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J.P.M. Correia

a,

, M.A. Siddiqui

a,b

, S. Ahzi

a

, S. Belouettar

b

, R. Davies

c

a

I.M.F.S.UMR 7507, Universite Louis Pasteur, 2 rue Boussingault, 67000 Strasbourg, France

b

L.T.I., C.R.P. Henri Tudor, 29 Avenue John F. Kennedy, L-1855 LuxembourgKirchberg, Luxembourg

c

Pacic Northwest National Laboratory, PO Box 999, MSIN P8-35, Richland, WA 99352, USA

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 7 January 2008

Received in revised form

29 July 2008

Accepted 28 August 2008

Available online 24 September 2008

Keywords:

Electromagnetic sheet forming

Finite elements

Free bulging

Viscoplasticity

a b s t r a c t

Electromagnetic sheet forming is a high-velocity forming process driven by the coupled electromagnetic

and mechanical phenomena. The deformation of the workpiece is governed by the body forces (Lorentz

forces) that results from a pulsed magnetic eld produced by a at spiral coil. Formability can be

increased using this high-velocity forming technique due to the inertial forces and high strain rates. In

this study, we consider the electromagnetic and the mechanical aspect of the process as two

independent problems. The nite difference method has been employed to solve the electromagnetic

equations. The pressure acting on the sheet and due to the Lorentz forces is estimated neglecting

the inuence of the sheet velocity on the magnetic eld. Then it has been treated as a load in the

mechanical problem. Numerical simulations of the mechanical problem have been performed with the

commercial nite element code ABAQUS/Explicit. The magnetic pressure has been introduced in

ABAQUS/Explicit as an analytical pressure distribution. The general objective of this study is to better

understand the complex phenomenon of deformation and the inuence of viscoplastic material

behaviour during the simulation of a free bulging electromagnetic sheet forming process.

& 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

In electromagnetic forming (EMF), a magnetic eld forces a

workpiece into desired shapes. Electromagnetic forming (i.e. EMF)

is also known as magnetic pulse forming. Metal workpieces that

are good conductor of electricity are deformed through applying a

pressure generated by an intense transient magnetic eld. It is one

of the most commonly applied high-speed forming technique. In

EMF, a signicant amount of electrical energy is stored in a bank

of capacitors which are suddenly discharged releasing all the

stored energy. This electrical discharge current runs through a coil

which generates an intense transient magnetic eld around it. At

the same time this magnetic eld penetrates into the electrically

conductive workpiece placed in the vicinity and induces transient

eddy current. The two currents running in the opposite direction

prevent the further penetration of the magnetic eld into the

workpiece and a large magnitude magnetic repulsion force is

created between the coil and the workpiece. This magnetic

repulsion between both currents is used to launch the workpiece

at very high speeds and to obtain the desired shape on it.

Operations of at sheet metal deformation, ring compression,

expansion and assembly are made possible using this technology.

A comprehensive review and assessment of the EMF process is

presented in Ref. [1]. Since the EMF process takes place at very

high deformation velocity and without mechanical contacts

between the tool and the metal piece, it can improve the forming

limits of metal sheets [2] and can reduce phenomena like

springback and wrinkling [3].

During the past few years, several numerical studies have been

performed for the EMF process in which a few were related to the

sheet EMF process. Early work by Takatsu et al. [4] described the

basic equations to simulate the electromagnetic free bulging of a

at sheet. Circuit analysis, electromagnetic eld and dynamic

plastic deformation equations of the workpiece were used in Ref.

[4]. An axi-symmetric conguration for the numerical solution

has been used for both workpiece and coil. Furthermore, in their

numerical approach, Takatsu et al. [4] considered the interaction

between the magnetic eld and the evolution of the workpiece

shape. Takatsu et al. [4] carried out both experimental and

numerical study on the electromagnetic free bulging of at sheet

metal using a 5 turn at spiral coil. The numerical results of

Takatsu et al. [4] were in good agreement with their experimental

ones. More recently, Fenton and Daehn [5] developed a bi-

dimensional nite difference code named CALE to numerically

simulate EMF process with a fully electromagneticmechanical

coupling. The CALE code is an Arbitrary LangragianEulerian

hydrodynamics computer code. Fenton and Daehn [5] used their

code to simulate the free bulging electromagnetic sheet process

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ijmecsci

International Journal of Mechanical Sciences

0020-7403/$ - see front matter & 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2008.08.008

E-mail address: pedro@imfs.u-strasbg.fr (J.P.M. Correia).

