut-wcst.V. smd stones of basait and gnnite. N o m howevu. Luge pits and trenchcs cover the whole surfiace of the tell. TELL ABU-SEIFA 1 . The Greek name of Tl Abu-Safr w u Zdq while the Coptic name was C&or el CMmIn Roman times. and on its western and northern sides by the buin oflake Menzaieh (now chicci-up) 3 km away. locates Sie at a distance of 24 Roman miles (about 22. indicating extensive digging of the site d u h g the modern mitituy operations in Sinai.

m d g "the papym mushcs".62 i modem times. L propose that the modem name ofTeil Abu-Sdà hm its rwts i the ancient n n Egyptian languagq being demnd from the ancient nune P3-1wjy. n Considering the site's location in the heut of the ancient P3-&@ and its marshy nature in amient timcs. . The word Iwj. TeU Abu-SaB. The rver in the neighbthoodo f k Menzaieh and the ancient Pelusiac branch is known i the ancient records u n yZA-eyxj or h-pLgaje \ \ P3-Z*. it is quite possible that the urimt amie for the area became attachcd to this important site ud aitercd over time into the modem name. means "papyrus" and is u d in various locations of the plant itself? Tht story of Sinuhe gives a description of the ancient topopphy and vegetation of the area of TeU Abu-Seifa We read: 1crouched dom i the ôush in ferr that the pards on duty upon the waii might see me.

with some squmd slabs of fine - - - - condition. In addition four haifhoundeci .Srn bng with 9 wlumns. He also f d a üfbizc recumbent üon the head tumed eastward which was uninmaecl and in poor wen rctnaiilS of nibblt pavement. he exzunined part of the Ramaide pymmidion disaismi above and determineci that it had been nmoved f?om Tell Abu-Seifâ. In addition. H suwyed e the area and excavatd a fw m c h a at TeN Abu-Sah. in the d a g t of el-Kantarah. wllch he suggested m @ i have been monument bases. th- Iimestone. The meet mawred 26.63 3.these discoveries will bc discusscd in mon detail. of which only the bases mniUwd E6e uncavemia mdbricûwill. In 1914. Below. in 1888 Gtifllithinvestigated el-Kantarah and vicinity. The Latin inscription on the paving-stone diting ftom the joint reign of Diocletian and Maximian recordai the estaôlishmcnt ofa R o m m i h q p s t and seat of a bishopric cailed Sella or Sele (Sile). kr d i d above. which extended 9 l. in üght of new intqretations b w d on recent accavations.4m to the north of the centre of the te& imd suggestai tha! it might have b a n a part ofthe Roman camp rncntioned on a broken i h c a i lllnestane siab faud in the tel and re-used as a paving-stone. which cxtcnded 195m. CIédat discorncd puis of a Roman fomess and an inner colonnaded Street Mmmg north-south. OrilMh rlso tmced a mudbrick waü. whae another ângment was found.

To the west of the tell. a surface survey of the entire area w u undertaken. and pottery samplea were taken and examineci thoroughly. extensive patts remains of a P t o I ~ seniement were discoverai.~ P ~ Y The excavations of Tl Abu-Seifa w m conducted in different puis of the site and el âivided into zones: Zone A (on the castern side). The ~~~hacological at Tel Abu-Se& revcaled during the excavations indicate the levels followuig occupation at the rite: Level 1 Romrn Palad (3rd Cenniry AD) nprtscnted by a R o m fortress in Zone A and settlement in Zone C - Lwd I I Ptolemaic Period q m m t d by a PtohmUc foctress in Zone 4 the m a i n s of a massive settlementU3ZoneB m d a h a b ~ i n Z o n e C - . SCA conductecl the excavations at TeU Abu-Seiâ (Fig. as weU as a Ptolemaic hubour to the south. c (a) S . 6) The missiondiscovered the whole layout of the Roman f~rtms. as part of the "Ways of Horus ProjectY'. In addition. ofwhich hdalready kaidiscoveItd by C1Cdat.4. Between 1993 and 1999. Zone B (on the western sidc) and Zone C (on the aouthem side).


Moreover.side two centrai t o m fhnked the main entrana on b t h sides. and within the niiw of an olda a Mdilargcr d dating to the Ptolemaic pdod. The thickness of the wrlls ir 4. Each brick measures on average 34 x 17 x 8cm. . lendiig than a whitish colour. while the longer sides deviate süghtly to the west.55m. The w d s are antirely buiit of aw al naidbrick. fkir siniüu towar u locatedon each longer ride and one tower on each e shorter side. ( l e I. (Fig. meaauring 195m east-west and 1 1 Sm north-south. as discussed. 6) The two sborter sides have a pecfèct north-south orientation. The Roman fortrcss construction was cut into the P t o l ~ fottress' enclosures to anchot its foundations.66 The two Ievds. whüe the fbudations dto a depth of more than 7 courses. II P sI I u and IV) in addition. (Plate I) The Roman ~~is mughiy recfanguIarin plan. focming a prnllelognm. The evidence of this ait is c l d y visible. mixed whh plaster. am the only distinct occupation Ievels at the site. AU niwoomar of the fortrw. are smagthened with semi&cular towm. nie wab of the fortress only SuNive to a height ofa f w centimetres above the ground levei. (b) The R o m Forbcrc (Zone A) The Roman fortnss was built on the hipoint of the tell. On ewh Ion#. The north-easternand c w t h w m towers of the Roman fortress cut into the eastern enclosure waü of the Ptolemaic fortress. the cenmics h m the sudàct survy do not indicate uiy d e r occupation.

showhg the cut into the duker Wall .Plate 1 North-ustem corner tower of the Roman F o m .Ptol«naic mclosure .

Plate II = Tell Abu-Sc& detail of the south-western tower .

Plate E TeU Abu-Sdà: detail of the northern enclosure wall and the north-eastem tower ï - .

showing an internai room - .Plate IV Teil AkrSeifà: detaii of the south-westem corner.

These two main entrances and the associateci towers were each locatd on the zwnt axis. but ndwr a w d mtres away h m it. digging hthe rcnmrilüsd iwide the fo- itself has c a u d considerable bmyle to tht uducologicai remah. internai are found placeci quidistant from each other and located beniveen the serni-circular t o m on the outa side ofthe 4 The bumgsgare rectangular in shape and are bonded with .71 The width of esch cntranct measuted Sm. The interior part ofthe Romanbrüm i kdly destroyed by military trcnches dug during s ment niüauy opedons in S i nie âieeing of the trcnches produced h u ~ amounts of debris e mJung excavation vay Micuit At the same t . The radius of each tower Along the inner d e s ofthe wrlb (cxcept to the west of the southern main gate). E buttmi maairrs 1. the min body of the domre waii. The centre point of the circulrr towers coincides.2 m wide and between 5-7m long. iia . N v r h l t . 'ïht single s«ni-circular tower ofthe eastem fihotter side is not placed in the middle of the ride wali. M e the tower of the western side is placed cpdly in the middle of the wali.tht SCA eeteea missions undectook m m lmti expfodon ofthe M o t of the Roman fortnrs. i dl cases. n with the notional M i 6m. & T b buttresses may h amd to strengthcn the wails or pcrhips as supports for *airn leadhg ta the nmputr ofthe fortmr. s o n of the outcr ficcs of the adjoining wds.

each unit consisting of severai rooms and separated h m the iwct unit by a space mnning perpendiculu to the w d . niird. It app- that these rooms wae bu& subsqmt to the construction ofthe fortns. Only one room consisted m. hide these rooms. The tnudbticks consistai of& alluvial mud containhg a m8r of sheUs. The rooms were buüt in two units. the walls of the rooms w c n not bondcd with those of the fortrem. which may have s e d as part of the binadab soldien and otha ddy üa. many types of r potttry vesaels and Roman coins w a e discovered. purposes. the elention of the occupation layers in the rooms is higîter t h thit of the fortress. Second. but rather in some cases use the buttmm as the tkiith waU of the room. As mentioned ibaw. thir identification was aipported by the dbcovny ofa Lain inscription&cd to the y e u 288 AD mentionhg the military mit of the . offôuc independent waiis.72 Mde the forfnsq a number of rcctangular roomr wen built against the southem enclosure w d . rlnrdy ClCdat had identifiai it as the Rann tbrtms ofSkmT k wu apparmtly foundcd in the Diocletian tOnt a the ad o f h 3d caitury AD. The second unit consisted of two room. îhe mm utüized a difftrcnt type of mudbricks than the enclosure waii. the masaiai of the brick M e r s âom that usa! in the construction of die fortress d l . First. as mentioned. for sMnl remns. The first unit consisted of four m s hree of whidi uced the fortrey enclosure waU as a fourth w d . The date ofthe fbrües miy k ddaniind basal on the findq indccd.

have been found i Qw-Q&Ün/Dionysiasn and inN el-Hapr. The thickness of the d Roman fortrem has dutmyed the w d ud makes it imporpbk to measum it accuratdy- . plate T) The Ptolemak fortmm is rectuigular i plan. The ~~are built cntinly of alluvial mudbncks .u n u (c) The Roman Settltment (Zone C) Ranains of a Roman setticment were found i the harbour area and are discussed more n M y in the section cntitled 7n0 PtofemaicHmboir (Zone C). (Fig. 6) n It has d v t mudbtick w d s on a ptrtect north-south and east-west orientation.measuring 39 x s is 1 3 4 accpt on the mn side when the cut of the ei 19.duir in colour . meuuhg 400 x 2ûûm.5 x 9cm. below. (d) Tbe Ptolemaic Fortms (Zoat A) Rumba of an d e r ind much larger fortfess w a r discovered on ail sides of the Roman &rtross.

while the south-western tower is rcctangulp. &vaaly degndd. The t o m L q p m h d y 11x 38m In&ont ofthis #am. ihhoughmme ofthe siabc were wmpkts.74 The d o a r a w d s arc shmghawû with outer buttresses of vuying sues. appuently bases of rn~numents''. rongllig nom 0. ofwhich the southcm one is completely dcstroycd.1Sm long. (Plate VI) The complets dabs uc square and m a u r e bctwem 120-150cm. ninning fiom 2Om outside the gate into the interior o f the fortreas. the majority wcn fiagmcntyr. a ümestone statue on a rectangdar base ofa recumbent lion looking to the right w u found.~ By the gatt. (Plate V) T e north-eastemand ilouth-western corners arc h Mtcd with towm. The pavement extends approxhately 50m intotd. It was in b d condition and without . with occasionai squares of fine limestone measuring 80 inches. (Plate Vn) The statue is in good condition and is uninmied and measutes 14ûcm l o ud 6ûan h@ ~ i A siniilru.65-0. nrtunl size. The maingate of the Eortrtss is ladon the #stem enclosure waii and is 13. in iimeitone. the head tumed eastward to the ri& the le& p w a o d ovu the right.8Smwi& and 13. The nordi-ca!mrn tower is citcular in shape. It is fbked by two no* towcrs.Sm wide. This pavement was first discoverrd by GtiflCith in 1888 and w u dtscibed by him as a "rubble pavement. nie mudl size of thuc two towm argues against th& use far military purposes. rrmYM of a ümestone pavement wae faud. stahit d o looking to the right s - -w u tkud by G d M : :Y aamd r rrcunknt iion.

showing watchtower and bumess - .P l i a V Tell Abu-Sa: dctUl of western enclosure wdl.

Plate VI Tell A b u .S a remins of the ümestone pavement i ûont of the western gate n - .

Plate Vn Tell Abu-Sa: limestone statue of a recumbent lion - .

as shown in the t d txcavated b the w d . it apthat the site wu mbsequentIy aôandoned md thcn rwccupicd again i the n 3d ceahuy AD as a m i b y station. (Fie. 6) The sett(ement wu co~ected the fortress by a main to . The Boom w m pavd with compnssd mud.Sm to the W@n sandy the wmcm side of the rite. The foundation of the enclosure reached a depth of 1. The dos consisteci of several d différent sizes and containeci sherds. Consequaitly. but these two both fia the utme dinction. hsidc the fwrnss. a iaunba of housq m@ncs and dos wue discovacd in the north- wwtan part. the massive fcmaiins ofa Ptolemaic settirnent were d i m d . H~WCVCT. containhg numaous piccm of debris and embeddcd pottery sherds. Outside the fortress. malcing the dating of the fomess to the Ptolemric pend certain. it appaus biat the= may have ban a line of üon statues projccting fiom a h ride ofthe gate. 7a and 7b) were found y in the foundation mnch. bud bones and large quantjties of glass fhgments. To the west of the houses. ( P b Vm)The housa have a nctingulir plan and w a e buüt tntirdy of mudbrick walls of approximately 80cm thick.78 inscription? ûne would have expected a pair of lions at the gate to fice each other. a number ofdoq pottery ovarr a other ooolting indations w a e found. A fm P t o I d c coins (Fip.

Plate M T d AbrrSeiEa: magazines. houses and d o n hide the fortrtss I - .

7a Teii Abu-Sek Ptolernaic coins - .Fig.

7b -Tdl Abu-Wi Ptoldrmic coins .Ffg.

In addition. 8) Although the houws were constnrcîedduring the Ptolemaic period. aithough it appeus that more mmins ofthe p W o mwin ôe f o d with Grtha acavation. (Fig.82 The houses w e n laid out in a ngular grid pattern consisting ofa number of complexes or quarters. The plrtfonn extends east-west. Each house was provided with c w b g and beking installations. (Fi~s.10. The fioon were composed of c o m p r d mud. rough pottcry. One of the complexes containcd an industriai u a incorporating many ee e ovens for the manuhcture of glas and bronzework. sepanted by standardizeû stricts of 6m in width. &ch cornplat consistecl of many hourec. The plrtform contrincd muiy m o a ~ m. A Mnba of aniU & came S the settkmait.m A c c o w to nurait exa&ons. g . and lob) . it appears that they were reuscd during Roman timcs due to the n u m k of Roman pottery shcrds and vessels and coins found inside the settiemtnt. The mllr wem 80cm thick and coated with plaster paintad yellow. the plrtform extmds unbmken for 1SOm. The foundrtions of the p l d o m wece. in places. 6 69) This pldbnnwu comtmcted of limejtone block and w u 2 7 wide. 2m d a p . (f) The Ptoiemic Hirboor (Zone C) On the muthem aide ofthe teii on the edge of a body of water (now dned up) a long plattom was loca!ed. ash and bud bones w r found. Mt of mudbricks memur@ 39 x 17 x 9an. ( r i . including bronze Ptolemaic coins and Mh m I smd mulets and temcottas d h g to the Roman pwiod.



Teil Abu Scifa - -- Fig. Section B B - Lay.of sanâ mV<edwith piaster I* 4 ----1 . lob Tell Abu-Scifa: the b u t .

&er 1. but appean t extenâ dccpa. A block of mi brick (not shown in section) appain to have ksnused to block the chamel. although it is somewhat X concave. (Plates I and X) The stnicturc is roughly rectangular. 3 n d - wide x 60cm (cxcavated height). an unuaud sûucture was iiwrted perpmdicular to the platform. t Phocnicia and the Medit~rtllllm (e. (Figs. At the bottom of the top opening tbae wu a c)uimeI. The structure is 2m deep.. Bdow the first opening lies a sccond opahg which i mtan@r i dupe a mcuurr. excavations could not be continueci due to the o et~x0cu:hing water table. huge quantities of pottery ûagments wae f w indudùig d e d saiphone M e s . Howevef. From d the study ofthe pottay.86 On the southun side ofthe p M n n (the watdde). The stem used m t COtWb\lCtionconsisiedofthrce doamir Pnr:(a) 100 x 60 x 60cm. 1la and 1lb) The drrt openingis a wrow rqgbr süt Iûcm (atthe widest point) x 104cm. (see Pottery Cataiogue below) At one point in die piaâonn.Cypms and Crcte) was present. a many badly cotfoded Ptolemaic coins. In addition. two opmings intmpt the fwe ofthe structure.g.7m depth a huge number of pottery shads and bronze nails wert found.7m depth. Up to 1.(b) 90 x 60x b 5 - d (c) 70 x 60x 40 cm. The cenmics give us a gocd seme of the range of traâiig relations baweni Egypt and 0 t h countrks and hdicate the stnkgic importince of UPs part of the eastern Delta both cconomidy and politically during - - this pend. oniy duviai mud was found. i Q noteworthy that a grcat amount of irnported pottery fkom Palestine. At the end facuig the water.UIlfoctumety. sons hgdus d pieca of stone wem usai- . It is constructeci of hestone blocks with Illw p l u t a mortar.

