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wale course Wen hitting Loops are formed by needles knitting the yam across the width .of the fabric. Each weft thread is fed at right angles to the direction of fabric formation. 9-2 Knrmng Fmdamentals
Warp Knitting Loops are formed by needles knitting a series of warp yarns fed parallel to the direction of fabric formation. Wale In warp knitting allneedles knit simultaneously for all yams, while in weft knitting the needles knit in sequence for each yam. Knrmngkvrdamentals 9-3
Figure 9-1 Weft (Circular) Knitting And Warp Knitting
Consumer Acceptance Comfortable Pliable High extensibility Easy care properties Inexpensive Apparel. home fashion.industrial Knmtng Furdamentals 9-5 .
Full fashion 9-6 KnrmngFundarnentak . quick response Smalllots Body sizes.Productivity And lead lime Faster than wovens Shorter lead time.
Use Of Fibers And Yarns Allfibers Allyarns Low tensions/stress allow loop formation or entrapment Knrmngkndamentals 9-7 .
Capital Investment Low initial cost No expensive yam preparation Small area of floor space required Few auxiliary machines needed for operation 9-8 KnrmngFcndamentals .
Figure 9-2 Weft Knitting d-~nrmngFundamentals 9-9 .
Basic Weft Knitting Terminology 0 Wale 0 CourseCount 0 Wale Count 0 Knithop *-0 Facehop 0 Backhop 0 Stitch 0 Tuckhop 0 Floathop e Yield L 9-10 KnltiingFundamentab .
CourseLength CutorGauge 0 Gaiting Timing 0 DialHeight Backhop Stitch Tuckhop Floathop Yield Wmng Fmdamentah 9-11 .
Figure 9-3 Jersey Knit 9-12 Knitting Fundamentals .
Figure 9-4 1x1 Rib KnlMng Fundamentals 9-13 .
Figure 9-5 The latch Needle 4J 9-14 KnlmngFundamentab .
Figure 9-6 Needle Cylinder Wmng Ftndamentds 9-15 .
Figure 9-7 latch NeedleActivation B 2 I I 3 .
Figure 9-8 Typical Cam System Of Single Jersy Direction Of Needle Travel b Needle MotionRequired Clearing Loop pulling Irr-----l 4 c KnlttlngFundamentals 9-17 .
9-18 KnlmngFundamentab .Figure 9-9 f.
Figure 9-10 KnltlingFmdamentcrb 9-19 .
Figure 9-11 latch Needles And Web Holding Sinkers 4 9-20 KnltHngFundomentals .
Figure 9-12 Movements Of Latch Needles And Web Holding Sinkers D I I .
Figure 9-13 Diagrams of Three Types of loops Tuck Loop 9-22 KnlmngFundamentab .
Figure 9-14 Technical Face and Rear of Tuck Stitch .
For example: wales per inch.the number of courses in a knit fabric per unit length measure. For example.. In interlock gaiting. In rib knitting. K. H. E. Face Loop -a knitted loopformed on-thr. I AIso called a miss-loop. D. Cut or Gauge -the number of needles per inch in the circumference of the cylinde r or dial of a knitting machine. B. a tuck or a float loop. . Stitch -in knitting a stitch is the loop geometry of a particular pattem repeat. Yield -the amount of fabric delivered off a knitting machine in tem of its I weight per unit length or area. ounces per yardi or ounces per square yard or yards per pound. Coursc Length -the amount of yam used in forming all the knitdoops in one course of a knitted fabric.J. Tuck Loop. Timing -the order the needles in the dial and cylinder go through the kn*itthg . WaIe -in kdt fabrics. N. Wale Count -the number of wales in a knit fabric per unit length.urse -the row of loops or stitches running across the width of a fabric corresponding to filling of a woven fabric. Course Count. Knitting meshes or interlocks these loops to form a fabric. Float Loop -a knitted stitch when a needle holds its old loop and does not r eceive a new yam. Also called run-in. Back Loop -a knitted loop fomied on the dial needles on a knitted machine. or the number of linear units delivered per unit weight. F. L. Co. Knit Loop -a stitch in a fiiYfabric%lieE the yam is formed into a loop shape by the knitting elements. For example: courses per inch. It connects two loops on the same course but not in adjacent wales. Gaiting -the spacing of the needles in the dial and the cylinder in relation to each other on rib and interlock machines. G.Basic Weft and Warp Knitting Terminology A. M. the needles of the cylinde r are between the needles of the dial. a column of loops running lengthwise the fabric. the needles of the cylind er are directly opposed to the needles in the dial (opposed to each other). I. C.-a knitted stitch when a needle receives a new yam withgut losing its old loop. cylinder needles on a knitted machine. It may be in the form oia knitted.
cycle in relationship to one another. .the distance between the bottom edge of the dial section on a hitt ingmachine at its perimeter from the corresponding upper edge of the cylinder at its perimeter. I Dial Height -. The cylinder needles that correspond to di al needles may go through the knitting cycle before or after the dial needles.