International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 50 (2008) 14661475

proposed in Ref. [4]. Fenton and Daehn [5] had a fairly good

agreement between their prediction and the experimental results

of Takatsu et al. [4]. However, Fenton and Daehn [5] employed a

hardening law independent of strain rate. A state-of-art on

modelling the EMF process is discussed in Ref. [6]. El-Azab et al.

[6] proposed a mathematical framework to simulate EMF process.

With the development of commercial nite element codes,

another approach has been proposed by Oliveira et al. [7]. They

developed a loosely coupled model to simulate sheet EMF

process. In Ref. [7], a three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic

nite element analysis is combined with a structural nite

element code to simulate the thermo-mechanical behaviour of

the metal sheet. The commercial multi-physics nite element

code ANSYS is employed to solve the transient electromagnetic

phenomena occurring in the EMF process. The commercial explicit

dynamic nite element code LS-DYNA is used to model the

3D-mechanical behaviour of the sheet. An interface has been

developed by Oliveira et al. [7] to allow the introduction, at small

intervals, of electromagnetic force data from ANSYS in the

structural code LS-DYNA. The predicted deformed shape of

the sheet obtained with LS-DYNA is then used to update the

electromagnetic model in ANSYS. More sophisticated nite

element codes have been developed. Based on the work of

Svendsen and Chanda [8], Stiemer et al. [9] proposed a fully

coupled model to simulate the EMF process. The loosely coupled

model or the fully coupled allows accurate simulations of the

EMF sheet process. But more simple models also give ne results

[10,11]. In these simple models, the EMF sheet process is treated

as two independent problems: an electromagnetic problem and a

mechanical problem. For instance, in the work of Imbert et al. [10],

the magnetic pressure distribution has been estimated from the

analytical work of Al-Hassani [12] and it is used as a load in the

mechanical problem. The mechanical problem is then solved

using a commercial nite element code. With this simple model,

the nite element simulations performed by Imbert et al. [10] are

in agreement with the experimental results.

In agreement with Imbert et al. [10], we have decided to

consider the electromagnetic and the mechanical aspects of the

process as two independent problems. The EMF test studied in

this paper is the free bulging electromagnetic sheet process

proposed in Ref. [4]. The axi-symmetric conguration has been

assumed to model the EMF test. The circuit parameters such as

resistance, inductance and temporal distribution of the discharge

current have been analytically calculated. Then using these inputs,

the electromagnetic elds, the body forces (Lorentz forces) and

the magnetic pressure have been computed. The magnetic

pressure has been estimated neglecting the inuence of the sheet

velocity on the magnetic eld, but taking into account the

interaction between the magnetic eld and the evolution of the

workpiece shape. For this purpose, a nite difference code has

been written and has been validated from the experimental

results [4]. This code calculated the magnetic pressure acting on

the sheet metal workpiece and has been introduced via a

user subroutine VDLOAD. Numerical simulations of the mechan-

ical problem have been performed with the commercial nite

element code ABAQUS/Explicit. The nite element predictions

have been compared with experimental results available in

literature [4].

2. Estimation of pressure acting on metal sheet

2.1. Electromagnetic model

In this section, an analytical approach based on the work of

Takatsu et al. [4] is developed to estimate the pressure acting on

the sheet during an electromagnetic sheet forming operation. The

difference between the work of Takatsu et al. [4] and our work is

that we have neglected the sheet velocity in the Maxwells

equation. In fact, Manea et al. [13] carried out a numerical study

that dealt with the effects of the velocity during the EMF process.

In this work, the results of Maxwells equation obtained with a

stationary media are compared with these obtained with

a moving media. Numerical results from the calculations of

Ref. [13] for different velocities (10

3

, 10

5

, and 10

7

m/s) suggest that

the electromagnetic eld in a moving media varies very less as

compared to the magnetic eld in the stationary media. The

difference is only signicant for very high velocities (of the

order of 10

7

m/s). It is also observed that this difference in the

magnitude of electromagnetic eld decreases with the short

process time. The velocity of the workpiece attained during

the EMF process still remain under the limit of 10

3

m/s and the

EMF process takes place in an interval of few micro seconds,

which is far less than the values for which the effects

of the motion of the workpiece on the magnetic eld are

noticeable. Manea et al. [13] concluded that for an EMF

process the calculations for the electromagnetic eld in stationary

media may be considered as good approximation of electro-

magnetic eld acting on the moving workpiece. That is the reason

why, in agreement with Ref. [13], we have assumed that the

sheet velocity has no inuence on the magnetic eld. Due to

symmetry of the free bulging electromagnetic process, an

axi-symmetric conguration for the numerical solution has been

used for both workpiece and coil. Consequently, the magnetic eld

and then the magnetic pressure acting on the sheet do not vary in

the circumferential direction. Furthermore, the at spiral coil used

in Ref. [4] is considered to be consisting of ve elementary loops

of concentric circle, each of which is carrying the discharge

current.