Plate IX Tcll AbuôQfi: hirbour plrtEonn. showing w m r p~ge(?) nght a d at ne - .


Ilr -Hubour h: Wrtqauge (7) in section ( W o n A-A) .Fig.

TELL ABU SEIFA ( 199 8 BIgi llb.Hubour A m : Wrtqauge (7) in section (Section B-B) .

The thickntss of the walls is 1 lOcm. In îhe Roman paiod. coins and mail W s wem discovaad These buses wna M of mudbnck t . 9) On the northem side of the platform fan a xnain roacl. F% The mugazincs wen eithcr rectangular or square in plan and ranged in ske. measurine eitha 30 x 15 x 7.91 The baion of this basin is hard to ascertain. one of which containeci welip d w k a t gniirr. Inside one of the magazhm two silos wem discovertci. However. meamring 16m wide. the basin may have ~nvd a watdevtl meuuring deMce or u lesi liktIy as a ihip repair instatlation. we are quite certain t h it was repaired in a subscquent phase of the Ptolemaic perioâ. Although there is no conclusive evidence for either thmry at this point. The roaû was pava with compact mud Mxed with pottcry and shells. the magaines appear to bive kairwscd u houses. The sr tm hdan east-wtst orientationand mp d e l to the platform. as CM be cleariy seen in the topplm. it ap - - that the plaifonn w u in use for a long period of the. Excavation clearly showed that the wrlls of the magazines had ken cut in the oonnniction of the new dement. In addition. Roman potteïy. bide the houses.Scrn or 3 8 x 19 x 9. cooking installations and brlcin8ovens were found. CbuEy. To the north of t h strcet Iay a luge number of store ma@m (Plate Xi). Che d6nds ( I 12) date these magazines to the P t o l d c period aiso. "&y were consüuctad o f d u k mudbrick mixeci with shells. the m g a z b wae din the -rage of diipments to and tiom the harbow. The w d r wcre cortecl with plmer and white-wuhcd.


Tel Abu-Sa: smiU obj- h m the magazine a m .Scrlt 1l : Fb 12 .

94 mixrd with plaster. t . similar to those u d in the construction of the Roman foittess. T is iikely that this settiement was concurrent with the Roman fortress. giving a whitish appearance.

My thesis argument is n that the fortma o f h componds to Haboua I. there a p p u n to be pictonal evidence of this topogaphicsl biucc anâ the associateâ fortressas.1 . wMe the d e r fortrem at Iirboua 11 cornponds to the second station on the Ways of Homs identifid as "the Dweing of the . the triai trenches reveald a crocodile - skeleton. To the south of Haboua 1is a dephon separahg Haboua 1h m Haboua ïI. known as Tdl Hhboua Iï. (Plate XII) In addition.~' triai tnnches conduaed in this area by n The the SCA furthsr support this conclusion. (Fig. According to the msearch of a Franw-Egypian sumy including the study of satellite photos of the ana this depnssion wntained water i ancient time~. h particulor. to the archaeologicaievidence. ü 1 kmto the south-eastof Haboua 1 this site w i l be discwsed fiirther below. u . 4) The site bordas the north-west side of the UWestemLagoon" (now d n d up). nie d e h of Seti 1show an Egyptian-style f 9 stcaddhgr bridge o v a r wriamiy.5 km north-east of Teil Abu-Seifa and 6bn to the east of the Suez Canal. Intradiic6iai Tell Haôoua I is located in north-western Sinai. Anothcr site. The m bridge tbrtrrsr ir idensifieci i die inscriptions as the ''firrtrrsr of Thuu". 4 km to the north-tast of el-Kant- 9. A srnulla forttess gwrds the roui to the east.

Plate XII TeIi Haboua 1 detail of crocodile siceleton : .

Lake Bdah and the Wd Tumilat canal to the ai south ofLake Timuh Thy 6ilhamggesteci that this canai continued fiom the region of Lake BiWi to the urcKnt wast hie.3l-38. a ~t Alllcifcy~~) * W H S&*uAdiicktbtrcEaPly~VCCCd~CddEgypt"." the Kamak retieâ of Scti 1depict a watemy associateci with the two fortmses.~R226(1911). The watawry Nnning between the two fortresses depicted on the rdiacomspondsto the wata-6üed depression. The name of the waterway given in the refiefs is T3dhit. 2. The Franco-Egyptian survcy's research has dm indicated the prrsence of water in this '> R Al-Aycdi. I will disaus the signincant new acchaeological evidence supporting this position.*which will k discussai fiirther beiow. It w u these scholus' beüef that n the canai a h inttrcomected with Lake Tisah. Mary scholats have aiegested that thU watmay was a canai between Lake Tna and ush Lake ~ a i l a h .These scholars attcibute the construction of the canal to Necho I of the 26* ~ I 4nuty?5 The survey conducted by Sneh and others yielded a trace of an artifidal canai 10 km to the n& o- of el-Kantarah and they sugsested that this w u connectai with another artifid canai (8 km i Iaigth) lying 10 km to the north of Lake Bdah. meanlng "the dividing m r" e . *A ."Evidmœ f a a ~ & Egyptian htk dw. As diacussed above. Iata cut by the Pelusiac branchofthe Nüe. Scien&t 63 (SepL-OQ 197% 54248. "fhc Dwtupledtbc L A N m Fcxtrcssc t Wiyr dHhsn(forthcornina.97 Lion9'. A Saehad. In the following chipters. i m mk sœ p y a 20-ZS rbove.

. it is my impression that this body of water does not constiMe a mai.98 ares. and very unimportant in itseKS The fint excavationofHabua I was conducteû by the SCA nom 198 1. T k e hgoons lefi a n m w tongue of land on the other side of Lake B W . Zone C (south-east) and Zone D (eut). as foiîows: Zone A (northwest).1999 (ongoing). the representation of the watenway i the Kaniok relief5 showed one of these Iogoons n running offthe Pelusiac bmch. a s d hcap of red brick on the sand. 13) "Otifnth 1û8û. (m. However. the presencc of Iagoons and marshes in this uea conf'orms to our lcnowtedge of the anciait topography as dwxiibed i Egyptian sources. He describeci the site as being: - - Tel Habwe [sic]. as discusaed above. cir.on the south ride of the caravan route. As disaissed before. 101. (a) Stmtigmphy o f Zoom A and B Many arebadOl@crl kvcb were dieenvend duringthe excaVBtion of Hihua 1 . op. 20 yards square. Zone B (northwest). in my n opinion. Thus. but Rthaa netwotk ofiagoons south-east ofLake M d a h and south of the d e n t PdusiPc bmch ofthe Ni. GrifRh whiie Unrestigating el-Kuitarah and the vicinity visited Haboua 1and named it 'Tell Samout". In 1886. These excavations were conducted in diffwent parts of the tel.


T. 3 fectangdar magwim (''MA 1 MA2 and MA3") located at the western . magazines. a group of +es and settiements (Zone 8). by many tombsbu& in the area of the mes ("GR. These tombs extended eastwards and wert placed directiy on eariiet rermins.109. 18. 111.110. - ("T. This pottety is painted in white on a black background (Wroups XI and W. - Level N a Transitional period between the last phase of the Second Intermediate Period and the beginning of the New Kingdom repr#en~ed intensive dunent comprised of many houses (Zone B).ieiUMt a wall in one ofthe streets.represented by a cemetery (many tombs have bem dimvereâ in the - Graeco-Roman Period arian part of Zone B and to the east of the site). A summary of the levels excavated to date are as foilows: Level I . T. the tombs contrineci many aumples of bichrome vessels ("Group W and Group W") and local adcs of Egyptian type MBIiC. representeâ by the city's fortification ( r a i d ) in the noith-west part. that extensive funher work is requind to uncover aü of the occupation l d s present at the site. part of Zone B and a satlement compnsed of many rectangulu houses excavated in Zone B.Vï").108.1 and BUL. In addition. T. New Kuigdom (Tuthmose ïD. In tbis levei. However.113 rad T1l) including a . These constructions are built directiy within the level of the late Second Intermediate Period. an extension of the city to the east uid West and large rectangular buildimg with thick wallr ("BUL.W).P. tomb plwri .reptesented by tombs placed in the g ~ u GR1 and other tombs y Secand Intermediate Perid s . it is my view.112. Level II New Kingdom (Seti 1 19' Dynisty) . Dynasty) represented by the fortitication ofthe city. granaries and a dement. T.100 The hdUigs to date are presented hm. each house consisting of many moms. T.1 and GRW) and two babics' amphon buriais (Middle Bronze Age). catwitypes of Paîestinian ~ * c ("Group V")ami muiy akd!Bofthe c h c a l Kama types (%roup Vx") . C. The tombs of this level contai& most of the Cypciot cenmics found at the site.

indicethg a cornmerd relationship between Kush and Eastern Delta during the Hyksos period. Dynrrty) . - Level Va Middle mgdom(?) . particular. Level N c Second Intermediate Period repfe~cnteû.were found. a large quantity of Middle Bronze Aga and some of Tell elYahudiyah types. by an intaesting range ofceraniics: Egyptian in ceramics.two tombs may date to the same 7) h date as the tombs of Zone B. by (c) TheTreaches The SCAtraicher were excavateci by variotu diffirtnt missions to provide an oveMew . The curnnt stratigraphy of Zone C is as follows: a Level I No exact date can be detennined for this l d represented by two tombs CT.T . . Levcl III Transitionai M o d bnwan the l i a phue of the Second Intediate Paiod and the b@ning of the New Kingdom repttsc~ltcd a group of binucer to the nonh of BUL-II.157") dug directly into the 156 floor of a toom ("Room R " . Lewl 1 . On this lcvd a doorpost inscribecl with the narne o f Seti 1was found on the s u W . . ) Stratigrapby o f Zone C (new escivitcd zone) The sttatjgaphy of the ment excavations in Zone C is compriscd of Levels 1 iI and III. - a Level II NW Kingdom (Seti 1 19. and T. More levels rernain to be excavateci in the bure.tepnsented by a large buildine comkthg of a coio~adedh d and many - rooms ("BULJI").the excavation in this level meaieci an inscription on a seai bcaring the narne ofNiuserre II (Zone 8 .

broken bricks and sherds . The trench inâicates five d i f b n t levels: O - Level 1 Level2 Level3 Level4 Level5 O O . The trench indicates three âiierent leveis: O - Levei 1 Levet 2 Lwcl 3 brick m e a s u ~ g x 18 x 9 the mudbncks are ycllowish in 36 colour and are composed of a mixture of mud and shdls. Sûcm d . It is 2m long and 3. 14 and Plate XKh) (I) . It is 2.the üenchshows that the northemenclosurewaü was built on top of eariia remains and detennines the northem border of the site.6m deep and is oriented north-eastlsouth-west.with traces of ash and a f sherds m m i r y a of pure suid .the tmiehshows thitthe nocthemdosure wS wu built on pure sand and determines . the foundrtion of the endosure is dug directly into the sand Iayer of rind.layer of sand containing shelîs .8m long and 1.loyer of ash.mudbridc WPU laid in a foundation trench. each - the northclll border of the site.excavated to the no& of magazine MAI.5m deep and is oriented northdsouth-WW.of the occupation levels at the site. 15) excavated outside the city and -a the no aidoaire w d .h i d e the city and against the northem encfosure wall.5 bricks thicl<.mudbnck enclosure waii composeci of a mixture of mud and shcUs .layer of pure sand . . The nsuits of the hmdi aravations have been useful in gainhg a wida understadngof the site anci have rllowcd us to direct our cesources to the most important amas. 1 (ii) Trench 1 Section B-B (Fig.circular ceramic fumace and sherds . .p u t of mudbrick enclosure waU preseîvedto six courses. The trcnches are as fiiUows: Tmeb 1 Section A-A (Fig. 1.

Trench 1. Section A-A : Fig.Tell Haboua 1 Zone B. Seaion B-B : I . Tmch I. 15 -TdI H.boua I Zone B. 14 .Fig.

Plaie Xm8 TelI Habow 1 the northem enclosure wall of the fomess : - .

the o iryidbn'cksare yelbwish in coiour a are composeû ofa mixture d d u and md dr bricks are irnngd in an altemathg pattan abovt one MO&* hem am hcge s p r a s between the bricks.5m deep and is orientai no&-east/south-west.5. It is 3 J m long and 2.the trench shows the limits of constnictionto the cast of Zone B.85m and was built on pure sand oftwo diacrent types ofmudbrick at the ümits of the ancient city. the mudbricb ue black in colour and am earnposedof a mixture ofmid a shclr.5m deep and is orientai northdsouth-west.the headet and stretcher d construction ofthe waU ir v a y regular in panem -mudhickwaii. the rnudbricks are blackish in colour and are composed of a mirUure of mud and a luge quantity of shells. It is 4m long and 1.1. The trench indicates three different - - levels: O O Levei 1 Level2 Level3 .2m LevdI O Tmch V Section G-G (Fig. The trench indicates d eight dœïcrent levds: mudbrick waii. (iv) Treach IV Section D-D (Fig. s a v h g a s a ~ o n t thewaîiinLevel1.mudbrick waii built duectiy on top of an eariier walI . It is 1.the trench shows tht the northern enclosurewal reciched a depth of 1.layer of pure sand . the heaâet and stmcher construction of the wall is very reguîar in pattern mudbrick w d .8mwide a 3m dccp and is orienteci north-westlsouth-east. 18) - long. . 16) ii excavateci to the north ofthe gnnaiy GRII agaha the northan enclosure wall.mudbrick mllbuiit directiy on pure sand . The trench indicates thrce dflkmt levels: - - Level 1 Level2 Level3 mudbrick enclosure wall. the mudbrich i yellowish in colour and are n composed of a mixture of mud and shells layer of pure sand - .( i ) Tnnch ïïï Section C-C (Fig. -(v) excavated in Street 2 outside and against the western wail of House HII. 17) excavated i Street 5 n the southan waiî of the granary GRIV. - Level2 .

Ttench W . 16 Tell Haboua 1: Zone B.Fig. Trench iïI. 17 -Tell Haboua I Zone B. Section C-C - Fig. d o n D-D : S .


