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2 Force and Motion

Chapter 1 Motion I

1
1 2 3 C

Motion I
percentage errors.

Practice 1.1 (p. 6)


D (a) Possible percentage error 10 6 = 100% 24 3600 = 1.16 109% 1 (b) = 1 000 000 days 10 6 It would take 1 000 000 days to be in error by 1 s. 4 (a) One day = 24 60 60 = 86 400 s (b) One year = 365 86 400 = 31 500 000 s 5 Let t be the period of time recorded by a stopwatch. Percentage error = 0.4 100% 1% t t 40 s The minimum period of time is 40 s. 6 (a) Percentage error error due to reaction time = 100% time measured = 0.3 100% 10

= 3% (b) From (a), the percentage error of a short time interval (e.g. 10 s) measured by a stop-watch is very large. Since the time intervals of 110-m hurdles are very short in the Olympic Games, stopwatches are not used to avoid large

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2 Force and Motion

Chapter 1 Motion I

(a) From 1 January 2009 to 10 January 2009, the watch runs slower than the actual time by 9 minutes. Therefore, when the actual time is 2:00 pm on 10 January 2009, the time shown on the watch should be 1:51 pm on 10 January 2009. (b) Percentage error 9 = 100% 9 24 60 = 6.94 102%

(a) The distance travelled by the ball will be longer if it takes a curved path. (b) No matter which path the ball takes, its displacement remains the same.

Practice 1.3 (p. 23)


1 B Total time 5000 5000 + = 9821 s = 1.4 0.8 5000 + 5000 = 1.02 m s1 Average speed = 9821 2 C Total time = 9821 + 10 60 =10 421 s 5000 + 5000 = 0.96 m s1 Average speed = 10 421 3 D When the spacecraft had just finished 1 revolution, the spacecraft returned to its starting point. Therefore, its displacement was zero and its average velocity was also zero. 4 5 D (a) Average speed 100 = 10.3 m s1 = 9.69 (b) Yes. This is because the magnitude of the displacement is equal to the distance in this case. 6 (a) Two cars move with the same speed, e.g. 50 km h1, but in opposite directions.

Practice 1.2 (p. 15)


1 2 3 4 5 C B D D (a) Total distance she travels 2 10 2 20 2 15 = + + 2 2 2 = 141 m (b) Magnitude of total displacement = 10 2 + 20 2 + 15 2 = 90 m Direction: east Her total displacement is 90 m east. 6 7 His total displacement is 0. With the notation in the figure below.

Since ZX = ZY = 1 m, = = 60. Therefore, XY = ZX = ZY = 1 m The magnitude of the displacement of the ball is 1 m.

(b) A man runs around a 400-m playground. When we calculate his average speed, we can take 400 m as the distance and his average speed is nonzero. But since his displacement is zero (he returns to his starting point), his

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2 Force and Motion

Chapter 1 Motion I

average velocity is zero.

(a) Length of the path = 0.8 120 = 96 m (b) Length of AB along the dotted line 96 = = 30.6 m (c) Magnitude of Jacks average velocity 30.6 2 = 0.51 m s1 = 120

Practice 1.4 (p. 31)


1 2 C B Final speed = 1.5 1 0.2 1 = 1.3 m s1 3 A By a = v u , t

v = u + at 36 = + ( 1.5) 2 3.6 = 7 m s1 = 7 3.6 km h1 = 25.2 km h1 Its speed after 2 s is 25.2 km h1. 4 B Take the direction of the original path as positive. Average acceleration of the ball 10 17 = 0.8 = 33.8 m s2 The magnitude of the average acceleration of 5 the ball is 33.8 m s2. v u By a = , t 100 vu 0 t= = 3.6 = 4.27 s a 6.5 The shortest time it takes is 4.27 s.
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2 Force and Motion

Chapter 1 Motion I

6 Time / s
1

6 17

8 22

Speed / m s 2 7 12 v u 22 2 a= = = 2.5 m s2 t 8 7

The acceleration of the car is 2.5 m s2. (a) I will choose towards the left as the positive direction. (b)

(c)

By a =

v u , t u = v at = 9 (2) 3 = 15 m s1

The initial velocity of the skater is 15 m s1. 8 (a) The object initially moves towards the left and accelerates towards the left. It will speed up. (b) The object initially moves towards the right and accelerates towards the left. It will slow down. Its velocity will be zero and then increases in the negative direction (moves towards the left).