For this model, which is basically a simple approach towards

solving the electromagnetic problem for EMF, the interaction

between displacing workpiece and magnetic eld density is

neglected. We assumed that for EMF process that takes place in

a very small interval of time, the inductance can be considered to

be constant [14]. This results in a constant mutual inductance

between the moving workpiece and coil, throughout the deforma-

tion of the workpiece.

Neglecting the variations of the mutual inductance during the

forming operation [14,15], the discharged current owing in the

at spiral coil is approximately described by the following

equation:

It I

0

e

t=t

sin ot (1)

where I

0

represents the maximum intensity of the discharge

current, t the damping coefcient of the circuit (it characterizes

the exponential decreasing of the current) and o the angular

frequency. The maximum intensity of the current I

0

is dened as

I

0

V

C

L

(2)

where V represents the initial voltage stored in the capacitor bank,

L the total inductance of the circuit, and C the total capacitance of

the circuit. The damping coefcient t is obtained using

t 2

L

R

(3)

where R represents the total resistance of the circuit. The circuit

parameters dened above have been calculated using the

characteristics of the electric circuit presented in Ref. [4]. For

the initial charging voltage of 6kV, the values of circuit

parameters in Eq. (1) have then been taken equal to: I

0

22.42kA,

o 9.3410

4

rad/s and t 2.4210

4

s. The evolution of the

ARTICLE IN PRESS

J.P.M. Correia et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 50 (2008) 14661475 1467

intensity of the discharge current, for the initial charging voltage

of 6kV, owing through the coil is presented in Fig. 1. For the EMF

process, the primary circuit discharge current is a damped

harmonic sinusoidal function. The peak value of the current

occurs during the rst half cycle. The discharge current reaches its

rst positive peak, almost 17.5ms the current subsequently is

damped to much lower values. This indicates that the effects of

the mutual inductance between the workpiece and coil current

last for a very small interval. This strengthens our assumption for

the constant inductance, the effects of the mutual inductance may

be considered to be of very minute nature, and the deformation of

the workpiece takes place mostly because of the inertial forces

and high deformation velocities.

Propagation of electromagnetic eld within a coilworkpiece

air system can be dened by quasi-stationary Maxwells equation.

These are a set of differential equations involving the basic

parameters of an electromagnetic circuit. Since the process is

considered to be quasi-stationary, the velocity term does not

affect the magnetic eld during the process. In accordance with

Ref. [4], a cylindrical coordinate system is applied for the circular

disk, thus the magnetic eld density B possesses a radial

component B

r

and an axial component B

z

which are given as

follows:

1

m

0

s

w

q

2

qr

2

1

r

q

qr

q

2

qz

2

1

r

2

B

r

qB

r

qt

0

1

m

0

s

w

q

2

qr

2

1

r

q

qr

q

2

qz

2

B

z

qB

z

qt

0 (4)

where s

w

is the conductivity of the workpiece, m

0

the void

permeability and t denes the time.

In axi-symmetric assumption, the eddy current has only a

circumferential component which is given by

J

y

1

m

0

qB

r

qz

qB

z

qr

(5)

Lorentz force density has a radial and an axial component as

f

r

J

y

B

z

f

z

J

y

B

r

(6)

And the corresponding magnetic pressures are evaluated by

integration and are dened by

P

r

zh

z0

f

r

dz

P

z

zh

z0

f

z

dz (7)

where h is the thickness of the sheet.

Boundary conditions for Eq. (4) are based on the continuity of

the magnetic ux density B at the boundaries of sheet. At the

bottom surface of the disk, the magnetic eld B is a sum of the coil

eld B

0

and the magnetic eld B

1

generated by the eddy currents

owing through the sheet. At the top surface of the sheet, the

magnetic eld B is equal to zero. The boundary conditions can

then be written as follows:

B B

0

B

1

at z d

g

u

2

t

B 0 at z d

g

u

2

t h

(8)

where u

2

(t) is the vertical deection of the sheet and d

g

the

initial gap between the coil and the sheet. To calculate

the magnetic elds B

0

and B

1

, the workpiece and the coil

have been divided in elementary circular loops. If the

current I(t) and the eddy current J

y

are known, the magnetic

elds B

0

and B

1

can be determined from summing all the

contributions of each elementary loop. More details for the

calculation of the magnetic elds B

0

and B

1

can be found in

Appendix A.

