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boundary surveys, construction surveys, control surveys,

benthic macroinvertebrate sampling, deed research,


jurisdictional stream and wetland delineation and permitting,
earthwork estimations, endangered species assessments,
environmental assessments, environmental impact studies,
erosion control planning and design, FEMA floodplain
certification, sdkfjlsdkfjlskdfjlsdkjflskdfjlsdkj geographic
information sldkfjlskdfjlskdfjlsdkfslkdjflsdkj systems,
hydraulic slkdfjlskdfjlskdjflskdjflskdjflskdjslk and hydrologic
analysis and modeling, site monitoring, phase one
environmental assessments, physical surveys, stream
mitigation and restoration, topographic mapping, pond
designs, wetland creation and restoration, site planning and
design, soil parameter assessments, storm water control
planning and design, water quality monitoring
Crane’s Creek Watershed
Crane’
General Watershed
Characteristics
Introduction
- What is a Watershed?

- Crane’s Creek Watershed

- Hydrology and Land Use

- General Watershed Characteristics

- What Happens Next?


What Is A Watershed?

Watershed?
Wa-ter-shed - noun ­-
A. The drainage area of a stream.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Earth Science

B. A region or area bounded peripherally by a


divide and draining ultimately to a particular
watercourse or body of water.
Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary

C. The area which contributes all of the water to


a given location.
BLUE: Land, Water, Infrastructure W3 Site
Where Are Watersheds?

- Every Piece of Land


is part of a Watershed

- Large Watersheds are made


of Smaller Watersheds
Where Is The Watershed?

Watershed?
Where Is The Watershed?

Watershed?
Where Is The Watershed?

Watershed?
Watersheds Don’t Know
Know Politics
Politics

But they probably should!

should!

- Dictated by landform not by congress

- Watershed is impacted by all political

political
boundaries that it comes in contact with

with

- Within any given watershed, dramatic


variability in watershed protection can exist
The Largest Watersheds in North

North
Carolina are Termed River Basins

Crane’s Creek is Located


within the Cape Fear River Basin
Cape Fear
River Basin

Crane’s Creek
Crane’s Creek
Watershed
(101 square miles)
Major
Streams

Beaver Creek
Crane’s Creek
Cypress Creek
Dunham Creek
Herds Creek
Little Crane’s Creek
Counties
and Towns

Harnett County
Lee County
Moore County
Cameron, Carthage
and Vass
Explore Your
Watershed!
Ridge Roads and
Stream Crossings
General Statistics

Statistics
Watershed 101 square miles
Railways 11.1 miles
Roads 282.6 miles

Streams 250.3 miles


Wetlands 5,524 acres
Hydrology and the Effects of
Land Use / Land Cover
Hydrology
Precipitation
Infiltration
Evaporation
Evapotranspiration Water
Soil Storage Balance
Groundwater
Recharge
Drainage and Runoff
Hydrologic Cycle

Cycle
Land Use / Land Cover

Cover
(LULC)

(LULC)

Land Use: The purpose to which land is


put to use by humans.

Land Cover: The ecological state and


physical appearance of
the land surface.

surface.

Ecological Society of America

America
Natural Areas

Areas
Unmanaged Forests

Forests

- Good Canopy Interception of Rain


- Thick Ground Cover
- High Infiltration Capacity
- High Evapotranspiration Rates
- Low Runoff Potential
- Low Contact with Potential Pollutants

Pollutants
Forestry Operations

- Moderate Infiltration Capacity


- Moderate Evapotranspiration Rates
- Dirt Roads, Firebreaks, Heavy Equipment

Equipment
- Higher Runoff Potential
- Compaction, Erosion
Agricultural Land
- Moderate Infiltration Capacity
- Variable Evapotranspiration Rates
- Altered Soil Conditions (Compacted,
Eroded)
- Higher Runoff Potential
- Fertilizer and Chemical Applications

Applications
Residential Areas

Areas
- Canopy Coverage Moderate
- Variable Amounts of Impervious Surfaces

Surfaces
- Infiltration Capacity Severely Limited
- Engineered Drainage Systems
- High Runoff Potential
- Lawn Chemicals, Fertilizers
Commercial/Industrial Areas
- Canopy Coverage Minimal/Ground Cover
Cover

Moderate
- Large Amounts of Impervious Surfaces
- Infiltration Capacity Severely Limited
- Engineered Drainage Systems
- Highest Runoff Potential
- Commercial/Industrial Chemicals
LULC Percentage
Natural: Moderate
Forestry: High
Agriculture: Low
Residential: Low
Commercial: Low
LULC Percentage
Natural: Low
Forestry: Low
Agriculture: Low
Residential: High
Commercial: High
LULC Percentage
Natural: Low
Forestry: None
Agriculture: None
Residential: Low
Commercial: High
Crane’s Creek
Watershed

LULC Percentage
Natural: Moderate
Forestry: High
Agriculture: Moderate
Residential: Low
Commercial: Low
Land Use

Use
- Although 72% of the Watershed is zoned
Agricultural, only 12% is actually cultivated

- About 78% of the Watershed is forested

- Only about 1% of the Watershed is


developed (shopping centers, etc)
Land Use
Wetlands
5,500± acres
National Wetlands Inventory
US Fish and Wildlife Service
Population

Population
- Crane’s Creek Watershed is very Rural

- Watershed Population Density (92 people


per square mile) is lower than the State average
(165) and all three individual County averages
(see next slide)

- Most Residents (84%) use Septic Systems (or at


least don’t have access to a sanitary sewer
system)
Population Density (pp/sqmi)

100
150
200
250

50

0
North Carolina
165

Harnett County
153

Lee County
191

Moore County
107
mile)
(people per square mile)

Watershed
92
2000 Population Density