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and Nanosystems • Professor Christofer Hierold Professorship of Nanotechnology • Professor Andreas Stemmer 78 80 82 84 5 .Contents Institute for Biomechanics • Professor Ralph Müller • Professor Jess Snedeker Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control • Professor Raffaello D‘Andrea • Professor Lino Guzzella Institute of Energy Technology • Professor Reza S. Pratsinis • Professor Philipp Rudolf von Rohr Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems • Professor Roger Gassert • Professor Fumiya Iida • Professor Bradley Nelson • Professor Robert Riener • Professor Roland Siegwart 9 10 12 15 16 18 21 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 39 40 42 44 47 48 50 52 54 57 58 60 62 65 66 68 70 72 74 Individual professorships and single professors 77 Institute of Machine Tools and Manufacturing • Professor Konrad Wegener Institute of Virtual Manufacturing • Professor Pavel Hora Professorship of Micro. Abhari • Professor Konstantinos Boulouchos • Professor Wolfgang Kröger • Professor Christoph Müller • Professor Hyung Gyu Park • Professor Dimos Poulikakos • Professor Horst-Michael Prasser • Professor Aldo Steinfeld Institute of Fluid Dynamics • Professor Patrick Jenny • Professor Leonhard Kleiser • Professor Thomas Rösgen Institute of Mechanical Systems • Professor Jürg Dual • Professor Paolo Ermanni • Professor Christoph Glocker • Professor Edoardo Mazza Institute of Process Engineering • Professor Marco Mazzotti • Professor Sotiris E.
Welcome The Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering (D-MAVT) D-MAVT is one of sixteen departments of ETH Zurich and traces its history back to the opening of the University in 1855. Please do not hesitate to contact professors directly if any questions arise or clarifications are desired. and is currently the largest engineering department at ETH in numbers of students. Each professor’s research activities are presented individually. Institutes that consist of single professorships and professors not associated with an institute are listed individually. D-MAVT also plays an important role in making ETH a leading engineering university worldwide. staff and faculty. The Department and the current faculty of thirty one professors strives to maintain a strong international reputation in research. 7 . and professorships that combine into larger institutes which are grouped under their respective institute. The Department provides undisputed leadership in mechanical engineering research and education in Switzerland. This report presents current research in the Department.
as well as human movement. cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal homeostasis. Soft Tissue Biomechanics. using optical 3D measurement and simultaneous muscle signals. thereby offering novel strategies for the management of disease. and Sports and Movement Biomechanics. the quantification of their adaptation from birth to death. from a macroscopic (whole body. and models are developed to simulate this. i. ligament and tendon injury mechanisms. Additionally. refines and uses biomechanical engineering tools and concepts to explore and understand musculoskeletal organisation. plus technical and administrative staff (two secretaries. Bone Biomechanics. leisure. and three apprentices). as well as cellular response. Joint and Implant Biomechanics Implant loosening is a major cause of failure. the success of postoperative implantation is studied with respect to shoulder. arthritis or muscle atrophy lead to reduced functionality of this system. the Institute totals approximately 60 members. in peak performance. Special interest lies in the load conditions on the musculoskeletal system. while maintaining a philosophy of respect and compassion for all human and animal life. Joint and Implant Biomechanics. and quantifying optimal treatment and rehabilitation are crucial for the health and welfare of society. Soft Tissue Biomechanics Soft tissue biomechanics includes muscles.Institute for Biomechanics The Institute for Biomechanics is a multidisciplinary research unit dedicated to the biomechanical investigation of the human body. the Institute develops. Bone Biomechanics This research is concerned with ultrastructural assessment of bone in relation to its response to loading. where it can provide critical information for improved longevity. organ) scale to a microscopic (cell) scale. and how stability and failure are affected by bone-implant interface characteristics. For that purpose. five senior scientists. The Institute for Biomechanics comprises five research domains. and more than thirty doctoral and graduate students. and even. An understanding of the cellular response aids tissue engineering efforts. and the description of changes as a result of (i) pathology and (ii) short and long-term adaptations due to interventions (i.e. knee and ankle prostheses. including four faculty. prostheses/orthoses). Novel bioimaging approaches are being developed to study the structural. An understanding of the mechanisms governing this adaptation could ultimately lead to the development of pharmacological agents which mimic this mechano-sensitive response. including deformation and failure under load. as do the requirements of daily life. Skeletal tissue engineering is carried out. with disease. work. Mechanobiology. sports activities. bone fracture as assessed by microcomputed tomography has been combined with discrete micro-compression testing in order to understand fracture at a 3D microscopic scale. pathology and healing in these tissues. or during sporting activities is the focus of this domain. ligaments and cartilage. as well as muscle. Additionally. a mechanical and an electronics specialist. The Institute for Biomechanics investigates the mechanics and material properties of the musculoskeletal system. Under two professors. so our aim is to provide a better understanding of implant anchorage and stability. Investigations focus on diseases such as muscle atrophy. The Institute’s interests lie in characterizing the material properties of the tissues. running. stair climbing. the growth and aging processes demand adaptation of the system as a response to function. Kinetic information is gathered from five force plates. where substitute tissues that restore or improve function are developed and construct growth is monitored. Monitoring risk at an early stage of pathological development. Experimental and computational approaches are used to measure the internal structural dynamics of these. Many diseases. seven postdoctoral researchers. Mechanobiology The mechanical loading environment is an important factor regulating bone mass and shape. and its relationship to bone material composition and structure. tendons. like osteoporosis. With this aim. The system is described kinematically. as well as comparing the kinetics and kinematics of the functional and dysfunctional system. and arthritis. Furthermore. For this reason 3D approaches for quantitative bioimaging as well as experimental and computational mechanics are investigated. in order to better understand the structure-function relationship. and due to mechanical demands. Sports and Movement Biomechanics Quantification of the movements of the human body such as walking. 9 .e. peri-implant bone quality is studied. which allows inverse dynamic modeling for estimation of internal loading of the human body.
including the inaugural John Haddad Young Investigator Award (1998) from the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) and Advances in Mineral Metabolism (AIMM). he studied electrical engineering at ETH Zurich where he also received his Ph. who have brought the methods of measurement. Between 2000 and 2006. These systems allow relatively easy. as well as the Promising Young Scientist Award (1999) from the International Society of Biomechanics (ISB). he moved to Boston. he and his team received the Publication Group Award from the German Academy of Osteological and Rheumatological Sciences. volumetric and nondestructive access to the ultrastructure of biological materials for quantification. where he served as a tenure-track Assistant Professor of Orthopedic Surgery at Harvard Medical School and the Associate Director of the Orthopedic Biomechanics Laboratory. he was an SNF Professor of Bioengineering at the Institute for Biomedical Engineering. More specifically. as well as a strong interest in the field of biomedical engineering in general. in vivo computed tomography can be used to assess structurefunction relationships in human bone. Ralph Müller is an Associate Professor of Biomechanics at the Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering and the Director of the Institute for Biomechanics at ETH Zurich. Subsequently. and biomodeling. He has received a number of awards. Microcomputed tomography is used to image and quantify bone in three dimensions providing resolutions ranging from a few millimeters down to one hundred nanometers.Institute for Biomechanics Professor Ralph Müller Vision in Research and Education Professor Müller’s research aims at providing a bridge between biologists. synthesis. the group is interested in a fast and direct translation of knowledge from basic and applied research into the classroom. analysis. who have brought molecular and cellular components within the realm of engineering.D. in 1994. To understand how bone fractures are related to changes in architecture. As an educational goal. we have developed image-guided techniques that utilise micro-bending or -compression in combination with imaging. and in 2007. cellular. Synchrotron light can also be used to explore phenomena on the nanoscopic scale. new developments in biomechanical research are aimed at the quantification and modeling of the musculoskeletal system at the molecular. and engineers. providing students with novel theories and methods of cutting-edge science. and organ level incorporating novel principles and techniques of biomechanics. and control within the realm of molecular and cell biology. In 1996. In 2004. On a larger scale. This is able to provide 3D visualisation and quantification of fracture progression at the nanometer scale. Biological Quantification for Structure Function Assessment in Bone 10 . he served as a Project Manager for the micro-computed tomography project of the European Union Concerted Action BIOMED1. University and ETH Zurich. biological signal processing. and computational models developed in the lab can improve the prediction of patient-specific fracture risk. He is an author of over 600 refereed publications in international scientific journals and conferences. in Schaffhausen Switzerland. biomedical imaging. he was named Young Leader by the American-Swiss Foundation. Born in 1964. and biomechanics specifically.
where failure is initiated. A decrease in mechanical usage of the skeleton will result in bone loss. 6: Micro-CT image of a silk scaffold. We expect that this computational approach will provide critical information to define new solutions for improved implant anchorage and longevity. stretch and release provide the main concepts in analysing and modeling the mechanics of a single myofibril or a bundle of myofibrils. following bouts of 0 N (left) or 8 N (right) mechanical stimulation. This provides opportunities to mimic or augment the response to mechanical stimulation by pharmacological agents and may lead to novel strategies for managing bone pathologies. . 4: Implant-bone interaction for a particular screw implant geometry. The response during activation. Imaged using in vivo micro-CT. The goal is to understand basic events at the composite mechanical level of an ‘active’ biological material. as well as genetic control of microstructural bone adaptation. and how this leads to implant loosening. biocompatibility and host acceptance. 5: Strain energy density (SED) calculated by an FE analysis of a slab of the distal human radius as measured by in vivo HR-pQCT.Implant Fixation in Osteoporotic Bone In clinical orthopedics. The aim is to test existing theoretical models with respect to maximum performance from a mechano-physiological point of view. while overloading results in bone formation and a gain in bone mass. For that purpose. the power output of the human muscular system during cycling is determined. On a macroscopic scale. and cell transplantation into the defect site (with or without biomaterial) to repair larger defects. Here we observed a dose response in both trabecular and cortical bone following regular bouts of mechanical stimulation. (10 μm resolution). experimental time-lapsed imaging of bone-implant constructs is used to visualize how these constructs deform. osteoporosis). These data are further analyzed with computational methods using highly detailed models of trabecular bone structure and implant geometry with the aim to understand and quantify the mechanisms leading to implant failure. In our group we specialise in the measurement of functional outcomes in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine as well as the development of optimised bioreactors for biomechanical stimulation of tissue cultures. as well as the assessing treatment strategies. respectively. implant stability is a critical issue. particularly in patients with low-bone quality (e. Very little is known about the mechanisms involved. for image-guided failure assessment of human bone (80 μm resolution). Organ transplantation and mechanical devices have revolutionised medical practice but still have limitations such as availability. (6 μm resolution). Pictures from left to right: 1: The Bone Crusher device entering the in vivo HR-pQCT. Even these methods are often inadequate because of the complexity of the structure that must be replaced. Measuring and Modeling Single Myofibrils and Whole Muscle Systems In this group. and sophisticated microscopy techniques are used to describe the dynamics of a population of half-sarcomeres. investigation of the mechanics of whole-body muscle systems and single muscle fibres is carried out on the cellular and subcellular level. 2: Micro-compression device for dynamic image-guided failure assessment of bone fracture for use with synchrotron radiation-based CT (350 nm resolution). Functional Outcomes in Tissue Engineering The need for functional tissue substitutes is increasing as the world’s population ages.g. so to that end we have recently developed a mouse model to study this. New research has focused on simulating this adaptation to understand the mechanical regulation of bone structure through biological pathways. A Model of Load-induced Bone Adaptation to Study Skeletal Mechanobiology Mechanical loading is perhaps the single most important physiological/environmental factor regulating bone mass and shape. relaxation. Research in the group of Professor van Lenthe is carried out with a view to shedding light on this problem and proposing strategies for improvement. 3: Remodeling response of vertebral trabecular bone from the C5 vertebra of two mice. Methods currently being used include conduction (by a scaffold) and induction (by bioactive molecules) of cell migration to repair relatively small defects. On a microscopic scale single muscle myofibril experiments are performed.
We examine clinical problems and potential solutions in quantitative terms. and his doctorate in Mechanical Engineering from the ETH Zurich in 2004. mechanisms for long-term implant loosening. in Mechanical Engineering from Lehigh University in 1995. Department of Orthopedics. nanoscale) experiments required to validate them. in Bioengineering from Penn State University in 2000. Like many skeletal tissues. quantifying the biomechanical consequences of cut geometry on the way that bones are likely to bear load postoperatively and eventually heal. and has received various international awards for their work. Balgrist. The group has authored over 50 refereed publications in international scientific journals and conference proceedings. A considerable part of clinical innovation issues from the operating room itself and our group actively collaborates with in-house surgeons to devise new treatments. and develop them into practicable therapeutic approaches. However. micro-. Professor Snedeker received his BSc. in close proximity to orthopedic patients and their surgeons. and biomechanical consequences on joint function. For example.Institute for Biomechanics Professor Jess Snedeker Clinical Biomechanics: Systematically Improving Today’s Treatments Jess Snedeker is a Dual Professor at the ETH Zurich Department of Mechanical Engineering and the University of Zurich. We have also investigated various commercially available joint prostheses. Thus the projects undertaken and realized within Professor Snedeker’s group are clinically motivated and seek to develop improved surgical and therapeutic approaches. tendon has a low blood supply and heals poorly as we increase in age. Tendon Structure and Function: Understanding the Processes of Disease. and to the ETH Zurich in August 2008. His research group is located at the University Hospital. and they are associated with huge societal and economic costs. After several years in industrial research and development. surgical techniques and technologies are constantly evolving and certain joints (like the shoulder) are beset by some persistent problems that have no adequate therapeutic solution. test their potential efficacy. applying highprecision measurement techniques and high-resolution computational models to identify and explore the most important biological/clinical factors at work. we have performed parametric modeling studies of osteotomy design. We seek to fill these gaps through the development of fresh clinical concepts. Today’s orthopedic surgery offers pain relief and a return to function from a wide range of degenerative skeletal disorders. he returned to academia to earn his MSc. He was appointed as Assistant Professor at the University of Zurich in September 2006. Injuries of certain tendons like those of the rotator cuff muscles can seriously 12 . critically evaluating implant systems with regard to robustness of primary fixation in bone. Injury and Healing Tendon disorders continue to be among the most common medical conditions for which treatment is sought. The Snedeker group focuses on the development of numerical models of biological systems and the multi-scale (macro-.
many cases of tendon injury cannot be adequately treated by even the best therapies available. 3D ultrastructural models of tendon. To explore the potential functional impact of collagen crosslinking. hoping to identify critical cell-sensing mechanisms and cell-signaling pathways that may be augmented through therapeutic intervention. The Snedeker group is engaged in active collaborations with biomaterial scientists to attain these goals. This work is performed with the longer term aim of applying cell-mechanics within a tissue-engineering framework to intelligently guide cells to regenerate tissues of improved mechanical competency and long term viability. The Snedeker group is interested in developing advanced tendon therapies through a basic understanding of how a tendon derives its functional properties from its molecular constituents. Through the help of small animal models. and are validating these models with appropriate experiments. as well as in vivo. Cell mechanics experiments and models. we have devised large-scale numerical models of tendons at the protein level. and respond to those forces by the creation of the extra-cellular matrix that gives tendon its functional integrity. Pictures from left to right: Research on surgical techniques at the Balgrist University Hospital. but also offer opportunities as focal points for therapeutic intervention. protein synthesis. we are also characterizing the biological sequences of tendon healing. A large part of the group is dedicated to developing unique tools to characterize cell properties in 2D and 3D culture. Cell Mechanics in Disease Diagnosis and Regenerative Medicine It is becoming increasingly clear that static and dynamic forces play key roles in the extremely complex biochemical and biophysical processes that underlie cell function. Experimental models of rotator cuff tear. Healing tendon to bone. Cancer metastasis depends on changes in functional cell behaviors such as adhesion and migration that are associated with changes in cell phenotypic cell elasticity and viscoelasticity. Specifically. Unfortunately.compromise an individual’s ability to perform daily activities and drastically reduce quality of life. 13 . Cell mechanics can be involved in aberrant cell processes lying at the roots of disease. and extra-cellular matrix production). we are interested in how tendon cells sense and interpret mechanical forces. The Snedeker group is creating novel experimental and computational platforms for quantifying cellular level forces (cell-matrix interactions) and how cells respond to those forces (cell differentiation. The nature of this augmentation can be through micro-designed biomaterials that provide specific mechanical and/or biochemical cues to healing cells that stimulate tissue growth and formation of a robust and sustainable extra-cellular matrix. Our work centers on the belief that molecular cross-linking of collagen holds a large therapeutic potential that has yet to be sufficiently exploited. We also focus on the use of cell mechanics as a diagnostic and research tool for characterizing diseases like osteosarcoma (bone cancer).
research in dynamics and control is crucial to the efficient monitoring. acrobatic flight formations. vehicle-to-vehicle links. Building on first principles in mathematics and physics. biomedical and experimental design challenges.idsc. multi-robot systems and even the human body. and control of novel vehicle propulsion systems. Our pedagogical environment encourages teamwork and multidisciplinary collaboration to help prepare students for both workplace and academic success. Such innovations can be further enhanced by interconnecting them with terrestrial and satellite navigation and communication systems. These projects are our playground for innovative research and help us push the boundary of what is possible with control algorithms in the broadest sense. state-of-the-art modeling and novel design are at the centre of each project we undertake. Highly motivated students who enjoy working with others will find like-minded colleagues in our lab. self-organizing systems. dynamics and control. optimization. social. and control of energy conver- sion systems. D‘Andrea and Professor L. 15 . optimization. we use tools such as optimal control. and offers ten courses in the undergraduate and graduate program.Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control The Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control (IDSC. Innovation is critical to our research at IDSC. • Modeling. optimization and control of unmanned aerial vehicles. Our objective is to develop systems capable of guiding multiple agile vehicles into complex. They must also be able to work with specialists in other fields. experienced pilots can still easily outperform autopilot systems. control and design of complex systems. actuating. and control of internal combustion engine systems. Guzzella. actuators and embedded computation. In applications ranging from soccer-playing robots to ‘intelligent’ warehouses with hundreds of autonomous robots. • Innovating controls research by making public art. Visiting scholars and students from around the world complement our team of 40+ researchers and staff. Our research portfolio includes projects in the following areas: optimization and distributed estimation to create cooperative mobile systems capable of coping with changing conditions and improving their performance over time. we bring a model-based approach to a wide range of environmental. optimization and control systems. • Modeling. Cutting-edge control theory. We are active in the development of new algorithms to minimize this gap. fuel reformers and heat pumps are still a long way from meeting their efficiency potential. and advanced computation capabilities. formerly the Measurement and Control Laboratory) is headed by Professor R. • Design and control of autonomous. Students are engaged in research in the early stages of their curriculum and are gradually led toward more challenging problems and independent research. nonlinear We use state-of-the-art control algorithms to build dynamic art installations for public display. Traditional energy conversion systems such as gas turbines. Our aim is to reduce pollutant emissions and fuel consumption in engine systems by developing new sensors and actuators. optimization.ch. • Modeling. as well as on-line and off-line (numerical). adaptive control. Main Research Areas From aerial vehicles to combustion engines. Our objective is to equip these systems with novel sensing. Despite advances in sensors. • Modeling. commercial.ethz. multi-robot systems. Hybrid-electric and fuel cell systems can be combined with new vehicle designs to drastically reduce fuel consumption. and systems that learn from experience and improve their performance over time. Examples include systems with many interconnected components. A complete list of our projects can be found at http://www. and computation devices to optimize fuel efficiency and reduce emissions. IDSC graduates have a solid understanding of feedback.
the present challenge is to effectively design and control systems with many interconnected components. He is also one of the founders of logistics and robotics company Kiva Systems. One of the most significant of these is the present difficulty in making appropriate decisions based on distributed information across a distributed network. the Tech Museum of Innovation. and Ph. ‘’smart’’ materials with embedded actuation. and has received several teaching awards in the area of project-based learning. technological innovations and art. computing and communications technology have been keeping pace with sensor technology. Semi-definite programming algorithms can be brought to bear on these problems. and interconnected through networks of structured connectivity. physics. Fortunately. it is well known that two simple dynamic systems can exhibit comparatively complex behavior when interconnected. Examples are varied and include regular interconnection structures for systems defined on lattices. and incorporate mathematics. which will allow us to embed sensors ranging from the nano-scale to the macroscale on almost any physical device. He is the recipient of two best paper awards from the American Automatic Control Council and the IEEE. His work has been featured on Scientific American Frontiers and the Discovery Channel. and control.D. Professor D’Andrea’s contributions range from the highly theoretical to the very applied. and distributed Raffaello D’Andrea has been Full Professor at ETH Zurich since 2007. and power distribution systems. and the Spoleto Festival. adaptive control and machine learning to improve system performance over time and to cope with changing conditions. and the MSc. Australia. degrees in the Division of Engineering & Applied Science from the California Institute of Technology in 1992 and 1997. Ars Electronica. and Japan. He received a United States Presidential Early Career Award in 2002 for his ‚ «Theoretical and Experimental Advances in the Robust Control of Feedback Systems». This has been precipitated in part by the continued rapid advances in sensor technology. at an economically viable cost. resulting in computationally tractable algorithms for system analysis and control design. Other tools include optimal control to create motion primitives. must be overcome. however. computer science. at the Smithsonian. the Luminato Festival. degree in Engineering Science from the University of Toronto in 1991. ideaCity. Part of our research efforts are aimed at developing new tools for designing and controlling systems such as these. Italy. both linear and nonlinear. Autonomous Systems We are on the threshold of being able to place sensors everywhere. 16 .Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control Professor Raffaello D‘Andrea Control of Distributed. The emphasis is on tools for systems governed by differential and difference equations. Serious challenges. our environment. He received the BSc. Exhibitions include the Venice Biennale. He was the faculty advisor and system architect of the Cornell Robot Soccer Team. aircraft flying in formations. To put this in context. with a large number of components. and all the ingredients are there for major breakthroughs in the near future in how we interface to. and the National Gallery of Canada. and sparse structures for systems with limited connectivity such as vehicle platoons. He was a professor at Cornell University from 1997 to 2007. has won a National Science Foundation Career Award. four-time world champions at the international RoboCup competition in Sweden.
estimation to build models of the environment from multiple. 4) Mathematical abstractions of regularly interconnected systems. The underlying architecture of these systems is crucial to their success. maintainability. One of our research aims is to augment model-based control design with learning and adaptation to provide a flexible methodology for designing high-performance. 6) A quadrocoptor. take-off and landing). and acquire an understanding of the interplay between system design. and integration. where individuals across many fields must collaborate. and in the process acquire a solid understanding of feedback. We have an incredible opportunity to push the boundary of what is possible with control algorithms in the broadest sense when we remove the purpose-driven objectives typical to engineering from our research agenda. in fact. . we try doing it a different way the next time around. and Iterative Pictures from left to right: 1) Kiva Systems‘ „Intelligent“ warehouse. manufacturability. They learn skills such as requirements-driven design. they must be modular. but why we still need human pilots to handle unexpected events and emergencies. Rather than programming these flight systems with detailed instructions. coordinated flight maneuvers. and where prediction can greatly simplify the interface between the robots and the high-level algorithms that ultimately control them. In the process. This kind of ‘building block’ approach – where each self-contained subsystem can be easily put to use by non-experts – is crucial to effective systems engineering. 2) The Robotic Chair. with computer science concepts such as Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence to enable our systems to learn from experience. robust systems. Trajectory Control. and art. and research in these areas is expected to have direct societal relevance. error-prone sources. we can easily out-perform automated systems. This is why we use autopilot programs for the routine aspects of flying a plane (such as cruising. and narrow metrics are typically used to gauge societal relevance. To be effective. engineering. optimization and control of unmanned aerial vehicles capable of coordinated flight maneuvers.The next logical step is to network our flight systems. 5) The Balancing Cube. from a pedagogical perspective. Dynamic Installations In today’s world. where manufacturability and maintainability are key. Learning Control. Our efforts are geared towards using motion design to explore the interface between mathematics. and enable flight systems to ‘learn’ the way humans do: through practice. easy to adapt. used to develop the modeling. High Performance Autonomous Flying Vehicles Human beings learn from experience: when we try something and fail. where fleets of autonomous mobile robots use distributed intelligence to efficiently manage inventory. We are so adept. used to test distributed estimation and control algorithms. students are exposed to Systems Engineering. with an emphasis on system analysis. Novel ideas are often discovered in an unrestrained environment. physics.. so that they can learn from each other. science. we are developing new distributed planning techniques based on motion primitives that guarantee collision-free flight in the presence of disturbances and communication non-idealities. that when it comes to learning complex activities such as racing a car or playing a violin. We are currently developing algorithms that will narrow the learning gap between humans and machines. we bring creativity to our research by building dynamic art installations for public display. design. and eventually perform sophisticated. a chair that falls apart and then autonomously reassembles itself . Concurrently. And we are incredibly efficient at this process. used to test distributed estimation and control algorithms. dynamics and control. Unfortunately. we combine control concepts such as Optimal Estimation and Control. we have adopted a multi-disciplinary team-based approach for many of our projects: individuals learn how to create modular subsystems that can easily interface with the subsystems created by other members of their team. and mathematics are essentially utilitarian. and to encourage ‘out-of-the-box thinking’. and simulation. a collaboration with artists Max Dean and Matt Donovan.. This is why. 3) The Distributed Flight Array. «utilitarian» often means‚ «for the benefit of consumerism». control design. modeling and simulation of dynamic systems. engineering. and allow a large number of individuals to concurrently develop them.