2.2. Finite difference method

To develop a nite difference scheme, we have rst con-

structed a grid as show in Fig. 2. The metal sheet is then

discretized into cells of size Dr Dh to form a uniform grid, where

a grid point M(i,j) can be dened by the following cylindrical

coordinates:

r

j

; z

i

jDr; iDh with 0pipn and 0pjpm (9)

where Dr R/m is the radius increment and Dh h/n the

thickness increment. Taking into account the discretization of

the problem presented in Fig. 2, the spatial derivatives are

approximated by second-order central nite differences

q

qr

B

r

%

B

r

i; j 1 B

r

i; j 1

2Dr

q

qr

B

r

%

B

r

i; j 1 B

r

i; j 1

2Dr

(10)

The derivatives with respect to z-coordinate are similarly

constructed as in Eq. (10). For the time derivative there are

several possibilities to express in terms of nite difference

approximation. In this work, we have decided to use the Euler

backward explicit scheme given by

qB

r

qt

k

%

B

k1

r

i; j B

k

r

i; j

Dt

(11)

where Dt is the time increment. It has been noted that for the

explicit scheme, the solution is not stable. It is necessary to

determine the maximum time increment. With the help of

Eqs. (10) and (11), the Maxwell equations (Eq. (4)) are discretized

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Fig. 1. Evolution of the intensity of the discharge current owing through the at

spiral coil.

J.P.M. Correia et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 50 (2008) 14661475 1468

as follows:

1

m

0

s

w

B

k

r

i; j 1 2B

k

r

i; j B

k

r

i; j 1

Dr

2

1

jDr

B

k

r

i; j 1 B

k

r

i; j 1

2Dr

B

k

r

i 1; j 2B

k

r

i; j B

k

r

i 1; j

Dh

2

B

k

r

i; j

jDr

2

B

k1

r

i; j B

k

r

i; j

Dt

(12)

and

1

m

0

s

w

B

k

z

i; j 1 2B

k

z

i; j B

k

z

i; j 1

Dr

2

1

jDr

B

k

z

i; j 1 B

k

z

i; j 1

2Dr

B

k

z

i 1; j 2B

k

z

i; j B

k

z

i 1; j

Dh

2

B

k1

z

i; j B

k

z

i; j

Dt

. (13)

Rewriting the above equations, we can then obtain the

expressions of the two components of magnetic eld B

r

and B

z

B

k1

r

i; j 1

Dt

m

0

s

w

2

Dr

2

2

De

2

1

jDr

2

B

k

r

i; j

Dt

m

0

s

w

B

k

r

i; j 1 B

k

r

i; j 1

Dr

2

2j 1

2j

B

k

r

i 1; j B

k

r

i 1; j

Dh

2

(14)

and

B

k1

z

i; j 1

Dt

m

0

s

w

2

Dr

2

2

De

2

B

k

z

i; j

Dt

m

0

s

w

B

k

z

i; j 1 B

k

z

i; j 1

Dr

2

2j 1

2j

B

k

z

i 1; j B

k

z

i 1; j

Dh

2

(15)

As mentioned above, for the explicit scheme of time derivative,

it is necessary to nd the maximum time increment such that the

solution remains stable during the complete analysis. It is found

that convergence of the solution is obtained if and only if the

following condition is satised:

Dtom

0

s

w

2

Dr

2

2

Dh

2

1

jDr

2

1

(16)

In agreement with the boundary conditions dened in Eq. (8)

and for any time level k, the boundary conditions are discretized

as follows:

B

k

r

0; j B

k

0r

0; j B

k

1r

0; j

B

k

z

0; j B

k

0z

0; j B

k

1z

0; j

at z d

g

u

2

t (17)

and

B

k

r

m; j 0

B

k

z

m; j 0

at z d

g

u

2

t h (18)

Additionally, boundary conditions have been added. At the

centre and at the maximum radius of the sheet, we have assumed

that the magnetic eld has negligible effects. The following

additional equations can then be written as

B

k

r

i; 0 0

B

k

z

i; 0 0

at r 0 (19)

and

B

k

r

i; n 0

B

k

z

i; n 0

at r

D

2

(20)

Moreover the initial conditions are approximated as

B

0

r

i; j 0

B

0

z

i; j 0

at t 0 (21)

ARTICLE IN PRESS

j r

i e

M

'

'

0

j r

M

e

r

r r

e

e

i + 1

i

i - 1

z

r

j - 1 j j+1

(S)

M

Fig. 2. Finite difference mesh.