O (vi) Trcncb V Section G G (Fig. sherds and animal bones layet of soil. this wdl w u buüt directly above the waii in Level 2 and represcnts the second phase ofthe House H 1 .at a depth of 3m and below the 0d archaeological levds. the bricks . the levels contain remains ofbroken bricks. The trench indicates fourteen diffetent levels: Level 1 O Levels 3-12 mudbnck wail. west/south-emt orientation. this level reveald black-incised O . The pure sand is 1 .m deep and is orientai eut-west. containhg a and dwrdq indiuting the bcghing h of occupation at the site Iayer of pure sand - - - .thetrench shows thrf tike S n a t 2. the mudbncks a ydlowiah in d o u q the header and stretcher construction ofthe waii is very regular in pattern. this 1evel . . are arranged han dtemaîing pattern above one another. containing ash and sherds iayet of smd. this waii is built dùcctly on an eulier wail reprtscnting Level 3 and has the sum orientation (north- Level3 vecy solid composition.which are nIledwith niolawr. containhg ash and shads. the three levels of construction have the same north- . sherdr and animal bones irycr ofsud.the wall is built on rrmUns of broken bricks. 18) - It is .this is the northern side of Trench V.mudbrick w d . brokm bricb and s k d s . the header and stretcber constniaion of the waü is vuy reeulp in pattern.8m long and 2 8 . excovated in Street 2. indicating the beginning of occupation at the site loyer of pure suid -POtteryof d.mdbrick wa& the mudbrich w yellowish in colour and are of west/souths(~st) Level4 Level 5 O I O Level6 Level7 Levei 8 - O revealed a limestone d and a jar h d b uch brick meamring 40 x 20 x 10cm. mudbridc 4 the nuidbricks are yeQowishin colour. this waii is buiit dwctly on the debris represeriting Lewl3 these levds vary in thicbiess ftom IO-15cm and a sepuateci n h m erch otha by a iayer of ash mdbrick w d . laya containhg ash.

m diffient levels: - - Level 1 Level2 Level3 Level4 Level 5 Level6 Leve! 7 Level8 Level9 Level 10 Level 11 Level 12 Level 13 Levtl 14 Level 15 Level 16 Level 17 Level 18 Level 19 Level20 . 2 3 deep anâ is orientai north-dsouth-east. containing u . containhg a few sherds use of the waü in Level 16 . h the waii mr built on an eulier Iayw of dcbns WC of the waii in L 1 3.Sm long. sherds ofTell el-Yahudiyah type and a few stones ( i Tmnch M Section F-F (Fig.blrck a h .wall foundation .8m layer of mud.destruction Iayec use ofthe walls visible on the surface .to the !&:midencc of destniction . b r o b bricks. containing brick h p e n t s broken by the digging of the pit soi1 fil.layer of ish - - .1.mudbrick wali (1 brick thick) . y h broken bricks and s h d s mdkick wrll. the bricks o f the foudation were placed horhntally and verticaiîy.m 'The trench indicates nine dBbmt levels: - - Level 1 Level2 Lm13 Level 4 i ydlowish in colour.destroycd wall .(vii) Treacb VI Section E-E(Fig.layer of rdi . the header n and suetchar conmction of the waii is very regular in pattern. It is 4. 3 bndo t& pmsmd to a height of 6 a u n e s .thick mudbrick wiP (2 bricks thick) reaching to a depth of 1.mudbrick waü .shads and broken bncks h .to the loft: fiirnace .mudbrick wali .rnudbrick walis . contpining sherds. sherdr and animai m . broken bricks and ash and sherds at the base cut of the pit layer of ashy soü. The tmich indicates twenty . It is 2 6 long and 3m deep and is orientai north&muth-west. this wall was b d t d h d y on a Iayer of ash and constitutd part ofthe western waü o f the griiauy GR1 m ~ Irym of u .the mudôridcs - . 19) excavated in Zone B in Street 3 between the granaries a m and the settlement.mudbrickwlll. .use of the wall in Level 18 . 20) d) excavated outside the south-westcm coma and against the western wall of gronaiy GR.pit to the right of the waU inLevel8.


Fig.Section F-F .Trench VU.TeIl Haboua 1: Zone B. 20 .

containhg a luge quuitity of shcrds and animal bonlayer of m ." mg. Each brick of the maha w d measuns eithcr (a) 40 x 20 x 1Ocm or @) 35 y x 17. The thickness of the miin encloaue is 4m. i addition to a main enclooure. d The western wall is approximately 350m and the northetn wall is pnsemed to a length of a p p m ~ d 280m.Level5 Levcl6 Level 7 @ lave1 8 Level9 bones.indicatin8 that. containhg u h and a few shads. s d l grey stones and a fcw sherds Iayer of soil. Along the northern and western sidm of the fortras. containhg a fw broken bricks and sherds and a row ofmudbncks (possibly a pavement) ashy layer. containhg broken bricks.5 x Scm. there was a n scconduy encionucwaIî. 21) The total meunimmntr of the fortress cannot be wcQtUned exactly. The enclosure w d is preservd to a height of ktwan 10-170an. thU levd reveaied one shcrd of black incised pottery Iayer of compact mud. The north-western coma was completdy destroyed during the recent ditary occupation of Sinai. hdicating the d begimiing of occupation at the site layer of pure Juui - - - (d) The F o m (Zone A) The excavation at Haboua 1 revcaled a large rectangular fomess built of mudbricks. measurcments e n for the northern and the western wall. Neverthclcss. . because no trace remiins of the castan waiî and to the south only a smaii part of the enclosure has been discovered. two p d e l mudbrick wdis wae discovc~d.

Tell Haboua 1 plan of the New Kingdom foetress : .F i t 21.

dthough. Tha secondacy western waU wu pmaved to a Iength of approximately 350m and rtül hid9 bastions tOmaining* .45 x 2.m mudbricks used to construct the waii rneasure 3 5 x 17.5 14 () i The Main E~closure The norihan main enclosure waü (Plate Xme) wu reinforcd by rectang~lar bastions placeci in intervals of 14. The western main enclosure wall SUMVW to a height o f 1. No excavation has been conduad in the area between the main enclomre waii and the seconciacy enclosure wall. The distance between the two walls is 7m on the nodmstem side and 45m on the northwestcm side. T b m n b r y waN hrP a thichiess of 1 2 and is pnserved to a height of .8m. the north-western corner has been dcsttoyed. No trace was found of the eastern wali. of which 10 have been preserved. (ii) The Secondary Endosure The sewndary enclosure wd.2m. again. indicating this waii also containcd bastions. of which five nmwid. Two bastions projected Born the west gate. Of the southem main enclosure waii only a m e n t remsins. being the main gate of the city.5 x 8. Each bastion is 4. The secondary northem wail wu praewed to a Imgth of lOOm and had bastions. It a h had 10 rectangular bastions of similar size. The w d is built directly on pure sand.Sm.5cm. has b e n presemd on the noithai Md western sides. running prnlkl to the main enclosure waii.The .9m.

measuring 130 x 48 x 16cm was found LSrn to the no&-east of the gate and was probably used in the construction of the gate. S . Zone A coMUtr of two granaries. meamring 40 x 20 x 10cm.115 (a) The Gate of the Main Enclorun The western gate of the main enclosure is the main gate of the fortress. The enclosure waîi lies to the north ofthis zone. I6 a d SL7"). Another slab of ümestone. (e) The Gnnarkr (Zone A) Zone A is located on the north-westcm part of the site. The gate is 12m vide sufficiently wide to aiiow the passage of chariots and large - militacy ~araphetnalia. The pavement extended fkom outside through the gateway to the inside of the fortrcss. One granary ("GRI") wnsisteâ of three silos CSL1. It m y k i n f i that the eastan part of the zone was in use for a much longer pcriod of the. SI. laid three layen deep. the etr occupation kwlnached a depth of 120cm. king towards Egypt. SI. N the sccond ~nnuy t C'GRII") consistecl of four d o s ("S1. cornpishg sevtn silos onented on the rame axis as the dosure waii (north-eadsouth-west). Stone siabs wae f d on both sides of the gate.4. .3"). ln two traichcssunk i this cirra w obsavcd dut the occupation levei was prescwed n e to a âepth of 40-80cm in the w s e n p u t of the zone.~ The floor of the gate w u paved with mudbricks.2. In the eastem part of the spme zone. S U .

2 and attached to the northem enclosure w d .5. Silos SI.3 was cunncctd to the enclosun w d by a small mudbnck wai! and to the nonh of this silo a child burial was found. The fùmace seems to be fiom the same level as the three silos.5cm. nie fiirnact was constructed of yellowish mudbricks. buih of haK d brick Silo S1.5m diameter.2 wac wnnected to each other by a semi-cirailu mudbrick wd. 22) The dos w e n built of mudbnclcs.116 (i) GnnaryGRI GR1 in the no&-west of Zone A consisted of t h m silos. A thrk hpr ofash was found on the floor of the gnnuy. while the intenor diameter was .9m. meururing 35 x 7.5 cm. (ii) Grrnary GRIl put of Zone A (Ftg. S1. a flnircc(T2) dso found. The exterior diameter of the fimace was 1.5 x 8-8.2m diameter. SI. GMiiry GRLI lies in the 22) It consisteci of four silos (51. The îumace mcwred lm was in exterior diamter a was consüuctd of Wbrick The brick u s yeilowish in colour. (Fig. GR1 was provided with a Rimace located to the north-east of SI. al with the same dimensions of 3. Bctwœn dos SLS and SL6. cach m&aiNig 3. mururing 3 5 x 17 x 8-8. The silos were built of mudbricks. d n . wel1 w a broken pot containing fi+ bones.4.6 anù SL'I").1 a SI. d g 35 x 17 x 8-9an and each wu a hlf-brick thick The floor of the dos was macle of conipssscdmud. The thickness ofthe ftrnace wall is one haBbrick.

22 -Tell tirboui 1 plan of the granuWs GR& GRIl (Zone A) and the north-western : put of the fortitication .mg.

() g Ta Magazines (Zone B) To the0f-e B lie tiuœ rcct~gdar magazks MAL. the eastem enclosure waü and part of the constructions of the eastern p u t of Zone B are founded directly on pure sand (Trench 4. The e remains in Zone B were in a good state of prcsemation and include a setticment. many trenches were exc8mted anâ reveakd pure m d . SiMlvly. Fumace F. Section D-D). the zone is bordercd by a row of magazines. (0 Zone B Zone B is located a the north-eurtem pan of the site and nins dong the suuthem enclosure 4.2 Md Mk3. Excavations were conducted in thesetwo areas to define the borders of the zone fiom the north and east.MA. on the eastem side.118 rncasu~g x 17 x 8. the zone is limitai by the building BüL. indicating tbt the northem limits of Zone B were at the northem enclosure wall (Trench 2.1 and to the south-wcst by the building BUL-IV. Outside the n * o enclosure waU and at the eaatern part of the zone.It covers an u a of 100 x 2Sm and conaitutes the highest part of the site. running . To the south-eut. h a c e s and buildings (Fies.2appean to have been Born the same level as the four 35 silos. 23 and 24). Section 8 8 ) . To the wtat.5cm. discussed below. magazines.

parailel to and soparated âom the dosure waü by a stmec (UStreet 1 *).(Figs. 23 and 24) Street

1 is approrcimatety 3m wide and has the same orientation as the enclosure w d and the row of
magazines, appiircady Uadidngdut the magazines were designeci during the same p e n d (New



k t 1 1 (MA.1,

MA3 and MA.3)

The magaines, located to the west of the senlement area, w e n each 25 x 3.5m. The
walls were buiit of mudbricks, meamhg40 x 20 x lOan The brick wac black in colour, made

of a mixture ofmud and a large puMtity of shela and in a Vary fh@e state of pnscwation. The
walls of the magazines were 1.2m thick. The fioor w u paved with a layer of compresseci mud,

lOcm thick. Undemeath the mud lay a laycr of sn S-6cm thick. aa



The excavaiions at the iipeiizine a in Street 1 and b c c n the endosun w d and the m
magazines rcveald thm nauiguiar rmms ("R1, R2 and R.3"). The rooms were p d e l to

the enclosure waO a w a e of wyuig s h s . The waüs w e n built of rnudbrick, rncdsuting 38 x d
19 x 9-9.5an.

nie bricks wae y e M s h in colour and eomOncd a large quantity of shell. The


s were 40cm thick

In man R ,a bakingnimice (for bru@ of 9ûanm o t diameter was discovered. The 2
fumace wu constructecl of the same mudbricks as die morns. A Iaya of ash Iay around the

outside ofthe

on the floor ofroom R2,together with animai bones The rcctangular



- M A 1, MA2 a M k 3 - were built directly on the top of the three rooms, R 1, R2 d

and R3. No desmiction w u apparent bctwecn the two levds.


The Settltment (2wcB) The settlement area is located baween the nctanguiar magazines to the West and the

granaries to the eut.(Figs.23 anci 24) It

an ua of24 x 23m. The area of the settlement e

was cut in its northern part by the enclosure waü and it occupicd a lower level than that of

magazines MA 1, MA2 and MA.3. Many burids w e n found eithcr i the entrana, the floors n

or the walls of the houses.


One main Street ran nom the West to the cast and divided the settlement area into two

main units of houaes. One unit consistcd of Houses KI, H.H, H.m and HN. The second unit

was comprised of Houses H V H V ,HM& KMII and H.K. nie houses were of varying . , .I

sizes, but confonned to a reasonably standard plan; House K I Wü1 be disaisseci in detail as an
example of the design of the houses in the Zone B settlmient.


Bouse HJ (Phase 1)

House H.1 was located to the north of the southeni unit of the scttlemcnt and was

bordered on t mrth anci west by Street 2. (Fig. 25) Houw H.1 waa rrauigulu and measured b
10 x 5.5m. It w u built of mudbncks, measwing 40 x 20 x I b n .

House KI c o n s i oftiuee moms: two s d mm C F . 1 and E.2') and a large room ~

whüe the southeni and western waüs wae 6ûcm. was yeiiowish in wlour and w u composed of clay and a smaü quantity of sheU. The w d s w a e again ofa materiai simiiar to t b s e n of the 0th. while the southem wall was 40cm The walls are prcsaved to a height of 20cm.5 x 2. The door of the .two rooms. while the northem w d was 4ûcm thick.2m.3.33. The brick used to constmct room E. The thickness of the northem wali w u lm.5 x 1. RoomE. Room E. n ofhouse K l and to the west ofroom E. An of the rooms were constructeci o m d r c Roam E 1 lies i the no&-western part fubik . it mewres 2.7 x 4m. The western and southem waüs were 60cm thick. . n room was at the eastem waii and measured 80cm wide. The thickness o f the northem and western wJI of this room was 60cm. The ih u b i k ~ door.124 ("E.2 of House HI w u i the south-western part o f the house and to the south of n room E.The w d s wcre al1 constnicted of bricks simiiar to those ofroom E.2 and was the Iargmt m o m . WU 80cm wide. The floor of rwm E 1 was paved with mudôricks of the same type as w u used i the wds. the floor was paved with mudbicksCThe door (in the northeastem part of the eastecn wrll) w u ofwnilrr size to the O .1.3 mawms 5. located in the castem w d .- (i) Hour HJ (Phme 2) ' & auvationsin houseHId I d as a second p h the consüuctionof an extension . Room E 3 of House ICI Iay to the eut of rooms E 1 and E. Again. The floot wu origwlly paved wt m d r c s but is now destroyed. I mwured 40 x 20 x IOcm. i the house. The room measured 2.

The thickness of the w d i w u 60cm. The exîension consists oftwo rooms ("D. (i) The Granaries A m (Zone B) The granaries a iies at tht no&eastem part of Zone 8 (Figs. m w u ~ 35 . The thicknm of the northem and southem walls is 60cm. The bricks were black in colour and consisted of a mixture of mud (ud shdls. Room D. The door w u located in the eastem part of the southem wall. The floor was paveâ of cornpresscd mud. These bricks were of poor qwüty.ZW). The door is in the southan wall o f the m . 23 and 24. to the south of n lying Street 2. The w d s were built ofmudbricks.7m and wu conanicted of two types of bricks: (a) 3 5 x 17 x 8-8.2.2. A tnnch wu cxcavated a@st the eastem w d of GRIV and revded d. The south-western patt of the gramies u a w u located e nad to the scalanaitM . Plues X[VA m and XIVB).5cm.k the ~ W O I t areas were sepanteci by a pwy)eway.1 and D.125 i its eastern part.MI. g x 17 x 8-8. A tomb ( T 127") was found unds the northcm wdi and belongs to m '. 1. The granaries a follows r a a northleZISt/south-west orientation. Room D 1 lies to the north of D.5 x 1. Its exterior dimeter was 1. to the no& ofthis a m lies the northeni enclosure w d . a level below that of D. Bcyond gnnrry GRiV no otha construction wu found.2 mersrmd 5. . k m and (b) 40 x 20 x 1Ocm. A circulrr muâbrick brkingGrnioc (for b d ) was found i the western part of this room n D.