Schaan) and in academia (electrical and mechanical engineering departments at ETH and Honda Visiting Professor at Ohio State University). and information about exhaust gas must be integrated into the emission control loop. an engine’s air/fuel ratio sensor undergoes a substantial change in its dynamics. To achieve this aim. these vehicles are complex and. Emission-Controlled Diesel Engine Diesel engines are more fuel efficient than other engines. but their pollutant emissions must be substantially reduced to meet future environmental standards. His research group focuses on novel approaches in system dynamics and control of energy conversion systems. After receiving his mechanical engineering diploma in 1981 and his doctoral degree in 1986 from ETH. As it ages over the course of its lifetime. This project focuses on the development of control strategies capable of managing complex systems such as these. where he has. from a controls perspective. The resulting increased demands on the system. he held several positions in industry (R&D team leader at Sulzer Brothers. with control-oriented systems modeling and dynamic optimization and feedback control design as the main areas of research. can reduce its overall performance. He is a Member of the Swiss Academy of Engineering and a Member of the CTI Committee on Engineering Sciences. The goal of this project is to design a controller capable of dealing with changes of the air/fuel sensor dynamics without sacrificing overall system performance. 18 . This project focuses on the development of control-oriented engine models and flexible control structures that use integrated sensor information to minimize emissions. a robust controller can mitigate this change. since 1999. A particular emphasis is placed on minimizing fuel consumption and pollutant emission in land vehicle propulsion systems. ultimately superceding the need for global robustness and circumventing the system performance problem. Our strategy also makes use of dynamic programming to handle issues such as component sizing. Winterthur and R&D mechatronics department head at Hilti. To some extent. robust and accurate control of the engine is critical. pose significant a design challenge. held the Chair of Thermotronics. Optimized Control of Standard and Plug-In HEVs Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) promise excellent fuel-efficiency without sacrificing vehicle performance or passenger comfort. Because they have more than one power source. Engine variability and ageing must also be dealt with. He is also a consultant to various automotive companies and holds several patents in the area of automotive research.Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control Professor Lino Guzzella Model-Based Adaptive and Cylinder Individual Air/Fuel Ratio Control Lino Guzzella is a member of the Institute of Dynamic Systems and Control at ETH Zurich. Our control strategy identifies changes in sensor dynamics and adapts its parameters accordingly. however. Professor Guzzella is a Fellow and a Member of the board of IFAC and an Associate Editor of the Journal Control Engineering Practice. however.
our engine is substantially smaller than a conventional internal combustion engine with the same power. fund raising and safety assessment also come into play. measurements of the CSF-Phantom. and the people that use them. hybrid pneumatic vehicles offer an affordable alternative to the hybrid electric vehicle. Particle tracking velocimetry. solar panels with hot-water reservoirs. and a cogeneration power plant. won the Formula Hybrid competition in Italy. Because they require no batteries or electric motors. Using photovoltaic systems with large battery capacity. Formula Hybrid Optimal Control of Cables Because of their low damping and long length. and an intelligent damping system is needed. and excellent driveability. Pictures from left to right: Glowing three-way catalytic converter during controller test Configuration of the dynamic diesel engine testbench. Project management. The IDSC contributes to the project with the design of a SmartShunt functional model. Formula Hybrid is an international competition challenging students to design. With so many interacting energy and storage systems. Fortunately. Minimizing energy consumption is a key part of the design objective. In 2008. build and race high-performance. the Monta Rosa hut poses a significant control challenge.Pneumatic Hybrid Engine for Fuel Consumption Reduction Smart-Shunt Project Here at IDSC we have built the world’s first fully-functional hybrid pneumatic engine. promising new feedbackcontrolled magnetorheological damping systems are under development to prevent premature material failure within cable anchor systems. storage systems. Conversion rates of over 98% are reached if the exhaust gases remain very close to stoichiometry. plug-in hybrid vehicles. hyb-a. however. The behaviour of both damper and cable are complex. Three-way catalysts have been the most successful exhaust gas after treatment systems for many years already. Based on recently developed nonlinear catalyst models. The goal of this project is to create a robust and accurate non-linear model of such a system. however. Monte Rosa Hut Modeling and Control of Three-Way Catalysts The Monte Rosa Hut is a collaborative project designed with sustainability in mind. novel feedforward and feedback algorithms are being developed that allow compensating for most of the detrimental effects occurring during fuel cut-off and heavy accelerations. This transdisciplinary project aims at conducting the basic research necessary for the subsequent development of a smart cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt for normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). At IMRT we are developing ways to optimize the interactions of the various energy systems. The result: a 30% improvement in fuel efficiency over conventional engines. Using compressed air as an energy buffer. the Monta Rosa Hut can host up to 125 guests with minimal environmental impact. cables on large span cable-stayed bridges are prone to potentially damaging vibrations. PAC-Car II on the racetrack during the Shell ECO-marathon in Nogaro/F 19 . and the development of a control algorithm that regulates CSF drainage. NPH is most commonly treated by the surgical placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt that drains CSF from the patient’s ventricular space to the peritoneal area. the first Formula Hybrid vehicle from ETHZ.
21 . to the industrial challenges of generating electricity in efficient and sustainable ways. including biomedical technologies. On the more fundamental aspects of energy conversion. hydrogen). The long-term vision aims at the realization of zero-emission combustion systems for transportation and power generation. including management and control of flows. through development of hierarchical nanomanufacturing techniques that can bridge nano-. Examples of relevant technologies are: Micro- and nanoscale energy conversion and transport in transportable fuel cell and solar cell based personal power systems. The program of Nanoscience for Energy Technology and Sustainability will focus on fundamental sciences of nanomaterials and their applications to energy technology and sustainability. and nanoelectromechanical systems. where biogenic/ synthetic fuels also play a role. The research focus at the Laboratory of Thermodynamics in Emerging Technologies is on interfacial and transport phenomena in emerging energy conversion and transport technologies. The current turbomachinery activities of LEC span a broad range of multidisciplinary fields. In this way. and contributes to the improvement of computer codes. The Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory is engaged in research in chemically reactive flows with emphasis on unsteady turbulent combustion. and high-density electronics in the new generation of supercomputers for zero CO2 emission data centers. key thermochemical flow parameters are obtained with high spatial and temporal resolution. Carbon nanotube nanofluidics for energy technology will be the main thrust of the program. The three main research areas of the Laboratory of Energy Science and Engineering are: (i) sustainable energy generation. reliable and economic utilization of nuclear power. Research in the Laboratory of Energy Science and Engineering is aimed at applying a fundamental understanding gained from laboratory-scale experiments. the research emphasis is on the analysis of radiation heat exchange in multi-phase reacting flows. It promotes the application of modern methods. The methods are applied to energy supply systems and other complex critical infrastructures. micro- and mesoscales. thermochemical. applied in the engineering design and optimization of high-temperature reactors. The research program of the Professorship of Renewable Energy Carriers is aimed at the advancement of the thermal. aeroelasticity.g.g. The scope of analysis has been extended from reliability and risk to vulnerability issues and to an increasing set of threats. computation and econometric modeling is also undertaken at LEC. nano-. gasification). manufacturing and liquid-cooling of micro-. LEC is also engaged in the research and development of a laser-produced-plasma extreme ultra violet source for the manufacture of next generation semiconductors. The research of the Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Systems aims to support a safe. We often aim at bridging the gap between the molecular level and the macroscopic domain. The emphasis is put on thermal fluid dynamic modeling. also to increase their robustness and to support the development of protective strategies. the thermal decarbonization of fossil fuels (e. as well as model-based numerical design tools. instrumentation. To this end both modeling and simulation of reactive flows (from DNS over LES to RANS) and non-intrusive diagnostics in optical test rigs and real engines are carried out. together with appropriate mathematical modeling. Current research applications include the production of solar fuels (e. the thermal processing and recycling of energy-intensive materials. The development of wind energy through experiments. and CO2 capture/mitigation technologies. thermal management. biomedical technologies and modeling for the human body. the laboratory develops flow measuring instrumentation. To this end. The Laboratory for Energy Conversion (LEC) has for many decades been one of the leaders in research and teaching related to turbomachinery. reforming. such as 3D simulations and novel experimental techniques for safety assessments and improvements as well as for the development of future nuclear energy systems. analyze (simulate) and evaluate large-scale technical systems which have witnessed a much greater and tighter integration and interdependence among them. (ii) heterogeneous reaction engineering and (iii) fundamentals of multi-phase granular systems.Institute of Energy Technology Main Research Areas The continual drive for efficient use of our natural resources necessitates improvements in the efficiency of current and future power generation and air transportation systems. and electrochemical engineering sciences applied in the development of renewable energy technologies. Leveraging our experience in thermal and flow management. performs experiments for the model development. The Laboratory of Safety Analysis provides advanced techniques and tools to model. cracking.
3D Blade Tip-cavity Contouring Through 3D contouring of the tip of turbine blades. Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). The Laboratory for Energy Conversion (LEC) has maintained an active research group of about 30 to 40 scientific staff from around the globe. In addition. continue to focus on the unsteady nature of the flow in such devices. the generation and evolution of the recess cavity vortex structures have been controlled. Abhari Research Direction The continual drive for efficient use of our natural resources necessitates improvement in the efficiency of current and future power generation and air transportation systems. 22 . and is a Member of many scientific boards. Reza S. with collaborations with academia and industry in Europe. some of our current measurement technologies and signal processing techniques are being explored in emerging fields such as semiconductor manufacturing processes. and in 1995 he joined the faculty of the Ohio State University.D. The instrumentation work continues to evolve from a development phase into application tools. . US and Japan. He has been the author of over 130 peer reviewed technical papers in various scientific areas. as well as modelbased numerical design tools form the thrust areas in these activities. He is a Member of the Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences (SATW). aerodynamic loss and heat transfer processes. Low Solidity Axial Turbine Aerodynamics Research to gain a fundamental understanding of fluid dynamic losses in an unsteady multi-stage turbine at low solidities and with clocking is being performed with applications to improve steam turbines efficiencies for power generation applications. structures and vibration. Abhari has been a Full Professor of Aerothermo-dynamics at ETH Zurich since October 1999. Turbomachinery Research Secondary Flow Control Through Endwall Contouring The aerodynamic performance of axial turbines is being significantly improved through 3D contouring of the endwalls. He received his BA degree in Engineering Science from Oxford University in 1984 and his Ph.D. The research activities of Professor Abhari’s group focus on developing novel technologies that substantially lower fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. from the Aeronautical and Astronautical Department of MIT in 1991. allowing the control of the secondary flow generation and its subsequent evolution. resulting in performance gain while reducing the tip heat load. heat transfer. Research into aero-elasticity. while increasing the reliability of different types of energy conversion devices. advanced diagnostic sensor technologies and active and passive flow control. The current activities of the laboratory in a broad range of multidisciplinary fields related to the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy. High Work.Institute of Energy Technology Laboratory for Energy Conversion Professor Reza S. His current research interests include the experimental and computational study of fluid dynamics. Following his Ph. he held various research and development positions in industry.
applicable for wind farms that are located in complex terrain. Measuring the flow entropy rise at high frequencies in turbomachines and in other fields is a goal currently being pursued. are being used in the development of macro models for simulation tools. source that degrade the collection optics. complemented by detailed flowfield measurements of velocity and turbulence. A novel high temp (260°C) FRAP is being developed in order to follow the trends of higher turbine operating temperatures. In-house computational tools (A heterogeneous computing cluster system with a total of 2. The current focus is first understanding the evolution and characteristics of the debris from the Plasma Science Feature-based Computational Embedded Modeling A novel model is being developed that allows practical computation of multi-scale fluid dynamics problems in 3D unsteady flow with substantial computational acceleration. allowing an actual system optimization of the cooling and the aerodynamic performance for high temperature gas turbine applications. Radial Compressor Test Facility for Flow and Forced Response Measurements 23 . This package covers all the relevant time and length scales of laser-produced plasma. Pictures from left to right: Water towing tank facility. This approach is being applied for prediction of film cooling in high temperature turbine applications. A project into better modeling of aerodynamic forcing function as well as damping for application in centrifugal compressors is being pursued. Experimental Study of Pulsating Jet in Cross Flow An experimental study of a row of pulsating jets at differing reduced frequencies is being performed in order to better understand the influence of the pulsation and the incoming vortical field on the mixing rates. Performance measurements. Applied laser plasma science facility.Tip Clearance Passive Control Significant potential for loss reduction through passive injection of the shroud cooling flow within high pressure axial turbines is being developed. and then designing effective and practical debris mitigation strategies. Miniature Entropy Probe Entropy increase within a fluid represents the actual rate of loss generations. A multi-scale physics in-house package complements the experiments that are conducted in the LEC plasma science facility. Instrumentation and Signal Processing Wind Energy Experiments on full-scale wind turbines in the field and subscale wind turbines in LEC’s wind turbine facility are being conducted. In order to lower the risks of wind energy development an econometrics wind farm model is being developed. A numerical site calibration tool. Running the Axial Turbine Test Facility ‘LISA’. Applied Fluid Dynamics The engineering of a EUV lithography source collector module and its operation for space- & time-resolved parametric optimization is the focus of experiments that are conducted in LEC’s plasma facility. High Temperature FRAP In-house developed piezoresistive pressure transducers are embedded in LEC’s Fast Response Aerodynamic Probes (FRAP) in order to measure time dependent flows. Aero-elastic Vibration of Centrifugal Compressors Inlet distortion and exit diffuser potential fields could impose a substantial excitation force on the impeller blades of a centrifugal compressor. This tool will reduce the uncertainty in the prediction of wind power production and also reduce the development time of wind farm projects.200 processor cores in 756 compute nodes). is being developed. and includes a radiation-hydrodynamic code that is coupled with a PIC method and DSMC code. Particle Image Velocimetry using an Nd-YAG Laser to investigate Film Cooling Flow Structure.
he was appointed head of the Joint Combustion Research Program with PSI. transitional and turbulent reactive flows using a fully parallel spectral element code with detailed chemistry and transport in 3-D. the Sensor Innovation Award 2007 and the Distinguished Paper Award on New Technologies Concepts 2006 by the Combustion Institute. laminar and turbulent burners. - A correct formulation for multicomponent. of Princeton University where he worked on projects in simulation and diagnostics of combustion processes. from ETH Zurich in 1984. He spent 1. Konstantinos Boulouchos received his diploma in Mechanical Engineering from the National Technical University of Athens in 1978 and his Ph. including ion-probes and fast sampling valves for application in combustion chambers and in the exhaust system of research and pro- duction engines in steady and transient operation. among others. single shot compression machines. In 1988 he returned to the I. ignition and combus- tion processes. Main Research Projects and Results: - A fully parallel 3-D version of the DNS code for reactive flows has been developed in collaboration with Argonne National Lab and applied to problems of cellular instabilities in diffusion flames and transitions between edge and diffusion flames in opposed jet configurations. K.D. and in 1998 he became Titular Professor of ETH Zurich. In 1995. Engine and Combustion Technology Laboratory of ETH where he built up the turbulent combustion research activities. and oxidation in optically accessible test rigs. and local wall heat flux through miniaturized sensors.Institute of Energy Technology Laboratory of Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Professor Konstantinos Boulouchos The Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems Laboratory is Active in Research (and Teaching) in the Following Areas: Born in 1955 in Greece. He directed the Combustion Research Laboratory of PSI until 2002 when he was elected Full Professor for Aerothermochemistry and Combustion Systems at ETH Zurich. - RANS simulation of multi-phase reactive flows in internal combustion engines based on advanced turbulent combus- tion models. in situ detection of temperature. non-isothermal 24 . He is co-author of over 120 publications in refereed journals and peer-reviewed conferences. - DNS of laminar.5 years as a post-doctoral researcher at ETH. as well as highly turbulent. soot formation. flame propagation. - On-line. - Optical diagnostics of two-phase flows. - Entropic Lattice Boltzmann simulation of microflows inclu ding effects of variable density/temperature/composition.C. He is also Chairman of the Board of the Energy Science Center at ETH Zurich. Extension of this capability to include hetero geneous chemistry in exhaust after-treatment devices. The latter results have been validated through detailed OH-LIF and Roman measurements in collaboration with PSI. highly diluted mixtures. - 3-D CRFD simulation for understanding and optimization of advanced combustion systems including combustion of biogenic/synthetic and hydrogen-enriched fuels. like spray and combustion bombs. and in 1987 he joined the MAE Dept. soot and relevant radicals concentration. Boulouchos has won.
- Understanding of soot formation and reduction: The influence of fuel composition. which is proved to be by far superior to. premixed methane-air flames with vortex-breakdown sta- bilization. 100 powerplants with an installed power of more than 25 MWel and ~ 300’000 hrs of operation have been sold worldwide. Dynamics of premixed hydrogen/air flames in mesoscale channels. gas-turbine-relevant. Schlieren-imaging. very fast models for the efficient prediction of heat release rate. while in parallel allowing significantly lowered part-load fuel consumption. engines has been developed and validated for en- gines of several sizes. as well as advanced measurement techniques provide a unique basis for combustion analysis. We have demonstrated that hydrogen-rich fuels have a tremendous potential for lowering engine-out nitrogen-oxide emissions by almost 3 orders of magnitude.C. including HCCI combustion models. mixing. the potential use of reformates from on-board generation to positively influence combustion in Otto engines has been investigated in detail. and self-ignition processes under high-pressure. applications in re- search diesel engines have demonstrated an excellent capabili- ty of the concept to accurately predict ignition times and heat- release rates for a wide range of operating parameters both for conventional mixing-controlled and for homogeneous- charge-compression-ignition combustion modes. NOx-formation. - Mie-scattering. This work has been carried out in close cooperation with the Euro- pean automative industry. ignition. based on turbo- charged. An important spin-off has been the develop- ment of an accurate. due to extensive dethrottling. Simulation of turbulent liquid fuel sprays by means of threedimensional computational reactive fluid dynamics with advanced combustion models 25 . This set of data from constant-volume bombs and the single-shot compression machine has been used to validate in detail simulation models developed in parallel for multicomponent evaporation. ambient conditions. - In collaboration with the automotive industry. Fast acting valves coupled with these diagnostics and an efficient control algorithm have successfully been applied to significantly suppress the level of oscillations with- out adverse effects on the formation of nitrogen oxides. fuel composition and ambient conditions to understand the evaporation. shadowgraphy. - A highly innovative combustion system for natural gas fuelled cogeneration engines has been developed. and soot emis- sions in I. Pictures from left to right: The high temperature high pressure constant volume combustion chamber enables 4 optical accesses providing studies of fuel spray and combustion. OH/CH- chemiluminescence and PDA-measurements have been applied for characterization of transient diesel sprays with different geometries. state-of-the-art test rig. The new engine achieved world records both for electric and total efficiency in its class. - A set of phenomenological. Back-Diffused-Laser-Light-Extinction. have been applied to investigate origins and modes of thermoacoustic instabilities in lean. This product is in a commercialization phase. stoichiometric combustion with high exhaust-gas recirculation rates. An innovation in this context was the stochastic optimization of the model parameters. diesel-engine-relevant conditions. An optical accessible. based on the method of evolutionary algorithms. and self-cleaning pyrometer sensor in miniaturized form for the on-line detection of soot concentration and temperature in diesel engines. - The Conditional Moment Closure approach has been further applied for multi-phase RANS computations in diffusion flames in collaboration with Cambridge University. These investi- gations have been carried out in the constant-volume com- bustion bomb. and combustion of sprays in diesel engines. together with a leading sen- sor supplier for the automotive industry. and fuel injection features has been well understood on the basis of planar and line-of-sight methods like Laser-Induced-Incandescence (in collaboration with PSI). for example. flows has been developed for the first time in the frame of the (Entropic) Lattice Boltzmann methodology and is cur- rently applied in 3-D problems in microflows. injection characteristics. - Chemiluminescence and laser-induced fluorescence signals of the OH-radical. so that ca. robust. neural networks for multi parameter problems with complex underlying physics. together with transient pressure measure- ments. and in particular multi-wavelength Pyrometry. The new concept has been commercialized in collaboration with Swiss industry.
(LHC) 26 . A study has been undertaken aimed at identifying weaknesses within a “system-of-systems” of five selected CI including the power system and proposing potential solutions to vulnerabilities which may cause end-user disruptions. The design and operation of the MPS of the LHC at CERN entails a trade-off between machine safety and beam availability. and in providing tools for multi-criteria decision-making processes. The risks and vulnerabilities of critical infrastructures (CI) have been a priority for IRGC. analysis/simulation. Member of the Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences. He has published numerous articles and contributed to various books focusing on risk issues and on comprehensive assessement of energy systems. i. project is supported by CERN. He was scientific chairman of the Forum Engelberg in 1999. Before this he headed research in nuclear energy and safety at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) and served on the board of directors. His current activities related to the IRGC aim at early detection of emerging transboundary risks and provision of good governance strategies to be applied at global level. and Honorary Member of the Swiss Nuclear Society. in view of the apparent advantages of both the simulation and analytical approach. Therefore. completed his doctorate in 1974 and his habilitation thesis in 1986. An analytical description of the underlying model provides an accurate verification of the simulation results suggesting itself for an alternative to simulations. A current study focuses on maritime global CI with the Strait of Malacca and linked hubs as well as major hazards as the example. missed emergency beam dump and false beam dump. He is Chairman of the “Safety Review Group” of the EBRD. He is engaged in putting the assessment and management of technological risks and vulnerabilities into a broader context.irgc. It supports key decision makers by providing authoritative information and designing innovative governance strategies. An algorithm for the automatic set-up of the analytical equations based on the graphical model representation underlying the simulations would provide an accurate and time saving calculation. Professor Kröger studied mechanical engineering at the RWTH Aachen. the merging of the two approaches represents a starting point for further development. Born in the Ruhr district in Germany.D.org). Member of the European Academy. and optimization of highly integrated engineered systems. with focus both on individual infrastructures and the increasing interdependence between them – as in the use of ICT for industrial control. He also is Founding Rector of the International Risk Governance Council (www.Institute of Energy Technology Laboratory of Safety Analysis Professor Wolfgang Kröger Balancing Safety and Availability for the LHC Machine Protection System (MPS) Wolfgang Kröger has been Ordinarius of Safety Technology and Director of the Laboratory for Safety Analysis since 1990. established by a Swiss initiative in 2003.e. The Ph. Professor Kröger is chiefly involved in methodical developments pertaining to modeling. It will be further investigated whether the methodology can be applied to more advanced models. Scientific Support of the IRGC The IRGC is dedicated to improving how re-emerging systemic risks are handled. A simulation-based methodology has been developed to yield the probability of the relevant scenarios. The MPS detects the failures in the LHC and stops the operation to prevent components from being damaged. The work was published as a White Paper and Policy Brief.