J.P.M. Correia et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 50 (2008) 14661475 1469

Knowing the magnetic eld (Eqs. (14) and (15)), the cir-

cumferential component of the induced current can be approxi-

mated by

J

k

i; j

1

m

0

B

k

r

i 1; j B

k

r

i 1; j

2Dh

B

k

z

i; j 1 B

k

z

i; j 1

2Dr

(22)

Afterwards the radial and the axial components of the Lorentz

force are expressed as follows:

f

k

r

i; j J

k

i; jB

k

z

i; j

f

k

z

i; j J

k

i; jB

k

r

i; j (23)

And nally the magnetic pressure acting on the sheet can be

estimated by the following equation:

P

k

r

i; j

n1

i0

F

k

r

i; j F

k

r

i 1; j

2

Dh

P

k

z

i; j

n1

i0

F

k

z

i; j F

k

z

i 1; j

2

Dh

(24)

From the above equations a nite difference code has been

written to solve Eq. (4) taking into account the boundary

conditions dened in Eq. (8). The numerical procedure used in

our code is given below. For each small time interval, the coil

current intensity is calculated (Eq. (1)) and then the coil eld is

obtained. Knowing the position of the sheet, the magnetic eld

density within the sheet is computed with Eqs. (14) and (15) so

that the boundary conditions are satised (Eqs. (1721)). After-

wards the eddy currents (Eq. (22)), the magnetic force densities

(Eq. (23)) and the magnetic pressures (Eq. (24)) are then

calculated.

2.3. Preliminary verications

In order to verify the validity of our nite difference code, a

preliminary calculation has been made when the sheet is at rest

over the at spiral coil. The experimental conditions used by

Takatsu et al. [4] are summarized in Table 1. They performed their

tests with a 5 turn at spiral coil connected to a capacitor bank of

40mF, with total inductance of 2.86mH and total circuit resistance

of 28.5mO. The initial charging voltage of the capacitor bank is

equal to 2kV. The initial gap d

g

between the sheet and the coil has

been taken equal to 2.9mm. In Fig. 3 solid lines are numerical

results, while the dots are the experimental results taken from

Ref. [4]. Fig. 3a presents the distribution of the magnetic eld (the

axial component B

z

and the radial component B

r

) in the absence of

the workpiece for the rst half cycle of the discharge current at

17.5ms where the current attains its maximum magnitude.

Afterwards the distribution of the magnetic eld with a xed

workpiece is plotted in Fig. 3b for the rst half cycle of the

discharge current at 17.5ms where the current attains its

maximum magnitude. In Fig. 2 the magnitude of the radial

component of the magnetic eld is much higher than the

magnitude of the axial component. As attempted, it can be

concluded that the axial component of the electromagnetic force

density f

z

contributes mainly in the deformation of the workpiece.

The numerical predictions obtained with our difference nite

code (for a sheet divided in 110 equally spaced intervals along the

radius and 20 equally spaced intervals through the thickness) are

in fairly good agreement with the available experimental results

[4]. The distribution of the axial magnetic force density f

z

has also

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Table 1

Material and geometrical properties of the electromagnetic system

Coil

Material Copper

No. of windings 5

Maximum radius of ring of coil 1mm

Maximum radius of spiral coil 40mm

Pitch 5.5mm

Electrical conductivity s

Cu

58MS/m

Work piece

Material Al 1050

Thickness h

0

3.0mm

Diameter 110 mm

Electrical conductivity s

Al

36.0MS/m

Fig. 3. Radial distribution of the magnetic eld B: (a) without a workpiece and (b) with an aluminium workpiece xed.

J.P.M. Correia et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 50 (2008) 14661475 1470

been plotted in Fig. 4. A slight overestimation of the axial

magnetic force density f

z

is observed for a time value of 13.2ms.

However, we can conclude that the numerical predictions are in

agreement with the results of Takatsu et al. [4]. To understand the

penetration of the axial force density f

z

in the workpiece thickness

during the electromagnetic process, we have plotted in Fig. 5 the

spatial distribution (in the plane (r, z)) of the axial force density f

z

.

It is noticeable that the magnitude of the axial force gradually

increases as the current reaches its maximum and then it is

diffused through the thickness with decreasing magnitudes. The

force achieves its high magnitude near the bottom surface of the

disk, and then gradually diffuses. After the peak current, the force

density decreases near the bottom surface of the disk but still

remains constant inside the workpiece during few microseconds.

With the decrease of current, the force density decreases as the

time elapses.

As our nite difference code seems to predict accurately the

electromagnetic phenomena occurring during an EMF process,

nite element simulations integrating the nite difference

code used in this section can be conducted for an EMF test

(for instance for the free bulging electromagnetic sheet test

proposed in Ref. [4]).

3. Finite element simulations of the electromagnetic sheet free

bulging

The geometry considered for the simulations is the same as for

the free bulging electromagnetic sheet process proposed in Ref. [4].