Revision exercise 1
Multiple-choice (p. 35)
1 2 3 C D B

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2 Force and Motion

Chapter 1 Motion I

D Average speed 80 + 60 = 5 = 28 km h1 Average velocity


2 2 = 80 + 60 5

11

C Total time = 13 min = 780 s 840 2 = 2.15 m s 1 Average speed = 780

12 13

D (HKCEE 2003 Paper II Q3)

Conventional (p. 37)


1 Total time left for the two players = 4 60 + 9 + 5 60 + 16 = 565 s Total time they have been playing = 2 60 60 565 = 6635 s (= 110 min 35 s = 1 h 50 min 35 s) (1A) 2 (a) 50 m (1A) (b) Magnitude of average velocity of Kitty 50 = (1M) 1 60 + 15 (1A) = 0.667 m s 1 (c) Average speed of the coach 5 + 50 + 5 = 1 60 + 15 = 0.8 m s 1 3 (1M) (1A) (1M)

= 20 km h1 5 C Total time 10 10 = + 2 3 = 8.33 s Average speed 20 = 8.33 = 2.4 m s


1

Her average speed for the whole trip is 2.4 m s1. 6 7 8 9 10 C C C B A Magnitude of displacement = 2000 2 + 6000 2 = 6324.6 m Magnitude of average velocity 6324.6 = 4 3600 = 0.439 m s1 6000 tan = 2000 = 71.6 His average velocity is 0.439 m s (S 71.6 E).
1

(a) Since she measures the time interval based on 1 cycle of the pendulum, the error (0.3 s) in measuring the cycle of the pendulum accumulates. cycles) is from 8 to 14 s. (b) When finding the time for one pendulum cycle, Jenny should time more pendulum cycles (e.g. 20) with the stop-watch and divide the time by the number of cycles. (1A) (1M) (1A) (1A) (1A) The range of the time interval (10

(a) Time required 7.4 1000 = 20.6 = 359 s (5 min 59 s)

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2 Force and Motion

Chapter 1 Motion I

(b) Displacement from Sheung Shui to Lok Ma Chau 1000 = 6.3 1 = 6300 m Magnitude of average velocity 6300 = 359 = 17.5 m s1 5 (a) Total distance = 1500 + 40 1000 + 10 1000 = 51 500 m Total time = 2 3600 + 3 60 + 8 = 7388 s Average speed 51 500 = 7388 = 6.97 m s1 (b) Swimming: Average speed 1500 = 21 60 + 28 = 1.16 m s1 Cycling: Average speed 40 000 = 1 3600 + 1 60 + 53 = 10.8 m s1 Running: Average speed 10 000 = 39 60 + 47 = 4.19 m s1 (1M) His average speed was the highest in cycling. (1A) (1M) (1A) (1A) (1M) (1A)

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2 Force and Motion

Chapter 1 Motion I

(c)

Yes. Since the time interval of this competition is quite long, (1A) using stop-watch will not result in large percentage error as the reaction time for an average person is only 0.2 s. (1A) (1M)

(c)

Total time = 5 min 45 s 1 min 58 s = 3 min 47 s = 3 60 + 47 = 227 s vu a= (1M) t 431 0 = 3.6 = 0.527 m s2 (1A) 227 The average acceleration of the train is 0.527 m s2.

(a) v = u + at =0+6 4 = 24 m s1 = 86.4 km h 86.4 km h .


1 1

(1A) 8 (1M)

The maximum speed of the car is (b) v = u + at = 24 + (4) 2 = 16 m s


1 1

(a) Total distance = 8000 + 4000 + 5000 = 17 000 m Total time = 1 3600 + 30 60 + 45 60

= 57.6 km h (c)

(1A)
1

= 8100 s Average speed 17 000 = 8100 = 2.10 m s1 (b) (1M) (1A)

The final speed of the car is 57.6 km h . v u a= (1M) t 16 0 = 6 = 2.67 m s2 2.67 m s2. (1A) The average acceleration of the car is

(a) Average speed 30 000 = 8 60 = 62.5 m s1 The average speed of the train is 62.5 m s1.