an in-depth analysis may be necessary. Based on a criticality parameter evaluation. This allows the calculation of expected frequencies of power outages versus size. Based on more detailed information. functional or given by a host technology. Efforts are needed to convert a fault tree structure to BDD. The Ph.g. A hybrid object-oriented modeling approach was chosen to simulate the system behavior as a whole explicitly in time and to include highly non-linear responses and non-technical factors. The current focus is on Swiss systems for electricity supply. seismic contributions to reactor core damage frequency) as needed for nuclear licensing purposes. The project introduced here assists the Swiss Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP) in developing a national strategy for the protection of CI by improving the scientific basis.. minimal cut sets. which in turn introduces new vulnerabilities.g. e. In a screening analysis to start with. model for the grid operator and interplay with transmission lines 27 . These methodological restrictions are overcome by the use of BDD.g.g. CI are large-scale. Reliability policies and assessment methodologies did not keep pace with these developments. Various simulation studies performed on both a virtual test system and on a model of the Swiss transmission grid confirm the suitability and feasibility of the developed approach. Student running a simulation. urban drinking water and transportation by rail including their interdependencies. The present work is part of a long-term cooperation with FOCP. Coping with Vulnerabilities of Interconnected CI Modeling of Failure Propagation in Complex Engineering Systems Market liberalization and technological trends (including integration of intermittent generators) have lead to the unprecedented complexity of the European power system and to its operation at design limits.. representing the reliability of the system in a highly differentiated way. Special emphasis will be placed on events like earthquakes and storms potentially affecting the CI in a region. which may either be physical. by optimizing the basic event ordering. while the modeling complexity has to be reduced. Civil defense authorities confronted with such situations have to broaden their knowledge base and implement tools allowing them to reliably assess and manage the vulnerability of CI. information and communication.Using Binary Decision Diagrams (BDD) Most PRA-tools quantify logical tree models by applying simplifying assessment techniques (e. The debiliation of a single CI can snowball into other systems depending on the degree of interconnectedness. Pictures from left to right: LHC performance estimates. Ph. several infrastructures have been identified to be analyzed according to a tailored framework. making use of more sophisticated modeling and simulation methods (such as object-oriented modeling/ Monte-Carlo simulation) following a “system-of-systems” approach. technical systems essential for the minimum operation of our economy and society. This has only been possible through the pervasive use of digital control systems. project was sponsored by Kernkraftwerk Leibstadt. the results permit elaboration on a novel complementary probabilistic security criterion and on adequate operator response times.g. making use of work done under other auspices. Further problems arise when handling relatively high probability events (e.D. e. With respect to potential industrial applications. They are exposed to a set of multiple threats and may even be misused to cause significant harm to the public or trigger panic. The primary objective of this project sponsored by swisselectric research is to develop a novel probabilistic modeling and simulation technique focusing on more complex failure sequences spreading over several control areas.D. control room operators. e. assessment matrix for selected infrastructures. swisselectric research and FOE. This includes the evaluation and development of models and tools for vulnerability/risk analysis of interconnected CI as well as their application. an adequate system understanding has to be set up and conventional techniques including network analysis have to be applied to identify “obvious” vulnerabilities. rare event approximation).
a gaseous fuel. together with appropriate mathematical modeling. the fuel has been combusted in air. research has predominantly focused on the CLC of gaseous fuels. thus avoiding the major cost of separating CO2 from N2 in the flue gases after conventional combustion in air. 28 . In conventional CLC. to the industrial challenge of generating electricity in efficient and sustainable ways. but the CO2 is produced in a pure form. methane. These topics are now described in more detail using some typical projects as examples. Subsequent condensation of the steam yields a stream of pure CO2.g. a temperature at which it is advantageous to recover Sustainable Energy Generation Christoph Müller will join ETH Zurich on 1st January. University of Cambridge. (ii) heterogeneous reaction engineering and (iii) fundamentals of multi-phase granular systems. e. such as coal and biomass.D. The metal. viz. e. The carbonation reaction of solid CaO with CO2. is conveyed to an oxidation reactor. separated from the N2 in the air. On the basis of that work. One attractive possibility is the use of calcium-based sorbents. He received his Ph. Chemical looping combustion Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a novel chemical cycle in which a fuel is oxidised by oxygen derived from a metal oxide. In our group we are focusing on extending CLC to solid fuels. particularly applied to solid fuels. and the sustainable generation of hydrogen and (ii) post-combustion capture of CO2. rather than directly from the air. in 2008 at the Department of Chemical Engineering. 2010 to head the Laboratory of Energy Science and Engineering. The three main research areas of the Laboratory of Energy Science and Engineering are: (i) sustainable energy generation. Born 1978 in Nuremberg (Germany) he received his undergraduate degree (Dipl. is oxidized in the fuel reactor: (2n + m) MeO + CnH2m (2n+m) Me + m H2O + n CO2. Me. So far.Institute of Energy Technology Energy Science and Engineering Professor Christoph Müller Research on sustainable energy generation concentrates on: (i) chemical-looping combustion.g. a hydrocarbon like natural gas.) at the TU München. with the latter easily removed by condensation. he was awarded a Junior Research Fellowship at Queens’ College.-Ing. which will play an important role into the future as a fuel. University of Cambridge. Post-combustion capture of CO2 using natural and synthetic solid sorbents If CO2 has to be sequestered from an existing power station. Department of Mechanical Engineering. a post-combustion technology for capturing it has to be employed. The products of such combustion are CO2 and H2O. using natural and synthetic sorbents. where Me is a metal like copper. His doctoral thesis was entitled “Fundamental Studies of Fluidised Bed Reactors”. where it is regenerated in air: Me + 1 2 O2 MeO In effect.e. Research Research in the Laboratory of Energy Science and Engineering is aimed at applying a fundamental understanding gained from laboratory-scale experiments. i. CaO + CO2 CaCO3 can be used to remove CO2 from process streams (this exothermic carbonation reaction occurs at ~ 65o°C.
but also the cyclic stability is paramount. Two phase Discrete element Model simulation of a gas fluidised bed. Heterogeneous Reaction Engineering for Novel Energy Cycles and sulphur removal by calcareous materials. is of fundamental importance. (ii) the catalysis of reactions or capture of pollutants by the bed material (e. This includes: (a) Further development of experimental measurements using among others Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This is because fluidised beds offer huge advantages over other types of reactors for this application in terms of: (i) tolerance to changes in fuel mix and type.heat). These are mainly due to a lack of understanding of single- and two-phase granular flows on a very fundamental level. Here. Thus. including the development of a multi-scale modeling strategy. Consequently. not only the reactivity. the development of oxygen-carriers and CO2 sorbents of high cyclic stability and reactivity is currently a black art. Research will be performed in all three areas. including the morphological changes. the ultimate goal will be the tailored design of particles with high cyclic reactivity and stability. The carbonated sorbent can then be transferred to a second reactor. Magnetic Resonance image showing the formation of jets at a single- and multi-orifice distributor in a fluidised bed. where it is heated to ~ 900°C to drive off the CO2 (calcination). This lack of understanding originates in the fact that granular systems are usually opaque. major challenges have to be overcome. tar cracking Pictures from left to right: SEM picture of an iron oxygen carrier used for the production of hydrogen. 29 . mainly co-precipitation and wet-impregnation techniques. through Discrete Element simulations to two-fluid simulations. (iii) high rates of heat transfer and (iv) economic operation at relatively small scales. The calcined sorbent can then be recycled. NOx reduction by iron). the main challenge lies in developing synthetic sorbents with a high uptake of CO2 over a large number of cycles. based on a fundamental understanding of the underlying manufacturing process and morphological changes during heterogeneous reactions. before these schemes can be applied efficiently. An emphasis will be on polydisperse and reacting systems. However. described above. to be applicable at the industrial scale. Such a multi-disciplinary approach is a key facet of the Laboratory of Energy Science and Engineering.g. ranging from fully-resolved direct simulation. as there is a significant lack of detailed understanding of: (i) the processes involved in the manufacturing of these particles. PIV measurements of the particle velocity around a rising bubble. Fundamentals of Multi-Phase Granular Systems The majority of these novel energy cycles will take place in one or more bubbling or circulating fluidised beds in addition to moving and packed bed reactors. making experimental measurements intrinsically difficult. For the novel chemical cycles. an improved fundamental understanding of the kinetics of the underlying heterogeneous reactions. expertise and knowledge across a number of cognate disciplines ranging from classical chemical and mechanical engineering through catalysis and wet chemistry to computational physics and imaging techniques is essential. Therefore. a significant part of our research concentrates on the experimental and numerical investigation of two-phase granular systems. (ii) the effect of morphological changes during repeated cycles on performance stability and reactivity and (iii) catalysis in the presence of a gas-solid non-catalytic reaction. to advance the field of sustainable energy science. Because most of these novel cycles involve synthetic particles. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) and (b) modeling of granular systems. Therefore. Single-phase Discrete Element Model simulation showing the segregation of particles of different particle sizes in a rotating kiln.
etc. the article has been one of the most frequently cited chemistry articles in the journal. Carbon Nanotube Nanofluidics for Energy Technology and Sustainability This program will focus on understanding of fundamentals of mass transport through carbon nanotubes and the application of this acquired basic nanoscience to energy technologies for addressing our future sustainability. applications in energy technology and sustainability. His research on mass transport in carbon nanotubes received an academic spotlight in the form of a cover article in Science in May 2006. Upon receiving his Ph. which will become useful in both academia and industry. By controlling shape and configuration of carbon nanotubes at the synthesis stage and through formation of different nanocomposites at the post-synthesis stage. After one year in SNU research center. His M. Korea. in 2007. the program will explore other nanomaterials that are functional.Institute of Energy Technology Nanoscience for Energy Technology & Sustainability Professor Hyung Gyu Park Research Direction Park’s Professorship of Energy Technology will focus on fundamental nanoscience for energy technology and sustainability applications. he joined LLNL as a postdoctoral research staff member and conducted many projects in the fields of CNT nanofluidics and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Previous experimental study of the molecular transport through the internal space of CNT demonstrated enhanced flows of water 30 . Hyung Gyu Park joined ETH Zurich in April. The progress of projects in this program will also build knowledge about micro- and nanomanufacturing techniques. respectively. in Mechanical Engineering in 1998 and 2000.D.e. students and researchers trained in the program may end up acquiring various experiences in fundamental nanoscale transport phenomena. in energy technologies and chem-bio sensing. molecules). Therefore. After an earlier preparation of science in Seoul Science High School. he entered Seoul National University (SNU) in 1992 and received BSc. motivated by the hemodynamic simulation of an artery. Since then. either as is or in the form of nanocomposites. as an Assistant Professor of Energy Technology in D-MAVT. thesis was about the numerical treatment of axisymmetric flows in a Cartesian coordinate system. 2009. As it grows. The initial stage of the program will utilize a variety of carbon nanotube nanofluidic platforms in studying basic properties of transport under extreme confinement that is commensurable with the own sizes of transporting entities (i. and multiple techniques of micro/ nanomanufacturing. and MSc. he went to the University of California at Berkeley. supported by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). the program envisions provision of membrane- and nanofluidic-type platforms with diverse properties and functionalities.S. These platforms will enable experimental studies to be carried out ranging from fundamental nanoscale transport phenomena to energyefficient filtration to novel energy generation schemes. and carried out research topics including (1) microfluidic fuel processor for a micro fuel cell system and (2) mass transport in carbon nanotubes. He was born in 1973 in Seoul.
CNT-membranes have many potential advantages to address these demands. water flows in CNTs can experience 1000 times less viscous drag than other reverse osmosis membranes.. Thirdly. characterization. if ionic solutions are driven by electrokinetic potential. are shedding light on the capability of energy-efficient filtration by CNTmembranes. H. it is possible to functionalize the surface of the CNT-membrane in a variety of ways for other purposes. The fundamental science domain of this program will. K. therefore. There is much more science to uncover that could potentially nurture new fields of applications. Figure-of-merit diagram of carbon nanotube membranes compared with a commercial polycarbonate membrane.G. leaving ions behind. Holt.under extreme (sub-2-nm) one-dimensional confinement by atomic-scale smooth. Park’s research program requires a series of interrelated. very interesting phenomena may occur related to the equilibrium conformation of ions under extreme confinement. Fourthly. ment of CNTs using those platforms platforms and characterization other materials and functional groups Pictures from left to right: Multiscale images of carbon nanotube membrane zooming from centimeter- into nanometer-scales. Science 312:1034 (2006). Through a hierarchical micro/nanomanufacturing technique. artist’s imagination of water molecules flowing into carbon nanotubes. as previous research has demonstrated. Second. Energy technology for sustainability: it is predicted that the 21st century societal and economic developments will place enormous demands on clean water and energy supplies. interaction with • Hierarchical micro/nanomanufacturing of membrane • Study of fluid and solution flows under extreme confine • Water technology applications: energy-efficient filtration • Energy technology applications: fuel cell components and membrane reactors. together with a recent demonstration of ion exclusion by the CNT-membrane. etc. This potential facilitates a wide range of applications in energy technology from sea water desalination and water decontamination to next generation fuel cells to solar energy harvesting. Reprinted with permission from AAAS). coordinated and synergistic research topics outlined as follows: • CNT synthesis control. First. Park et al. schematic explanation of a proposed ion exclusion mechanism. hydrophobic surfaces. Those findings. the study also developed a prototype membrane with CNTs serving as pores. 31 . such as solar energy harvesting and drug delivery for on-demand treatments. Both gas and water can flow much faster when confined inside carbon nanotubes (From J. center on broadening the basic knowledge of CNT nanofluidics and expand it toward noncontinuum fluid dynamics and mass transfer at nanoscale. Much more to learn: the current state of understanding of the basics of transport in CNTs still lies in its adolescence stage. chemically functionalized CNT-membranes can exclude ions in an aqueous solution through reverse osmosis.
surface driven energy conversion. Research at LTNT demonstrated that nanoink-based manufacturing is a promising technique. His current research is in the area of interfacial transport phenomena.Institute of Energy Technology Laboratory of Thermodynamics in Emerging Technologies Professor Dimos Poulikakos The research interests of the Laboratory of Thermodynamics in Emerging Technologies (LTNT) can be subdivided into two main areas: A) Transport Phenomena. He received the Dr. surface coating technologies. and the 2000 James Harry Potter Gold Medal of the ASME. B) Biothermofluidics and Species Transport in Biomedical Technologies and Devices The central topic of the research of this group is the virtual medical subject. and to introduce advanced computational simulation techniques to the everyday clinical environment. 32 . highly efficient energy conversion systems such as fuel cell - based micropowerplants. and on medical applications with special emphasis on the human body. Energy Conversion and Energy Conservation This group focuses on transport phenomena and interfacial aspects. manufacturing of micro- and high-density electronics. Professor Poulikakos is a Member of the Swiss National Academy of Engineering. and nanoelectro-mechanical systems based on nanoparticle. He was a Russell S. He received the Heat Transfer Memorial Award for Science from the ASME in 2003. Springer Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the University of California at Berkeley in 2003. Typical applications are ultra-high heat flux liquid cooling of electronics. honoris causa of the National Technical University of Athens in 2006. carbon nanotube and graphene assemblies. energy reuse in zero emission data centers. He is the editor or on the editorial board of several prestigious international journals in his field. Among the honors he has received are the NSF Presidential Young Investigator Award in 1985. He is the 2009 recipient of the Nusselt-Reynolds prize. Professor Poulikakos holds the Chair of Thermodynamics and founded the Laboratory of Thermodynamics in Emerging Technologies in 1996. This area of activity involves the development of efficient methodologies and computational tools for the simulation of human body functions and systems. and the Hawkins Memorial Lecturer at Purdue University in 2004. the Pi Tau Sigma Gold Medal in 1986. focusing on transport phenomena and energy conversion including the physics at micro- and nano-scales. heat transfer and thermodynamics in novel technologies. Although the research focuses on the macroscopic transport processes. as it allows the writing of small scale structures on different flexible or rigid surfaces without requiring clean room environments or silicon substrates. we integrate necessary information from microscopic biophysical phenomena (cellular/biological/biochemical) as well. Our research aims at further developing nanoparticle based manufacturing for nano- and microtechnology applications. Novel methods of fabricating small-scale structures gained significant importance in science and microelectronic industries. We strive to improve the understanding of complex phenomena in systems of biological/medical relevance. Thermofluidic Phenomena in Multiphase Flows Carrying Nanoparticles.
and calculating the wall stress induced by blood flow and head motion. The goal is to produce a contactless microfluidics platform in which highly sensitive biochemical analyses can be performed. infectiologists. and concentration gradients and particle coagulation/coalescence in a phase-changing carrier medium. Additionally. Towards contactless microfluidics: a water droplet is ultrasonically levitated between a resonator A and reflector B. In this project. the sensitivity is limited by unspecific adhesion of DNA and protein molecules to the channel walls. we aim at developing an intelligent shunt that will automatically adapt to changes in the patient’s physiology. Our goal. therefore. the CNT-integrated chips can also be used to measure the thermophysical properties of the CNTs. Once assembled. Pathogenesis of Spontaneous Dissection of the Cervical Carotid Artery Fuel Processing in a Micro Fuel Cell System The ONEBAT multipartner project with LTNT participation focuses on the development of a micro Solid Oxide Fuel Cell system. radiologists. To this end. such as new solutions for pressure sensor transducers based on CNTs. along which they can be transported. the wall stress in the cervical ICA during static and dynamic positions of the head in patients with sICAD and healthy volunteers are compared by acquiring the ICA geometry and position with magnetic resonance imaging. 33 . In this research. local changes in the surface tension due to temperature. addressing the numerous thermophysical aspects involved. Pictures from left to right: Microchannels of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) containing liquid methanol and hydrogen gas. novel micro-fabrication techniques and detailed numerical simulations are employed. physicists and engineers. as the property data available is still incomplete. To develop a prototype. from where the CSF is drained into the peritoneal area. Thermophysical Properties of Individual Carbon Nanotubes Smart Treatment of Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus Research on CNTs at LTNT mainly addresses the following aspects: The challenge of a precise handling of CNTs has to be made commercially viable. In microfluidic chips for drug discovery and medical diagnostics. replace the battery of standard portable electronic equipment. We combine experiments with theoretical modeling and numerical simulation.To achieve consistent patterning at the nanoscale. Contactless Microfluidics Normal pressure hydrocephalus is a condition of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) system that leads to the mechanical destruction of brain tissue. such as the influence of wettability. This novel power source has a high potential to Spontaneous dissection of the cervical internal carotid artery (sICAD) is a major cause of stroke in young adults. The current treatment relies on the implantation of differential-pressure valves (shunts) in the patient’s head. large geographic independence is gained. NURBS fitted segmented geometry of the human subarachnoid space (l). We have succeeded in preventing wall contact by ultrasonically levitating the liquid. better understanding of the underlying physical phenomena has to be gained. the operational time is increased due to the higher energy density compared to Li-ion batteries. Active phase in the catalytic reaction consists of nanoparticles made by flame spray pyrolysis. Hydrogen production test facility for microscale fuel cell systems. is to investigate possibilities to reliably assemble CNT-integrated electrical on-chip circuits and novel nanodevices. CFD simulation of cerebrospinal fluid motion in the intracranial cavities (r). Since liquid butane is used as an energy carrier. A single-walled carbon nanotube is positioned between embedded gold electrodes by dielectrophoresis. The goal is to verify if the working hypothesis that sICAD is due to an increased wall stress in the cervical ICA is correct. we are combining in-vivo data from magnetic resonance imaging with computational and experimental models of hydrocephalus in a multidisciplinary team of surgeons. Droplets of 1 nL to 1 μL were levitated in line-shaped acoustic pressure nodes.
The research Fluid dynamics play a major role in many energy conversion processes. where research contributes to the enhancement of efficiency. and selected issues of reactor dynamic. For these experiments. After graduating from the Moscow Institute of Power Engineering. he obtained a Ph. at the Institute of Engineering in Zittau in 1984. control and instrumentation. Novel measuring methods for gas-liquid two-phase flows. To this end the laboratory develops measuring instrumentation for single and two-phase flows. like 3D simulations and novel experimental techniques for the needs of existing nuclear power plants as well as for the development of future nuclear energy systems. like the TOPFLOW and ROCOM test facilities build under the lead of Professor Prasser at FZD. Since 1994. used in large experiments. such as wiremesh sensors. His results on boron dilution transients directly contribute to nuclear safety. Professor Prasser developed novel experimental methodologies to study fundamental and complex phenomena in environments typical for industrial applications. specializing in reactor fluid dynamics. Since 2008. reliable. uranium supply and waste disposal are included as well. Research is strongly linked to teaching through the involvement of students of the new master program in Nuclear Engineering launched in 2008.Institute of Energy Technology Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Systems Professor Horst-Michael Prasser in the new position at ETH is carried out in cooperation with the Paul Scherrer Institute. he took part in the reorganization of the institute and the foundation of the Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf (FZD) in the position of a Personal Assistant to the Scientific Director. Experimental results are used to develop and validate computer codes for fluid-dynamic simulations of two-phase flows. The Laboratory of Nuclear Energy Systems of Professor Prasser carries out fundamental and applied research with the aim of supporting the safe. time-resolving gamma and X-ray tomography are used to study the dynamics of the gas-liquid interface. performs experiments to obtain the database for model development and contributes to the application of improved models in computer codes. especially in safety technology of nuclear power plants. and economic utilization of nuclear power.D. ENSI. It contributes to the validation and introduction of modern methods. Containment studies are conducted at the large-scale thermalhydraulic test facility PANDA at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). During German reunification. Professor Prasser is a Member of the board of the Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate. In 1987 he joined the Central Institute of Nuclear Research Rossendorf. - optimization of the energy conversion chain and - plant lifetime relevant fluid-dynamic phenomena. The phenomena investigated include in particular: - containment thermal hydraulics. - two-phase flow in nuclear fuel assemblies. The main focus is on thermal fluid-dynamic modeling. where he is the head of the Laboratory of Thermal Hydraulics in the Department of Nuclear Energy and Safety. Horst-Michael Prasser was born in Görlitz. Germany. new instrumentation for the containment atmosphere during accident simulations is being Efficiency and Safety Related Fluid-dynamic Studies 34 . Professor Prasser’s work focuses on thermal fluid dynamics applied to nuclear power plants. Professor Prasser has been the head of the departments of “Accident Analyses” and “Experimental Thermal Fluid Dynamics” at the Institute of Safety Research within FZD.
fundamental modeling of boiling using Large Eddy Simulation techniques coupled with surface tracking as well as turbulent mixing in stratified single-phase flows with strong density gradients. Steep temperature transients in the reactor pressure vessel wall may potentially occur. Fundamental Studies on Gas-liquid Two-phase Flows Fundamental studies deal with multi-bubble size modeling of a poly-disperse gas-liquid flow. Furthermore. LDA. PANDA facility of PSI - unique large-scale containment tests for the reactor safety. among other things. a second test rig addressing the two-phase flows in fuel assemblies of pressurized water reactors is under construction. with theoretical activities in the field of computational fluid dynamics. CEA. Transition from bubbly to slug flow visualized by a wire-mesh sensor. Measurement of wave structures in the liquid film on a fuel rod simulator.developed. at the test of passive safety systems for novel reactor types and at CFD code validation related to containment behavior. which may cause thermal fatigue. Injection pipe. The work at PANDA aims at the improvement of safety of existing nuclear power plants. Framatome. Complementary to the earlier developed phase-locked gamma tomography techniques for periodically changing gas-fraction fields and the fast X-ray tomography based on deflected electron beams. Development of Experimental Instrumentation for Fluid-dynamic Studies On the basis of the wire-mesh sensor technology. and IRSN. limited by load cycles resulting from transient temperature changes. These are an important basis for the application of these codes to model safety and efficiency relevant processes in nuclear energy systems. Pictures from left to right: Students in the Grimsel underground laboratory of NAGRA. which is nowadays used by a number of research groups worldwide. such as in-situ sensors of the local gas composition using ultrasound. which are often the result of turbulent mixing processes in complex geometries. The sensor can be applied to the curved surface of an individual fuel rod model and has many potential applications also outside nuclear technology. a long-term goal is the development of novel non-intrusive methods. 35 . This work is complemented by theoretical studies on flow boiling heat transfer. a novel sensor for dynamic liquid films has been developed. The laboratories of Professor Prasser study the thermal fluid-dynamic part of the phenomena leading to the thermal loads to the structures. Turbulent mixing pattern recorded by a wire-mesh sensor. where PTS tests are under preparation with a novel experimental methodology developed by Professor Prasser. a feasibility study on imaging with fast neutrons is under way. A prominent example is the so-called pressurized thermal shock (PTS) that is expected when the emergency core cooling system delivers cold water into the hot reactor system. Their development and validation requires high-resolution measurement data. The work combines experiments with high- resolution instrumentation. like wire-mesh sensors. reactor vessel model. where mixing of coolant streams with different temperatures occurs. The data reports wavy structures and the effect of droplet deposition events in great detail. which is still a hypothesis lacking experimental proof. Inspection of a cooling tower - applied fluid-dynamics to enhance efficiency of nuclear power plants. Another issue of mechanical integrity that is of great industrial interest is thermal fatigue in pipe tee-junctions. A major advantage is the availability of high-resolution local gas fraction measurements developed by Professor Prasser. It is used in the experiments dedicated to boiling water reactor fuel assemblies mentioned above. which aim in the long term at the modeling of boiling crisis on the basis of fundamental principles. It records the two-dimensional film thickness distribution on a wetted surface with a sampling rate up to 10 kHz. It is ideal for the validation of surface tracking techniques. The laboratory takes part in an experimental program conducted in the Forschungszentrum Dresden Rossendorf. Further main partners of this research are EdF. Plant lifetime is. PANDA during construction. PIV. The enhancement of fuel efficiency by a fluid dynamic optimization of nuclear fuel assemblies relies more and more on detailed CFD modeling. Novel ways to perform fluid-dynamic studies at high pressure - the pressure tank of Forschungszentrum Rossendorf for the PTS experiments. A test facility to study liquid film flows in cooling channels of boiling water reactors has been build for this purpose. and novel sensors for dynamic liquid film thickness measurements.