The sheet is made of Al-1050 aluminium alloy. The sheet thickness

is equal to 0.5mm and the diameter is equal to 110mm. Takatsu

et al. [4] performed their tests with a 5 turn at spiral coil

connected to a capacitor bank of 40mF, with total inductance of

2.86mH and total circuit resistance of 28.5mO. The initial charging

voltage of the capacitor bank is now equal to 6kV. The initial gap d

g

between the sheet and the coil has been taken equal to 1.6mm.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Fig. 4. Magnetic force density f

z

distribution inside the aluminium workpiece at: (a) 6.8ms, (b) 13.2ms and (c) 19.6ms.

J.P.M. Correia et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 50 (2008) 14661475 1471

The geometry and the mesh are presented in Fig. 6. The

blankholder has an internal diameter of 80mm. Due to the

symmetry of the process, the nite element simulations were

conducted with axi-symmetric assumption. This simplication is

used because of the symmetrical distribution of forces and

reduces the computing cost without affecting the results. The

sheet is considered as a deformable axi-symmetric planar part,

while the die and holder are modelled using analytical rigid

elements (R3D4 in ABAQUS Reference manuals [16]). The sheet

was meshed with CAX4R elements [16] which is a four-node

bilinear axi-symmetric quadrilateral element with reduced inte-

gration. Four elements through the thickness and 110 elements

along the radial length of the sheet are applied. A dynamic explicit

time integration scheme (ABAQUS/Explicit) is employed to ensure

the correct prediction of the inertial and dynamic effects of forces

acting on the sheet during the forming process. During the

simulation, the holder and the die are considered to be xed. The

simulation process time is xed to 270ms in agreement with

the experiments of Ref. [4]. In the simulations contact conditions

are needed to be considered between the die and the sheet as well

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Fig. 5. Diffusion of axial force density (GN) in the plane (r, z) as function of time: (a) at t 5ms, (b) at t 10ms, (c) at t 17.5ms, (d) at t 25ms, (e) at t 35ms and (f) at

t 50ms.

J.P.M. Correia et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 50 (2008) 14661475 1472

as the sheet and holder. Coulomb friction law has been used with

a friction coefcient of 0.25. The geometrical parameters used for

FE simulations are summarized in Table 2.

The magnetic pressure, dened in Section 2, computed from

the nite difference code is implemented as a mechanical

pressure via a subroutine VDLOAD in the commercial FE code

ABAQUS/Explicit. The magnetic pressure acts on the lower surface

of the sheet in the upward direction for the free bulging of the

sheet. The action of the magnetic pressure is adapted at each time

increment to the current position of the sheet structure and its

currents node locations.

High-velocity deformation may or may not involve high strain

rates. It is well known that the fundamental constitutive

behaviour (stress, strain, strain-rate relations) for most metals

change qualitatively at high strain rates. Above these strain rates,

the apparent strain rate sensitivity of the material increases

markedly. To better understand the high-speed forming process

and to account for the rate-dependent dynamic phenomenon;

different material models were employed. For the purpose of

comparing the sheet behaviour during the EMF process, a quasi-

static hardening model of Hollomon-type power law was used

into ABAQUS/Explicit calculations. The classical Hollomons law is

expressed as

s s

0

n

(25)

where s is the effective stress, e

p

the effective plastic strain, s

0

and n are material constants. The values of the hardening

exponent n and of the material constant s

0

have been taken

equal to these used by Takatsu et al. [4]. Then rate-dependant

hardening power law was considered with different exponent and

multiplying factors to study the rate dependency effects during

the EMF process. The rate-dependant power law is dened by

s s

0

n

D_

p

m

(26)

where _

p

is the effective plastic strain rate, m and D are the rate-

dependant exponent and multiplying factors, respectively. In

addition, the elasto-plastic behaviour of the sheet is assumed to

be isotropic and is modelled by the J2 ow theory. The material

parameters are reported in Table 2. In order to study the strain rate

effect on the free bulging electromagnetic sheet process, different

cases have been considered. Firstly, we have taken the exponent m

equal to 0.075 and the material constant D equal to 1.7. With this

set of values, the rate-dependant hardening power law reproduces,

appreciatively, the behaviour of the hardening law used by Takatsu

et al. [4]. Afterwards, we have chosen the exponent m equal to

0.250 and the material constant D equal to 8.0 which corresponds

to material with a strong strain-rate dependency.

For all of the materials, the velocity of the sheet has been rst

analysed in order to ascertain the hypothesis accounted for the

calculation of the magnetic forces based on the work of Manea et al.