The bricks an yellowish in colour and are composeci of a mixture of mud and sküs. It measuns 15 x 14. wMe ORIiï is ixrcguiar in its routhem put. they were clearly used during the same period. many tombs were discoverrd in two different levels. belonging to the same levd. It is surrounded by thne mudbrick waiis. In the granaries a m .3. SI. Atrrndi wu exammi d d e t h e south-western coma anci a g a k t the westem wall of . SL2. GRlI and GRN are roughly mtaquk. To the northof this p m y GRI. The most recent level repnsented a Late Period cemetery. Many hrnaces w m located in the area. Granary GR1 is roughly square. GRIII and GRIV") and coven an m a of 1650m2.The g r a d e s area consisis o f f w large granacies C'GRI.5m. The floor of the gramuy was p a d of C O - mud on which six dos ( S . a waii of 4Ocm thick w u addeci i a Iater period. (i) Griiury GRJ Gmmy GR1is located to the n& o- of the settiernent area and to the West of p a r y GR. SL5 and SL6") "I were placed.1. S1.4. with bricks meamring 38 x 19 x 9-9. The n space between this w d and the enclosure waii was full of broken mudbrick.5cm.II. GUI. The four granaries together comprkd Nnety d o s of âiikrcnt sues. nie western and Bouthan d e have a thickness of 6Ocrn and were presewed to a height of six courses.

paveâ with mudbrick (38 x 19 x 9cm) .2 .haKbrickthick .2m .18") of a lata period were su& into the floor Silo S .south-western corner of gnnuy GR1 - .mudbridr (38 x 19 x 9an) .the griuiary.Sm . It showed that the p a r i e s a m was constructed duectly on a layer ofash.bctween SI. yeiiowidi in colour .1 Location Mattriai .Wbnck the northemp u t of GR1 and silos SL3 and SI5 .mudbnck (38 x 19 x 9cm) .mudbrick (38 x 19 x 9cm).3 .1 and SI. SI.two buMls CT.prc~ervedto 1course high .in the nocth-western corner of GR1and to the north of SI. p m m n d to 3 counes high not identifiai built on the remains of an wlia siio.ext: 4. - Silo SI. (mixture of mud and sheils) ext: 2.Sm .40cm thick -.ôadiy damag& pieces of bmken kicka a& were found inside the silo d none .ext: 4.mudbrick (38 x 19 x 9 cm) ôetwccll wl al FIoor cormalts .nont .2 . yeliowish Ui colou. 1 is the smaiiest silo in the Diameter Wall Floor Comments Bfanary Silo Sl. 17 and T.5m hilf-brick thick. 60cm thick (Trench M Section F-F).mudbnck (38x 19 r 9m). 13 Location Material Diameter Wall FIoor Comments Silo 57.4 Location Matethi Diametet .2 Location Material Diameter wl al Floor Comments of silo SI.a: 3.

in the north-eastem corner of GR1and attached to its eastem wall .mudbrick (3 8 x 19 x 9cm).3m.2m .haEbnck thick.6 House H. A limestone doorstep (60 x 40cm) was found in the room.V (ii) Outside Gtanuy GR1 and agaht the southeni w d .5 x 4.m = wall Floot Comments . It i mangular i plan and masures 8 x 4.none Silo SI.ext: 3. A big store jar was fixecl i the floor i the south-westem corner of the room n n and was pbabiy used to store wamC Room B wu locafed to the east of Room A and measures 3. It consists of two room ("A and B) Room s n ".6 .in the northem part of GR1 and between SL4 and SI.6 x 3m. yeiiowish in colout .remains of mudbrick (38 x 19 x 9 cm) .haKbrick thick. a house ('HV") was discovered. (iii) Gruary GRJï Granuy GRJI i locatd botween G U and G R I L Fige26) It was a rectangular s rtnicturt of 14.mudbrick (38 x 19 x 9 cm) .2m.silo S . the door of Room B was locatd in the western waii.mudbrick (38 x 19 x 9cm).6 Location Material Diameter . p r c s c ~ e dto 2 courses high .a buriai w u found inthe floor of the southeni part ofSI.Sm anci wu wounded by tlree 4 s buüt ofmudbricks (38 x 19 x 9- . yellowish in colour ext: 3 2 . A lies at the western side of the house and measures 2. The aoor w u paved with compresmd mud. 13 Location Material Diameter Wall Hoor Comments .8 x 2. presc~ed 2 courses high to .

Tell Haboua 1 Zone B. 26 . gnnary GR& second phase : .Fig.

17 and SI. prosc~vedto 4Scm high .ext: 2m . n nis spacs betwecnthe northem wall of GRII and the northem d o s u r e w d containeci a layer of ash. The first phase was represcnted by two silos (USI.8 .40cm thick. The bricks were ydlowish in cdour and composeci of a mixture of mud and shells.II. Silo the northcm part ofGR. nie western wali was l m thick. 60cm thick. The northem wall was added i later times and is .5an). SI.Scm).5 x 8-8.11 Location Material . black in colour (m. 7 Location Material Diameter Wall Floot Comrnents Silo S1.8m thick.5 x 8-8. 18").131 9.mudbiick (38 x 19 x 9 cm) . 19") was loated in the street. The tloor of the gnnary w u paved with mudbncks o f the sarne measurementfi and type as the wds. The gmary consistecl of two phases of occupation. Another silo ("SI. whiie the eastern and southem waüs were . black (mixture of mud and sbclls) .xnireof mud and shdls) .7 and SLP). near the southem wail of GR.mudbrick (35 x 17. the second phase by thne silos 16.4m thick.none i the south-westerncorner oQGRII n mdbrick (35 x 17.5cm).

mudbrick (38 x 19 x 9.ext: 1.16 Location Matenal Diameter Wall Floot Cornrnents .in the southern part of GRII .none Silo Sl. madwe of rnud and a anrll quantity of s h d .c o m p r d rnud .none .ext: 3-65m .haEbrick thick preservcd to 30cm hW .5m . pnscfvedto 4 courses hi@ . comprishg 3 adult bunais and T1 Silo SI. mixture of rnud and a small quantity o f .mudbrick (38 rr 19 x 9.5cm).40cm thick . prtscned to 4 courses high sherds ext: 3.compmmî rnud .4ûcm thick.4ûcm thick.5 x 8-8.16 and SI.behrveen SI.Sm Floor Comments .to the northof S U 7 Location Material Diameter Wall Fioor colnlnents . 17 Location Material Diameter Wall .tomb (T.ext: 3m sherds .in the floor a tomb was p a child's amphora burial W C .18 .comprrucd rnud .5cm).116") w u Iocated in the floor . mixture of rnud and a smaü quantity of .mudbnclr (38 x 19 x 9.5an) . 17").Diameter Wall Fioor Comments .mudbrick (35 x 17.Scm).

19 (iv) Granuy GRIII is located between GR.5an). - - Silo S1.IV thm was a space meamring 4.ext: 3Sm 40crn thick . G .9 Location Material Diametef wsll -. except for the western w d (8ûcm).10 .5 x o 4.11 and to the north of SI. The aoor of thir space w u covered in ash.ajar w u nxed in the floor of SI. The t h i c b s of the waüs is the south-wtst ofGR.compressed mud GrroaryGRLLI Diameter Wall Hoor Comments .ext: 3.Sm). The waOs are ofimguk shpe.4Ocm thick .but the structure merauns appmhately 30 x 2Om.mdbickand tox the south of GRII of mud and a smail quantity o f outside (35 17. The nMlca wu buüt against the northcm encloswe waü.11 and GKIV.b W in wlour (mixture of mud a sheiis) d . T the north of GRïII betwœn GR11 and GR.Silo fl19 Location Material -.5 x 8-8. mixture .5m shctds . It hm mudbrick wds (38 x 19 x 9. is Rm represented by two silos ("SL9 and SI.10").Sm). The floor is made of compressed mud and a luge unount of ash and sherds was found on the floor. A circular fumace was found in this space. the bricks are yeliowish and black in colour and am cornpriscd ofa mixture of mud and shdls.2m.muâôrick(38 x 19x 9.

the 38 bricks are yeliowhh and are compriseci ofmud and shells.14 and S .5m .compressed mud . 10 Location Material Diameter Wall FIoor Comrnents . SI. earlier layer of in totour (mixture of mud and shells) . nie eastem and southem walls were built in Iater times.13. 10 a jar was found with fishbones inside GraauyGRIV (v) Granuy GR IV is located to the north-east of GRIlI. The walls are constnicted of mudbrick. Pfter the easteni w d of granary GRIV. The tirs& and most riant. The walls range in thickness fiom 60 to 8 0 a T b d s arc pnsaMd to a hu@ of SOan.ext: 3. I . wlich reprrsent the second.40cm thick .Fîoor Comments . measu~g rc 19 x 9. but cemains of mudbrick . Gnnuy GRIV is qmmtaî by thcee dinaent lryas of occupation. The construction of this Iayer p d y ! destroyed dos SI.11. T e remains of two silos d h (uSI.15") are located in this third Iayer.dcstroyed.5cm). 12 and S1. It is rectangular in shape and measures 17 x 12.none Silo the south-western corner of GRIII and to the south of SI. The dird a oldest Iiyalies dinctly unda a lryaof uh (Sûcm thick). is located a the saithcutancoma of the granary.inside SI.mudbrick (38 x 19 x 9.9 .5m.

5an).yeîiowish in colour (mixain of rnud and .mudbrick (38 x 19 x 9.mdbrick (38 x 19 x 9.Location Material Diameter Wall Fioor Comments Silo SI. 14 Location Material Dimeter Wall FIoor .haKbrick thick Silo SI.40cm thick .none Location Materiai Diameter Wall Fioor Comments Silo SI. black in colour (mixture of rnud and shells) .cxt: 2. 14 .comp& rnud sWQ cxt: 3.compresSOd rnud . 14 Location Matenal Dimeter Wall .13 .none .San).12 .l~&brick thick .ext: 2.compred rnud .hSbnck thick .in the north-western part of GRIV and to the west o f SI.IV and to the west of SI. blrdr in colour (mixture of mud and shells) .compressai rnud .4m FIoor Comments .2m .San).the southern part of the silo is wmplaely dcstroyed .mucibrick (38 x 19 x 9.2m .cxt: 2.San).none .in the north-western part of GRIV and to the west of SI. 14 . biack in colour (mixture of rnud and sheUs) .in the north-westem p u t of GR.2m .to thee u t ofSL13 .mudôrick (3 8 x 19 x 9.

F.cornpresscd mud . Each tuui the remains of a c i r a h cecamic tray on top ofthe fumace of the lOnd stiil i usc today in the vüiages in Egypt. but one h c e was of rectangular constmction.5cm) -.ext: 1.3 c tray found on top Location Matcrial Diameter Wall Co the hnacq remains ofcirailu canmic tny found on top of the Grnace .to the south of GR1 and to the north-east of finiace F. yeiiowish (mixture ofmud and sheils) .Scm) .Scm). 23 and 24) Generaiiy.r stnicture.none a) Group 1of Furnaces (Zone B) In a more recuit I d than the gramies and to the south t k m c a group of four fumaces ("F.4") wu found.mudbnck (38 x 19 x 9.ext: 3. n The details of the fiinraces are discussed below. (Figs.piecar of mugh pottay wen found at the bottomof * .5m 20crn . the Aimacea are circular mucibrick structures. e m a h of cimilu d r of the &nace .Location Uaterial Diameter Wall Floot Comrnents .5m .1.20cm thick .in the south-western part of GRN .mudbnck (38 x 19 x 9-9.Qrail.3 .3 and F.ext: thick lm &brick . Location Matcrial Diameter Wall Comrnents .2.mudbrick (38 x 19 x 9-9.r~dllllgulu constn~ction.kiln . the south of GR1 and to the w u t of fbmacc F.

23 and 24) These ftmaces lay outside and to the .Location Material Diameter Wall Comments .8m -.2 and F.7 were b d t on top of P layer of ash. ("F.8 was lacated bdow this layer of a h .ext: ..mudbrick (38 x 19 x 9-9. 25cm thidr Furnace F.2m .5.L Fumras the south of GR1 and to the east of fimace F.20cm of cirnilr ccnniic tny found on top of the fûmace temrirw . (Figs.7 and F.20cm .5.20cm .remains of circuiar cenmic tray found on top of the furnace . F 6 F.5cm) .1 .8") w u found. Location Matd Dialneter Wall .mudbrick (3 8 x 19 x 9-9.mucibrick (38 x 19 x 9-9. The fumaces seem to have d b e n used l for the north-eastem corner of GR1 and built against the northem encloswe wail .ext: 2.ext: .outside a d at the southlc~~stern o f GRI corner . F.nmrins of circular c e d c tray found on top of the fumace Location Material Diamettr Wall Comments (k) Croup 2 of Fumaces (Zone B) A second goup of fiicnaces was dm discovered i Zone B consisting of four fumaces n .dm .5cm) .5cm) . south-west of granary GR.6 and F.

23. which is not diraissed s haein.remaiw of ciradar ceramic tray found on top of the furnace Location Material Diameter wau Comments a Ievel bdow F. W b and Hail .outside and to the south-west of GR& against its southcm 4 . On the w t Lm another kige buildingC'BULW).ext: .2Ocm .mudbrick (40 20 x IOcm) -ext: 1m .outside and to the south-west of GR.mudbrick (38 19 x 9-9.5cm) .Location Material Diameter Wall Cornrnents . located in K (1) Buiidiig BUIl (ZwcB) A big building ("BULI")wu located to the south-west ofthe gnnuies area. It consîsts of thrœ rectanguh haüs (Wall a.6.cemains of circular cenMc tray found on top of the fumace JC Location Material Diameter Wall Comments .8 . .7 and F. (Figs. The autan part of tbe buildingw u built on top ofeariier rcmains and to the north Stria 2 separates the building fiom gnnrries GR1 and GRIL The buitding is ccctanplu and has a nor&asVsouth=west orientation. to the south by S d m 6 and to the eaat by Street 5.8m .F.outside and to the south-west of GR1 .mudbnck (38 x 19 x 9-9. 24 a 27) This building wu bor&red to the north by Street 4.8m .Sctn) .uct: .40cm .1 .runains of cuculu cenmic tray found on top of the furnace.20cm .

1 : - .Fig.building BUL. 27 Tel1 Hiboua 1 Zone B.

The thicimess ofthe northem.8m. The fhor w u originally paved with mucibrick.A rectanguk ümestone block was found in the middle of the hail. The wills are built of the same b d of n rnudbricks as HaIl a.9 r 2. (i) HIY a Hall a is located at the eastem part of building BULL It is rectangular in plan and meures 9. and 136 - T 1 7 ) T b mudbrick pniineof. Room c a Room d and to the east of Hall d - a is dso rectanguiu i plan and mtasutcs 9. - - . Most proôably it scrveû as a doontep. the south-eastem part of the western wail was destroyed by a tomb ( T 2") dating to a later period. The door l m wide was tocaîd in the southem part of the western WU. The entruice of the hall was in the southtrn part of the sistan w d .3". a téw rnudbricks wae f d m w r i n g 40 x 20 x lOcm.7 x S The wals wae built of naidbricks measu~g m either 38 x 19 x 9. (U) Hiill b Hidl b located to the ast of the two rooms. two room ('Room c and d) a magazine ("e") and an entmce-way ("h"). 140") was p l a d on the muthem w d of the h d . Another tomb '13 ("T.g"). southem and eastem wails is lm.5 or 40 x 20 x lûcm. whik the others m m r e lm thick. ". The westm. Thc thickness of the eastem waU is 60cm. b iko maaured 40 r 20 x lOcm per brick and w u pliced dinaly on r hyaof vnd 2Scrn thick. southun and nonhanwdl were pcnS datroyai by later tombs ("T.