Three selected projects are briefly described.Institute of Energy Technology Renewable Energy Carriers Professor Aldo Steinfeld His contributions to science and education have been recognized with the ASME Calvin Rice Award (2006). Further areas of R&D are the decarbonization of fossil fuels. In the second exothermic step. Prior to joining PSI and ETH. in Aeronautical Engineering from the Technion in 1983 and his Ph. the research emphasis is on the analysis of radiation heat exchange in multi-phase reacting flows. he was s Research Fellow at the Weizmann Institute of Science. Zn is hydrolyzed with water to generate H2 and ZnO. and clean energy technologies. the UOP/Honeywell Lecturer (2006). in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Minne ota in 1989. The thermodynamic fundamentals of energy conversion are applied in the development of novel. and the ASME Yellott Award (2008). ZnO is thermally reduced into Zn and O2 at 2000K. Research Aldo Steinfeld has been Full Professor of Renewable Energy Carriers at ETH Zurich since 2007. the University of Minnesota Founders Lecturer (2007). • high-temperature chemical reactor engineering. In the first endothermic solar step. the thermal processing and recycling of energy-intensive materials. syngas. solar hydrogen production). The current research focus is in Solar Chemistry: an interdisciplinary emerging field that deals with the utilization of concentrated solar power for the production of chemical energy carriers (e. • renewable fuels (e. He has authored over 150 research articles in refereed scientific journals and has contributed chapters to the Encyclopedia of Physical Science & Technology and Encyclopedia of Energy. Professor Steinfeld is the Editor of the ASME Journal of Solar Energy Engineering. and CO2 capture/mitigation technologies. solar hydrogen. the latter is being recycled to the solar reactor. with focus on: • radiation heat transfer in multi-phase reacting flows. He further leads the Solar Technology Laboratory at the Paul Scherrer Institute.Sc. The net reaction is H2O = H2 + 0. • decarbonization and CO2 mitigation technologies. His research program is aimed at the advancement of the thermal. the need for high-temperature gas separation is thereby eliminated. A two-step H2O-splitting thermochemical cycle based on the ZnO/Zn redox reactions is investigated using concentrated solar radiation as the energy source of high-temperature process heat. but since H2 and O2 are formed in different steps.g. and electrochemical engineering sciences applied to renewable energy technologies. thermochemical. He received his B. On the more fundamental aspects of energy conversion. He was born 1960 in Montevideo.D. • applied thermodynamics of novel energy conversion processes.g. The project’s goals are the development of the chemical reactor technology for both reduction and Solar Hydrogen by a 2-step H2O-splitting Thermochemical Cycle 36 . Uruguay.5O2. metals). the Electrosuisse Fachliteraturpreis (2006). applied in the engineering design and optimization of high-temperature thermochemical reactors. efficient.
hydrolysis steps, and the experimental demonstration of the closed material cycle with high-energy conversion efficiency. The solar chemical reactor concept for the first step of the cycle (ZnO-reduction) features a rotating cavity-receiver lined with ZnO particles that are directly exposed to highflux solar irradiation. With this arrangement, ZnO serves simultaneously the functions of radiant absorber, thermal insulator, and chemical reactant. The second step of the cycle (Zn-hydrolysis) uses an aerosol flow reactor for the formation of Zn nanoparticles and their in-situ hydrolysis for H2 generation. Since nanoparticles have inherently high specific surface area, the reaction kinetics and heat/mass transfer are significantly augmented. Both reaction steps and associated reactor technology, which have been patented by PSI/ETH, are currently being optimized using computational models for heat/mass transport.
Radiation Heat Transfer in Chemical Reacting Multi-Phase Flows
Hydrogen Production via the Solar Thermal Decarbonization of Fossil Fuels.
Hybrid solar/fossil endothermic processes make use of fossil fuels as the chemical source of hydrogen and concentrated solar radiation as the energy source of high-temperature process heat. Examples include the cracking, reforming, and gasification of fossil fuels. The advantages of these hybrid processes are three-fold: 1) the calorific value of the feedstock is solar-upgraded; 2) the gaseous products are not contaminated by combustion by-products; and 3) the discharge of pollutants to the environment is avoided. A Second-Law analysis for generating electricity using the solar reaction products indicates the potential of doubling the specific electrical output and, consequently, halving the specific CO2 emissions, vis-à-vis conventional fossil fuel-fired power plants. These processes have been experimentally demonstrated in solar chemical reactors at a power level ranging from 5 to 500 kW. Hybrid solar/fossil processes offer a viable route for fossil fuel decarbonization and create a transition path towards solar hydrogen.
This research theme has fundamental significance to several energy-related fields such as combustion, advanced materials processing, atmospheric sciences, and solar chemistry. Thermal radiative transport coupled to the reaction kinetics is analyzed for heterogeneous chemical systems in which their optical properties, species composition, and phases vary as the chemical reaction progresses. Of special interest is the transient radiative exchange within particle/gas suspensions, applied in thermochemical fuel processing such as cracking, gasification, reforming, decomposition, and reduction processes. The radiative analyses are incorporated in computational fluid dynamics simulation models of solar chemical reactors to support their design and optimization for maximum energy conversion efficiency. The methodologies applied include Monte-Carlo ray tracing and band-approximation radiosity techniques for treating nongray nonisothermal absorbing-emitting-scattering participating media undergoing chemical transformations. For complex porous media, tomography-based pore-level numerical simulations are developed for the determination of the effective heat/ mass transport properties. Numerical models are validated with experimental data obtained from testing lab-scale reactor prototypes at ETH/PSI solar concentrating facilities.
The ETH/PSI solar concentrating facilities include the solar furnace and the high-flux solar simulators, capable of delivering over 50 kW of radiative thermal power with peak flux concentration ratios over 10000 suns. These state-of-the-art research facilities serve as unique experimental platforms for investigating the thermochemical processing of solar fuels and for testing advanced ceramic materials at temperatures exceeding 3000 K and heating rates exceeding 1000 K/second.
Pictures from left to right: 70 kW 3000 suns parabolic concentrator for solar power and fuel production; 40 kW 5000 suns solar furnace for R&D of high temperature chemical reactor technology; Solar hydrogen production via a water-splitting thermochemical cycle; 50 kW 10000 suns high-flux solar simulator for investigating the fundamentals of radiative heat transfer in reacting flows and advanced ceramic materials; High-temperature thermochemical reactor engineering 37
Institute of Fluid Dynamics
The Institute of Fluid Dynamics (IFD) comprises the three professorships held by P. Jenny, L. Kleiser and T. Rösgen. While the research activities of the professors are largely complementary, there is close cooperation and resource sharing in teaching, infrastructure and administrative matters. Fluid mechanics is both a core discipline of modern engineering and a highly active area of ongoing research and development. The field is linked to fundamental questions in mathematics, physics, chemistry and biology, and at the same time forms an integral part of many technical designs, products and processes. Its established importance in fields such as aerodynamics (e.g. cars, trains, ships, aircraft), energy technology (turbomachinery, combustion engines, windmills) or environmental modeling (oceanography, meteorology, limnology) is increasingly being augmented by interdisciplinary applications, for example in medicine, biology or micro- and nanoscale engineering. The joint research objective of the Institute is the scientific exploration and the engineering application of fluid dynamic processes. By conducting active research in a number of specialized areas, IFD faculty and researchers contribute to the solution of challenging problems both at the fundamental and applied level. Priority is given to areas and topics where results will have an impact beyond their original setting, demonstrating a widely recognizable and sustained expertise at the Institute. Within this framework, research at IFD is primarily aimed at the development and application of modern computational and experimental tools to probe a broad spectrum of problems in fluid dynamics. One specific area of technical competence is the development of advanced numerical simulation techniques (DNS, LES and PDF methods) for engineering flows. Basic research projects at IFD in which such techniques are applied include the simulation and modeling of transitional and turbulent boundary layers, turbulent particle-laden flows, computational aeroacoustics, turbulent combustion, and flows in random media. Some of the associated engineering applications are jet noise prediction and reduction, advanced film cooling for turbine blades, abrasive water jet cutting, clean combustion, oil extraction, or underground CO2 sequestration. On the experimental side, the emphasis lies on the development of quantitative flow imaging diagnostics for research and industrial applications. A main objective is the development of fast, multidimensional measurement techniques, such as global Doppler velocimetry, multispectral image thermometry or optical pressure sensing methods. The link to practical applications is established through research in tunnel fire dynamics, gravity driven cryogenic flows, hypersonic re-entry flight and aerodynamic optimization. The broad in-house competence facilitates also the implementation of joint experimental and numerical studies. This approach has proven to be particularly successful in different biomedical applications. Here, the existing medical knowledge of doctors is combined with rigorous analytical models describing the underlying fluid dynamics. Computer simulations and experiments using custom-designed engineering models are then employed to further explain the observed phenomena and to develop possible diagnostic and treatment scenarios. Examples for this multi-tiered approach are the study of alveolar micro-flows in the human lung; particle-laden flows in the semicircular canals of the inner ear; fluid-structure interaction in the cochlea and the dynamic behaviour of artificial heart valves or blood perfusion in the human brain. Modern large-scale facilities (in-house computers and national supercomputers, wind and water tunnel facilities, advanced imaging systems, etc.) are available at IFD to conduct the different research projects in a state-of-the-art and technologically competitive environment. Funding for the activities comes from different sources such as national research grants (ETH internal and Swiss national funding agencies), European research programs, and collaborations with Swiss and foreign industries. With its chosen portfolio of activities, IFD is recognized as a competence centre for fluid dynamics research within ETH and in the wider national/international context. Collaborations with other institutes, organisations and companies are actively sought and maintained, both on the level of undergraduate student work and in the form of multi-year graduate research projects.
Institute of Fluid Dynamics Professor Patrick Jenny
Probability Density Function (PDF) Modeling of Turbulent Reacting Flows
In 1997 Patrick Jenny received his Ph.D. in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) under the supervision of Professor Bernhard Müller at ETH Zurich. The primary focus of his research was on developing numerical algorithms to solve the compressible Navier-Stokes equations for reactive flow with applications to studies of thermoacoustic instabilities. From July 1997 till October 1999 Patrick Jenny was a member of Professor Stephen B. Pope’s Turbulence and Combustion Group in the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department of Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. His research dealt with probability density function (PDF) modeling of turbulent reactive flow. From November 1999 till April 2003 Patrick Jenny was part of the reservoir simulation and optimization research group of Chevron in San Ramon, California. In spring 2003 Patrick Jenny joined the Institute of Fluid Dynamics at ETH Zurich as an SNF Assistant Professor for Computational Fluid Dynamics and in August 2006 he became an Associate Professor. Patrick Jenny’s main research interests include modeling of turbulent combustion, multi-phase flow in porous media and multi-scale modeling of complex physical phenomena. He has developed various new models and numerical methodologies to solve the governing equations efficiently and accurately. Besides concentrating on fundamental research topics, applications to relevant problems in various industrial sectors are at the center of his focus.
Worldwide, more than 80% of the energy consumed is converted by burning fossil fuels. Therefore, improving emission rates and efficiency of combustion devices automatically has a significant impact on our environment and is of crucial importance. To achieve such improvements, however, the capability of accurately predicting the governing physical processes is essential. In contrast to other approaches, joint probability density function (PDF) methods have the crucial advantage that they require no model for turbulent convection nor turbulence-reaction interaction. PDF solution algorithm: Compared with Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) models, PDF methods are computationally more expensive. Motivated by this deficiency a new hybrid particle/finite-volume PDF solver, which proved to be much faster than previous solution algorithms (up to 370 times), was developed. Recently, this hybrid algorithm was generalized for problems with complex 3D geometries and in order to make large, complex studies feasible, the code was parallelized. Molecular mixing model: An accurate description of molecular mixing at the smallest scales is crucial for turbulent combustion simulations and poses one of the greatest modeling challenges in this field. A new mixing model for multi-scalar mixing was developed. It is based on parameterized scalar profiles (PSP) and proved to be significantly more accurate than previous models. Turbulent combustion modeling: Based on a scale separation approach, PDF methods have been developed to model non-premixed turbulent combustion with local extinction and re-ignition and premixed turbulent combustion.
Fine-scale (13’020 cells) vs. the MSFV method was extended by gravity.g. Recently. e. Injected water (blue) into an oil reservoir. Pictures from left to right: Mixing of two scalars in homogeneous isotropic turbulence. Based on the transport theory. Contributions of the group in this area include a RankineHugoniot-Riemann (RHR) solver. a new multi-scale finitevolume (MSFV) algorithm was developed in collaboration Multi-Phase Flow in Porous Media Modeling cerebral blood flow In collaboration with Professors Bruno Weber and Alfred Buck from the University of Zurich. its value for color investigations related to halftone printing was demonstrated. MSFV (33 coarse cells) simulation. Radiation and Light Scattering Flow and transport in porous media has many applications in energy science. Capillary network of a rat brain. Scattering of electromagnetic waves is crucial for many research areas.Finite-Volume Schemes for Simulations of Thermoacoustic Phenomena In recent years. CO storage in geological sub-surface formations 2 and geothermal energy. CO sequestration: Storing CO in geological sub-surface 2 2 formations seems to be one of the most promising feasible technologies to stabilize the CO concentration in the Earth’s 2 atmosphere. To deal with this issue. and a solver for compressible gas mixtures. 41 . The MSVF method has several advantageous properties compared with previous multi-scale approaches and it was demonstrated that large. the development of numerical methods for combustion problems has been driven by an increasing industrial demand for fast and accurate computations of reacting flow. the accuracy of the solution is hardly compromised. a convergence acceleration scheme for compressible low Mach number flow. a PDF method for transport in porous media was developed. Together with the Stanford Petroleum Engineering Department an appropriate modeling framework is being developed. Multi-scale modeling: One of the major challenges in macroscopic simulations is the correct treatment of complex permeability distributions with strong variations and many length scales. CO2 storage above Sleipner reservoir operated by Statoil. Considering the interaction of acoustics and combustion adds another level of complexity. including energy sciences and the graphics industry. Conceptually. However. Blood flows through a complex capillary network and its flow is modeled with a multi-scale approach. an unconditionally stable scheme for sub-surface transport was developed in collaboration with Chevron. Transmission point spread function (PSF) computed for different incident beam angles and based on specified substrate characteristics. realistic studies can be computed much faster than with conventional simulators. Recently. regulation mechanisms of cerebral blood flow (CBF) are being investigated. for catalytic processes. Shown are the PDFs at different times computed with various mixing models and by DNS (reference). a PDF method has been developed. it has a number of crucial advantages compared with established approaches and it is intended to generalize the framework for multi-phase flow. Uncertainty assessment: To assess the uncertainty of simulation results as a function of uncertain input data. fewer modeling assumptions are required. which takes into account source terms. At the same time. A proof of concept study is completed and currently the method is being extended for non-equilibrium phenomena. The solutions contain a huge amount of relevant statistical information and compared with previous methods. which avoids spurious oscillations. viscous terms and multidimensional effects. capillary pressure and compressibility effects. oil and gas recovery. In order to learn more about the connection between the physics at the pore scales and the macroscopic behavior. with Chevron. Efficient simulators: In order to allow for larger time steps and therefore more efficient simulations. a PDF method to describe joint photon statistics was developed. the control of thermoacoustic instabilities is decisive for the safe operation of rocket motors and modern gas turbines.
The research interests of his group are focused on fundamentals of fluid dynamics and on the development of advanced simulation methods for future applications. Transitional. the continued exponential growth of affordable computing power makes LES one of the most promising concepts for mastering turbulence in numerical simulations. He was born 1949 in Freiburg (Germany). studied mathematics and physics at the University of Freiburg and began his carrier as a staff member at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Two LES subgrid-scale models were developed: the high-pass filtered (HPF) eddy-viscosity model and the approximate deconvolution model (ADM). where only the large scales are resolved while the effect of the small ones is accounted for by a subgrid-scale model. There he took responsibility for the “Transition and Turbulence” research group until 1994. compressibility. However. shock-turbulence interaction or laminar-turbulent transition. these flow phenomena are still far from being fully understood. new accurate and efficient simulation methods are developed to tackle these problems with the aid of modern supercomputers. The numerical simulation of turbulent flows and of laminarturbulent transition is a central field of the group’s research. Furthermore. Their success was demonstrated for a number of increasingly complex flows. and their reliable prediction in practical applications remains a distant goal. In 1982 he received his doctorate in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Karlsruhe (TH) and moved to the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) in Göttingen. but at present still too costly for routine simulations in industrial settings. LES are typically at least two orders of magnitude less expensive than DNS.g. featuring e. Such flows occur in numerous applications and are notoriously hard to predict.Institute of Fluid Dynamics Professor Leonhard Kleiser Even though turbulence and laminar-turbulent transition have been major research subjects in fluid dynamics for the past hundred years. As an example. in which all relevant space and time scales are resolved. jet-in-crossflow configurations are studied with this code which are central to film cooling of gas turbine blades. the models were successfully implemented into the CFD code NSMB that is capable of handling complex industrial configurations. and by transferring these models into a semi-industrial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code. Considerable progress has been achieved recently in particular in the area of “Large-Eddy Simulation” (LES) by establishing novel concepts for modeling of the non-resolved scales. Wall-bounded and free shear flows are investigated using Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). and Large-Eddy Simulations (LES). Caltech and the University of Uppsala. swirl. He spent research visits at UC Santa Barbara. The work on LES of transitional and turbulent flows builds a solid fundament for the quality improvement of industrial flow simulations in the 42 . LES of Turbulent and Transitional Flows Leonhard Kleiser has been Full Professor of Fluid Mechanics at the Institute of Fluid Dynamics of ETH Zurich since 1994. Significant future progress can be expected through new numerical simulation methods and novel modeling approaches. massive separation. turbulent and particle-laden flows as well as the origin and propagation of aeroacoutic noise are being investigated. Simultaneously.
vortex structures of a jet in crossflow. particle-driven gravity currents and particle transport. the availability of highfidelity discretization schemes. but also captures the near-field noise. vorticity and noise pattern of a jet. The acoustic data from the LES is extrapolated to the acoustic far-field with a solver that is based on Lighthill’s acoustic analogy. Commercial CFD codes are usually far too inaccurate for the present demanding research tasks. A round subsonic jet at a moderately high Reynolds number is simulated with LES. in addition to implementing well-established numerical schemes. These numerical approaches are applied to various problems: the settling and break-up of suspension drops. This creeping flow is responsible for the proper functioning of our balance organ. These interdisciplinary projects bring together clinical medical research. In another project the fluid flow within the cochlea which holds the sensorium of our hearing is investigated. The tight fluid-structure interaction is simulated with a high-order simulation code to learn more about the physical phenomena involved in the hearing process. and the mutual particle interaction can be neglected.g. applied mathematics and modern numerical simulation methods. The study of these basic problems enhances our understanding of the flow physics and supports modeling of particle-laden flows which have various important applications in industrial. Biomedical Fluid Dynamics: Fluid Mechanics of the Inner Ear and biological contexts. Such simulations need to cover a wide range of length and time scales in the noise-generating region. fundamental fluid dynamics. Either the fluid equations are solved in an Eulerian framework while the particles are tracked individually along their trajectories. One current project aims at the analysis and prediction of jet noise with a direct noise computation approach based on LES and a hybrid method used for the propagation of noise to the acoustic far-field. the noise of an aircraft at take-off as perceived by a person on the ground. Therefore. which requires a well-suited subgrid-scale model for the LES. bony labyrinth of the inner ear. In one project. or both the clear and the particle-laden phase are computed in a purely Eulerian manner. which are mainly responsible for the creation of noise. mixing and settling mechanisms in estuaries. Development of High-Fidelity Numerical Discretization Methods and Simulation Tools For all numerical investigations. This hybrid method will allow prediction of the noise perceived by a distant observer. e. particle settling in homogeneous turbulence. The results of this work add to our understanding of human physiology and can be exploited jointly with the collaboration partners from the Zurich University Hospital. The presence of small particles may perturb this flow in a way that leads to vertigo. LES of a swirling jet. Simulation of Particle-laden Flows A class of disperse particle-laden two-phase flows is studied in which the solid particles are much smaller than the smallest relevant scales of the fluid motion. Computational Aeroacoustics Noise emissions of aircraft at take-off is a serious problem of growing importance. environmental The study of fluid motions in the inner ear is one of numerous applications of fluid dynamics in the fields of biology and medicine. Pictures from left to right: Transition to turbulence in a channel flow. They are implemented in research codes that run efficiently on a variety of computers from workstations to massively parallel supercomputing architectures. new highly accurate and efficient schemes such as high-order compact upwind-biased finite-difference schemes or spectral-element methods are developed by the group. specifically the lymphatic flow in the semicircular canals of the inner ear is studied. 43 . robust simulation methods and advanced post-processing and visualization tools is indispensable. particleladen flow in a channel and over a backward facing step. This computation not only includes the transitional and turbulent structures of the jet flow.future. This disorder is investigated by analyzing the particle-laden flow with numerical and analytical methods.
microgravity fluid dynamics. Quantitative Flow Visualization in Large Wind Tunnels This activity is aimed at improving the productivity in aerodynamic wind tunnel testing. but also to extract “invisible” information such as local flow velocities or pressure distributions. a digital representation of the measurement is being created in realtime. a boundary layer tunnel and a water tunnel. D. ferrofluids for levitation. Doppler techniques. for example. Stuttgart University (D). The instrumentation is being continuously updated to provide capabilities for flow visualization. Other activities in his research group include environmental fluid dynamics (fire dynamics and control. D. including the large. including infrared. Imaging Doppler Velocimetry The measurement of velocity distributions is relevant both for aerodynamic testing and fundamental research.Institute of Fluid Dynamics Professor Thomas Rösgen The experimental research work at IFD is performed in several general purpose facilities. Additional dedicated facilities (e. digital image processing and restoration of satellite imagery. Before his arrival at ETH. He also held positions as a senior group leader at the Institute of Space Systems. The research at IFD follows two threads. Using recent advances in imaging hardware and software. Thomas Rösgen is a Full Professor of Fluid Mechanics at ETH since 1997. flow induced frequency shifts 44 . and as Postdoc / staff engineer at ESA. Using molecular iodine filters near an absorption line. and interactive and remote-controlled satellite communications for space experiments. cryo-electronics. The current research activities of Professor Rösgen are focused on the field of modern electro-optical diagnostics and quantitative image analysis with application to fluid dynamics.) is being augmented by digital image enhancement and analysis techniques. real-time video motion analysis. there are alternatives which offer specific advantages. degree in Aeronautics from the California Institute of Technology (Pasadena. He has an engineering diploma from the Technical University in Berlin (D) and a Ph. They include vortex motion in superfluid helium. helium bubbles. both fluids-related and not. USA). force measurements. advanced laser diagnostics (LDA. do not require the resolved imaging of individual flow tracers and may be better suited for large scale applications. etc. he worked in a number of different research areas. a cryogenic heavy gas tunnel or a hot gas cross flow tunnel) are available for more fundamental studies. research projects. DGV) and various forms of electronic imaging.g. he worked as a senior engineer at the research centre of the European Space Agency (ESA-ESTEC) in Noordwijk (NL). Before that. low speed wind tunnel. PIV. bio-fluidics (alveolar lung flows) and aerodynamic testing and optimization. The following list provides a summary of recent and ongoing Ph. Although Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is established as the de facto standard for this task. The conventional approach of visualizing the flow around models (using smoke filaments. low light level and high speed cameras. gravity driven cryogenic flows). This allows the operator not only to store and re-analyze the original data.