[13]. The maximumvelocity attained during the forming process is of

the order of 100120m/s, which is in agreement with the experi-

mental observations. The predicted velocity can be rendered as a high

velocity as compared to the velocity attained during a quasi-static

conventional forming process. But still found to be small enough to

full the assumption that the sheet velocity does not affect the

magnitude of the electromagnetic eld density during the forming

process (in agreement with Ref. [13] sheet velocity o10

7

m/s).

Fig. 7 presents the deformed mesh of the sheet at different

time values and for the rate-independent hardening law. The

deformed meshes computed with ABAQUS/Explicit reproduce

qualitatively the high-speed photographs of the deformed sheet

realized by Takatsu et al. [4]. Fig. 8 presents the vertical

displacement of the pole of the sheet (centre point of the sheet,

r 0mm) as a function of time. Fig. 9 presents the vertical

displacement of a point on the sheet at a distance of 20mm from

the pole. Both gures, Figs. 7 and 8, present the vertical

displacement of the sheet for the different material models. Solid

lines are numerical results while squares are experimental results

taken from Ref. [4]. At the beginning, the centre of the sheet metal

does not move while the rest of the sheet deected. In fact, the

magnetic pressure is equal to zero at the centre of the sheet and it

has the maximum value near the sheet region where the radius is

equal to 20mm. The centre of the sheet is mainly moved by the

inertial effects. As attempted and in agreement with Ref. [4], the

predictions obtained with Hollomon law overestimate the vertical

deection of the sheet at the end of the process. With the set of

values corresponding to the hardening model proposed in Ref. [4],

the sheet deection decreases but not signicantly. However, we

can conclude that the predicted results are globally in agreement

with the experimental results [4]. For the material with a strong

rate dependency, the vertical deection of the sheet pole

decreases appreciably. This result suggests that materials with a

weak rate dependency have a higher formability for the free-

bulging electromagnetic sheet process.

4. Conclusion

In the present work, two aspects of the electromagnetic

forming (EMF) process are investigated. The rst one enfolds the

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Fig. 6. Geometry of the free bulging electromagnetic sheet process.

Table 2

Material and geometrical properties of the free bulging test

Work piece

Material Al 1050

Thickness 0.5mm

Diameter 110mm

Electrical conductivity 34.45MS/m

Density 2.75 10

3

kg/m

3

Youngs Modulus 80.7GPa

Poissons ratio 0.33

Material constant s

0

118MPa

Hardening exponent n 0.27

Holder

Diameter (internal) 80mm

J.P.M. Correia et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 50 (2008) 14661475 1473

formulation and computation of electromagnetic parameters that

yields the electromagnetic pressure using a nite difference code.

The second aspect deals with a nite element simulation

implementing the results from the nite difference code in an

axi-symmetric model. In this work, we have developed a

numerical and analytical tool that can accurately calculate the

basic parameters such as electromagnetic eld density, electro-

magnetic force distribution and coil discharge current which are

necessary for the understanding of the EMF process. Propagation

of magnetic eld through the workpiece and the diffusion of the

magnetic forces into the sheet are also presented. The predicted

results are in good agreement with the experimental ones

available in the literature [4]. The nite difference code has then

been introduced in the commercial FE code ABAQUS/Explicit via

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Fig. 7. FE predictions of deformed sheet at different time values: (a) at t 19ms, (b) at t 95ms, (c) at t 135ms and (d) at t 240ms.

Fig. 8. Vertical deection of the sheet for a sheet radius equal to 0 mm. Fig. 9. Vertical deection of the sheet for a sheet radius equal to 20mm.

J.P.M. Correia et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 50 (2008) 14661475 1474

a user subroutine VDLOAD. FE simulations of the electromagnetic

free bulging test proposed by Takatsu et al. [4] have been

performed. The preliminary FE results demonstrate that the

hypotheses of the magneto stationary Maxwells equation are

veried (i.e. the sheet velocity is equal to 100120m/s). The FE

predictions are globally in agreement with the experimental

results [4]. Furthermore, effects of different material models were

investigated.

Acknowledgements

This work is carried out in the framework of the Ph.D.

scholarship awarded by the Ministry of Culture, High Education

and Research of Luxembourg (BFR/05/115-PRL1-LB). The authors

would like to thank C.R.P. Henri Tudor (Luxembourg) for their

support.

Appendix A

In agreement with Ref. [17], for an elementary circular

loop of the workpiece or of the coil, the potential vector A in

axi-symmetric condition has an azimuthal component expressed

by

A

y

r; z

m

0

2p

jr

0

; z

0

s

0

r

0

r

2 kKk

2

k

Ek

(A.1)

where K(k) and E(k) are the elliptic integrals of rst and second

kinds, respectively. The coordinates of the source point are

dened by (r

0

, z

0

). The coordinate of the target point where

the vector potential is needed to be calculated is dened by (r, z).