(1M) (1A)

(b) Maximum speed 430 = = 119.4 m s1 > average speed 3.6 (1A) The average speed must be smaller than the maximum speed because the train needs to speed up from start and slows down to stop during the trip. (1A)

Magnitude of displacement = 3000 2 + 4000 2 = 5000 m Magnitude of average velocity 5000 = 0.617 m s1 = 8100 4000 tan = 3000 (1A)

= 53.1
His average velocity is 0.617 m s1

(1A)

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2 Force and Motion

Chapter 1 Motion I

(N 53.1 E).

(a) Distance travelled = 10.5 3 60 = 1890 m (b) Circumference of the track = 2 r = 2 (400) = 2513 m The distance travelled by Marilyn is 3 1890 m which is about of the 4 circumference. (1A) (1M) (1A)

Magnitude of displacement AB = 400 2 + 400 2 = 566 m Magnitude of average velocity 566 = 3 60 = 3.14 m s1 400 tan = 400 = 45 Her average velocity is 3.14 m s1 (S 45 E). (1A)

(1A)

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2 Force and Motion

Chapter 1 Motion I

10

(a) Total distance = (120 + 50) 1000 = 170 000 m (b)


N

11 (1M) (1A)

(a)

XYZ is a rightangled triangle. Z

50 km 30 Y

(Correct label of velocity with correct direction (towards the left).) (Correct label of acceleration with correct direction (towards the right).) (1A) (b) Time / s 0 6 4 1 2 2 3 0 4 +2 5 +4 6 +6 (1A) (1A) (1A)

60
X

120 km

Magnitude of displacement (from town X to town Z) = 120 000 2 + 50 000 2 = 130 000 m 120 tan = 50 = 67.4 (1A)

v/ms

(0.5A 6) (c) The car will slow down and its speed will drop to zero.

After that the car will move towards the (1A) 12 right with increasing speed (uniform acceleration). (a) Total distance travelled = 60 + 80 + 80 + 60 = 280 m (b) Magnitude of total displacement = 80 + 80 = 160 m (1A) (c) (1M) (1A)
1

= 90 67.4 = 22.6

(1A) (1M) (1A) (1M) (1A) (1M) (1A)


A

= 60 22.6 = 37.4
The total displacement of the car is 130 000 m (N 37.4 E). (c) Total time 170 000 = 10 200 = 60 s 3.6 Magnitude of average velocity 130 000 = 10 200 = 12.7 m s 37.4 E).
1

The total displacement of the athlete is 160 m (west). Total distance travelled = 280 + 60 + 80 = 420 m

Its average velocity is 12.7 m s (N

60 m

C
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80 m
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2 Force and Motion

Chapter 1 Motion I

AC = 60 2 + 80 2 = 100 m 80 tan = = 53.1 60 The total displacement of the athlete is 100 m (S53.1W). 13 (a) The coin moves in the following sequence: BACCA Therefore, it is at A finally. Displacement of the coin = 15 cm (b) Distance travelled by the coin = 15 + 30 + 30 = 75 cm (c) (i) Total time = 2 s 4 = 8 s Average velocity 15 10 2 = 8 = 0.0188 m s1 (ii) Average speed 75 10 2 = 8 = 0.0938 m s1 (d) (i) sequence: BACCABB Therefore, it is at B finally. zero. the coin is also zero. 14 (a) Total distance = r = 5 = 15.7 m Total displacement =5+5 = 10 m
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(1M)

(1A)

(1M) (1A) (1M) (1A)

(1M) (1A)

(1M) (1A)

The coin moves in the following

(1A) (1M) (1A) (1M) (1A) (1M) (1A)

(ii) The displacement of the coin is Therefore the average velocity of

Oxford University Press 2009

2 Force and Motion

Chapter 1 Motion I

The total displacement travelled by her is 10 m. (b) Janes statement is incorrect. (1A) Since both girls start at X and meet at Y, they have the same displacement. (1A) Bettys statement is incorrect. (1A) Since both girls return to their starting point, their displacements are zero. (1A)

Physics in articles (p. 40)


(a) From 19 January 2006 to 28 February 2007, (1A) It takes New Horizons spacecraft a total of 406 days to travel from the Earth to Jupiter. (1A) (b) (i) Average speed total distance travelled = total time of travel = 8 108 406 24 (1A) (1M) (1M)

= 8.21 104 km h1 (ii) Average acceleration change in velocity = total time of travel =

( 8.23 5.79) 10 4
406 24

= 2.50 104 km h2 (c) July 2015

(1A) (1A)

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