On the other hand. the sensitivity and accuracy of such techniques is being expanded.can be translated into amplitude or phase information and recorded with a conventional camera. Two activities at IFD aim at developing imaging techniques which would do away with the requirement for costly arrays of wired pressure taps. However. the Doppler shift frequency is measured using a lock-in detection scheme applied to all sensing pixels in parallel. because they provide absolute depth resolution in the micrometer range. Both numerical and experimental models are employed to identify and evaluate the forcing mechanisms. Since the pressure-dependent fluorescence is excited locally in this setup. The other technology under development relies on the optical interrogation of individual high-sensitivity MEMS pressure-sensing membranes. the propagation and mixing of cold (and heavy) gas clouds is studied to develop models for the spreading of such fluids in industrial accidents. the absolute accuracy and reproducibility becomes a problem for vibrating test articles and close to surfaces. Two custom-built facilities are available at IFD to study various types of environmental flows. Alveolar flows are very slow and largely reversible. This is a fundamental accident scenario for many road and train tunnels. Furthermore. “low coherence” laser sources are advantageous. large ETH/IFD wind tunnel. Environmental Flows with Gravity Influence Low Coherence Measurements in Fluid Flows Laser point measurements of displacements or velocities can readily be performed from considerable distances. PSP sensor foils on wind tunnel model. Hybrid PIV/DGV measurements 45 . Pictures from left to right: Propagating cryogenic gas cloud. Aerodynamic testing in the IFD wind tunnel. In the cryogenic gas facility. Different forcing methods are being studied to enhance the mixing and particle residence time in the alveoli. This activity is concerned with control of flows deep inside the human lung. based on integrating the paint layer with a thin. and measurements are important to support and validate the numerical predictions being developed. the requirements regarding illumination and model stability can be significantly relaxed. A short wave infrared (SWIR) camera is being developed together with a detached high-temperature optical front end to image the in-flight temperature distribution on the surface of an external control flap/compression ramp of the spacecraft. Several activities are ongoing at IFD to utilize this capability for fluid mechanics measurements: PIV imaging in a virtual image plane. special “active pixel” sensors are being used as direct optoelectronic demodulators. Self-illuminating pressure sensitive paints (PSPs) were developed. Here. the empirical correlations required in theoretical models can be provided in this way. The objective is to maintain a high measurement accuracy (not achievable with PSPs) while still providing a wireless sensor interrogation. Using interferometric imaging principles. The hot gas facility is being used to study fire-induced flows and their control in cross-flow ventilation systems. flexible electroluminescent foil. CFD simulation of a flow in the hot gas facility. Flow Control in the Lung Surface Pressure Distributions The recording of surface pressure distributions on aerodynamic models continues to be an essential part of wind tunnel testing. The last application also features a self-referencing recording setup where absolute wall standoff distances are maintained even for moving surfaces. and improved Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) in close proximity to walls were successfully demonstrated. leading to a poor deposition of the small aerosol droplets used in medical treatment. Re-entry Measurements IFD is involved in a hypersonic re-entry flight experiment of the European Space Agency (ESA “Expert”). Here. optical tip clearance measurements in a hot gas turbine stage.
Mechanics. forging tomorrow’s engineers and researchers. we also provide high-level education in engineering sciences to skilled students in the later stage of their education. Areas of Specialization: Professor Jürg Dual. Aligned with the spirit of the Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering. services and co-operation with industry. Experimental Continuum Mechanics 47 .Institute of Mechanical Systems The Institute of Mechanical Systems consists of the Centres of Mechanics and Structure Technologies and is committed to a long-term sustainable development of our society by delivering cutting-edge education and research in the broad field of mechanics. The Institute seeks co-operation with national and international industries and research institutions while integrating competencies in challenging and highly interdisciplinary projects. computational and experimental approaches. On many axes of activities we consider systems from the small- to the large-scale. from basic research to applications using theoretical. To fulfil our mission we strive for cross-fertilization between our main fields of activity. structures and multifunctional materials. While teaching the basic mechanics and engineering design courses we introduce young students to the general concept of mathematical modeling of our environment. Nonsmooth Dynamics Professor Edoardo Mazza. namely research. Mechanics and Experimental Dynamics Professor Paolo Ermanni. Structure Technologies Professor Christoph Glocker. education.
and will be further applied towards ps resolution atomic force microscopy. He then spent two years on a Fulbright grant at the University of California in Berkeley. dynamic viscometers are investigated. NY. Such waves have been used for probing of interfaces and buried diffusion barriers. food in the production process. nondestructive testing. He was President of the Planning Commission of ETH Zurich 2000-2004 and has been President of the Hochschulversammlung since 2008. basic investigations on the NDT of wood. In particular. Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (QNDE) Recent results in guided wave QNDE include the determination of the elastic constants for filament-wound shells including non-axisymmetric waves. In another project. Wave Propagation in Micro Systems: Nanosonics Using an optical pump probe set-up. A number of novel viscometer designs have been built. and applied in various situations. he returned to ETH Zurich as Assistant Professor.Institute of Mechanical Systems Center of Mechanics Professor Jürg Dual The projects presented here show the central role of mechanics as a timeless discipline in a wide range of modern and fascinating challenges. His research focuses on wave propagation and vibrations in solids as well as micro- and nanosystem technology. Sensors based on Structural Vibrations Jürg Dual has been Full Professor of Mechanics and Experimental Dynamics in the Center of Mechanics of the Institute of Mechanical Systems at ETH Zurich since 1998. Ithaca. USA. high frequency (~100 GHz) wave propagation experiments are performed with picosecond (ps) resolution. experimentation is central. mechanical characterization of microstructures. he is interested in both basic research and applications in the area of sensors (viscometry). For his dissertation he was awarded the Latsis Prize of ETH Zurich in 1989. He then received his Dr. Also a two-temperature model to describe the interactions 48 . fault detection in cylindrical shells using a time-reverse scheme. but must always be embedded in corresponding analytical and computational modeling. Sayir at the Institute of Mechanics. In resonating sensors. Jürg Dual was born in 1957 and studied mechanical engineering at ETH Zurich. where he graduated with an MSc. sc. and the application of advanced fiber composites (piezoelectric fibres) in QNDE. As an example. and gravitational interaction of vibrating systems. Fellow of the ASME and Honorary Member of the German Association for Materials Research and Testing. After one year as Visiting Assistant Professor at Cornell University. small high-frequency motion is superimposed on large deformations in a classical rheometer. which is extremely difficult due to the inhomogeneities and anisotropy. techn. A gated phase-locked loop has been investigated for driving such sensors. degree at ETH Zurich under the guidance of Professor Dr. degree in Mechanical Engineering. In his research. where a surrounding fluid increases the damping of a resonating device.g. Measurements can be made with volumes of <10 microliters. etc. He is a Member of the Swiss Academy of Technical Sciences. damping) are influenced by the environment. the vibration characteristics (frequency. for blood directly during extraction from the body. tested. e. Eng. M. and an M. Process viscometers based on our design are marketed by Brookfield Engineering. The feasibility of propagating and detecting 100 GHz waves for distances up to 10 micrometers has been demonstrated.
Also size effects in thin copper foils and polymer microstructures (Baytron) have been investigated. Torsional testing allowed the measurement of torques with a resolution of 50 nNm using a differential laser interferometer. Snow Slab Release. and fatigue testing of structures with a typical length in the range of some 100 micrometers. Quack develops a vertically actuated micromirror for Infrared Detectors. a Least-Square Template Matching (LSM) algorithm was developed yielding a displacement resolution of 10 nm in an optical microscope (superresolution up to a factor of 100). The feasibility of manipulating living cells has been demonstrated.) can be manipulated by ultrasound. Manipulation of Particles by Ultrasound DNA Analysis System Starting from a sample of blood. and electromagnetic crosstalk is completely eliminated. which improves the intrinsic sensitivity of the detector. Also. resonant micromotors (Creaholic). a carving ski in a curve interacting with the snow cover has been simulated and experimentally investigated. Mechanical Properties of Microstructures Mechanical properties of materials used for microstructures in many cases cannot be deduced from corresponding macroscopic testing due to the different manufacturing processes.g. Applications are in the area of NDT of semiconductor devices or sub-THz filters. N. Haueis developed an encapsulated micromachined resonant force sensor while S. critical stress intensity factors have been measured and interpreted in the context of fracture mechanical size effects. Additional projects with industry included a micropipetting system (Roche Diagnostics). microsystems have been investigated and built for 1D and 2D particle arrangements and interaction with micromachined silicon grippers (Professor B. Recently. It is based on a cartridge that does the lysis and prepares the mastermix to be used in a micro-machined PCR Chip. a novel DNA analysis system has been investigated. Mechanical Properties of Snow. both theoretically and experimentally. M. Fatigue testing using a phase-locked loop so far has reached resolutions in crack length measurement of 10 nm. triggering mechanisms for snow slab release are investigated Pictures: Impressions from the labs 49 . and research into the squealing noise of railway systems (SBB). where the frequency-dependent reflection behavior at continuous interfaces is used. Therefore test rigs have been built for tensile testing. It allows the detection of a specific DNA sequence within less than 45 minutes starting from sample processing to the result. etc. For tensile testing. and Ski/Snow Interaction Based on fracture mechanics and statistical mechanics.between light and the mechanical waves has been successfully implemented and shows good agreement with experiments. which will revolutionize DNA testing of various samples. With this system. Nelson’s group). All make use of the gated phase locked-loop control system. only one transducer is needed. Small particles (e. with a size of 10 microns. Blunier works on a resonant 3D gyro on a single wafer. The interaction is modeled and used to design devices. Bächi developed a microchannel network with integrated microvalves to be used for sorting of cells and microparticles. For example. Microsystem Devices In our clean rooms a number of devices have been built. biological cells. torsional testing. D.
Our research effort is focusing on gaining a better understanding of the interrelation between the properties of CNT assemblies and their actuation performance.g.Institute of Mechanical Systems Centre of Structure Technologies Professor Paolo Ermanni actuators. Kearney in Milan before being appointed Associate Professor at ETH Zurich in 1998. converting electrical input energy into geometric deformation and thus useable mechanical output. a novel foaming technology is applied to polymers and the resulting porous structures investigated with respect to their electromechanical properties. Polymeric Foams as Electromechanical Actuators/ Sensors Paolo Ermanni. situated in the south of Switzerland (Canton Ticino) at Monte Verità. In 1997 he took on a new challenge as a manager in the consulting firm A. manufacturing and design of composite based structural systems with better performance and novel functionalities. Paolo Ermanni has been Full Professor of Structure Technologies at ETH Zurich since 2003. born 1959. Together with our project partners from EPF Lausanne. EMPA Dübendorf. The CSF is the international conference centre of ETH Zurich. resulting in a remnant charge separation within the gas filled voids as a consequence of electric breakdown. working for over five years at Airbus Germany GmbH as a senior engineer in the future project office and later as a project manager. Since 2007 he is also Director of the Centro Stefano Franscini (CSF).T. sensors and electronic circuits into the host structure. We plan to develop numerical tools to account for aeroelastic interactions and validate them with wind tunnel experiments on damped and undamped specimens. techn. in acoustic noise reduction or as large area medical pressure sensors. respectively. Further work is aimed at improving performance by chemical functionalisation and the use of non-volatile electrolytes. Professor Ermanni’s group promotes science and innovation in the areas of functional materials. 50 . sc. Piezo Shunt Damping in Aeroelastic Applications Carbon Nanotubes as Electromechanical Actuators In addition to featuring unique physical properties. Busch Composites and SNECMA we investigate novel damping mechanisms for later application to open rotor aircraft engines. Another research aspect is the investigation of the overall aeroelastic system behavior and possible interactions between piezoelectric damping and the onset of flutter phenomena. degree in 1990. innovative composite solutions and structural mechanics by exploring the relation between materials. a macroscopic carbon nanotube assembly is immersed in a liquid electrolyte and operated at low voltage. We focus on integration of piezoelectric actuators. He gained significant professional experience in industry. In collaboration with the Nonmetallic Inorganic Materials research group. Polymeric foams can be electrically poled by the application of a high electric field. e. In typical DREAM stands for ValiDation of Radical Engine Architecture SysteMs and investigates new technologies to minimize environmental impact of commercial air traffic. carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been shown to act as electromechanical actuators. studied mechanical engineering at ETH Zurich and received his Dr. Poled foams show ferroelectric and piezoelectric behavior and can potentially be used as actuators/sensors.
contour plot of the maximum displacement. The objective is to reach outstanding damping performance considering the stringent weight and cost requirement of the automotive industry. The research addresses a novel way of how to represent mechanical structures in the context of an automated design process. (bottom row) sintered polymer foams. Our contribution concerns the evaluation of innovative design solutions for multi-functional primary composite airframe structural components with integrated damping treatment. entities (faces. The approach includes a step-by-step feasibility and characterization program leveraging structure mechanical behavior (strength. IMES-ST has to design and optimize the fiber reinforced plastic hulls of the 2-man and 4-man Citius bobsleds and to support the manufacturing of the hulls at RUAG Aerospace. edges and vertices) may further carry information on mechanical attributes like void or material in classical topological optimal design problems or laminate attributes in an advanced laminate optimization environment with a varying number of laminate zones. Corrugated sheets made from composite materials can provide candidate solutions for flexible skins needed for anisotropic compliant shell structures. We aim at constructing arrangements from parameterized spline-based primitives. The finding of design solutions for these requires automatic computer aided optimization processes. The latter include the development of robust RTM production routes relying on advanced monitoring techniques to detect occurrence of flaws and dry spot regions during the injection. (upper row) polymer particles used for foaming. The current work involves a unit cell model of the periodic corrugation pattern for obtaining the complete and exact elasticity solutions whose by-product is the substitute-plate stiffness. Streamlines of an open rotor aircraft engines at stationary flight. The resulting topological Unified Topology and Shape Design Optimization of Composite Structures Pictures from left to right: Test run of the Citius bobsled in St. shape and laminate of arbitrary mechanical structures. Composite Hull for a new Swiss Bobsled Innovative new bobsleds (2 man & 4 man) for the Swiss national team are developed in the Citius project. in a uniaxially stressed [+-30. The project is dealing with floor panels that are mounted to the loadcarrying primary structure of the vehicle. The most promising damping approaches will be optimized and validated in an automotive component test case. stiffness and stability). scanning electron micrograph of a mat of randomly oriented single walled carbon nanotubes.+-θ1. graph-based genotype allowing for a combined optimization of topology. This kind of arrangement should establish a base for a heterogeneous. Moritz.+- θ2]s laminate panel as function of θ1 and θ2. The research activities will eventually lead to the fabrication of fuselage-barrel demonstrator frames with integrated damping solutions by RTM process. A substitute material model can greatly reduce the numerical size of the finite-element method (FEM) models and with it the computational effort of the many numerical simulations which must then be performed. vibration damping device integration and manufacturing technologies. Various damping treatments have been investigated. 3-points bending test for extracting system damping efficiency 51 . Corrugated Laminate Homogenization Model Multi-Functional Composite Airframe Structure We are working in close co-operation with Dassault Aviation and CNEM. We have developed and validated an experimental set-up for the determination of the damping properties of structural specimens also considering interface damping effects.Damping of Vehicle Structures We are investigating novel damping approaches for composite applications in car structures.
More general situations turn up in computational mechanics when considering collisions of deformable bodies after discretization. he obtained the certificate of habilitation in mechanics with a postdoctoral thesis devoted to non-smooth dynamics. however. A central point in his research is nonsmooth dynamics of mechanical systems with finite degrees of freedom which includes. The best-known example of an impact in mechanics is the collision of two rigid bodies. He studied mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Munich. There is a velocity jump at the impact due to the geometric impenetrability condition. the mathematical formulation. He was promoted to Full Professor in 2006. and the numerical treatment of systems with discontinuities. characterize impacts. These two properties. They can be regarded as the constitutive equations of the impact. and contain even the impact process that takes place when a contact is closed. In 2001. geometrical concepts are needed to characterize and identify the impact parameters in an invariant and meaningful way. In classical mechanics. They describe the system for non-contact. he returned in 1997 to the Institute B of Mechanics as a senior engineer. As one particular property of nonsmooth mechanics. Pfeiffer. In 1996 he received a Feodor Lynen Fellowship supported by the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation and spent one year at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki working with Professor P. is not restricted to rigid bodies. Panagiotopoulos on hemivariational inequality problems in dynamics. Numerical Schemes The mathematical formulation of unilateral constraints with Coulomb friction in dynamics leads to differential inclusions. and which must be regarded as a generalization of classical mechanics. but also an impulsive force caused by the assumption of rigidity. which leads to a better understanding and implementation of the dynamics observed by experiments. for example. controlled and influenced by the system’s 52 . The transversal crossing of an edge in the configuration manifold is an example of such behavior. He is interested in both theoretical and practical questions concerning the mechanical modeling. After receiving his diploma in 1989.Institute of Mechanical Systems Center of Mechanics Professor Christoph Glocker Impact Theory and Experiment Christoph Glocker has been Extraordinarius for Mechanics at the Institute of Mechanical Systems at ETH Zurich since 2001. which have recently been reformulated as inequalities and extended to multicontact configurations. Impact behavior is then expressed in terms of reflection and orthogonal projection laws on the tangent cone of the configuration manifold. Impacts require impact laws. D. to impacts. local formulations like Newton’s impact law are used. Christoph Glocker was born in 1962 in Munich. For a general theoretical framework. Such approaches work well as long as highly dissipative collisions are investigated. there are even events primarily unrelated to any kind of collision leading to velocity jumps and thus. Even wave propagation phenomena may be handled in this way. After this stay. and sticking friction. velocity jumps and impulsive forces. the number of degrees of freedom changes during motion. the friction and impact problem in multibody systems. as well as their applications to industrial problems. sliding. Moreover. he worked as a research assistant at the Institute B of Mechanics and wrote his doctoral thesis under the guidance of Professor F. however. Impact theory.
For both methods of numerical integration inequality problems have to be solved to find the valid system state. which occurs in curves with radii below 300 meters. Direct shooting methods. but becomes quintessential for self-excited oscillations in frictional vibration problems. The numerical treatment of such systems may in principle be split into two independent subtasks: Integration of differential equations and evaluation of inequality laws. which provide a more consistent evaluation based on direct discretization of the measure differential inclusions. kinetic and energetic restrictions. which can be rewritten as proximal point problems and iteratively solved by Gauß-Seidel methods. Passive actuation is performed by an electromagnetic brake. which are optimization problems with the essential constraints being defined by parametric variational inequality systems. which itself depends on the train’s speed and the friction conditions between the rail and the wheels. Such stability analysis acts then as the basis for improvements on the profile pairings between rail and wheels to reduce the noise. Numerical damping and other sources of inaccuracy may cause such highly sensitive mechanisms to consequently disappear in the computed results. based on the time-stepping scheme. Blue: real states of operation. in which the first 61 elastic modes of the wheel have been taken into account together with a three-dimensional Coulomb contact model. in the cases of accumulation points and become impractical for contact problems of high dimension. Setup for collision experiments with distant effects: Newton’s cradle with five balls. They fail. Pictures from left to right: Definition of the admissible post-impact velocities for Newton’s cradle with three balls under kinematic. The direction of the creepage for steady-state motion of the train is influenced by the misalignment of the wheel set. however. contact and friction laws have to be taken into account to make the system structure variant and to allow for a mechanically consistent constraint activation and deactivation process. including the optimal switching pattern. but sometimes also the outer rear wheel. Red: squeal. The resulting algorithms have to be both robust and accurate. Non-Smooth Control Curve Squealing of Trains Squealing of trains is a narrow-band noise of about 4000 Hertz. Measurements revealed that the inner front wheel of a bogie is in most cases responsible for the noise. Numerical simulation of a multicontact problem. Accuracy is generally required. In addition to the classical constraints. Two link manipulator with exchangeable conventionally and passively actuated joint. The latter are successfully treated by time-stepping algorithms. Standard routines with event detection allow for the integration of the differential equations. . like bounded driving torques. which causes some creepage in the contact zone between the wheel and the rail. Sometimes. performed with time-stepping midpoint rule and Gauß-Seidel iteration on the underlying proximal point problem. This result has been confirmed by a numerical stability analysis.dynamics itself. Green: stable area. This is called a friction-induced vibration. In such curves. from which the noise originates. Optimal walking patterns of humanoids and the optimal switching in automated gears are typical examples of nonsmooth-optimal control problems. provide an approximation of the optimal path. Most important for applications are inequalities represented by normal cone inclusions. The trajectory optimizations of structure-variant mechanical systems belong to the class of mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints. the conical profiles of the wheels can no longer compensate for the difference in arc length between the inner and the outer rail. release units and linear encoders for displacement measurements. the overall constellation is such that one of the wheels may start oscillating. These so-called event driven schemes work well as long as the number of discontinuities is moderately low. Stability plots of the front bogie’s four wheels for varying friction and creep direction.
tissues. the “inflation device” for biaxial experiments with bio-membranes. degree at ETH Zurich. techn. His field of research at ETHZ and EMPA is experimental continuum mechanics. We have made contributions to fundamental and applied research in these fields: Edoardo Mazza has been Associate Professor of Mechanics at the Institute of Mechanical Systems of ETH Zurich since 2006. in energy research (fighting the design challenges towards sustainable energy production). the “torsional resonator device”. Modern continuum mechanics requires sophisticated experiments to develop mathematical models and algorithms for the simulation of materials and material systems. studied mechanical engineering and received his Dr. Experiments are designed to reproduce service conditions of loading of mechanical devices or physiological deformation states of connective tissue and organs in the human body. Since 2006 he has lead a new laboratory at the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA). Biomechanics Our studies on the mechanical behaviour of human tissues and organs are motivated by medical applications: (i) diagnosis (specifically: detection of liver pathologies. these experiments investigate the response of materials to large and non-homogeneous deformations related to multi-axial and time dependent mechanical loads. supportive implant meshes for hernia or laxity).D. and at bridging the gap between these scientific disciplines and their application in engineering and medicine. He was born in 1969 in Italy. premature rupture of fetal membranes). At Alstom Power he was group leader in the steam turbine R&D department. for in-situ high frequency shear testing. and the “biaxial machine” for tension-tension biaxial experiments on soft membranes. and whole organs). We contribute to these challenges with novel experimental observations and their analysis. analysis and interpretation of advanced experiments for understanding the mechanical behavior of novel engineering materials and soft biological tissue. The activity of his group is focused on the construction. (ii) surgery planning (facial tissue models for plastic surgery simulations). (iii) tissue replacement/ implant development (intervertebral disc. he worked in industry from 1997-2001. sc. Biological tissues are extremely complex materials and modeling their mechanical response is obviously a very difficult task. In particular we provide information on the in vivo mechanical behaviour of human organs (as opposed to observations from animal organs or specimen extracted from the human body). In 2001 he was appointed as Assistant Professor of Mechanics at ETH Zurich. malfunctioning (“incompetent”) uterine cervix. For his dissertation he was awarded the ETH medal.Institute of Mechanical Systems Center of Mechanics Professor Edoardo Mazza Research Our research aims at linking continuum mechanics and material physics. We have performed a large number 54 . Examples are the “aspiration device” for quasi-static measurements. in the development of so called “adaptive materials” (analyzing coupled field problems in “smart” mechanical systems). As opposed to conventional materials testing. After his Ph. Examples of an increasing involvement of continuum mechanics with experimental research can be found in biomechanics (with investigations on the deformation behavior of single cells.
g. Recent efforts were towards a correlation between mechanical parameters and histological observations or biochemical indices characterizing tissue microstructure (e. and actuator technologies (with electro active polymer systems offering “muscle-like” performance). surgery instruments based on distributed compliances as a substitute for conventional joints. We contribute with models of the non-linear deformation behaviour of adaptive structures. Models with improved predictive capabilities require an understanding of the mechanisms of deformation and damage. EMPA). The experimental observations are analysed using non-linear visco-elastic constitutive models. We determine constitutive equations for the design of power generation systems with increased efficiency and higher operational flexibility. (ii) we verify the predictive capabilities of our models using dedicated “benchmark” tests. These activities are carried out in the compliant systems laboratory at EMPA.. so to reduce particle release. 5- Inflation experiment to investigate deformation and rupture of human fetal membranes . To this end. As for the other research projects. wear and production costs). we have developed novel “unconventional” experiments reflecting the operating conditions of the actuators. under conditions of non-isothermal multi-axial cyclic loading and creepfatigue interaction. for human liver and fetal membranes). shape memory alloys. Non linear visco-elastic material laws are used to rationalize these observations. Adaptive Materials Energy The necessity of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the limited availability of fossil fuels represent the main driving forces for energy research. Our measurements on the uterine cervix of pregnant women provided the first objective data on the evolution of the mechanical response of the cervix during gestation. Our models of deformation and damage are verified at two levels: (i) we perform comprehensive post-test inspections (optical and electron microscopy) in order to confirm consistency between physical conditions and model predictions. 3- Biaxial testing of acrylic elastomer used for EAP actuators. 2- Thermomechanical fatigue experiments (High Temperature Lab. This approach allows quantification of the influence of stress and strain gradients and strain rate as well as stress multiaxiality on material deformation and damage formation. The development of novel energy conversion technologies and the improvement of the efficiency of conventional power generation lead to new challenges with respect to the reliability of the mechanical components. Our results also provide methods for accelerated thermo-mechanical aging used to predict long term properties of new higher temperature materials. of materials under conditions that closely represent those experienced in service. Applications are in the fields of energy conversion (e. isothermal creep-fatigue and creep tests on uniaxial. in order to exploit them at the earliest opportunity.g. electro active polymer systems. biomedical products (e. thus building a unique set of quantitative data on the in vivo mechanical behaviour of this organ.of intra-operative aspiration experiments on human livers. 4- Measurement of the mechanical behavior of human liver in vivo during open surgery. All experimental activities are conducted in our new high temperature laboratory at EMPA. We investigate the active and passive mechanical response and the mechanisms of degradation and failure of so called dielectric elastomer actuators. to optimize the design or increase the reliability of mechanical systems. Pictures from left to right: 1- 3D numerical model of the face for simulation of cosmetic and reconstructive surgery.g. Prediction of the behaviour of highly deformable structures and functional materials represents one of the main challenges in this innovative field of engineering research. as well as on multiaxial “component-like” testpieces and fracture mechanics specimens. with thermo-mechanical fatigue.g. shape adaptable airfoils that improve aerodynamic efficiency of turbine blades). piezo-ceramics) are integrated in highly deformable structures in order to enable novel functionalities. we develop novel experimental set-ups and procedures and study the response Adaptive materials (e.