Sm. the ttiicknea of the north and muth wiUs ans 6Ucm. The wrlb ofHiII x wae d e of mudbrick. d (vil) Han. To the east of building BUt. Room cl. The southen wdl was partly damagecl by two tombs CT.(iii) Roome To the west of Hall b ües Room c.datingto a later period. The floor w u paved with c o m p r d mud. and T. The thickncss . a Iayer of ash. 138") w u fowid in the middle ofthe m .Scm. measuring 5 x 4. The nochcq es end western waiis were lm thick. constructeci of mudbrick and meuuhg 38 x 19 x 99 . a hl(Y) u Found.1 and to the north of Street 6. The w d s were built of the same rnudbndr as in Roomc.. m (iv) Room d To the nodi of Roam c ües anotha rwm.9m. at m wtPk the southem w a l was 8ûun thick. A few n bricks on the Boat were prcsc~ed measuted 40 x 20 x Lûcm. 5 m Tht m m measum 5 x 4. The floor wcu made of compressai mud. The l w hdl bdongs to an dia date than the building. meamhg 38 x 19 x 9. shcrds and animal bones w«e found on the floor. the waüs of the m m mtacun lm thick.Srn. The door in the northem w d l a d s to Room d. (VI I Hal g occupics the whole northern part of BUL. W ) and the northern waü was complctely 142 L destroyed. The waüs i Lm thick and are built of the muâbrick mtururing 40 x 20 x IOcm. It is rtctangular and measuns 14 n 2. Another tomb ("T.1.

(O) Building BULJI (Zoit C) nia large building BUL. These structures wiü be puMished in the fiinire and are not discussed herein. and O a a wavy waii. O group of IS ninuces. 28) d . locatcd inside the city near the southem enclosure w d . many tombs. the excavations rcvded thne houses. The excavations in this zone revded many stmctures: O a luge building ("BUL.142 of the east waU wu 40an. only BUL.II w i l k dhssed henin.(Fig. Fot the sake of brdty.iI").9 locaîed i the south-mstcrn part ofthe site comisted of a n c010ddh - d (WIU r) 8 numba 0fr00m~. (m) Other F a h i m of Zone B At the soudian part ofzone B. (n) ZoneC Zone C is sihiated in the wuth-mern part of the site. a large building and a group of seventan fumaces. Two fiimaces ofceramics were buüt against the nonhem waü one - on the inside and the other on the outside.

II 28 .~b . building BUL.Tell Haboua 1: Zorn C.

42cm) was located.R 10 and R.1 x 7.8.39 to the west lie thne roorns ("R. R2.II w u in the southan w d of this Haii K and was of double width.mudbrick (38 x 19 9-9.4 x 4m .11 continncd eleven rooms ("R. R5 and R.eastem. R7.. R .7m and was buih of mudbrick The bricks were à t h a 38 x 19 x 9-9. The haIl masures 9. The main door of building BUL.the location of the doot could not be detennined .mudbrick (40 x 20 x 1oCm) i r . The floor wu.1. a ümestone column base (diam.ü Location Materid Diniensions Wall . M l q MMyone biocks fond m dtu most probably smed as doorsteps.north-east of Hidi K . R.5an) .4.4.Scm or 40 x 20 x lOcm. The thichss of the waiis was 80cm The walls were presewcd to a height of oniy 2 c o u m . p l d directiy on a loyer of sand In the centre of the hal. R 2 and m " . To the e t lie thiee rooms ( R1. were yeUowish in colour and weie composeci of a mixture of mud and sheiis.144 () i HiU K Hdi K is locitcd at the centre ofthe building. western and northem wdc 8ûcm tbiclt. R9. southen waü: 60cm thick . which arc describai below (ii) The Roomr in BUL.6").R3.RS. Building BUL. paved with well- prcserved mudbricks (40 x 20 x IOcm).R.I l"). 4 R6.

a limestone doontep was found .2 x 2.none .eastem. presewed to 2 courses high mudbrick (40 x 20 x 10cm) door (70cmwide) in the western waii. a limenone doorstep was found - - .south-east of Hall K sheils) Dimensions Wall . presexved to 2 courses high .Room R2 Location Material Dimensions Wall .mudbrick (38 x 19 x 9-9Scm).9 x 2.4. yeilowish in colour (mixture of rnud and thick.w m p r d mud in Floor Comments . northem and western walls: 60cm thick. southan and western walls: Fîoor Comments Room R 3 Location Material 60crn thick. southem wall: 60cm .mudbrick (38 19 x 9-9.eastern and mirtheni wails: 80cm thick.eut o f W K.Sm Floor Comments Room RJ Location Material eastem and southem wafis: 80crn thick.north-east of Hd K sheiis) Dimensions Wall . but remains ofmudbnck (40 x 20 x IOan) - .35m . yellowish in colour (mixture of mud and .2m IC .door (90cmwide) in the eastern wail.~ m d w a t a n ~ 8 0 c m t h i ~ m r t h a r i d ~ u t h e60cm : nid .4 x 2.5cm).5cm). yelowish in dour (mixture of mud and =dl .wtst ofHsll K .2m .mudbrick (38 x 19 x 9-9.4.mudbnck (38 x 19 x 9-9. prescrved to 2 courses high damaged.2. western and northem 4 s : 80cm thick.5cm) . between Room RI and R3 .4 x 1.

northem and southem wds: 60cm thick compressed rnud the location of the door coutd not be daetmincd Fioor Comments Rtwm R7 Location Material .compressed mud ( T and T.south o f Hall K .Hoor Comments thick c o m p t d mud the location of the doot could not be detennined - - Location Materid .6m . yeiîowish in colour (Mxaire of mud.6 x 2.mudbrick(38 x 19 x 9-9.9 - .2.eastem and western waiis: 80cm thick.mudbrick (38 x 19 x 9-9.east of Room R7 - - - . northem wall: 80cm thick . yeUowiih in colour (mixture of mud and .3.2m .southwest of Hali K --4 x 2. .the location of the door could not be determinecl. routhem and westem wds: 60cm thick compresscà mud a h e of ash covered the fîoor yr . eastcrn and w m m waüs: 60cm thick. two later tombs Room R8 Location Material shdlr) Dimensions Wall northcm and eastem waüs: 8 0 a thick. 156 sand and sheUs) Dimensions Wall Floor Cornments .Scm).Scm). yeiiowish in colour (mixture of rnud and Dimensions Wall . 157") were dug into the floor ofroom R7 '.mudbnck (38 x 19 x 9-9.6 x 2.4m 4.southem.Scm).

.yeUowish in colour (mixture ofmud and .3.(mixtureof mud and sheUs) . yellowish in colour (mixaire of mud and shciis) . T e exuvations at Zone D rev#led Mient levels d h .4 x 2. eastema western wds: 60cm thicl.south of Room R6 @) ZoneD ZonD i Iocateû at the eastern part oftht site and ocCupies an a m of800m2.a large quantity of ash covered the floor .yelowish in colour.Location Material Dimensions Wall Floor Comments Room R10 .mrthem.mudbrick(38 x 19 x 94.not identifid . the swthem wail has been completely .2m Floor Comments Room RII Location Matenal Dimensions Wall - FIoor Comments .Scm).6 x 2m .6 x 2.8 shdls) .2.compresseû mud none .south of Room R.bawecn s Zonc B (to the nonh) a C (to the south). eastcni w d : 80cm thick.c u m p r e d mud Location Material Dimensions Wall .5cm). southem wall has been d completely destroyed .mulkick(38 x 19 x 9-9.nonhan and western walls: 60cm thick.5cm).4m destroyed .mrthem anci eastcrnwaiis: 60cm thick southcm and western wail have bancompIete1y destroyed .R 1I has banrcconstnictaî.West of Room R9 preserved to 1 coune high.midbnck (38 x 19 x 9-9. rome details of the room arc speculative .3.

XVBand n W C ) "WB Type B conriM ofa gave phccd i the sud outside the enclosure waii (nonhem n . (Fig. 8 0 2 and H 0 " . One representative tomb of each type wili k discussd below. the most ment of which was represented by thc tombr (New Kingdom thiough Late Period) and the most d e n t level by late Second Intermdiate Period remains. although sometmies covereû with broken bricks Md otha times with soü. either in the Boor of a building or in the top of a w d . l (q) Tomba and Buriils The excavations at Haboua I revealed various différent types of tombs and burials. These Type A's were gaKnlly only used €or an individuai buchi. md O tombs and burials. the remainder d be discussed in a later publication. 3 1) Seventy-one tombs and burials were discovend. which may be divided into certain distinct types (AG). For the ake ofbrevity.148 ofoccupation.i the settlcment and the g r a d e s area. Examples were f d in Zone B.iE'). . (Plates XVA. 3 )(Figs. Type A Type A consists ofa rcctangrilar gram lacking any kind of construction. The main stmcnires discovered in this Zone D are as foliows: settiement (houses "EtOl. 29 and 30) a large buiidiig ("BUL. The body was usuaüy placed in o hole. ody certain representative tornbs wiii be discussed herein.



Plate XVA-TeUHaboua 1 Tomb T. - .2 .6 : Plate XVB TeU EIaboucr 1: Tomb T 107 in silo SI. 111 ingranacy GR& silo S1. Plate XVc Teit Haboua 1 Tomb T 108 in silo SL2 : .

Sometimes the burials were covered with a mixture ofsand and lime.1S2 and western w d s ) in the corners where the bastion mats the enclosure wdl. The tomb foUows the same orientation as the existing wail. Mmy w m p l e s were found in Zone B (e. placed against an existing w d . Type C This type of burial falls hto two f o m : rectangular with rounded angle or rectanguiar with an ovoid angle. Qlate XVIB and XVIC) .lm Type F Type F is a tomb consisthg of a rectangulu sûucture. T. The burial was ploccd either in a wali or the aoor of a building. 122). The same types of burials were found at Tel el-Dabca. These graves were mostly used for chiidrai. (mate XVIA)T i type hs D was d i s o o v d i Z n B in the gramies arca. Many examples were found i Zone B and D.g. n Type D Type D consists of a child buriai placecl in an amphora. Buriais similu to Type D are n oe biown in Egypt and Palestine during the Second Intcrmdiate Period? Type E Type E is represented by r type oftomb constructeûof k e e new mudbrick walls. Type E is rectangular in shape and was usually reserved for individuais. dating to the lote Second Intermediate Pecîod (Stntum D/'3). 1 13 and T.

Plate XVIC Tell Haboua 1 Tomb T 116. - . objects : . Plate XVLB Tdl HIboua 1 Tomb T 116 : .Plate XVIA TeU IWoua 1 Tomb T 117 : .

1.107 type A) (Plate WB) Level Location Structure Dmnin iesos Orientation Burial Position . The only example was found in Zone D. Zone A .lying on die ba& . ( the west of granary GR1 and to the north of silo SI. Zone B .adult skeieton in poor condition . 32 and Plate ye n XW) The sarcdphagus was plroed dirsctly in the sn without any surrounding aa brickwork or structure. One exemple ofeach type of tomb or bund wiîi be discusKd below: T.north-muth .154 The waüs were M t of mucfbdc.outside and against the northem enclosun waii.99 (TypoB) Level Location Structure Dimensions Orientation Burial Position .Sm . facing West -m -IV T.grave (Type A) .noith-ast/ south-ww p d e l to the northern encloauc waU head to the south-west .5m .lying on the ci@ side.6x 1.buriai in sand (Type B) .5 x . head to the north. Type G T p G is represented by a buriai i a hestone sucophagus.2. The head of the body was always placeci thhg the door.1. the wall thicloiess was rnostly haifbrick A door wu l o d in one side and I to a Semi&ailar chamber containing the nineraq d objects.duit skcieton in poor condition .

limestone oucophagus . 32 .Tell Haboua 1: Zone D.FIg.

Plate XMI T l Haboua 1 Tomb T.157. hestone e : - .

an hcomplete adult skeleton . head to the no&-eut.9m .to the west ofBUL.1.lying on the right skeleton .north-eaat/south-west .1.1.5 x .burial of e child in an arnphora.9m Level Location Structure Dimensions Orientation Burial Position at the entraw of Street 5.amphon b u d .TV.grave (Type C) .1.tomb built of four mudbnck walls . Zone B tomb bdt o f three mudbnck waüs a g h a the southem w d of granary GRIV - -III .35 x .lying on the back. Zone B . Zone B . head to the south-east Level Location Structure Dimensions Orientation Burial Position -m .north-south .5 x .diflticult to detennine .southem waM of the building BUL.north of GRiII and to the east of SIA.6Sm .Level Location Structure Dimensions Orientation Burial Position .6Sm .6m long) . facing north-west -Er Level Location Structure Dimensions Orientation Burial Position .1.a complete adult skeleton (1. agWut the southem waii of ganary GRIV.lying on the bock head to the south . placd on the wall .north-wed south-east -I .east-west .9 x .Zone B .

Commentiry The excavation ofHaboua 1reveaied very signincant structures. waîis indiate that the western wrO waii approxbdy 3 5 h and the northem w a l was presewed to a lu@ ofapproximateiy 28ûm. for the sake of brevity. The discovered matends confonn to the descriptions of Tham i ancient sources.6m . (a) The Fomas The &mess d i s c o v d at Haboua 1constitutes the biggest fortress in North Sinailo1and perhips in aii the eastem Delta. indicating that Hahua 1wu a foitifid nty of some importance. The waUs w a c rtron@ybuttressed.lying on the back.cit.69-119. the east of Zone D . As discussed above. near Bir-el2Abed. .north-east/south-wcst . n The foiiowing d o n wiii provide a disaission in more depth of some of the more important discoveries at Haboua 1.limestom srircophagus in the sand . c£ E O m . T & ~ g f t h i g t h C S i S ~ ~ V C I C d s I l D t b C f N e ~ K i a ~ ~ d r t i n g t o i b e ~ I ~ t HibourII.66 x . including fiom a military and administrative paspective. The structures discovered at Haboua 1 show the importance of the site.up.1. head to the north-east S.Zfi7 (TypeG)(Plate XVII) Level Location Structure Dimensions Orientation Butid Position -1 .m#s\irtiglOOintt T b r ~ w i i i k d i s m s d ~ b e h . Eûm discovad a squareNew Kiag&mf m xwmuiug 50m' et ICbProuba. the rnaManns for the two best-presaved main enclosure skeleton in poor condition . the fidi measurements of the fortress con not be dcarmmcd m. some of these structures wül be pubüshed in further publications.

