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WINGS FLYING SCHOOL NAVIGATION (GENERAL) Name: _________________________ Pers ID:

THE EARTH Lines on Earth: The Great Circle is a circle on the surface of the Earth whose centre and radius are of the Earth itself so that it achieves the largest circular area. It joins two points on Earths surface in the shortest distance.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RHUMB LINE AND GREAT CIRCLE Rhumb line connects 2 points at a constant track because the angle it cuts with meridian is constant. Great circle connects 2 points at a shortest distance. From point C to D, if we go by great circle (continuous line), well travel shortest but our track relative to true north keeps on changing. If we travel via rhumb line (dashed line) well travel longest but our track is constant. CHANGE IN LATITUDE (CLA) AND CHANGE IN LONGITUDE (CLO) If two points with coordinates: A = 60o25 N 102o18 E B = 18o12 S 13o35 E Then the CLA is: 60o25 + 18o12 = 78o37 to the South And the CLO is: 102o18 E 13o35 = 88o43 to the West DISTANCE ON EARTH 1 latitude change on earth surface = 1 nm 1 nm = 1.15 sm = 6080 ft = 1.85 km 1 km = 3280 ft 1 m = 3.28 ft 1 ft = 12 in 1 in = 2.54 cm 1 yd = 3 ft

GREAT CIRCLE LINES ON AN EARTH The Equator divides the Earth into two hemispheres. Meridians are vertical lines that cross Earths poles. Meridians are defined East or West. Opposite meridian is called anti-meridian. The Prime Meridian crosses Greenwich and divides the Earth East and West. Parallels of Latitude lie parallel to Equator and defines positions North or South of the Equator. Rhumb Line is a line on the Earth that cuts meridians at the same angle.

THE RHUMB LINE

DIRECTION EARTHS POLES Magnetic poles are not located on the earths geographical poles and are usually represented as being slanted. The difference in angle between magnetic and geographical pole is known as VARIATION. Definitions: Angle of Dip is the angle a magnet makes between horizontal and the tipping of the magnet. This is the primary cause of acceleration error. Magnetic Heading is the direction shown by magnetic compass. It directs to the magnetic pole of the Earth. True Heading is direction obtained with reference to Earths geographic pole. Variation is the angular difference between True North and Magnetic North at any point. Isogonic Lines are lines joining areas of same magnetic variations. Agonic Lines are lines joining areas of zero magnetic variations.

REMEMBER VARIATION EAST, MAGNETIC LEAST (minus the variation from true heading to get the magnetic heading) VARIATION BEST, MAGNETIC BEST (add the variation with true heading to get the magnetic heading) From the example given, variation is 17oW and true heading is 105o, so the magnetic heading is 17o + 105o = 122o M Deviation is angular difference between direction indicated by a compass needle and direction of magnetic north. To measure deviation, all electronic equipment of aircraft is turned on and the difference in direction of compass in aircraft and direction of compass outside aircraft is measured. REMEMBER DEVIATION EAST, COMPASS LEAST (minus deviation from magnetic heading to get the compass heading) DEVIATION BEST, COMPASS BEST (add deviation with true heading to get the compass heading) Wind Correction Angle is the difference between aircraft heading (direction where aircraft nose is pointing) and true track (actual movement of aircraft over the ground) of aircraft. Meanwhile, Drift Angle is the angle between the aircrafts track and course (intended movement of the aircraft over ground). Course Course B A/C Heading B WCA = 10o R 10o A WIND Wind Correction Angle WIND A 10o DRIFT ANGLE = 10o R

Drift Angle REMEMBER WCA Right, HEADING Add ---- WCA Left, HEADING Less Therefore, we can summarize:

PRACTICE QUESTIONS ON DIRECTIONS Fill in the blanks with the correct angles COURSE WCA TRUE VARIATION MAG. DEVIATION HEADING HEADING 205o 5o L 13o E 4o W o o o 7 R 178 8 W o 12 L 5o W 113o o o 055 10 E 039o 7o E 330o 345o 000o 13o E

COMPASS HEADING 191o 107o

1 IN 60 RULE (1:60) 1 in 60 rule basically means for every 60 nautical miles, an angular difference of 1 degrees subtends an arc of 1 nautical mile. In diagram:

VECTORS For calculations in air navigation, there are three vectors: 1. Air Vector It represents the True Air Speed (speed of aircraft relative to air) and True Heading. If no wind, TAS and GS will be equal. 2. Wind Vector It represents Wind Direction (in magnetic) and Wind Speed. By convention, the representation of, for example, 320o/12 kt means wind is coming FROM 320o with the speed 12 knots. 3. Ground Vector It represents the Ground Speed and Track (movement over the ground) of the aircraft. If no wind, Track and Heading is equal. Example: An aircraft moving at heading 000o and airspeed 120 knots encounters wind with components 270o/30 kts. Determine the track the aircraft takes and its resultant groundspeed. Answer: From scaling and measuring length, we get the track to be 014o and travelling at GS of 123 knots.

TRACKING PROBLEMS USING 1:60 RULE In the diagram, X to Y is the planned track (the path we want to fly). But the aircraft actually travels from X to P, the actual track/track made good (TMG). The deviation between TMG and planned track is track error. If aircraft is left of track, the track error is left. If aircraft is right of track, the track error is right. WARNING Track error is measured between planned track and TMG. Drift angle is measured between actual track and heading. To calculate track error:

There are TWO METHODS to correct track error: 1. Alter Heading Direct Turning Point

If we recognized track error of, lets say, 8o left, and corrects it by turning aircraft 8o right, well fly parallel to track. If we want to direct to waypoint right after we alter our heading, well turn our aircraft to closing angle. To find closing angle:

From the example:

Example: To land when the aircraft is at a distance of 8 nm from threshold of runway, an aircraft descends at 3o. What is the current altitude of aircraft? Height = 3 x 100 x 8 = 2400 ft FINDING RATE OF DESCENT Calculate rate of descent (ft/min) by angle of descent at certain groundspeed:

So from point C, we need to turn aircraft 8o + 5o = 13o right to reach our waypoint. 2. Double Track Error

Example: What is the rate of descent (in ft/min) of an aircraft descending at 3.5o at a groundspeed of 150 knots?

= 875 feet per minute FINDING WIND COMPONENTS We use aircraft heading as reference heading to find headwind/crosswind. EXAMPLE: Aircraft flying heading 180o encounters wind 230o/15kt. What are the headwind and crosswind components acting on the aircraft? STEP 1: Align small circle on zero mark, and the wind direction on the true index mark. By double track error method, we alter heading by multiplying track error by 2 to correct our track. Then when regain track, we alter heading back by turning to the track error angle. Note: - The time from A to C = The time from C to P - Distance AO = Distance OP HEIGHT OF AIRCRAFT ON GLIDEPATH When an aircraft descends at a certain angle (Rate of Descent), the height the aircraft will lose at a certain range is: Height (ft) = Angle of Descent x 100 x range (nm)

STEP 2: Mark a cross on the 15 units.

STEP 3: Align aircraft heading to the true index mark. Look vertically for the crosswind component and horizontally to find headwind component.

HEADWIND: 10 kts CROSSWIND: 11 kts

Headwind Crosswind