Chemical Engineering. Energy Science and Technology and Micro-nano Engineering. Since 2004 IPE offers a Master in Process Engineering based on a newly structured curriculum and contributes to the master’s programs in Mechanical Engineering. The following laboratories of IPE carry out cutting-edge. Its activities cover the entire spectrum of macro. micro.Institute of Process Engineering The Institute focuses on the teaching of process engineering fundamentals through engaging lectures and innovative research. nano and molecular processes with state-of-the-art instrumentation and facilities. innovation-driven research aimed at developing and understanding new products and efficient processes in close interaction with industry: • Particle Technology Laboratory • Separation Processes Laboratory • Transport Processes and Reactions Laboratory 57 .
where the tremendous progress made in the design of stationary phases for difficult separations has to find effective implementation in preparative chromatographic processes. by carrying out cuttingedge research in the areas presented below. Recently we have demonstrated theoretically. (1993). Res. specifically trained in the science and engineering of economically optimized and environmentally beneficial separation processes. 20 articles in books and 6 book chapters.D. to polypeptides and proteins and nucleic acids. we deal with the operation. 2011). Eng. has developed a unique optimizing model predictive controller for SMB processes. optimization and control of multicolumn chromatography.e. has been Professor of Process Engineering at ETH Zurich since 1997 (Associate until 2001 and Full Professor thereafter). and had been Assistant Professor in Milan (1994-1997). In particular. Growth Design. Before joining ETH. Moreover. in co-operation with two other departments of ETH Zurich. Adsorption. from enantiomers of chiral compounds. using the Simulated Moving Bed (SMB) technology and its variants. safe. design. He has mentored eighteen Ph. His refereed publications include more than 160 journal articles. He is on the editorial advisory board of Ind. a brand new type of composition front in nonlinear chromatography. ACS and EFCE. 58 . through simulations and experimentally the existence of the delta-shock. Cryst. and J. that was then awarded the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize. Today such a complex family of technologies can be mastered by its many practitioners thanks to the unique design criteria and modeling tools that have been and are being developed in the SPL. Purification of Biopharmaceuticals by Preparative Chromatography Preparative chromatography is a highly selective technique for the purification of organic compounds in the pharmaceutical and food industries and in biotechnology. He teaches classes on separation processes. Marco Mazzotti. married. and sustainable processes for high quality products and environmentally responsible industrial systems”. 13-16. the SPL. i. Its mission is to educate future engineers and scientists.. His research activity addresses the purification and formulation of biopharmaceuticals and the development of carbon dioxide capture and storage systems. he had worked in industry (1985-1990). Italy. We address the interface between chemistry and chemical engineering.D. Supercritical Fluids.Institute of Process Engineering Separation Processes Laboratory Professor Marco Mazzotti Separation Processes Laboratory The vision of the Separation Processes Laboratory (SPL) is “To develop efficient. both in Chemical Engineering and from the Politecnico di Milano. Chem. Marco Mazzotti has been coordinating lead author of the Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage of the IPCC. with two children. Sep. and Member of the AIChE. We have also demonstrated how SMBs outperform traditional single-column chromatography in all cases of interest. an Italian citizen born in 1960. mathematical methods for chemical engineers and carbon dioxide capture and storage. He holds a Laurea (MSc.. He is Vice-President of the International Adsorption Society. 1984) and a Ph. students and is currently advising twelve. on behalf of which he will chair the 18th International Symposium on Industrial Crystallization (Zurich.
its large scale application is hindered by the slowness of the reaction. e. The aim of the SPL is to investigate the fundamental mechanisms which control the kinetics of both the dissolution of silicates and the precipitation of carbonates. In this context. its transport to a storage location or treatment plant. breakage. enhanced coal bed methane recovery (ECBM). since CO2 can be taken up by the coal in large amounts. Precipitation of organic substances from solution triggered by pressurization with supercritical carbon dioxide makes possible the formation of micro- and nano-particles of products of pharmaceutical relevance. since. agglomeration. namely the capture of CO2 using adsorption based processes and the storage of CO2 by injecting it into deep unmineable coal seams or by fixing it in mineral carbonates. Product quality is usually defined in terms of purity.e. e. Advanced pre-combustion capture techniques are needed to substantially reduce CO2 emissions from fossil fuel power plants. Our strategy is based on the experimental characterization of such mechanisms. the SPL takes part of the European Union Framework Program 7 project DECARBit and aims to develop and design an appropriate pressure swing adsorption (PSA) process to effectively separate the CO2/H2 gas mixture produced by the gasification of coal.g. while at the same time storing the CO2. process optimization and scale-up. drugs and proteins. In this area.g. coal seams are attractive geological formations.carma. size and shape. average particle size and particle size distribution (PSD). e.Crystallization and precipitation from solution of organic substances.g. mixing. Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage Pictures: Hardware. or Focused Beam Reflectance Method. while at the same time allowing for the continued use of fossil fuels. and their interrelation. i. natural silicates or alkaline industrial wastes. mainly thanks to the availability and widespread use of new process analytic techniques. we have been successful in producing nano-particles of a highloaded drug-polymer solid solution with enhanced dissolution characteristics. which would allow the recovery of the methane present in the reservoir. a three-year project involving different Swiss scientific institutions and coordinated by Professor Mazzotti started in January 2009. The field of crystallization has experienced tremendous progress in the last ten years. The SPL aims to create a knowledge base in two specific areas belonging to the CCS chain. though mineral carbonation represents the safest and most stable storage option. In mineral carbonation. we have deepened the understanding of the science and technology through unique experimental and theoretical work. dissolution. An attractive process.ch). on their description through first-principle models and on the use of detailed models for product and process design. that allow for an unprecedented quantitative insight into the complex fundamental mechanisms involved in crystallization. nucleation. the captured CO2 reacts with metal-oxide-bearing materials. polymorphism. and subsequently precipitates as carbonates. Raman Spectroscopy. growth. software and human factor at the Separation Processes Laboratory 59 . In this context. but also on the drug bioavailability. crystal habit. shape or morphology. From the storage point of view. and its isolation from the atmosphere. though very important. is investigated. This is only one. These have a decisive effect not only on the formulation process. This approach is currently successfully applied to the crystallization of different organic species as well as to dense-gas-assisted antisolvent precipitation. option in a portfolio of actions to contrast the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration and to mitigate greenhouse effect and climate change. i. Infrared Spectroscopy. with the purpose of exploring the potential and the feasibility of CCS deployment in Switzerland (www. Production of Micro-Particles of Organic Species by Crystallization and Precipitation Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is a set of technologies for the capture of CO2 from its anthropogenic point sources.ethz. Recently. are key techniques in the pharmaceutical industry and in biotechnology to determine the properties of the final solid product. Our ultimate goal is to devise strategies that allow to design and control the final crystal form.e.
the cement we build our houses with. Professor Pratsinis was born in 1955 in Chanea. nanoparticles. in every pill we take. Pratsinis Particle Technology Laboratory Particles are everywhere. students and is advising currently nine. of Thessaloniki. J. of Aerosol Science and J. Greece (1977) and a Ph.S. morphology and composition accompanied by few.. Europe. Asia and Australia. We had developed also. for the first time. and European patents licensed to Dow. algorithms for agglomerate formation and growth relating product particle characteristics to material properties and process conditions by population balances in particle mass and surface area accounting for gas phase reaction and sintering.D. From the air we inhale. if any. Nanoscale Engineering and Combustion Synthesis of Materials. He has graduated 17 Ph. 60 . the 1995 Marian Smoluchowski Award of the European Association for Aerosol Research and the 2003 Thomas Baron Award of AIChE. of Nanoparticle Research as well as on the Advisory Board of the Australian Research Council Centre on Functional Nanomaterials and on the Science Advisory Board of the Harvard School of Public Health - International Initiative for the Environment. in our dental fillings. from the Univ. Greece. He holds a diploma in Chemical Engineering from the Aristotle Univ. He serves in the Editorial Board of various journals including Powder Techno- logy. His research focuses on the fundamentals of aerosol synthesis of materials with applications in catalysis. Degussa and Hosokawa.D.. Los Angeles (1985). liquid byproducts. in the tires we drive on. He teaches Mass Transfer. Ohio till 1998 when he was elected Professor at ETH Zurich. We specialize on gas-phase (aerosol) processes for their unique capacity to form high purity products (Figure 1) with closely controlled size.S. of Cincinnati. Particle Technology. The mission of our laboratory is to educate the fundamentals of particle science and engineering through basic research. sensors and even life sciences (dental. He was in the faculty of Chemical Engineering at the Univ. Our focus is on product discovery and quantitative understanding for process scale-up through systematic experiments and simulations for synthesis of new materials for catalysis. We focus now on the smallest particles. These algorithms have been incorporated in reactor process design and are routinely used for manufacture of fine particles in industry. GA. NSF. Krete. In 2005-06 he was appointed Springer Professor of Mechanical Engineering at Univ. Berkeley.. We had developed the first simulator for manufacture of optical fiber preforms by modified chemical vapor deposition that has been routinely used by Lucent-Furakawa (former AT&T Bell Labs) in manufacture of lightguide preforms in Norcross. of California. of California. orthopedic) to name a few. Historic highlights of our research include the measurement of the basic oxidation rate of TiCl4 vapor for synthesis of titania which had been called a “landmark contribution in the pigment industry”. We had discovered and patented an aerosol route for synthesis of finer AlN than commercially available powders in collaboration with Dow. in collaboration with ETH colleagues and top universities and industry in U. He has published over 200 refereed journal articles and has been awarded five U.Institute of Process Engineering Particle Technology Laboratory Professor Sotiris E. That program was recognized at Dow as a prototype for industry-university programs. sensors and nanocomposites. to the bread. salt and pepper on the dinner table. in the paint that covers its walls and so on. because their basic properties are quite different from those of bulk materials. He has received the Presidential Young Investigator Award in 1989 from the U.S.
the open structure of Pt/Al2O3 reduces mass transfer limitations resulting in more active than wet-made catalysts for synthesis of chiral molecules for pharmaceuticals from ethyl pyruvate. mixed ceramic powders) and the final polymer-ceramic nanocomposite.Major recent advances in the knowledge base of this technology at ETH Zurich include our systematic in situ measurement of flame temperature and particle diameter along with the extent of agglomeration that were coupled into detailed population balance simulations. biomaterials. That way. Likewise titania-doped silica catalysts of high selectivity for olefin epoxidation are made as they solely contain the active 4-atom coordinated Ti site. nanocomposites and electroceramics. thin oligomeric V2O5 films over TiO2 particles. 3. We have identified quantitatively. For example. A stereoscopic arrangement of twin flame reactors results in Pt/Ba/Al2O3 catalysts for unprecedented NOx storage-reduction by containing a large fraction of low-temperature active BaCO3. sensors. The gained basic understanding of particle formation and growth has guided further our development of “smart” materials beyond catalysts with scalable flame technology such as phosphors. brown LiFe5O8. The crystallinity and dispersion within the host silica matrix determines filler and resulting composite transparencies. Very recently we have discovered a totally new process for the synthesis of gas sensors that bypasses difficulties associated with conventional multi-step wet synthesis. In particular. Au. Nanoparticles made in flames: yellow Bi2O3. slurry or paste deposition and drying. food additives. pure silica nanoparticles. are made by this technology in one step. hard and soft agglomerates through rigorous theory and non-intrusive diagnostics. A stereoscopic twin-flame unit: The left flame produces Al2O3 nanoparticles while the right one Pt-clusters on BaO or BaCO3 support nanoparticles. excellent DeNOx catalysts. flamemade oxide particles can be predicted now from first principles without any adjustable parameters. Pd. The two plumes mix forming the highly desirable Pt/Ba/Al2O3 catalysts for NOx storage-reduction. Focusing on the control of refractive index and radiopacity of the filler (nano structured. Noble-metal clusters (Pt. This has been achieved by monitoring the end of particle sintering through the attainment of an asymptotic primary particle diameter. More specifically by directly depositing flame-made semiconducting SnO2 nanoparticles on Pt electrodes enabled synthesis of highly porous but macroscopically smooth sensing films that could detect gas concentrations off CO and ethanol down to 1 ppm. Pictures from left to right: 1. Capitalizing on our earlier success on synthesis of nonagglomerated. A major breakthrough was our development of liquid-fed flame aerosol reactors (flame spray pyrolysis. we discovered a process for synthesis of radioopaque but highly translucenttransparent tantalum-ytterbium-silica-based mixed oxides.) on ceramic supports can be made in one step with closely and independently controlled cluster and support characteristics. making possible to distinguish the transition from hard (chemically-bonded) to soft (physically-bonded) agglomerates. we have focused on controlling the structure of flame-made particles from perfectly spherical ones to highly ramified agglomerates. for the first time. For example. FSP) that can provide a virtually unlimited spectrum of new products from enantioselective catalysts to quantum dots at high production rates (up to 1 kg/h) which is probably the world’s largest unit (Figure 3) for nanoparticle synthesis for an academic laboratory coupled to classic baghouse filters (Figure 4). A flame spray pyrolysis pilot and flow control unit for synthesis of up to 1 kg/h of metal/ceramic nanoparticles. That way one-step synthesis of Pd/CeO2/ZrO2 doped with Pt increases their reversible oxygen exchange capacity compared to undoped CeO2/ZrO2. of sensor layers. optimal FSP conditions have been identified for dental prosthetics. As a result. Ag etc. characteristics of simple. we have made non-agglomerated fumed silica for dental nanocomposites in collaboration with EMPA and Ivoclar-Vivadent. This is achieved by promoting mixing at the nano scale and synthesis of the above catalyst rather than mixing at the atomic scale that results in catalytically inactive BaAl2O4. 4. LiCoPO4 (light blue as prepared) and annealed for four hours at 600 (purple) or 400 C (dark blue). it has become possible to make highly pure. The associated baghouse unit with 12 filter fingers for nanoparticle collection 61 . mixed ceramic and noble metal composite nanoparticles leading to materials that seemed impossible to make in the gas phase just a few years ago. The structural identification at such small concentrations turns out to be important since even small amounts of Pt have a strong influence on the reduction and oxygen storage capacity of that support. Thus. Ru. 2.
. Surface species composition indicates the strong influence of the stoichiometric ratio between the reacting species hexamethyldisiloxane and oxygen. He studied mechanical engineering. We have also done fundamental research on a circulating fluidized bed system for particle coatings. he headed the Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering. After one year as a scientific associate at the Institute of Process Engineering. His major achievements are in the area of plasma-assisted processes for particles. The diffusion barrier for water vapor and oxygen is improved up to a factor of 1000. Details of this novelty are still under investigation. Surface roughness and diffusion barrier values are correlated when using a combination of microwave ex situ plasma and in situ RF plasma. In 1983. Technologies for Plasma Assisted Chemical Processes for Flat Substrates With plasma assisted reactions. Different models of layer building could be experimentally confirmed. which are adhered at the surface of the particles and thereby decrease the van der Waals forces. he started his thesis at the same Institute at ETH Zurich. In 1998. he became a research associate and Project Manager in a middle sized company which developed. He is strongly engaged Our laboratory has developed novel processes to modify surfaces of particles with the support of a plasma. we patented a process which improves the flowability of particle aggregates into flowable aggregates by means of an in situ creation of nanoparticles. This allows the films to be used for food packaging. In his research he focuses on three main areas. the plasma assisted processes. glasslike surfaces were being produced on polymer films like PET and PP. This treatment inhibits coating with cells after surgery. he was a Guest Professor at UC Santa Barbara in California and in 2006 he spent 8 months at MIT in Cambridge USA. In 1999. and completed his studies in 1978. Technologies for Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) for Particles Philipp Rudolf von Rohr has been a Professor at ETH Zurich since 1992. he has been head of the Institute of Process Engineering several times. In 2007 he became Doctor Honoris Causa at the Technical University in Bratislava. Two years later he returned to ETH and started as a lecturer in multi phase flow. he received his doctorate and a stipend from the National Science Foundation to study at MIT in Cambridge Mass. The plasma source and the position (in situ or ex situ) influence the result. 62 . From 1997 until 2000. In 1986. Furthermore. sold.The process is now being used to coat biomedical devices (Stents). the Laboratory for Transport Processes and Reactions was founded. namely the transport processes. generated either by radio frequency or by microwaves. and erected processes and plants in the area of environmental technologies.Institute of Process Engineering Transport Processes and Reactions Laboratory Professor Philipp Rudolf von Rohr with national and international industries and scientific groups. He became technical director before he returned to ETH in 1992 to fully commit to research and teaching.We created a process in a vertical plug flow reactor to modify the surface of temperature sensitive polymer particles like polypropylene into a wettable surface with a contact angle less than 70 degrees. and high pressure processes at different scales. Since his return. specializing in process engineering at ETH Zurich.
Here all the different processing steps and the scale up concepts are being confirmed experimentally and evaluated theoretically. We developed a process with supercritical water and a flame. With micro PIV the flow field in the liquid slugs has been visualized. we investigated the mass transport in the area of the large-scale structures. Plasma reaction system 63 . In parallel. we simulate the reactive flow with CFD.Transport Phenomena over Complex Surfaces For 13 years we have investigated transport phenomena when one phase liquid flows over mainly wavy surfaces in a specially designed flow channel. Multiphase Flow and Reactions in Mini-and Microreactors Gas liquid two phase systems were investigated with optical measurements and with a tomographic method with very strong X rays for the annular flow type. The flame itself is being investigated with optical methods at temperatures of up to 1500 degree Celsius and at around 300 bar. Fundamental data are collected on heat transfer and on mass transport of spalls from the flame front with theoretical and experimental approaches. We developed a measurement toolbox to simultaneously determine the flow and temperature fields. in an accessible pilot facility. The structures could be detected for the temperature and the flow field. in a lab facility and second. Our investigation focuses on transport phenomena accessed with optical measuring systems to get locally and temporally resolved results which are compared with CFD models (RANS and LES). The new drilling concept is being exploited in two steps: first. Supercritical Water Reactor with its burning flame. Large-scale structures play an important role in the transport outside of the boundary layer over complex surfaces. Additionally.Theoretically. We are thereby using the PIV method for the flow field and a method based on liquid crystals for the temperature field. General new correlations to predict the flow field in microreactors are being developed. we compute the flow and temperature fields with LES and hybrid methods. Our flames burn reliably under extreme conditions. View in an active Plasma Reactor. Micro PIV system. for example. The gap between the micro and the macrosized systems may be closed by a structured foam-like plug flow reactor. Size reduction of the material has been reached by creating a steep temperature gradient in the rock. heat exchanger surfaces. This leads to local disintegration of the hard rock medium due to local deficiencies in the non uniform material and due to different elongation given temperature differences. Hydrothermal Flames for Geothermal Application Our know-how relating to hydrothermal flames is being used in the drilling industry for mining deep heat sources in boreholes below 2. Nanoparticles with narrow size distributions have been synthesized successfully.3 km. Particles are being transported with the help of non-Newtonian fluids to the top of the borehole. LIF in a stirred tank (twice). optical emission comes from Argon. Processes with Supercritical Fluids The advantages of using supercritical fluids include the improvement of the mass transport due to the lack of phase boundaries. Catalytic reactions under high pressure up to supercritical pressure allow the enhancement of the reaction rate. The accurate prediction of the flow and temperature fields allows optimization of. Pictures from left to right: Micro reactor made from PDMS under investigation with Micro PIV. It allows fast reactions of undesired waste. alternative drilling methods are necessary to make the enhanced geothermal mining economically feasible. Therefore.We worked with defined surfaces like wavy walls. One main cost driver for these applications is the cost of the drilling.
Sensory-Motor Systems Lab The SMS Lab focuses on the investigation of sensory-motor interactions between humans and machines. such as in the investigation of molecular structures. the Autonomous Systems Lab directed by Professor R. (vision. A key idea is that human movement and psycho-physiological state can be controlled by recording multi-sensory physiological signals and then displaying processed information by means of multi-modal stimuli 65 . A second focus is on the emerging field of neuroscience robotics. and energy efficient. and how haptic feedback can benefit motor learning. Bio-Inspired Robotics Lab The research interests of the Bio-Inspired Robotics Lab lie at the intersection of robotics and biology. Our concepts and technologies find their applications in personal and service robots. and computational optimization techniques. resilient. Many of these systems are used for robotic exploration within biological domains. space rovers. we develop core competences which are the design and control of dynamic mechatronics systems. sports. the design of novel mechatronic machines. rehabilitation therapy. Our main goals are to contribute to a deeper understanding of the adaptivity and autonomy of animals through the investigation of dynamic robots. Gassert and the Bio-Inspired Robotics Lab directed by Professor F. Research at the Rehabilitation Engineering Lab focuses on the development and clinical evaluation of diagnostic.Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems The Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems consists of the Multi-Scale Robotics Lab directed by Professor B. haptics etc. This is driven by the vision that machines of the future will interact more and more closely with human beings. with the aim of developing and applying novel robotic tools allowing us to gain a better understanding of the neural mechanisms that underly human sensorimotor control and their reorganization with age or after focal brain injury in combination with functional neuroimaging. sound. advanced cars.) to the human. taking into account the subject’s effort and intention rather than imposing any rigid and inflexible strategy. Through abstraction of the design principles of biological systems. This multidisciplinary research includes the study of human motor control. independence and social integration of the physically disabled. and to engineer novel robotic applications which are more adaptive. and in some cases machines will even merge with humans. and the investigation and optimisation of human-machine interaction. Riener. Iida. therapeutic and assistive robotic tools in order to promote recovery. and complex organism behavior. and medical education. The main applications are in the fields of rehabilitation. namely in the design and control of robots operating in uncertain and highly dynamic environments. inspection robots and walking machines. unmanned aerial vehicles. Autonomous Systems Lab In the Autonomous System Lab research interests focus on autonomous mobile systems. Nelson. A special interest lies in hand function. The major goal is to find new ways to deal with uncertainties and to enable the design of highly interactive and adaptive systems. MSRL research develops the tools and processes required to fabricate and assemble micron sized robots and nanometer scale robotic components. Siegwart. and human-machine interaction. as can be seen in today’s trends in autonomous robots. A major component of the MSRL research leverages advanced robotics for creating intelligent machines that operate at micron and nanometer scales. bionic sensor technologies. cellular systems. the Sensory-Motors Systems Lab directed by Professor R. Multi-Scale Robotics Lab Rehabilitation Engineering Lab The Multi-Scale Robotics Lab pursues a dynamic research program that maintains a strong robotics research focus on several emerging areas of science and technology. the Rehabilitation Engineering Lab directed by Professor R. The technical system interacts with the human in a user-cooperative way.
writing. therapeutic and assistive tools in order to promote recovery.. To achieve these goals. most survivors lose some ability to use the arm and/or hand. which he partially carried out at ATR International in Kyoto.D. (ii) development and clinical evaluation of therapy protocols and interactive VR games to enhance engagement and motivation of subjects. We are especially interested in hand function. we are using a combined approach of robotics. degree in microengineering and a Ph. Roger Gassert has been Assistant Professor of Rehabilitation Engineering at ETH Zurich since December 2008. manipulating objects. the UK and Switzerland. In collaboration with the National University of Singapore (NUS). He subsequently worked on the development and evaluation of robotic systems to train hand function after stroke as Postdoctoral Fellow at Imperial College London and Simon Fraser University in Vancouver. He received his MSc. (iii) investigation of the influence of various feedback modalities on therapy outcome. actuators and control schemes for safe and gentle human-machine interaction. in 2002 and 2006. rehabilitation therapy. respectively. From December 2007 to November 2008 he headed the joint robotics lab between EPFL and the University of Tokyo at the Robotic Systems Lab at EPFL. 66 . Switzerland. Japan. Canada. degree in robotics and neuroscience from the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL). Robot-Assisted Rehabilitation of Hand Function After Stroke After a stroke. Imperial College London and McGill University we are developing and clinically evaluating robotic interfaces to train hand function after stroke. supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation. independence and social integration of the physically disabled. Our goal is to induce long lasting improvement in typical activities of daily living involving the hand. etc. he systematically investigated actuation methods for applications in MR environments. (iv) evaluation of the efficiency of robot-assisted therapy of hand function with the Haptic Knob and HandCARE robots. using dedicated robotic interfaces. and how haptic feedback can benefit motor learning. Research in this area involves (i) design and evaluation of dedicated sensors. psychophysics and cognitive neuroscience and strongly collaborating with international teams in these disciplines.Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems Rehabilitation Engineering Lab Professor Roger Gassert Our research focuses on the development and clinical evaluation of diagnostic. His research interests are in rehabilitation and medical robotics. haptics.D. which severely affects activities of daily living. These systems are now being used to investigate sensorimotor control and related dysfunctions with partners in Japan. assistive devices and neuroscience. and humanmachine interaction. such as eating. by letting stroke patients perform systematic exercises adapted to their disability. During his Ph. and developed an MR-compatible robotic technology that lead to the first fMRI-compatible haptic interfaces allowing safe and gentle interaction with human motion during functional MRI.