The current density in the source loop of section s

0

is designated

by j(r

0

,z

0

). The geometric factor k is given by

k

2

4r

0

r

r

0

r

2

z

2

(A.2)

The magnetic eld density B can be calculated using the

magnetic vector potential A as follows:

B curl A (A.3)

In axi-symmetric condition, using the expansion of Eq. (A.3) the

magnetic eld can be decomposed into a radial and an axial

components. In terms of the magnetic vector potential, these

components can be calculated using

B

r

qA

y

qz

and B

z

A

y

r

qA

y

qr

(A.4)

By inserting the expression of magnetic potential A

y

, Eq. (A.1)

into Eq. (A.4), the following expressions for the radial and axial

components of the magnetic eld density are obtained:

B

r

m

0

2p

jr

0

; z

0

s

0

z

r

1

r

0

r

2

z

2

1=2

Ek

r

2

0

r

2

z

2

r

0

r

2

z

2

Kk

B

z

m

0

2p

jr

0

; z

0

s

0

1

r

0

r

2

z

2

1=2

Ek

r

2

0

r

2

z

2

r

0

r

2

z

2

Kk

(A.5)

References

[1] Mamalis AG, Manolakos DE, Kladas AG, Koumoutsos AK. Electromagnetic

forming and powder processing: trends and developments. Applied

Mechanics Review 2004;57:299324.

[2] Seth M, Vohnout VJ, Daehn GS. Formability of steel sheet in high velocity

impact. Journal of Materials Processing Technology 2005;168:390400.

[3] Padmanabhan M. Wrinkling and springback in electromagnetic sheet metal

forming and electromagnetic ring compression. MS thesis, The Ohio State

University, 1997.

[4] Takatsu N, Kato M, Sato K, Tobe T. High speed forming of metal sheets by

electromagnetic forces. International Journal of Japanese Society for Mechan-

ical Engineering 1988;60:1428.

[5] Fenton GK, Daehn GS. Modeling of electromagnetically formed sheet metal.

Journal of Materials Processing Technology 1998;75:616.

[6] El-Azab A, Garnich M, Kapoor A. Modeling of the electromagnetic forming of

sheet metals: state-of-the-art and future needs. Journal of Materials

Processing Technology 2003;142:74454.

[7] Oliveira DA, Worswick MJ, Finn M, Newman D. Electromagnetic forming of

aluminum alloy sheet: free-form and cavity ll experiments and model.

Journal of Materials Processing Technology 2005;170:35062.

[8] Svendsen B, Chanda T. Continuum thermodynamic formulation of models for

electromagnetic thermoinelastic solids with application in electromagnetic

metal forming. Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics 2005;17:116.

[9] Stiemer M, Unger J, Svendsen B, Blum H. Algorithmic formulation and

numerical implementation of coupled electromagneticinelastic continuum

models for electromagnetic metal forming. International Journal for Numer-

ical Methods in Engineering 2006;68:130128.

[10] Imbert JM, Winkler SL, Worswick MJ, Oliveira DA, Golovashchenko. Numerical

study of damage evolution and failure in an electromagnetic corner ll

operation. In: Proceedings of the eighth international conference on

numerical methods in industrial forming processes, NUMIFORM 2004,

Columbus. p. 18338.

[11] Wang L, Chen ZY, Li CX, Huang SY. Numerical simulation of the electro-

magnetic sheet metal bulging process. International Journal of Advance

Manufacturing Technology 2006;30:395400.

[12] Al-Hassani STS. Magnetic pressure distribution in the sheet metal forming.

Electrical Methods of Machining. In: Proceedings of the Forming and coating,

institute of electrical engineering conference, publication No 1975. p. 110.

[13] Manea TE, Veweij MD, Blok H. The importance of velocity term in the

electromagnetic forming process. In: Proceedings of twenty seventh general

assembly of the international union of radio science, URSI 2002, Maastricht,

Science, URSI 2002, Maastricht. p. 1125.

[14] Jablonski J, Wrinkler R. Analysis of the electromagnetic forming process.

International Journal of mechanical sciences 1978;20:31525.

[15] Kliener M, Beerwald C, Homberg W. Analysis of process parameters and

forming mechanisms within the electromagnetic forming process. CIRP

AnnalsManufacturing Technology 2005;54:2258.

[16] ABAQUS/Explicit. Version 6.5 manuals. Pawtucket, USA: Hibbitt, Karlsson and

Sorensen Inc.; 2005.

[17] Craik D. Magnetism: principles and applications. New York: Wiley; 1995.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

J.P.M. Correia et al. / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 50 (2008) 14661475 1475

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