The snidy of n archaeological remains of granaries is usenil.~" (b) The Gnniriu Hwest scencs and granades fonn part of the M y life activities the ancient Egyptians depicted on the waiis of their tombs. the double fortifed w d was o f h used and many examples have bwn pregewec!. The dkovery of Mèmat types of granarieJ d dos in excadons gBies oome idea o f the range and development of the Miicus types in use in me t tîmes. Ahmed Badawy brs contributed sienificantly to the in andysis of the iconogcaphy of granahes and the evolution of the diffkrent types in use during the Old and Middle king dom^^'^' Granaries fiill into two main cltegories: fifst. particulaly i the New Kingdom. during the Middle Kingdom. However.The construction of double fortifieci walls is known tiom Teli el-Rataba in the eastem Delta. because it shows the adent of the civilian and mibuy suppty of grain anâ suggests the econornic Unportance of a settiernent.'03 The most ancient examples of fortnsses with double outer walls were identified at Shounet el-Zibib. dating to the tirne of Rameses III. public . and second. hcludiag at Buhen and Sema in Nubia. Abydos and Hierakonp~tis.lm The fomess of Haboua 1is the oniy othet known aumple ofthe double fortifed waii. domestic granaries.

k l S 113 (1986).silos were found ananged in groups in special At gianuy areadrn Granaries in fortined cities were considemi a saategic supply of grain rations. 121-22. granaries w e n built in every domestic area of otampIes are known fkom aii paiods. 78-83. Petrie IIIahun md Ovm6 (hxkm.L Wooiiy. PLA. . that estimate to the granaries discovered at Haboua 1 gives their approxllaate capacity. the aty in the Old Kingd~rn.PLXIV. The fortified stations on the Ways of Horus in N r h Sinai were auppiied with granaries. The Civ of Akhnul~n. 2: W. The mdy of the large quantity of silos and magazines discovered along with many - odwr remains at Haboua 1.J. Kcmp. n A group of four silos each one 4m in diameter and dating to the New Kingdom was - - dimvered in Bu el-CAbed.'~ Tell d-Amuni.160 gramies. 1923). Orra 1987. 1891). fig. 8 1. - The supply stations on the Way of Hom played a great role in sewing and supplying the müituy expeditions marching along the roaû. P . "B.F. will shed much üght on the strategic importance of this site and the ditiuy rob it must have playeâ duhg the New Kingdom. op. ci&.M. "Middk Kingdan Orinin'&'.''' Applying . Their estimated totd capacity was 40 tonnes of grain. I T E Ped d: C. silos and ot rmigcizines. The importance of such stations is mentioned in the ancient sources and Mrroreâ i the uchadogicai evidmce. W. The f b tcategory is f i in most domestic areas in ancient Egyptian cities and many In Kahun.

17 I SI.Caprcity (tonnes) GRI. Zoae A -- GR& Zone B SLS GR& Z n B oe S .14 I TOTAL te cipenty of the gnai . Zone B SI. 18 GRiü. Zone B - -- GRIV.11 I -- - S.1 0 S .

P U ~ 1PDpay).pIomio~~the emtem Nilr M m ( O d i i 1981) 266. it was Cntical that the fonnss of Tham be taken and the supply üne cut. the city of T h m (Habwa 1 semd as a supply n s m e for the rearguard of the army for the capital city. A w r h and Pimesse. 17. (c) The Settîement The settlements disoverd at Haboua 1 addd important information on the urban arcliitectun in the Delta duMg the Second Intermediate Period and the New Kingdom to thst known eom TeU el-Dabca1'OThe study of the settlement at Hiboua 1showed that the habitation at the end of the Second Intermediate Period was wncentnted in Zone B. that this area wis aiways rescwed for setttement. indicating the continuity of the occupation in this part of the city from the Second Intemediate Paioâ to the New Kingdom. ' ~ During the New Kingdom. ' ''O M Bi* 9 l ( a ) " T b c R h i d ~~ q r i ~ r ( Y ~ 3 3 d K~ i g A u m r r ' A p c p b U ' . pnor to a successfiil opecation against ~ v a r ï s . ) according to the Rhind Mathtrnaticril Papyrus. PL XXXWlb. beside the gramies a + the beginnhgof the 1 8 h ~settlcmcnt contiwed in the same artk Thus. it seems m At . d~hueoiogictai Ex. As a result. in ~ fig. I)uniig the siege of Avaris. the granaries and magazines at Haboua 1were also protected by the fortfieci city. . in order to supply armies on the highway from Egypt to Palestine.67.162 The excavations at Hibou8 1showed a concentration of granaries in the northern part of the city.

a gnat d d of Unported pottery nom Syria. Pidestine and Cypms was discovered. red and blue wen found inthe magazines. The bte sbdbœnconstnictedon the rcmains of o k s t ~ c t w e s rr s duing to the Hyksos . many grimaries and a complex of store magazines were discovered. Moreover.''~ Based on the ceramics and two pi- of Egyptian corniche . l Thae are rectangulu towen in al1 four corners. Large quantities of store jars were found inside the bearing the cartouche o f S t 1and the other that of Ramesses II the fomess was dated to the reign of ei Seti 1 . ~ - - A hint ofthe mütiiy üfe ofthe fortms is given by the s d hds. in addition.6 x 3. excavations conducted under my supe~sion revded a New Kingdomfome~s. - The fortress is 100m2 in plan.1 . a numbcr of Egyptian blue painted jars decorated with I o t flowen in black. Each mgaine con&ts ofa rectangular structure of 25. The wds are 4m thick and have bastions on d sides. (Plate XVIII) Inside the fortess. which included bronze spcarheads and d g m ag .8m. The Supmme Couneil of Antiquities Excavation~ In the sumrner of 1999.

P k XVIII TeU Hàboua 1: the llcw1yIdiscoveredN m Kingdom fortress 1



period. The excavations reveaid a horse burial dating to this t h e . (Plate XLX) In addition,
these levds wae noteworthy for the Tell el-Yahudiyah ware discovered.

nie intense c o ~ o ofn m a p h e s indicates that t store

b fortress served as a central

magaPna for the am. It w d d be pmture to give a thorough site report on Haboua II at this
point. However, the existence of a New Kingdom fortress resembling, in plan, the fonress of


Haboua 1and, in topographie aspects, the Karnak reliefs of Seti I containing remains bearing


the names of Seti 1and Ramesses II suggests that Haboua I is the "DweUUig of the Lion", the I

second station on the Ways ofHorus.

Plate X[X Teil Ebboua II: a hone buriai inside the fortress



In conclusion, thh thesis has reviewed chronoIogidy the textual references relating to
the Ways o f Homs and Tham, in order to detannine their signifiaince in ancient tirnes. The
sources hdicatc that the hishwry was known as eariy as the mid-5' Dynasty. It is clear Born the

texts that the road w u well-provisioned with supplies, militaty stations and water wells. This

rosd was the vital artery drmugh which the military and wnmiaciaî t r a c flowed between Egypt

and Asia.

The fint and main station on the Ways of Honu w u "Thcini". This fomess w u the
surhg point tor miütary camp*gnsto Asia and an impomnt strate& centre both miütarüy and


economically. The discovery of New Kingdom and Hyksos stmctures and objects during
excavation rcuiforccd the w#incy of the Rliind Mathematid Papyrus and reflected the strategic

importance of Tharu. The mtuwig o f the name o f h proposcd in this thesis as '"theone who keeps safe' appeus to have been vay appropriate.



The main textuai source in this study w u the Karnak reW of S t I. In üght of ei
excavation results, i ippein to hw kaa diable source. Notwithstanding that many scholm t
bdkval niPu to have been located at the Gnew-Roman site ofTe1 Abu Se*

this paper has

proposed that it shodd actualiy be identifiai as Haboua 1 T e topoenphical and pictoriai . h reptesentatiom cortdate with the uchaeoIogicaî evidence tiom Hiboua 1- T e discovery of a h
second New Kingdom foctnss on the 0th- ide of an ancient watenvay and to the cast of



Haboua 1 further consolidateci this view. This latter fomss may well represent the second
station on the Ways of Homs:"the Dwelling of the Lion".


The excavations of the SCA have shed a grut deai of light on the nature of ancient
militsry Settlements in N r h S h i . At Tell Abu-Se@ the existence of magazines and the w d ot

presewed harbour indiate a iively trade during the Orseco-Roman period. However, no eariier

ranUns have b e n found at this site. As discussed above, bkKd on the evidence available, Tell
Abu-Seifii should k accluded h m considdon as the site of ancient Thm. indeed, according

to the mhaeologial evidence Tell Abu-Sei& is more pmbabiy the site of the Graeco-Roman Sile,

w i h bears no relation t Tham. hc o

The SCA's work at Hibu 1has providcd sigdicant knowledge about a New Kingdom
foctress on the Ways of Homs. The extent of the fortitications at Tham speak clearly of the
power of the ancient Egyptian senirity systan on the eastern borda.

The gnnuies cüsmvttcdat this site were both wbstantid and plentifid and as the table inciuded in this study demonstmtcs the upraty was probrbly appropriate to f a d large numbers



o f d k A, such, it was cleariy wellaiitcd to the role of central supply station. In addition,
the existence of signiîhnt administrativebuildings hints at some o f t h cconomic and politicai

activities that mus have takm place rt thU important fortras. F i i y , the di~covery houses of

and indwtnal installations within the fomw suggcsts the d o d c aspects ofa mjor fortifieci


The dirovery of a large quantity of wine storagejus a p s with tatual mferences to
Thw as a wine-producing ana, dthough no wine jar seaiings were discovered. The texts dm

mention that Thuu was fimxnous for hlti-fish; the discovery of jus containing fish bones
sttcngthen the Mew dut in this area cich with witer resoutces such as the Pelusiac Nie branch


and the lagoons 6sh were plentiftl.


The VEUiety Md quantity ofimpoctcd pottery diacovereâ at Haboua 1 and its location by one of the major watenvays accessing the Delta and the Mediterranean gives some ideci of the
tracle and commmiai activities carriecl on in these times. This site cleady played an Unportant



rok as one of the ports where tracle goods w e n shipped and received. A detaiied study will be

published in the fiiture on the importeci potteiy ofTham.

The nch yield of the sites discussed in this study providc us w t great incentive to ih
conduct furtherteseatch in this m. Further excavation promises to offer deeper insight into

the course and nature of the Ways of Horus. Imh 'alIahfriture seasons will d o w us ta fiirther

reconstnict the ancient Eman

military orguiintion in North Sinai.

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'nie InschriA Amenemhete a. aus d m Ptah-tempei von Memphis",SAK 1 (199 1). 1-48. 8
Amient pottery of the Ho& Land (Jemsalem, 1969).

Amùm, R.
Gstrom, P.

l Middle Cypriote Brome Age (London, 1957). k
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Bietak, M.

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Beschreiibvng clPr Aerntisckn h m i u n g des N i e & t M s c k n ReichRlnr.wum(k7Aliertümer in Lei&nD vol. 6, no. 22 @en Hu& 1916).

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Gurob (London, 1927).

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vol. ï l I (London, 1930).

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" Les textes de ta statue E.25550 du musée du Louvre", R d 'E
17 (1%5), 15-20.

Hieranc Imptionsfrom the T m & o Tuf-n f


"Ancient Egyptian Frontier Foctresses", JE;Q 3 (19 16), 155-79.

'Wotes sur l'isthme de Suez", RT 3 1 (1908), 117-22
"Notes sur l'isthme de Sud', RT 39 (1 909). 113-20.
''Notes s r l'isthme de Suez",ASAE 10 (1910), 209-37. u

'Xe temple de Zeus Cusios i Péluse", ASAE 13 (19 l4), 79-85.

"Nécropole de KinruJs huilles d mai 1914". RT38 (1916). e
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TELL ABU-SEIFA Fig. The drawings of H h u a 1 . thae are sume incoiuistct\Cicsinthe convention of ware sections.: Base diarn. the extemai surface is polished Red 19crn - prrserved to 4cm Roman Roman fortress Upper part only l(b) Coolring Pot Fabric: Colout: Rim diam. U Zayat. the extemal sudue is polished Red 18cm - prcsc~ed 4cm to Roman Roman f t t s otts uppefpirtonly . fine.: Basediam.: Hcight: Date: Provenance: Rmiarks: Nie silt. this cataiogue of ceramics fiom Tell Abu-Sc& and Habous 1 contains only a reprcscntative wnple of al items found. were preparad by AR Al-AyedL As a result. The drawinp of the pottery fiom Teil Abu-Seih w e n prepusd by the SCA's draftsman.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nie süt. CATALOGUE OF CERAMlCS in the interest of brevity. fine.X. 1 l(8) cooking Pot Fabric: - Colour: Rim diam.

: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nie sik. fie. fine.: Base diam.Scm Roman Roman fortress Upper part only .the extemal surface is poüshed Rd 22cm - preserwd to 6.5cm presemd to Scm Roman Roman fortress Upper part only l(d) Coolring Pot Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.l(c) CooIdng Pot Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. : Base diarn.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: N l e silt.the extemai sudce is poüshed Red - 22.

l .Fig.

: Height: Date: Provenance: Rtmarks: Nüe silt. ûne.: Base diam. the extemai surfice is poüshed Red 1. the extemai surfice is polished Red 21-- pnserved to Scrn Roman Roman fortress Upper part ody 2(c) Cooking Pot Fabric: Colout: Rim diam.: Height: Date: Provenance: Rematks: Niie siit. 2 2(a) Cookiag Pot - Fabric: Colour: Rirn diam.: Base diam.c 45m - . the extemai surfirce is poüshed Red 19cm -- prtscrved to 6cm Roman Roman fortress Upper part only 2(b) Cooking Pot Fabric: Colour: Rimdiam.: Height: prcso~d to Date: Roman Provenance: Raman fortress Remarks: Uppa put only Nie süt.: Base diam.TELL ABU-SEIFA Fig. fine. fine.

fine.: Base diarn. tlas.: Height: Date: Provenance: &marks: Nie sih.5crn - pieservcd to 8cm Roman Roman fortress Upper part only .the extemal surface is polished Rtddish-brown 22.: Base diam.2d Cooking Pot () Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. the extemai surface is poüshed Red 22cm -- premed to 7cm Roman Roman fortras Upper part only 2(t) Coolring Pot Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remks: Nie silt.


: Height: Date: Provenance: Nie sih. fine. fine. the extemal surfsce is poüshed Rcddish-brown - 18cm pnserved to 6cm Roman Roman fortress Upper part only 3(b) Coolring Pot Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. 6ne. 3 3(i) Cooking Pot - Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remrrks: Nile süt.: Base diarn.: Height: Date: Provenance: Rcmacks: Nile silt.the extemal surface is polished Reddish-brown 22cm - pnserved to 5cm Roman Roman fortress Upper part only 3(c) Coolring Pot Fabric: Colow: Rim diam.TELL ABU-SEIFA Fig. the extemai su&e is polished Reddish-brown - 17cm prwewed to 6cm Roman Roman fortress Upper part only Rcmirlu: .: Base diarn.: Base diam.

fine. the extemal sudce is polished Red 17cm - .: Height: p r e s w d to 4cm Date: Roman Provenance: Roman fortress Remarks: Upper part oniy Nile süt.3(d) Cookiag Pot Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. : Base diam.


fine. the extemal surface is polished Rd 2lcm - presewed to 6cm Date: Roman Provenance: Roman settlement Rcmafks: Upper part ody 4(c) Cooldng Pot H@ e: Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.: Nile silt.5- - ptcs«ved to 4. fine. the extemai su~ace poüshed is Rd 20cm - prewrved to Scm Roman Roman settIement UPF P O ~ Y m Nb)Cooking Pot Fahic: Colour: Rimdiam.: Base diam. : Base diam. fine.Scm Roman Roman settlement Upper part only .: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nile silt. 4 4(a) Cooking Pot - Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.: Base diam. the extemal sufice is polished Red 20.: Height: Date: Provenance: Ranaiks: Nde silt.TELL ABU-SEIFA Fig.