In conjunction with a functional brain imaging modality such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). in collaboration with the University College London. PHANTOM haptic device used in research and teaching 67 . sensors. We are developing robotic tools to objectively determine human factors and are letting this knowledge flow into the design and evaluation of mechatronic components for human-machine interaction.g. We closely work with the Access for all foundation located in Zurich to establish a list of requirements for such devices and evaluate them with the end users. but it can also create new barriers. However. such as multi-degree-of-freedom force/torque sensors for applications in rehabilitation robotics and clinical diagnostics. Basel). as well as the effect of aging and stroke on these interactions. Neuroscience Robotics Assistive Technology Technology can help people with disabilities overcome barriers. instrumented objects for home-based rehabilitation. compatibility testing. Robotic systems interacting with human motion require the development of adapted actuators. assistive navigation tool for the blind.Robotic interfaces can dynamically interact with humans performing movements and can be used to study neuromuscular adaptation. multi-modal human-machine interfaces to assist people with disabilities in everyday life. Research focuses on the development of safe and compatible mechatronic components. e. Haptics Sensorimotor Interactions Proprioceptive feedback is crucial for movement generation in humans. and assist medical doctors in functional diagnostics of motor dysfunctions. We investigate how technology can assist the disabled in their daily activities. Research in this area involves the design and evaluation of assistive devices with intuitive.. and how the information gathered by the tool can be conveyed to the user in the most effective and least disturbing manner. and the accessible workspace around the subject is limited. mechanisms and control schemes. Haptic Knob therapeutic interface to train hand function. especially during motor (re)learning. We are developing robotic systems compatible with fMRI and electroencephalography (EEG). the MR environment imposes severe safety and electromagnetic compatibility constraints on mechatronic components. these devices could allow neuroscientists to investigate the brain mechanisms of manipulation and motor learning. performance evaluation and application of these devices in neuroscience studies in collaboration with our partners. give therapists a tool for adaptive and patient-specific rehabilitation therapies. We are applying our fMRI-compatible haptic technology to systematically investigate sensorimotor interactions during finger motion. These devices can generate virtual dynamic environments and allow the investigation of human motor control and related dysfunctions in a well-controlled manner with repeatable conditions. idem in fMRI study to investigate sensorimotor interactions. in collaboration with the thick-film technology group at the Laboratoire de Production Microtechnique at EPFL. A similar robotic device designed for interaction with wrist movements is being used to gain a better understanding of the role of proprioception in motor learning in healthy subjects. such as. Pictures from left to right: fMRI-compatible robotic finger interface used in behavioral study (Copyright Schaffner & Conzelmann. navigation tools for the blind.
computer science and biological sciences. Currently he serves on the editorial board of Journal of Intelligent & Robotic Systems and Frontiers in Neuroscience (Neurorobotics). Germany. efficiency. In nervous systems. Fumiya Iida is a SNF Professor for Bio-inspired Robotics at ETH Zurich in 2009. and human-machine interactions. where he has been involved in a number of research projects related to dynamic-legged locomotion. the vision of the Bio-Inspired Robotics Lab is to create life-like robots. University of Jena. while flexibly switching to precise and high power actuation if necessary. sc. These are the challenging problems ahead of robotics engineers and scientists. 1999). and Dr. and through the systematic investigations toward this goal. and adaptability in particular. And second. and in 2009. a number of intelligent behaviors emerge through making use of tools. In nature. embodied artificial intelligence. He has so far published over forty publications in major robotics journals and conferences. and optimized through both rapid learning and relatively long-term developmental processes. More specifically. which we tackle with from an interdisciplinary viewpoint bridging over robotics. we make inroads into the fundamental questions about what discriminates between animals and machines by applying an understanding-by-building approach. based on our core technological competences. The research program consists of two large subsets of investigations: first. he worked as a postdoctoral associate at the Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. In 2006.Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems Bio-Inspired Robotics Lab Professor Fumiya Iida Vision While a number of successful applications have been developed based on conventional robotics technologies. From 2006 to 2009. which considerably restricts their application niche. Massachusetts Institute of Technology in USA. and social interactions and cooperation. animals’ motor controls often utilize highly maneuverable and efficient passive dynamics. Based on these sensory-motor capabilities. we explore novel technologies such as sensory. Projects Design Optimization of Underactuated Robotic Systems Passive dynamics play important roles in the daily life of animals. as exemplified by passive knee swings during walking. nat. structuring environments. he was awarded the Fellowship for Prospective Researchers from the Swiss National Science Foundation. and biomechanics. the capabilities of current robotic systems are still far behind those of biological systems in terms of autonomy. the Swiss National Science Foundation Professorship. information is processed in massive parallel networks. 68 . in Informatics at University of Zurich (2006). he was also engaged in biomechanics research of human locomotion at Locomotion Laboratory. In 2004 and 2005. motor and computational components. and edited two books. the program committee member of international conferences and workshops. He received his bachelor and master degrees in mechanical engineering at Tokyo University of Science (Japan. which enable us to develop more biologically plausible physical robotic systems. we rapidly and incrementally identify what are the fundamental problems and how they can be solved. navigation of autonomous robots. His research interests include biologically inspired robotics.
While the exploitation of passive dynamics in our robotic systems is expected to significantly improve energy efficiency. which appears to be a fundamental problem preventing conventional robots from generating natural behaviors. from theoretical and practical viewpoints. a high jump requires a preparation phase of several preceding steps. Pictures from left to right: Compass gait biped robot on rough terrain. Four-legged running robot Puppy equipped with stereo vision. in order to overcome the discrepancy in natural and artificial design processes. and complex mechanical design processes. and extract the basic principles of mechanical designs in nature. One-legged hopping robot with a compliant leg. Nonlinear Control Optimization for Dynamics Programmability Nonlinear dynamics is a predominant property of underactuated robotic systems. learning and development. Theoretically. and dynamic interactions with fluidic environments for swimming and flying. collaborating with a number of researchers in biomechanics and neuroscience. we model and analyze musculoskeletal designs of biological systems. This research direction explores the questions typically investigated in the fields of artificial intelligence. animals actively interact with the environment for the purpose of perception. Our strategic methodology in this research domain is to take advantage of rapidly growing computer technologies. and ball-kicking requires a swing back of the leg in a specific way to gain the maximum momentum at impact. and through the investigations of physical robots. More specific problems include how perception of the world can be simplified by actively interacting with the environment. First. and how learning processes can be simplified by embodied interactions. maneuverability. In particular.passive finger-object interactions through soft skin surfaces for object grasping. Aiming towards a significant breakthrough in robotics research. In other words. In contrast. Second. cognitive science. and overall robustness in generating motions. and brain science from the viewpoint of robotics. we explore basic sensory-motor components and novel manufacturing processes by investigating rapid prototyping and computational optimization methods. we integrate the acquired knowledge and technologies into the demonstrations of animal-like robotic-legged locomotion and manipulation. it is a technologically difficult problem because it requires nonlinear system-environment interactions. And third. and experimental results of hopping over rough terrain 69 . By applying computational techniques such as numerical simulation and machine learning algorithms to control optimization. The application domain of this research direction is surprisingly broad and we investigate this exciting research topic through legged locomotion in rough terrains. and swimming and flying in dynamic flows. generating such non-periodic resilient behaviors involves nonlinear control that requires a certain form of planning because every control action has long-term consequences. Walking and running biped robot with compliant legs. we develop a systematic design framework of nonlinear control such that mechanical dynamics can be “programmable” for sensible non-periodic behaviors. how sensory information and symbolic representations can be grounded onto physically meaningful characteristics and properties. we systematically explore what the roles of “embodiment” in the context of intelligent adaptive behaviors in animals and machines are. control of nonlinear dynamics plays an important role in generating non-periodic behaviors such as high jump and kicking a ball. manipulation of unknown objects. for example. the use of passive dynamics is still one of the most significant challenges for robotic systems in the world today. Dynamic Embodied Cognition The capabilities of dynamic system-environment interactions are essential not only for generating motions but also for dynamic adaptive behaviors of nervous systems in nature. a walking robot can realize it was a bad step only after falling over. in the Bio-Inspired Robotics Lab our research projects in this direction focus on the following three challenges. high-bandwidth control.
Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems Multi-Scale Robotics Lab Professor Bradley J. Health care now is in a position to make an even more dramatic leap by integrating newly developed wireless microrobotic technologies with nanomedicine to perform precisely targeted.M. an M. the first year the event was held. 2006.M.S.E. In order to realize this capability.” Scientific American magazine’s annual list recognizing fifty outstanding acts of leadership in science and technology from the past year. He has been an engineer at Honeywell and Motorola and served as a United States Peace Corps Volunteer in Botswana. from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He was elected as a Robotics and Automation Society Distinguished Lecturer in 2003 and 2008 and has been a finalist for and/or won best paper awards at major robotics conferences and for journals in 2004. He has been awarded a McKnight Land-Grant Professorship and is a recipient of the Office of Naval Research Young Investigator Award. Africa. He became an Assistant Professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago in 1995 and an Associate Professor at the University of Minnesota in 1998. degree in Robotics from the School of Computer Science. Microrobotics for Ophthalmic Surgery A major effort of the group is on the development of untethered wireless biomedical microrobots for in-vivo medical applications with emphasis on intraocular procedures. and 2009. and medical therapies for which the technology will prove successful must be aggressively pursued. and tissue adhesion. 2008. localized endoluminal techniques. 2005. the McKnight Presidential Fellows Award. We are developing carbon nanotube (CNT) base drug delivery systems. To functionalize the microrobot we pursue a broad range of topics including surface coatings for biocompatibility. He was named in the 2005 “Scientific American 50. Nelson Research Overview Professor Nelson’s Multi-Scale Robotics Lab (MSRL) of the Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems pursues a dynamic research program that maintains a strong robotics research focus on several emerging areas of science and technology.D. The microrobot is magnetically steered and visually controlled through indirect ophthalmoscopy methods.E. the National Science Foundation Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Award. he became the Professor of Robotics and Intelligent Systems at ETH Zurich in Switzerland. Current Research Projects Brad Nelson received a B. drug delivery.S. Carnegie Mellon University. and the Bronze Tablet. The steering methods we are developing will increase the accuracy of intraocular procedures and allow more precise operations on the highly sensitive human retina. In 2002. many new technologies must be developed and synergistically integrated. 70 . A major component of MSRL research leverages advanced robotics to create intelligent machines that operate at micron and nanometer scales. 2007. Microrobotics and Nanomedicine The introduction of minimally invasive surgery in the 1980’s created a paradigm shift in surgical procedures. from the University of Minnesota and a Ph. Issues in fabrication and magnetic-based guidance are being pursued. The “nanorobots” incorpate ferromagnetic material so that they can be guided using external magnetic fields and have biomolecules attached at the surface. His lab won the 2007 RoboCup Nanogram Competition.
4b. artificial bacterial flagella (ABFs) have comparable geometries and dimensions to their organic counterparts and swim using the same low Reynolds number non-reciprocating helical strategy. and a theoretical approach has been combined with experiments to investigate the effect of electrode geometry on precision placement and percent yield. is to build a modular robotic system in which capsule-modules are swallowed one at a time. The final position of DEP assembled CNTS for different electrode shapes. and for targeted drug delivery. cellular. ABFs swim in a controllable fashion using weak applied magnetic fields (1-2 mT) and are fabricated from helical nanobelts by a “top down” approach of pre-stressed multi-layers. (a) a pair of round electrodes. (Copyright: IRIS). 4a. SEM image of a micro force sensing probe and an electrostatic microgripper with integrated force sensor (Copyright: IRIS) . that has been self-assembled in an artificial stomach (Copyright: IRIS). and localization and tracking in vivo.Our microrobot docked in a vein. 8.Magnetic Microactuators Magnetic actuators are capable of generating large bidirectional forces over long working distances. generate large forces over large distances and provide a “latching” action. (Copyright: IRIS) . including micromagnet assembly for microactuators. and molecular levels. in particular for biomedical research. Key issues being addressed are the swimming performance of these micro-/nanorobots under different environmental conditions. Single-axis and multi-axis micro force sensing systems as well as MEMS force sensing grippers are designed and fabricated in the clean rooms of ETH. tissue. They have the advantages that they can be actuated with external fields. Snake-type robot. Artificial Bacterial Flagella Inspired by nature’s bacterial flagella. 2. Quantitative measurements of the forces in these miniature systems are the basis for the emerging field of mechanobiology. Micro Force Sensing and Microhandling Biological systems such as tissue. surface functionalization of ABF. This unique technological breakthrough has many potential applications. Pictures from left to right: 1. Force controlled microassembly using a force sensing MEMS gripper (Copyright: IRIS). They provide a 6-DOF micro- and nanomanipulation tool for manipulating cellular and sub-cellular objects. (b) a hybrid electrode pair. (Copyright: IRIS). They are widely used in the macro world and are of growing interest to the micro world. for sensing and transmitting inter- and intracellular information. Due to their small size. Self-assembly research is also being pursued at larger scales and is currently focused on increasing the functionality of capsule endoscopy. and novel electroplating processes. these devices can be readily integrated into existing experimental setups providing a significantly enhanced data acquisition technology for biomechanical research. cells and protein fibers are highly deformable materials with mechanical properties that are often not well known. A scanning electron micrograph of an as-fabricated artificial bacteria flagellum. One approach to increasing functionality while still working within this cm-scale size constraint. We have developed various processes for the integration of hard magnetic materials into microsystems for actuation and sensing. (Copyright: Antoine Ferreira). 3. 9. The optimization of multiple process parameters for DEP assembly is a major challenge. 6-axis MEMS force sensor with micronewton resolution (Copyright: IRIS). whose dimensions are constrained by the size a person can swallow without difficulty.Magmite dwarfed by Drosophila (Copyright: IRIS). MEMS technology provides the opportunity to develop much smaller and inexpensive micro force sensors with a high sensitivity and bandwidth. Self-Assembly and Directed Self-Assembly Dielectrophoretic (DEP) assembly has been widely used for precise assembly of micro to nanosized components and is well suited for integration with micro and nano-electronic devices. 7. 5. wafer level processes using screen printing. Devices with active locomotion are being developed. 6. fabricated out of abstract modules. operate in a variety of contaminated or dirty environments. investigating force-structure relationships of biological systems at the organism. the fabrication of ABF with materials other than semiconductors. Escherichia coli bacteria using a bundle of helical flagella to propel themselves in liquid. and the final assembly is performed within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
virtual reality. 3D audiovisual motion representation. respectively. He authored and co-authored more than 250 peer-reviewed journal and conference articles. he has been Associate Professor for Sensory-Motor Systems at the D-MAVT. where he finished his habilitation in the field of Biomechatronics in 2003. degree in Mechanical Engineering and a Dr. thus exploiting visual. From 2003-2006 he was Assistant Professor for Rehabilitation Engineering at the Automatic Control Laboratory of the ETH Zurich and Spinal Cord Injury Center of the University Hospital Balgrist (“double-professorship”). Politecnico di Milano from 1998-1999. Multi-modal and user-cooperative techniques are applied to humans with movement disorders (rehabilitation) and healthy subjects (basic motor research) in order to study the neurological and biomechanical principles of human motion learning and motor control. and holds 18 patents. and robotic motion synthesis. multi-sensory data acquisition. motion analysis. “Cooperative” means that the technical system takes into account the human’s effort and intention rather than imposing an inflexible strategy. the HumanTech Innovation Prize 2005. The approaches are being technically and clinically evaluated in cooperation with partners from the medical faculty (University Hospital Balgrist and University Hospital Zurich) and the movement science field. -Ing. acoustical. and the Swiss Technology Award 2006. Robert Riener received a Dipl. and rehabilitation robotics. Promising technologies developed in the laboratory are being transferred to the market in order to become successful products. where he conducted research on modeling and control of neuroprostheses. functional MRI. His research interests involve human motion analysis and synthesis. he returned to the TU München. The fundament for these scientific tasks is formed by basic methods such as neurophysiological and biomechanical modeling.-Ing. He has been awarded several prizes including the ISPO Academic Challenge Award 2003. and haptic sensor and actor modalities.Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems Sensory-Motor Systems Lab Professor Robert Riener The general goal is the investigation of human and technical sensory-motor systems and the interaction between them. Since June 2006. He is an associate editor of the IEEE TNSRE and an editorial member of two international journals. After postdoctoral work at the Centro di Bioingegneria. in Electrical Engineering from the TU München in 1993 and 1997. still holding the double professorship with the University of Zurich. biomechanics. 72 . haptic display technologies. “Multi-modal” means that multi-sensory information is recorded from the human. Multi-modality and cooperativity have the potential to improve the motor learning effects in motor therapies as well as movement training applications. In 1993 he joined the Institute of Automatic Control Engineering. processed and displayed via a multi-channel interface.
Treadmill training robot Lokomat 73 . and strategies that should support the functional MRI studies • Support findings by neurophysiological and biomechanical modeling & simulation • Transfer to other MRI applications in the areas of orthopedics. • Use of the M3 Motion Synthesis Laboratory for different applications: haptic display (high speed rope robot). 3D sound (acoustic wave field synthesis sound system). neuropathologies. High-precision MR-compatible force sensor. and integrate them into clinical practice together with our medical partners. and neural restoration • Development and evaluation of new MR-compatible devices. Investigation of Neurological Representation of Human Movement Making the above-mentioned rehabilitation robots compatible to the MRI scanner will allow tracking of the neural correlates of specific rehabilitative treatments and investigation of reparative plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex: • Functional MRI studies of motion planning. M3 rowing simulator. BrainTrain touch-sensitive training system for medical education. A high speed robotic rope interface guides the movement of a subject. evaluate these methods. interventional surgery. robots. acoustic. Specific research areas include: • Development of new cooperative man-machine interaction methods • Study of the principles of motivation and movement learn- ing via visual and auditory feedback • Prove new technical evaluation methods • Prove clinical efficiency with arm therapy robot ARMin and gait robot Lokomat Motor Learning with Multimodal Interfaces The Motion Synthesis Laboratory M3 was set up to study how learning of human movement can be influenced and optimized by a multimodal (haptic. Special focus is directed towards sonification and visual feedback in particular movements such as rowing. MR-compatible implants Pictures from left to right: Therapy robot ARMin including audiovisual display for the treatment of stroke patients. motor learning. The Lab is modular and flexible so that any kind of movement in sport and rehabilitation can be studied. MR-compatible linear actuator for fMRI brain studies. 3D graphics (stereo projections on 3 screens). while additional 3D sound and 3D images can give audiovisual advice on how to perform a movement.Patient-Cooperative Robot-Aided Rehabilitation Task-oriented repetitive movements can improve muscular strength and movement coordination in patients with neurological or orthopedic lesions. • Study the influence of 3D haptics. The Motion Synthesis Lab will also allow an investigation of the human interaction with any kind of rehabilitation or sport device. 3D vision and 3D sound on motor learning. We develop novel technologies and strategies for robot-aided gait and arm therapy. visual) display of the movement. We want to investigate natural principles of human motor control and motion learning.
Roland Siegwart’s 74 . specifically in the design and control of systems operating. Roland Siegwart is Member of the Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences. the uncertainty of this information. He served as Vice President for Technical Activities (2004/05) and as Distinguished Lecturer (2006/07) and is currently AdCom Member (2007-2009) of the IEEE Robotics and Automation Society. In 2005 he held a visiting position at NASA Ames and at Stanford University. In 1989/90 he spent one year as a Postdoctoral Fellow at Stanford University. IEEE Fellow and an Officer of the International Federation of Robotics Research (IFRR). as suggested by the recent progress in autonomous mobile robotics. Our research is thus devoted to improving the state-of-the-art in mechatronics and robotics in an endeavor to realize our vision. and intelligent cars. Our research interest is in mechatronics and intelligent robots.D. With the introduction and rapid development of microelectronics. and finally the environment’s complexity and dynamics. In 1996 he was appointed as an Associate and later as a Full Professor for Autonomous Microsystems and Robots at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL). intelligent control and system design towards the creation of smart products and processes. In some instances. Our vision is to create “machines that know what they do” and to find new and improved ways of designing human-centered. During his period at EPFL he was the Deputy Head of the National Competence Center for Reseach (NCCR) on Multimodal Information Management (IM2). the Research Council of the Swiss National Science Foundation. highly interactive and adaptive systems. electronics.Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems Autonomous Systems Lab Professor Roland Siegwart research interests are in the design and control of systems operating in complex and highly dynamic environments. most of today’s products and systems make extended use of embedded microprocessors as controller mechanisms. in Mechatronics (1989) from ETH Zurich. which is the synergistic integration of precision mechanical engineering. This change heralded the formation of a new engineering discipline – mechatronics. co-initiator and founding Chairman of Space Center EPFL and Vice Dean of the School of Engineering. He has a diploma in Mechanical Engineering (1983) and a Ph. Computers that can understand and reason about complex situations are not yet available. ETH Zurich. and autonomous robots assisting us in our everyday life are still far from reality. they will soon even “merge” with humans. After that he worked part time as the R&D director of MECOS Traxler AG and as a lecturer and Deputy Head at the Institute of Robotics. Nevertheless. hearing aids. This is driven by the forethought that machines are rapidly getting more complex and closer to human beings. Prominent examples of existing systems include robot surgeons. cleaning and toy robots. in highly dynamic environments. The main reasons that make the development of reliable artificial systems particularly challenging are the incompleteness of available information (limited by sensing capability). In the last two decades. He is the coordinator of two European Projects and the co-founder of several spin-off companies. It can be categorized along three closely linked scientific directions: Roland Siegwart has been a Full Professor for autonomous systems at ETH Zurich since July 2006. engineering has undergone an unprecedented revolution. the state-of-the-art products are still very limited in interactivity and adaptability to changing environments.