: Base diam. fine.: Basediam.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nile silt. h .: Height: Date: Nie siit.Nd) Cwking Pot Fabric: Colour: Rirndiam. extemai surface is poüshed e the Red 17cm - premed to 3cm Roman Roman settlernent Upper part only 4(e) Cooking Pot Fabric: Colour: Rirn diam. the extemal surface is polished Red 20cm - preserved to 6cm Roman Provenance: Roman senfernent Remarks: Upper part ody .


diam. the extemal surface is polished t Red 20cm preserved to 5.: Height: Date: Provcnanœ: Rcmarks: Nile sdt. S S(a) Coolring Pot - Fabric: Colour: Rimdiam. fine.: Height: Date: Provenance: Nie d .ûne.4cm - Rernarb: 5@) ! Roman Roman settlement Uppcr part or@ Cooking Pot Fabric: Colour: Rimdiam. the extemai surface is poüshed Red 1c 7m prtsewd to 7cm - Roman Roman d c m e n t Upper part only .T ' E UABU-SEIFA Fig.: Base. the extemai swfiice is polished Rd 21cm - pnsaved to 4cm Roman Roman settlement Upper part only S(b) Cooking Pot Fabric: Colout: R h diarn. fine.: Height: Date: Provenance: RemPrks: Nüe sih.: Base diam.: Base diam.

: Height: Date: Proveriance: Remarks: Nie süt. : Base diam. the extemal surfàce is polished Red 27cm - presewcd to 4cm Roman Roman settlement Uppa part only .Sd Cooking Pot () Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. fine.


fine i Reddish-brown 7cm 6. fine Reddish-brown 8cm 7cm 18cm Ptolemaic Ptolemaic fortress Fire temains on the extenor qc) Cooking Pot Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. fine Reddish-bmwn 8cm 6cm 20cm Ptolemaic Ptolemaic fortress Fire remains on the extenor 6(b) Cooking Pot Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.: Base diarn: Height: Date: Provenance: Remsuks: N k silt.TELL ABU-SEIFA Fig. 6 6(i) Cooking Pot - Fabric: Colour Rim diam.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nilc silt.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nüe süt.4cm 17 Rolemaic Ptolemaic fortress F b mnaha on the extrior . : Base diam. : Base diam.


7 7(a) Plate - Fabric: Colour: Rimdiam.rough t Red 19cm llm c 6cm Ptolemaic Ptolemaic f o m Thick walls .: Height: Date: Provenance: Rematks: 7(b) Plate Nüe siit.: Base diam. rough Red - 16cm 6cm Ptolernaic PtoIemaic fortress Thick walls Fabric: Colour: R h diam.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nie d .TELL A B P S m A Fig.: Height: Date: Provenance: Rematks: 7(c) Plate Nüe silt.: Base diam. rough Red 16cm 8cm Scm Ptolemaic Rolemaic fortress Thick w d s Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.: Base diam.

: -Height: 7cm Date: Ptoldc P r o v ~ c e : Ptoieniaic settlement Remarks: Thick walls .Fabric: Nile silt.: 22cm Base diam. rough Colour: Red Rim diam.


medium-fine it Reddish-brown 22cm 15cm 5. medium-fine Reddish-brown 28cm 27cm 6. : Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: 8(b) Plate Nie si.7m - Ptolemaic Industrial area Fabric: Colour: Rirn diam.: Base diarn.: Height: Nie silt.8cm - Ptolernaic Industriai a r a .: Base diam.: Height: Date: Provenance: Rcmatks: Nile siit. 8 8(a) Piite - Fabric: Cotour: Rim diam. medium-the Reddish-brown 24cm H I 6cm Dt: ae P olemaic t Provenance: industrial area Remarks: - Fabric: Colour: Rimdiarn.TEU ABU-SEIFA Fig.: Base diam.


: Base diarn. the extemal surfiice is poüshed Red 2k m 9cm 1 1.TEU ABU-SEIFA Fig. Rim diam. fine. the extemal sudiace is polished Red 21cm 9crn 10.2cm Pîolernaic Ptolemaic d e m e n t - .2cm Ptolemaic Ptolemaic settlement - Fabric: Colour.: Base diam. fine.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: 9(b) Bowl Nie siit.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: 9(c) Bowl Nile silt.fine. the extemai surface is poiished t Red 2lcm 9cm 11.8cm Ptolemaic Ptolemaic settlement -- Fabric: Colour: Rirn diam. 9 9(a) Bowl - Fa&&: Colour: Rimdiam.: Base diam.: Height: Date: Pmvenancc: Rematks: Me d .

Scalt 1:1 .

ci 06n 1. fine.8cm is polished 1. the extemal su Red 27. the extemal surface is polished Red 27cm 1lm 1lcm Ptoldc Provenance: Ptolemaic settlement Rernarks: - Fabric: Colow: Rim diam.c 04m Pîolemaic Provenance: PtoIemak settlment Rcmuks: y r . fine.: Base diam.: Height: Date: Nie silt.: Basediam. 10 - Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. fine. the extemal surface is poüshed Red 23cm lOcm 9cm Ptolemaic Ptolemaic settlement - 1qb) Bowl Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.: Base diam.TELL ABU-SEIFA Fig.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nile silt.: Height: Date: Nie silt.

Scale 1 1 : .

: Nüe süt.6-4cm 8.26 . rddish brown 6-4-7.II/R.8cm 3 -3 *4cm Hih: egt Dt: ae 1-05m 01. 1. 10. V.2cm Base diam-: 3-4cm Height: 10 cm Dt: ae LSIP Provenance: GRI.Zone B. fine Red. Hoiladay. Zone B Remarks: cf. the extemal surface is polished Colour: Red Rim diam.3 l(b) Cup (2 specimens) Fabric: Colour: Rirn diam. K. B.L :S I Remarks: l(c) cup (5 spccimens) Fabric: CoIour: Rim diam. Zone A. Ccahier & Ceramique.BUL. Zone B. abb.: Base diam. P . I - Fabric: Niie silt. Bietak 1991.TELL HABOUA I Fig. fig.6m 3. cf.H 0 .2 Zone D d Anne Seiler. fine. .n 94/65.YE.: Base diam. r&sh brown 7.: Height: Date: Nie silt.5-l0cm LSIP Provcnan~t: GRl. finc or rough Rcâ. Tell el-M4skhotltu.3. Zone C.: 7.c MB IIB Provenance: HM.GRI.

Zone C.2cm Rim diam.BUL. GRiI. fig.4-7. 2 Zone D cf Anne Seüer. fig.GRI. m 94/1.4-7.IYR2.3-12. 2 zone D.26 Fabric: Colour: Ni Jüt. r&sh brown and reddish yeiiow 6.Trench 1 cf Anne Seiler.Zone B. brownish yellow 6-7. m W l .: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarlw: 3. V .WR. V.02. and rcddish yellow 6.: Height: Date: Provenance: 3.Zone D. . : Height: Date: Provenance: Nile silt. 1.2cm Rim diam.Trench 1 cf Anne Seiier.4-4cm 9-10 ~ n r LSIP GR4 Zone A. BUL. . Zone B.3. H 0 . H0.H. Zone B. Zone A. Zone B.LVR 10. Cdier <lo Ceramique.44cm 9-10~m Rematks: LSIP GRIL. fine Red. A 94/65.: Base diarn.26 i(e) Cup (4 specimens) Fabric: Colour: R diam.: Base diam. H. C&er de Ceramique.3~m LSIP GR4 Zone B. 1. i . fine Brown.: h Base diarn. reâdish brown.BUL.l(d) Cup (6 spcchww) Fabric: Calour: Nie süt. Zone C. Zone C. rcddish brown. V . fine Brown.l.2.7a 3.26 fg .5-4cm 9. GRII.VMt. Cahier &r Cerumique.


: Base diam. fine Red.8cm Fabric: Colour: R h diam.2m 3-4cm lOcm LSIP GRI. Zone B cf. abb. HoUaday. reddiah brown 7. Zone B - .TELL HABOUA 1 Fig. 6nc.5cm Date: Province: Remarks: MB IIB HM. the extemai surface is polished Red 7.Sm 3.: Height: Date: Pmvcnance: Remarks: Nie silt. 2 - 2(a) Cup (1 specimen) Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.3. rough Reâdish brown 6.4m 1040. Bietak 1991.8cm 9.: Height: 3-3.4cm NK H.: Base diam.3 2(b) Cup (2 specimens) Nile siit.: Base diam.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarùs: Nile silt.Zone B cf. Tell eI-MasWa. 1 2(c) Cup (1 specimen) Fabric: Colour: Rimdiam. 276. PI.IWR.

rough Reddish bmwn 7.BUL.GR& Zone B.c 03m NK HIWR.5. Zone B.165.II.& Zone A.8-7cm 3 -4-3.H 0 .: Base diam: Hcight: Date: Provenance: Niit silt.5cm 1l.6crn 34.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nile silt. 6ne. 3Zone - .Fabnc: Colour: Rinidiam. H. 2 Zone D. LXV: 1(c) 8 (7 specimens) Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. Zone B Remarks: (2 specimens) Fabric: Colour: R h diam. D . lcm 4cm Base diam. Zone B. the extemal surface is polished Red 6.VIII. .5~m NK GR. T.3. : Nile silt.IWlt. Pl.5-7. Zone B cf Petrie and Bninton 1924.4-12~rn NK H.610-12. Zone C. rough Reddish btown 6.: Base diam.H 0 .: Height: Date: Provenance: 1.

Tdi Haboua L .

Zone B cf Petrie and Brunton 1924. the extemal surtiace is poüshed Red 6. XLV:8 1 (2 specimens) Fabric: Cotour: R h diam. XLV:83 1 Rematks: Fabric: Colour: Niîe silt. XLLI:22 . Pl.: Base diam. WN:81. 6ne Red and brown 6. Pl.T'EU HABOUA 1 Fig.3.: Height: NK Date: Provenance: H.3.2-2. . roua Rcddish brown 8cm Rim diam. rough. 3 - (2 specimens) Fabric: Colour: Nile silt. Zone B cf. : Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nüe silt.6- 2. H0.2. H.VWR.iWR.4cm 18* Dyn. GR& Zone A. EK WC. Engelbach 1923. 3 Zone D cf Engelbach 1923.: Base diam.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: 5cm 12. Pl. Engelbach 1923.1-7~m 3 S-4Ucrn 1242Scrn Rim diam: Base diam. Pl.4-118" Dyn.4cm 14.

16. 1 1 Provenance: GR.. Brunton L930. h e .3(d) Jar Fabric: Colour: Rim diarn.2- 14-14.: Height: Date: Niie süt. the extemal surface i polished s Rcd 8cm 2-2.2cm cf'. Zone B Rem*: .Pl. T. XXiX:167 18"' Dyn.: Base diam.


. Petrie 1906. W(d):24 4(b) J u (1 specimen) N i e siit.3. Zone B CE Petrie 1906. Bne.: Base diam. fim. Vm:89/414 Ne) Beer Jar (2 specimens) Fabric: Colour Rimdim: Base diam. the exterd nifice is highiy polisheû Red and rcddish brown - 8. XL[[:25(e) 30cm 18' Dyn.8cm RamuLs: Zone B cf. : Base diam. 4 - 4(a) Jar (1 specimen) Fabric: Colour: Eüm diam.5cm 6cm 20cm 18" Dyn. PI. U. HJE. the extemal sufice is poüshed Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Red 8. rough.the extemai surface is polished Brown ?cm 3 Scm 12. Zone B R& cf. E E1. PI.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nile sih.: Height: Date: Provenance: Nie aiit. PI. Engeibach 1923.TEU EABOUA 1 Fig.Scm LSIP and beginning ofNK G .

2cm 18" Dyn. lcm 28.2-26.: Height: Date: Provenance: Nie silt.: Height: Date: Nile silt.9cm - 16.: Base diam. H. fine.: Basediam. GR& Zone B.ViII. the extemal surfiice is highiy polished Red 9. PI.42. Zone A.Zone B cf Bmnton 1930. GKI. Zone B Provenance: GRIL. the extemai surface is highly poüshed Red and nddish yeiîow 6. cf.4(d) Beer Jar (1 specifnen) Fabric: Colow: Rim diam. Bietak 1991.8m 18' Dp. fige 10:23 (Stnrtum El-D/3) Remarks: . MV:ZZ(m) -- Ranuks: Fabric: Colow: Rimdiam. fine.


TELL BABOUA 1 Fig.: Height: Date: Provenance: Rsmuks: Nie silt. GR& Zone B cf.: Base diam.2-7Scm - 23.2cm 18'" Dyn. Zone B Rematks: UI Nile süt.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remuks: Nie silt. the extemal sucfâce is polished Red - 8. Gochen.3.: Height: 22cm Date: LSIP Provenance: HyD. rougit.7cm 16. fine Reddish brown 4.: Base diam.42. H. S - Fabric: Colour: Rirn diam. Zone B cf Petrie. 10:24 S(c) Jar (1 specimen) Fabric: Colour Rim diam. fig.YE.: Base diarn.2.2-26cm LSlP KIV. Bi& 1991. fine. XXMX(c):61 Fabtic: Colour: Rim diam. Pl. 1906. Zone 8. the exterd surfie is potished Yellow 3 -6cm .

S(d) J r a

(4 specimens)

Colour: Rimdiam.: Base diam.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remuks:

Nile silt, rough and fine; the extemal surface is polished Red and teddish brown
16.4-38cm 18" Dyn. BUL.II, Zorie C; H.0 1, Zone D cf. Petrie 1906, PI. W(d).4 1 1 and Plate V m 5 8



S(e) Jar

(3 specimens)

Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.:

Me silt, fine; the extemai sudace is polished Brown and reddish brown

Base diam.:
Height: Date:


15.8-35.4cm 18' Dyn.

Provenance: Street 2, Zone B; H.iII, Zone B Remks: Fue remains on extemal surface; cf Petne and Bninton 1924, Pl. LXV:37(m)



qa) kt
Fabric: Colour: Rini diam.: Basediam.: Height: Date: Provenance:

(1 specimen)

Nile silt, r o u h the extenial s u r f a is poüshed Reddish yeiiow



27.6cm LSIP and beginning of NK GR& Zone B


Fabric: Colow: Rim diarn.: Basediam.: Height: Date: Provenance:

(1 specimen)

Nik silt, rou& the extemal surfice is polished Reddish brown 1Or cn



LSIP and beginning of M( HY., B . E 3Zone cf.Bietak1991,42,6g.l0:19

Nie sih. rough; the extemai sucfice is polished Fabric: Colour: Raîdish bmwn Rim diam.: 9-9.2cm Basediam.: Height: 19.2-20cm Date: 18. Dyn.




G u Zone B d Brunton 1927, PI. XXJ[IV:?S13


Colour: Rim diarn.: Base diam.: Height: Date: Provenance: Rematks:

Nile süt, mugh; the extemal surface is poiished Reddish brown
8.4-10.2~m -


GR4 GR& Zone B Brunton 1927, Pl. XXXiV:25@)

Tdl Habour 1

fine. the aternal sunace is polished Red lOcm r<L 20cm 18" Dyn. the extemai sufice is polished t Brown - 8. Pl. Zone B cf.& Zone B - 7b Jar () Fabric: Colour: Rim diarn.TELL EABOUA I Fig.rough. 7 - 7(1) Jar (1 specimen) Fabric: Colour: Rimdiam.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nie d . Btunton 1927. GRIII. XMV:36(k) .2cm 16.: Base diam. GR.: Base diam.: Hcight: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nile silt.2 18* Dyn.

Tdl Haboua I .

XIIA 8(b) Pot (1 specimen) Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. HWC.fine.: Base diam. : Hei@: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Niie d .5cm 6cm 10.WC. Dyn. 1. Zone B Remarks: 8(c) Jar Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. Provenance: H. Pl. d .: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: N e silt.: Base diam.2cm 18. . the u c t e d surface is polished t YeUowish-rd 10. 8 - 8(a) Pot (1 specimen) Fabnc: Colour: Rim diam. rough ü Greyish-btown 6.6cm 6ctn 15.TELL HABOUA 1 Fig.6m 4cm 8cm i 8 Dyn. LXIV:2/232 .: Height: Date: m silt.: Base d i . Parie 1906. Pl.Zone B â Paie a Brunton 1924. rough e Greyish-brown 4. Zone B cf. 1.4cm LSIe ud begimhg0fNK GRJ.

fine and rough.42. 10: 16 . Bietak 1991. fig. H.8cm LSIP anci beginnîng of K. the extemal surhice io poüshed Brown 7cm 3.: Base diam. I Zone B cf.6cm 1l.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nile silt.8(d) Bar Jar (2 spechens) Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.


the extemal surface is polished Red 6cm 7.5m 1~~Dyn. rough.: Base diarn. MA.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remiilu: Nie aiit. Zone B -- 9(c) Pot (i specimen) Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.: Base diarn.: Base diam. Gochetr. Dyn. fine Brown - 8.4cm 1lm LSIP and beginning of NK GRi. Zone B cf Petrit. PL XXX1X:78(d) .: HWt: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nile süt.8cm 18. : Height: Date: Provenance: Remacks: Nie sih. rough.TELL BABOUA 1 F i . 9 - 9 ( i ) Pot (1 specimen) Fabric: Colout: Rllndiam.3.Zone B - 9(b) Pot (1 spechen) Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. 1906. the extenial surface is poüshed Reddish-yeUow 12cm 4.5cm 9.

: Height: Date: Mul. Zone B Imported pottev.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nie silt. h e Gny - O - SIP Provenance: Süœt 2. TuheN 1958.Zone C Incomplete 9(1) Lower Part o f C o n i d Jar (1 specimen) Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. cf. Bietak 199 1.Fabric: Colour: RUn diam. Remarks: BUL.: Height: Date: Provenance: Nie silt. Pl. Zone B Black cross-hatch design on the extemal surface. 76 Renwks: .: Base diarn. 188. the extemal surface is polished Reddish-brown 18* Dyn.: Base diam. fine. : Base diam. 10 :16 9(e) Upper P u t o f Two-Eandleâ Jar (1 specimen) Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. the externat surface i s poiished Brown 9. fig. Hall K. the.6cm - 6cm LSJP md beginnhg of M( Street 2.II.42.

8cm - 26. XW59 .Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.3. cf Brunton 1930. Pl.YE. the extemai surfàce is poiished ie Rcddish-brown 16.5cm LSIP and beghnjng of NK H. Zone B Remains of red plint on the neck of the pot.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nd silt.: Base diam. fine.


: Height: Nile silt.Date: LSIP Provenance: KYE.PI. the extemal surfhce is poüshcd Reddi~h~yeilow Base diam.P1.: Nie süt.TELL -OUA 1 Fig.: Base diam. the extemal surface is polished Brown 7. the extemal surface is poüshed Rddish-brown - 10.Peet'914.3. Zone B Nie silt. Pat 1923.33. rough. rough.Petri~1934. Lm: l 164 Remarks: lO(b) Jar (1 specimen) Fabric: Colour: Rimdiam.xxXvIII:28.yE.4cm LScm Dt: ae 18"'Dyn. Provenance: Zone C cf. 10 - lqa) Jar Fabric: (1 specimen) Colour: Rim diam.1.: Height: 19.: Base diam. fine.84:5 lqc) Jar (1 s p d c n ) Fabric: Colout: Rim diam.P .: Hcight: Date: 20- 8. Zone B Remarks: d.35 .2cm - Remarks: cf.4cm LSlP and bqhning of NK Provenance: H.

Zone B . : Base diam.lO(d) Jar (1 specimen) Fabric: CoIour: Rim diam.4cm 24cm LSIP - SI.19.: HeWt: Date: Provenance: Rernarks: - Nüe silt. fine Brown 8.


BUL.: 26cm Height : LSIP and beglluiing ofNK Date: Provenance: Zone B Remarks: Nile sih. 11 - 11(8) Jar Fabric: Colour: Rim diarn. the extemal surface is poüshed Brown 20cm 18" Dyn. rou& the extemai sufice is polished Red 6. Zone C Two black bands on the extemal surface ll(b) Jug (1 specimen) Fabric: Cotour Rim diam. fine.: 9.TELL HABOUA 1 Fig. Zone B - .6cm Base dim.: Base diam.: Base diam. rough Brown 8cm - L I Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.I.: 4cm Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nile siit.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nik silt.8cm 4cm 7scm 18' Dyn.

rough.rough.ll(d) Lower Part of Jar (1 specimen) Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.: Height: Date: Provenance: Romarks: (1 specimen) Md.: Base diarn. Zone B H I ll(e) Jug Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. the e x t e d surface is poüshed Red 9cm - 9.8cm NK Zone B Impocted pottery .: Height: Date: Provenance: Rematks: Niie sih. the extemal surface is polished Brown - 6cm presewed to lOcm NK Street 3.: Base diam.


Zone B Rcmarks: - . the extemai surface is poüshed Rtddish-yeliow presemed to 2.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarb: Mid.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: W.: Base diani.: Height: Date: Niic süt.4cm 6. 106.4cm 20. Amiran 1969.7cm LSIP T. 106.6cm lS.4cm 4. fine. Pl.IV.: Base diam. 12 - Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. fine. fine. 34:8 12(c) Jug Fabric: Colour: Run diam. the extemai swnCe is poiished Reddidi-yeiiow preservd to 3an 5scm presmeâ to 19cm LSIP P f o v e ~ : BWL. Zone B Irnponed pottery. cf.103. Zone B Importai pottery.6crn MB IIB T. cf. 34:7 12(b) Jug Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. the extemai surface is polished Yellow 4. AMrPn 1969.: Base diam.103.TELL W O U A 1 Fig. Pl.

Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. the. the extemal surface is poiished YeUow presewed to 1lcm LSP 2cm - .: Base diam. Zone B N.: Height: Date: Provenance: Rcmarks: Nüe süt. prescrved .


: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nie siit. fine i l Reddish-yellow - 3. Zone B Fabric: Colout: Rim diam.: H&ight: Date: Nie d .: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Ne dit.3cm MB 11 H. 78:798 Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.TELL .fine t Reddish-brown 2.IIl. Pl. fine Reddish-brown 2.A U 1 Fig. Tutmll 1958.9-17.2-4cm 16.: Base diarn.8cm - 11.4-2.4cm - 1lcm LSIP and beghhg ofNK Provenance: ZoneB Rematks: - . Zone B cf.: Basediam.6cm LSIP and bepiiming of NK - Street 2. 13 - Fabnc: Colow: Rim diam: Base diam.

Zone C. ûne Red pnserved to 3. 1S:I .Scm - 20cm MB II GRIV.BUL. Albright L932.2cm GRIV. Zone B.Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: - Nüe silt. House 01. Zone C.: Base diam.II. Zone D cf. fig.House 01.: Base diam. PI. 42:4 ma 20cm lyt)Jugiet Fabric: Colour: Rim diarn.iX. BUL. Zone D cf Maiiet 1988. fine Rd 3.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nie silt. Zone 8.

13 e .d Fig.

WR. Zone B cf. lyb) Jugîet (2 specimens) Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. Tell el-Yahoudiyeh.3. ct Petrie. PI. . L m . W ) @ 107.TELL HABOUA 1 Pig.34(v) Rmiuks: . f g 42:4 i. Mda 1988.: Base diam. PI.4cm 3cm 1 1.Petrie and BniMan 1924. the extemai surface is poüshed Black 3. 14 - lqa) Juglet (4 specimens) Fabric: Colour: Fie ware Dark brown 4-54311 Riin diam. the extemal surfiice is polished BIack prcscrved to 44x1 - 5.: Base diam.: Htight: Date: Fine ware. Zone B cf.2cm MB II H.: Height: Date: Provenance: Rernarks: Fine w m .: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: - 15. Zone B Tell el-Yahudiyab ware. 108 U(c) Lowet Part of Jugîet (1 specimen) Fabric: Colour: Rim dllm: Base &m. 1906.4-17cm MB iI GRIV.8cm MBII Provenance: MA 1.

the extemal surfàce is polished Black U I 7. Petrie 193 1. the extanrl suxtàce is polished Black .I. Pl.: Base diam*: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Fine ware. 74-08 - lqe) Lowu Part o f Jugiet (1 specimen) Fabric: Colour: Rirn diam.: Base diam. XLV lqr)Lower Part o f Juglet (1 specimen) Fabric: Colour: Rim diam-: Base diam.4cm lOcm LSIP Trench VI cf Parie 193 1.5cm LSIP and beginnllig of NK H.: presewed to lScm Height: LSXP and beginning ofNK Date: Proveflan~t: Trench V Rcmarks: Fine wrn.l q d ) Juluglet (1 specimen) Fabric: Colour: R h diam.2cm 16.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Fine ware Black preserved to 7. XLIX. PI. Zone B â.

Fig. L I .

: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Rot@ ware Black - - LSIP Trench VI - Fabric: Colour Rimdiarn.: Base diam.: Basediam. the extemai suiûce is poüsbcd Black - - MB II Provenance: Trench W Zone B .: Height: Date: Fie wue. R e : TtU d-Yahudlyrh typc .2cm LSIP Street 2. 15 - lS(i) Lower Part of Judtt (1 specimen) Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.TELL BABOUA 1 Fig.: Hcight: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Rough w a n Biack prcsmed to 10.: Base diam. Zone B - - Fabric: Colour: Rimdiam.


XXXIlI24 .: Height: Date: Provenance: Rernarks: - Fine wsre.: Hei@t: Date: Provenance: Fine wue. Petne 1906. impoited p o ~cf .(4 specimens) Fabric: Colour: R h diam.: Base diam.6~m LSIP and beginnhg of NK .: Base diam. 47 Rernarks: lb(b)(c) S h e d (2 specimens) Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. Pl. Provenance: H $GRII and T 166. KU@):102(g). Cypnot type. the extemai surfice is polishd Black with yellow and white decoration 4.4cm S m 14Scm LSIP Md begbning 0fNK Remarks: T 117. the extemal surface is polished Black with white decoration LSIP and beginning of NK Zone B Telî el-Yahudiyah type. cf Petrie 1898.: Heigbt: Date: F i e ware.: Base diam.4cm 9 - 6. . Zone B . PI. the extemai sufice is polished Black with white and yeiîow decorstion 4. Zone B Cypriot type. importeci pottay Fabric: Colout: Rim diam.5-15.

Zone B Cyptiotîype - .lqe) Lawer Part o t Judet (1 specimen) Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. the extemai sudue is poiished Black with white decotation LSP and beghningof NK H.m.: Base diam-: Hei@t: Date: Provenance: Rem: Fine ware.


17 - (a)-@) Shed (5 specimens) 18"' Dyn. Fabnc: Colour: Rim diam.T E U HABOUA 1 Fig.: Height: Date: Fine ware. Petde 193 1. Pl. Provenance: Zones B and C Remarks: Cypriot type. XtMLI:57H3. the extenul su Bichrome: black and white is polished - .: Base diam.

17 .Fig.

10:8 18(b) Stand Fabric: Cotour: Rim diam. 18 - la@) Stand (1 specimen) Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.: Base diam. rough. fig. 10:3 Fabric: Colour: Rim d i : Base diam.Iï.6-7. the extemai sudace is poüshd Brown 17cm 2 1cm 13cm SIP BUL.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: N i si& rough.: Nile d .5-3 .TELL -UA 1 Fig. Zone C - .I&Zone C cf.5cm 6. S m H@ i: Date: Rematks: - Prove¶lance: BUL.4cm 2.II.42.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nile s i .42.rough. Zone C d Bi- 1991. the extemal surtiice is poüshed Reddish-brown lOcm 9cm 4. fig.5-8.: Base dim.4cm Sn' BUL. the extenul sufice is polished t Red 6. BietiJr 1991.

BUL.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: NiIe silt. 10:2 .: Height : Date: Provenance: Nie süt.6m Remarks: . Zone B GR& (1 specimen) M C Sund () Fabric: Colour: Rim diarn.I.BUL.: Base diam.10~111 3. BUL. Zone B B i d e 1991.GRIII. fig. rough.Zone B.742~111 H I GR?#. the extemol surâice is poüshed Reddish-brown 7.I.4 Zone C Zone L8(e) Stand (3 specimens) Fsbric: Colour: Rim diam.3cm 8cm 4scm SIP H.6. rough.4-4. fine.42.11c m 6.6cm 81. A. the external surface is polished R d 8-9. Zone B.2-IOcm 3.(3 specimens) Fabric: Colour: Rim diarn. : Base diam.the extemal surfhce is poüsbed Brown 9.IV. Zone B.: Base diam-: Height: Date: Provenance: Remics: Nile silt.

8-9.2cm Height : 3.: Base diam. the extemai &ce i k Brown is polished - 7.: Ekight: Date: Provenance: Remulu: N silt. rough.2cm Rim diam.74.: Basediam.: 8.: Base diarn.1.18(g) Stand (4 specimens) Fabric: Colour: Nk silt.BUL. Zone B Upper part only 18(i) Stand (3 specimens) Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.8-8.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nie silt.Zone D Remarks: - iwh) Stand (1 specimen) Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. 802. the extemai sucface is poüshed i Reddish-brown 7-9.4cm Date: Provenance: GR& Zone A. GRIII. 803. Zone B. cou*. Zone D. Zone B. the externul surface is polished Reddish-brown 18cm - - l2cm GRII. Zone D upperpmonly . rough.8cm - 802.


: Base diarn. rough Red 10.: Base diarn. H .2cm 18" Dyn. 6:s 1 .: Height: Date: Ptovenanct: Remarirs: 3 . Zone B - 19(b) Phte Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.9~m 4cm Rim diarn. Zone B Hand-de. Street 2.: Height: Date: Nik s a .lm Scm 3.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Me silt. fig. 19 - 19(i) Plate Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. lcm 18'" Dyn.cl4cm NK Street 2.TELL BABOUA 1 Fig.: Base diam. N @ 1938.2-12. rough Red lOcm 4cm 3. rough e Red 9. 4 Zone B Provenance: Remarks: - Fabric: Colour: m m».

: Base diarn.4cm 4cm 18.Street 4.: Hcight: Date: Nüe süt.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: NK BUL. Dp. Zone B Hinkei 1965.9cm 3.19(d) Piitt (1 specimen) Fabric: Colow: Nie süt.IV.4- NK BUL. rough Reddish-brown and brown 1lm . : Height: Date: Provenance: Rcmatks: 2cm 3.: Basediam.4cm R h diam. rough Red 9Scm 3.: Base diam. Provcnatlcc: BvL& Zone B. rough Red 10.7cm Rim diarn. PL M[IX Remarks: Rim diarn.IV* Zone B 9 - Fabric: Colour: N e dt. Zone B - Fabric: Colour: 4.

Plate XV:1165 9 .: Base diam. Bvt. fig. the extemai d a c e is poüshd Brown I0. H . BUL.2~m 4.2cm Scm 3. Dyn 8 Ba.12.7cm 18' ~ y n .& Zone B Nagel 1 38. the memai surfice is polishd Red IOcm 4cm 3cm 1 .II$Zone C - Fabric: Calour: R h diam.19(g) Plate (5 specimens) Fabric: Colour: Run diam.3-5.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remdu: Niie ail& rough. rough Reddish-brown 8.IV. Zone B J Nage1 1938.XIXI.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nie süt.: Base diam.1 and BUL. 6 5 1 1 ( ) Plate 9h Fabric: Colour: Rim diam.2a 3cm lSaDyn.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nile silt. rough. : Base diam.

: Height: Date: Provenance: Rematks: Rd 10.: Base diarn.9 Zone C Nage1 1938. Zone C Ben-Dor 1950. 33(d) 1 ( ) Plate 9k Fabric: Nie siit. rou& the extemal surfice is poüshed Brown 10.: Base diam. XV .BUL.34-35.5cm 5-lOcm 3 -8-7cm MB I I Ri.5cm - 3. rough Colour: Rirn diarn.XI. Zone B.4-20.Fabric: Colour: Rim diam. fig. Pl.: Height: Date: Provenance: Remarks: Nie siit.7cm MB II BUL.