To do so. and embedded control. This research area is supported by the European Commission (EU). students and Postdocs.D. multi-modal perception and tracking of dynamic objects in urban environments. Current research and educational activities focus on project based learning. the butler and theater actor. 11 interactive tour-guide robots that were deployed at the Swiss national exhibition expo. operating in real-world environments and thus producing tangible results. CoaX. Special focus is placed on visual sensors that are very rich in information and getting more and more affordable in recent years. This area is supported by various EU and CTI projects and involves around half a dozen Ph. Avalon. the Mars exploration rover. tools and methodologies. the European Space Agency (ESA). implemented and verified on real robot platforms with embedded control. Navigation and Mapping in Highly Dynamic Environments Creativity and Product Innovation This research direction mainly addresses the scientific questions related to mobile robot localization and map-building. and path planning algorithms that allow autonomous motion in highly dynamic settings. we exploit multiple sensor inputs and fuse them for motion estimation and mapping as well as global and local navigation. methods.02 for 5 months. students and Postdocs. Recent testimonials to the progress made in this direction include: wheeled locomotion systems that passively adapt to rough terrain and perceive their environment with tactile sensors. Real environments are typically only partially perceivable and the perceived information is intrinsically imprecise. Igor. service robots for home environments and industrial inspection. in order to realize intelligent autonomous systems and robots that are able to cope with highly complex tasks and environments. Skysailor. obstacle avoidance in human cluttered environments and human- robot interaction. a robotized car for autonomous driving. Smartter. creativity training. the autonomous sailing boat 75 . a solar micro-airplane capable of staying airborne indefinetly. Thus.D.D. and tools. the Swiss Innovation Promotion Agency (CTI) and other industrial partners. The most recent results in this area are highly efficient localization and map-building algorithms that allow reliable navigation in various 2D and 3D environments. This research area is supported through various EU and Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF) projects and involves around a dozen Ph. Pictures from the left to the right: Crab. It involves around a dozen Ph. We believe that the innovativeness of industry can and should be enhanced through the implementation of new processes. We are convinced that an open and sustainable collaboration between industry and acedemia is the key to mutual success – both for the university that produces results and for the industry that uses them in practical. an autonomous car.Design of Robotic and Mechatronic Systems that best Adapt to their Environment This direction includes research for integrated mechatronic design of intelligent systems. such as in exhibition areas or on urban roads. Our main applications are in visual navigation with micro unmanned vehicles (MAV). students and Postdocs. robot learning and neuroscience. Naro. Our approach is mainly based on Bayesian mathematics and inspired by recent advances in artificial intelligence. an autonomous solar powered micro-glider. laser and stereo vision. Alf. the actual state of the system operating in the real world must also be considered as error prone and inaccurate. The main focus is on integrated systems design. All our theoretical models are We investigate the fundamentals of creativity and innovation to develop methods and tools for effective and efficient product innovation. day-to-day complex situations. With this basis. an autonomous helicopter with high stability margin. and various micro-helicopters. the quadruped starts running. an autonomous sailing boat ready to cross the Atlantic. the artificial Tuna. we are developing and adapting tools that allow for the consideration and modeling of uncertainties for autonomous mobile robot navigation and interaction. environment perception. These support the frontend for the innovation process and new means for innovation assessment in small and medium-sized companies. an intelligent quadruped walker.
and Nanosystems Professor Christofer Hierold Professorship of Nanotechnology Professor Andreas Stemmer 77 . Institute of Machine Tools and Manufacturing Professor Konrad Wegener Institute of Virtual Manufacturing Professor Pavel Hora Professorship of Micro.The following pages provide an overview of institutes consisting of single professorships and professorships that are not associated with an institute.
the institute focuses on cutting with geometrically undefined edges (grinding. KG. He began his industrial career at Schuler Presses GmbH & Co. Model based control concepts for path planning as well as for closed loop control are developed and tested. the derivation of machine tools from predefined properties. thus to develop agile manufacturing concepts. • Prediction and evaluation of a machine concepts’ behavior on a very basic database and subsequent optimization. the institute explores solutions of the inverse design problem. control. machining/chip formation. and thermal aspects. he gave lectures on tensor calculus and continuum mechanics at the Technical University of Braunschweig and on forming technology and forming machines at the Technical University of Darmstadt. • Application of polymer concrete and the subsequent optimi- zation of the machine’s functionality since the manufacturing of components in cold casting offers new possibilities. welding and cutting machines for the job shop. the institute deals with conception. path planning. and materials for the construction of machine tools.D. Parallel to his industrial work. Today. large welding machines for shipbuilding and construction of aeroplanes. • Reconfigurable machines to increase the flexibility at low costs and to reduce the setup times. Future plans include the topic of reliability/availability.Institute of Machine Tools and Manufacturing Professor Konrad Wegener Main Research Areas The research is grouped into three main areas: Machines: The main research topic for machines is the predictability of the machine tools’ behavior and their enhancement. and materials to be treated. laser machining and process combinations. Development of model based concepts for the compensation. and built it up from 12 employees to over 50. process chains. diagnosis and process control. he was appointed as its general manager. he studied mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Braunschweig and wrote his Ph. Born in 1958. Manufacturing processes: The main research topic concerning processes is the prediction and increase in performance (accuracy and transformation rate) of manufacturing processes and the automatic planning of process chains. special strategic machine components. Currently. thesis on constitutive equations for plastic material behavior of metals. drives. As a longterm goal. Under his leadership. dynamic. After the acquisition of a small company. automotive industry. He is head of the IWF (Institut für Werkzeugmaschinen und Fertigung) and inspire AG. Konrad Wegener has been Full Professor of Production Technology and Machine Tools at ETH Zurich since October 2003. electrical discharge machining. calibration/error compensation. • Error compensation methods under kinematic. an industry initiated transfer center at ETH Zurich. i. hard broaching. honing). 78 . and fabrics cutter were developed and built.e. He prepared and planned the engagement of the Schuler group in laser technology. heat influences. dynamics. • The productivity of all machine tools could be significantly increased if the machine is able to change the behavior of the control system depending on the position of the TCP.
Of parti- cular importance are the production planning and the deve- lopment of environments for creative and intuitive interaction with digital products. a closed process chain for mechatronic design is built up. and three-dimensional measurement results. for instance. and the friction force are derived. as well as the acoustic emissions are measured. orientation. as well as measurement methods and devices. Monte Carlo simulation of such grinding wheels to take into account the stochastic nature of position. This is used for concept evaluation and as a real time model for the compensation of the machine’s thermal errors. calibrated ball plate. • Development of an assembly kit for simulation in the time domain and for fast prediction of some machine concepts’ behaviors. in which the behavior is enhanced by model based concepts for thermal and dynamic behaviors. • Process chains: Development of models for the process chain. the direction of the shear plane. simulation of thermal behavior. broaching with geometrically undefined edges. • Calibration of machine tools with the help of an error model. . process simulation. A grinding model is built up as a stochastic synthesis of a large number of grains. the material removal process is studied. including drives and control properties. Pictures from left to right: Model based concept for the control system of machine tools and its realization on the Hexaglide system. This means that the error identifi- cation is based on a reduced coverage of the work space.• Development and layout of engineered grinding tools on the basis of brazed or plated metallic bonds. • Virtual reality: Virtual reality is the promising keystone for the convergence of modeling on different scales. to machine scale. and geometrical and physical metrology. Engineered grinding tools offer the possibility to influence the flow direction. Virtual reality is the key to communication for distributed development groups or production planners and the key to the human interaction with various digital products. Brazed engineered grinding tool and its simulation with the Monte Carlo method to take into account the stochastic nature of the manufacturing process. • Numerical simulation of metal cutting: The goal is the predic tion of local loads and the derivation of the cutting tools’ wear behavior. which are able to predict the attained accuracy and to opti- mize costs or robustness. The topics are: multi-body and combined simulation for kinematics and dynamics. Patent description of a multi-nozzle head for metal printing with magneto-fluiddynamic actuation. • Metal printing: Development of a matrix printer with molten metal and magnetofluiddynamic actuation. the compression factor. with the help of externally applied energies for which wear and load on the part. speed and temperature of the chip. the length of the chip. The flow is simulated and will be verified by Particle Image Velocimetry in close cooperation with the Institute of Fluid Dynamics. Concept of a reconfigurable machine system. Forces. The final result will be a generic planning tool. and the different grain geometries. • Unterstanding of the grinding process: With the help of geo- metrically measured single grains being specifically oriented with respect to the cutting velocity. verified and used for the process layout on newly developed machines. a process model is derived. shape of grains and to find stable states. Highly immersive communication and collaboration. The surface properties are predicted. With the help of a theoretical model. sizes and orientations. An additional research area is virtual reality. • For hard broaching. namely from micro scale to process scale. where tools and methods for the collaborative and net-based development process are researched. Thus. Another goal is to find cutting conditions. Probe. with or without minimal rearrangement of the measuring probe. • Cutting with geometrically defined edges: A test rig was developed and verified to investigate the cutting properties of steel based materials in turning. The model will be enhanced by finite element rep- resentation as the design of the concept proceeds and can be reduced again for the model used in real time on the machine control. Thus. • Thermal simulation kit: Development of a method for rapid prediction of the thermal behavior of machine tools based on thermo-balancing methods with large and simple elements. Methods: The goal is to develop methods and associated devices for the analysis of machines and manufacturing processes. to factory scale. the test rig and model will be exploited. the calibration can be done by identifying the error param- eters automatically. a specially developed probe and a measuring strategy. as well as accuracy are optimized. For the prediction of cutting conditions such as BUE (built up edges) and wear. This includes modeling and simulation techniques.
and Stainless Steels (KTI 8649. 2004. he also became an Associate Member of the D-MTEC at ETH. in Palo Alto working on software projects. Corp. Following graduation. and the implementation of an adaptive control on the straightening unit. The system will be applied to thin sheet forming parts (high speed forming). Advanced Constitutive Models for the Virtual Process Modeling of sheet deep- and stretch- forming processes with TRIP. as well as a code with high computational efficiency. Reissner in the field of numerical failure modeling. TWIP. focusing on thermal turbo-machines and fluid dynamics. In 1985 he joined BBC in the department for technical and scientific computational applications. He lectures on computational sciences and the specialization of forming technology. The goal of the project is to develop an eddy current measuring system with a specific software module for the analysis of the ductility parameters.Institute of Virtual Manufacturing Professor Pavel Hora Virtual ETG Planning Facility and Adaptive Process Control for a Robust Production of High Valued Cold Drawn Steels Pavel Hora has been an Associate Professor for Virtual Manufacturing and Forming Technology since October 1. Virtual modeling of forming processes with TRIP. and stochastical methods for robustness control. Intelligent Adaptive Process Control in Sheet Metal Forming. Professor Hora studied at the Department of Mechanical Engineering at ETH Zurich. under Professor J. which will be produced in a complex thermo-mechanical process. as well as an adaptive process control to achieve “zero-failure-production” quality. or stainless steels is difficult because currently the FE-codes implemented material models simplify the real material behavior. which compensates for the parameter fluctuations and makes the process robust. This non-destructive testing technique of material is the precondition for an in-line process control and an on-line adaptive process regulation. In 1990 he received his Ph.D. With this system. TWIP. The program AutoForm. he has headed the group for numerical simulations in forming processes at the Institute of Forming Technology. became one of the leading soft- ware products in the field of virtual forming. developed during these positions. he worked as an assistant scientist at the Institute for Forming Technology with Professor Reissner. The goal of the project is to develop a virtual planning system to support the process layout for new products. 80 . as well as to thick sheet applications (fine blanking). In 1986 he was employed at the MARC Res. failure prediction. Born in 1955 in Prague. In 1996 he was nominated as a Titular Professor of ETH Zurich. The ETG-material is high quality cold drawn steel.1). where he was responsible for the further development and application of boundary element methods. His research activities focus on virtual process modeling. using an Eddy-Current System to Monitor the Significant Material Properties The fluctuation of material properties has a significant impact on the robustness of very accurate forming processes. numerical optimization of manufacturing processes. In 2005. including mathematical constitutive modeling. theodosiu). a “zero-failure-production” shall be achieved. Scientific emphasis is on the development of problem-specific computation algorithms with enhanced material models (chaboche. Since 1986.
Dieless drawing machine (DLD) – New fabrication methods for high strength steels – research project with Steeltec. The advanced material laws and the advanced failure criteria are required for a reliable virtual control of the forming behavior.2 is one of the basic material parameters. the dies are replaced by an induction coil as heat source and a cooling section. Additionally. An intelligent metamodeling software was furthermore developed to support the early stages of production planning. In this process the sheet metal is heated up before it is inserted and quenched within the forming tools. One way to attain this objective is the decrease of the weight of the body-inwhite. obtained showing yield strengths of more than 1500 MPa. its simulation presents serious difficulties if a general purpose FE code is used.2 value itself. Student’s exercises in “ViProLab” 81 .The goal of the project is to develop improved material laws for the description of the metastable and temperature sensitive material behavior for steels in the TRIP and TWIP family. an instrument for measuring the textures of metals. A true strain between 0 and 0. Dieless Drawing Virtual Optimization of Fine Blanking Systems During the fine blanking process a material separation occurs. At the same time the demands regarding the passive safety of vehicles are steadily increasing. In this sense. In order to accomplish both partly conflicting goals. thesis of M. which currently represents the standard constitutive model for stainless materials.D. Virtual Modeling of the Hot Forming Process One of the most challenging tasks in the automotive industry today is the reduction of fuel consumption and consequently of the various emissions of a car. Virtual modeling of a fine blanking tool. the benefit of the new method is a significant reduction of the experimental time. New Measurement Technique for the Experimental Evaluation of Ductile Material Parameters Pictures from left to right: IvP Fine blanking press HLT 1250 (Donation Feintool). which is close to the hardness measurement method but in contrast makes the evaluation of the yield strength possible too. FEM modeling of the fine blanking process. The new code allows the virtual optimization of process specific parameters such as die clearance and cutting edge geometry.2 indicates the stress up to which a plastic flow arises. The advanced material model is based on the Ph. This patent proposes a new technique. the microstructure properties of the material can be adjusted through an appropriate choice of the heating and cooling parameters. Rp0. This is also why significant reduction of the quality control expenses can be achieved. One of the main tasks of this project is to develop virtual models for optimization of those complex thermo-mechanical processes to allow a robust fabrication process. Without a need for a special specimen. Virtual modeling of the forming process and optimization of the cooling section is done for rapid prototyping and the production of close-grained steel (KTI proposal in preparation). Currently the highest potential is shown by boron alloyed steels that are produced by the so called press hardening process. experimentally less complex method. In conventional wire drawing. Hänsel (IVP. Given the strongly localized deformation state. is the hardness measurement. the location and size of the deformation is predetermined by a drawing die. with this method only the tensile strength value (Rm) can be evaluated - but not the yield strength Rp0. Dieless Drawing (DLD) is a new technique to achieve a reduction of the wire or bar diameter without the use of drawing dies. A multiscale modeling technique was thus implemented to overcome the computational challenges. X-ray diffraction goniometer. Diss. which need special specimens and as a result are expensive. the Hänsel material model is implemented in commercial FEM codes like LS-Dyna. In this process. An alternative.8 can be achieved this way. The value will be experimentally measured in tensile or compression tests. However. ETH 12672). Meanwhile. Like that a mostly martensitic microstructure within the steel can be The yield strength value Rp0. there is an increasing use of new high strength and ultra high strength materials.
on advanced microsystems. and he initiated the trans-disciplinary master’s program in Micro and Nanosystems. TRANSDUCERS. The research activities of our group are centered on three focus areas: nanotransducers and nanosystems. and on nanotransducers.and Nanosystems Professor Christofer Hierold Turning Properties into Functions The Micro and Nanosystems group pursues fundamental engineering research regarding novel materials. new processes. and he is a member of the editorial boards of IEEE/ASME Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems and of IoP Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. His research is focused on the evaluation of new materials for MEMS. EUROSENSORS). and device concepts in order to understand and utilize the unique functional properties of micro and nano-scaled materials and to develop them for system integration and future innovations. The consistent development of micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) into the nano regime is challenging due to unfavorable scaling laws and the lack of reproducible fabrication processes for the integration of nanostructures into systems. metal sputtering or evaporation Nanotransducers and Nanosystems 82 . Before such systems will emerge. Among others. he is a member of the international steering committees of major conferences in the field (MEMS. which is jointly offered by two departments. Christofer Hierold is a Member of the Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences (SATW). the Micro and Nano Science Platform. namely the Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering and the Department of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering. Our methods and tools include chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for CNT growth and assembly. a master’s Program in Micro and Nanosystems is jointly offered by D-MAVT and D-ITET. dispersion of CNTs from aqueous solution for assembly. Christofer Hierold is Founding Chairman of one of ETH Zurich’s interdepartmental competence centers. Co-Chair of MEMS2009. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are promising molecular nanostructures for nano electro mechanical systems (NEMS) with excellent electrical and mechanical properties.Professorship of Micro. the FIRST lab. The research projects coordinate directly with the teaching programs and student projects. Therefore our projects are aimed at the control of the location and size of catalytic particles for the direct integration of SWNTs. In addition. We offer courses that range from the basics of process technology to a practical course for hands-on MEMS experience. and the demonstration and characterization of SWNTs as active elements in electro mechanical transducers. and advanced microsystems. evaluation of new naterials for MEMS. He is also Chairman of the Management Team of ETH Zurich’s clean room facility. the development and evaluation of an integrated process flow. fundamental challenges need to be solved. which include the exploration and characterization of unit processes for a reproducible integration of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by local catalytic growth or selfassembly. and he is joint editor of the book series Advanced Micro and Nanosystems (Wiley-VCH). Christofer Hierold has been a Professor of Micro and Nanosystems at ETH Zurich since April 2002. however.
micro. please refer to the projects at www. Advanced Microsystems The research area of new materials for MEMS is focused on the evaluation of polymers as structural and functional materials for MEMS. Scientific results have been reported on the WIPSS concept and the integrated process flow of a thermo-electric generator in SU-8 molds and its power factor.micro. and bonding of polymer materials. and the development of a micro thermoelectric generator. surface micromachined MEMS chips. and on a process flow for suspended polymer cantilevers and bridges.mavt. Experiments have been conducted to determine the mechanical properties of polymer microstructures at the micro scale.ch/publications. Our methods and tools are spin coating and micro-structuring by photolithography and hot-embossing. our projects are focused on the methodology and systematic evaluation of model-based material characterization.ethz. Furthermore.ch/publications . A similar process has been used to prove the feasibility of a pressure sensor utilizing a SWNT as electromechanical transducer and to prove excellent gas sensing capabilities of SWNTs. verifying Thomson heat as a significant heat source in thermal micro structures. please refer to the projects at www. and these are prepared close to the target process flow. Test structures for electro-static bearings are fabricated to evaluate adhesion forces between surfaces. bulge testing of polymer membranes.ch/publications. we use silicon process technology together with polymer processes to create test structures for electrostatic bearings and we apply electroplating for the large scale integration of thermo couples (Bi2 Te3) in flexible polymer molds for efficient thermo-electric generators. In addition. Materials under investigation are thermosetting polymers such as photosensitive SU-8 and PI. AFM scanning of nanostructures. clean room for photolithographic processes. like Young’s modulus. The projects are focused on the development and exploration of process flows for these systems and their properties and functions. thermoplastics such as PMMA and PE and biodegradable polymers such as PLL and PLLA. research topics include the development of a new low-cost polymer-based biocompatible and optional biodegradable implantable wireless passive strain sensor (WIPSS). For a list of publications. and electrical measurements for characterization.micro. TEM. For a list of publications.ethz. Gauge factors up to 2900 for prestrained SWNTs are demonstrated. stress.and e-beam lithography for interconnects. the development of micromechanical electrostatic bearings for use in MEMS gyroscopes. on a novel heater structure for CMOS-compatible and local CVD of CNTs. Scientific results have been reported on the fabrication of SU-8 thin films for bulge testing and on the measurement of bi-axial Young’s modulus.mavt.ethz. including a thorough investigation on the loss/damping mechanisms in resonant polymer structures. and high-cycle fatigue.mavt. 83 . Scientific results have been reported on the integration of SWNTs in polysilicon MEMS. deposition of metal contacts and sacrificial layer etching have been applied to fabricate NEMS test structures for the electro mechanical evaluation of SWNTs. Evaluation of New Materials for MEMS In advanced microsystems. a white light interferometer and a vibrometer allow for high resolution optical measurements on membranes and cantilevers. please refer to the projects at www. AFM imaging and actuation. Polymers have significant potential in microsystems technology since they provide a broad variety of material properties and are cost-effective. Dispersion of SWNTs. stress and viscoelasticity of such layers. SEM. hot embossed spiral micro channel in PMMA. For a list of publications. molding. and on a thorough thermal investigation of such structures by Raman spectroscopy. Our methods and tools are hot embossing. Raman spectroscopy. These comprise bulge testing of thin polymer layers on wafer level and electrical actuation (Kelvin polarization force) of cantilever and bridge test structures for load-cycling. Pictures from left to right: Single walled carbon nanotube as grown in a MEMS. viscoelasticity.
we have introduced model-based control to atomic force microscopy. He teaches courses in nanoscale science and engineering. and (iii) energy conversion in bionanotechnology aimed at the direct conversion of metabolic energy of enzymes and living cells into electrical energy in the micro Watt regime. measuring techniques for the nanoscale. i. 84 . University of Stuttgart. After conducting research as Visiting Scientist (1990-92) at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge. With his research program he seeks to identify. Our current research focuses on very fundamental issues in dynamic atomic force microscopy. smaller force deviations. as well as mapping of composition or contact potential differences on hard and soft materials.e. In 1990 he earned his doctorate in Biophysics. a native of Basel.Professorship of Nanotechnology Professor Andreas Stemmer Professor Stemmer’s Nanotechnology Group carries out comprehensive experimental and theoretical studies in the following fields of nanoscale science and technology: (i) imaging tools and techniques to expand the limits of scanning probe and light microscopes. wettability. adhesion from the interaction force encoded in the cantilever signal. and advanced light microscopy. Taking into account the dynamics of the piezo scanner. In 1995 he was elected Assistant Professor of Nanotechnology at ETH Zurich. studied at the University of Basel where he took his degree in Physics. We have developed novel AFM setups that allow for precise and simultaneous height and potential measurements on active semiconductor devices. Müller Institute of the Biocenter at the University of Basel and received certification from the Swiss Commission for Molecular Biology (SKMB). These developments have led to an R&D-contract with a scanning probe manufacturer. We expect that applying modern methods of control engineering will prove fundamental in reaching this challenging goal. Associate Professor in 2001 and Professor of Nanotechnology in 2004. Highlights of our research include the development of electronic material contrast in atomic force microscopy (AFM). (ii) directed assembly of nanoscale objects and molecular building blocks to be included in molecular electronics devices.E. namely the extraction of surface properties such as elasticity. he was Assistant Scientist (1992-95) at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole. our current H-infinity controllers allow for substantially higher scanning speeds at reduced control errors. He continued his studies in Molecular Biology at the M. Kelvin probe force microscopy maps the local surface potential and provides qualitative and quantitative electronic material contrast on a broad range of specimens. Andreas Stemmer. Collaborating with Professor Frank Allgöwer. MA. dopant profiling. translate and integrate into new technologies basic principles and properties acting on or emerging from nanoscale dimensions. UK. Current challenges include the detection of molecular species on technical surfaces and the analysis of electronic properties on the nm-scale. USA.
In our research on biological micro power generators we investigate the generation of electrical energy directly from human cells. In our research on the directed assembly of nanoscale building blocks we study the controlled assembly of functional nanoscale objects into predefined structures and their precise positioning on solid substrates.e. We have developed an electric field based method. to guide carbon nanotubes. serve as catalyst for the growth of nanowires. Ultimately. pace makers or hearing aids. enzymes. which use metabolic energy to separate charge carriers across membranes. we develop techniques that increase the information transfer beyond the classical limit. because light microscopy is an indispensable research tool in cell biology. Living cells host complex functional nanosystems. one may envision medical implants. for example. Pictures: Impressions of the laboratory 85 . such as sensors. and colloidal particles suspended in solution onto charge patterns written into the substrate. C60. nanoxerography. and metallic nanorods are promising building blocks for future nanoelectronic circuits. We have combined this technique with deconvolution methods to enable optical sectioning of three-dimensional objects and also extended structured illumination to total internal reflection microscopy. Cells also possess complex feedback mechanisms to regulate production and function of these enzymes. Carbon nanotubes. Our studies in light microscopy have led to several easy-to-implement strategies that improve established imaging techniques. i. key issues in nanoengineering. semicondutor nanowires. to be powered with electricity extracted directly from the surrounding tissue rather than batteries. We have succeeded in doubling optical resolution to 100 nm laterally (green emission) in wide-field fluorescence microscopy using structured illumination. Colloidal gold particles. We investigate how such nanosystems can be coupled to macroscopic electrodes to harvest electrical power in the micro-Watt regime while keeping the cells alive. not least.Since many processes on the nanometer scale are best controlled in liquids where only light microscopes offer imaging access and.
ch Institute of Machine Tools and Manufacturing www.mavt.biomech.ch Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems www.ethz.ethz.ethz.and Nanosystems www.ethz.iwf.ch Institute for Dynamic Systems and Control www.ch Institute of Mechanical Systems www.idsc.mavt. Sarnen © Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering 2009.micro.ch Institute of Virtual Manufacturing www. ETH Zurich.ethz.nano.iris. Switzerland .imes. Masha Roskosny and others Printing Abächerli Druck AG.ethz.ethz.ch Institute of Fluid Dynamics www.ivp.ipe.ethz.ethz.ch Institute of Energy Technology www.ch Concept and Organization Ulrike Schlachter-Habermann.mavt. Margot Fox-Ziekau Realization digitworks Photos Maurice Haas.ethz.ch Links to Web-sites of Professors or Institutes Institute of Biomechanics www. Ruth Erdt.ethz.iet.ch Institute of Process Engineering www.ch Professorship of Nanotechnology www.ch Professorship of Micro.ifd.Contact ETH Zurich Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering Sonneggstrasse 3 8092 Zurich Switzerland www.ethz.
mavt.ch DMAVT Departement Maschinenbau & Verfahrenstechnik Department of Mechanical & Process Engineering .ethz.ETH Zurich Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering Sonneggstrasse 3 8092 Zurich Switzerland www.