. Tricot fabric quality is judged by the H. Needle Bar -a flat metal plate with slots (tricks) cut into it at regular int ervab into which needles slide during the knitting process..-. Gauge -the number of needles per linear inch of the needle bar. i E. but a wide range of fabrics can be made.. the number of inches of fabric per rack.. . . L. B. 1. d. but can be for two. C. Guide Bar -a mechanism on a warp knitting machine . Positive Feed -when the yam is metered off the warp beam by a metering device . Raschel machines may have one or two sets of needl es and up to thirty guide bars. Negative feed -when the yam is pulled off the warp beam by the knitting actio n of the needles during the loop forming step. Inch Quality -a measure of quality of warp knit fabric.. Raschel -a type of warp knitting in which plain and jaquhrd fabrics can be ma de.-....hkh directs warp yarns to the knitting needles. For most warp knits that refers to a one linear inch. D.". and their movement is controlled so that patterns can be knit. . Tricot -a type of warp knitting in which spring beard'd needles are normally used to make fine fabrics with usually one to three warps are used. Full Set -a term that indicates that all guide eyes in a guide bar each have a yam-from the warp.(.A. number of inches per rack. M. . guide bar do not have a K.. i . . Pattern Wheel -a cylinder or wheel upon which a pattem chain is placed which has links of different heights so as to move the guide bars throughout its patte m. . ' G.... . Runner Length -in warp knitting the number of inches of yam needed to knit on e rack oi fabiic."" . .. J. . . i F... ". Part Set -a term that indicates that all guide eyes in a yam from the warp. . Rack -a warp knitting measure of 480 courses. Raschel fabrics are normally coarser than other types of warp knits.
Figure 9-15 Tuck Stitch Formation .
Figure 9-16 Float Stitch Formation Float Stitch Formation Wmng Fmdamentals 9-25 .
Effects Of Tucks And Floats On Knitted Fabrics TuckLOOD Makes Makes Makes Float the fabric wider the fabric thicker the fabric slightly less extensible LOOD Makes the fabric narrower Makes the fabric thinner Makes the fabric much less extensible .
Figure 9-17 Cylinder and Dial _Wmng Fmdamentds 9-27 .
Figure 9-18 1 x 1 Rib Face Back Wale We 9-28 Knltthgfbndamentab .
Figure 9-19 Rib Gaiting I/ .
Weft Knitting Notation Verbal 1 x 1Rib -Fabric made with face loops and back loops alternating in same course but not same wale. Svmbolic m 1XlRb Fd 1 Graphic Diaerammatb C 1XlRb "446 D& C SL 9-30 KrJttingFundamentab . Made on dial and cylinder machine with rib gaiting.
Good crosswise extensibility. Rib gaiting Needle Setout Needles not knitting must be removed from the machine Needle Selection All at every feed Fabric Pronedies A one feed repeat.2 x 2 Rib Machine Reauirements A rib machine. Only one came race and one type of needle for the cylinder dial. Same appearance on both sides. Knitting Fundamentals 9-31 .
Figure 9-20 Interlock 9-32 Knlmng Fundamentals .
Knlmng Fundamentals 9-33 .
Figure 9-22 Interlock Gaiting 9-34 KnltHngFundamentab .
Interlock Machine Reauirements An interlock or eightlock machine. Needle Setout Needles alternately arranged long and shortin the cylinder and dial. Same appearance on both sides. Tight and stable construction. Does not curl. Long and short needles in both the cylinder and dial. Needle Selection Dial Needles Cvlinder Needles Knit short Knit short Knit long Knit long Fabric ProDerties A two feed repeat. Interlock gaiting and usually delayed timing. .
Same appearance on both sides. Long and short needles in both the cylinder and dial. Interlock gaiting (Rib gaiting can also be used) and usually delayed timing. Tight and stable construction. Feed 1 Feed2 . Needle Setout Needles alternately arranged long and short in the cylinder and dial. Needle Selection Dial Needles Cvlinder Needles Knit short Knit short Knit long Knit long Missall Knit all Knit all Miss all Fabric ProDertieg A four feed repeat.Ponte Di Roma Machine Reauirements An eightlock machine. Does not curl.
Figure 9-23 -BedKnittingFundament& 9-37 .
Figure 9-24 'V Bed Rib' 9-38 KnlltingFundamentals .
Properties Of Weft Knits Stretch and recovery Wrinkle Recovery Thickness 0 Air Permeability 0 Shrinkage Snagging Pilling Curling .
Figure 9-25 Warp Knitting .
Figure 9-26 Diagram Of A Typical Tricot Machine: The Front Is At Right WtthgFundamentals 9-41 .
Inch Quality I. Runner Length G. Rachel C. Part Set K Positive Feed L. Pattern Wheel I& Basic Warmffiit Actions k Spring Beard Needle B. Guage D.Warp Knitting It Basic Wan Terminolom A Tricot B. Guide Bar E. Negative Feed M. Full Set J. LatchNeedle --C. Needle Bar F. Rack H. CompoundNeedle 9-42 KnlMngFmdamentalp .
Threading C. Diagrammatic KnrmngFmdamenMs 9-43 . TwoBar C. WarmKnitted Fabric Notatioe k Verbal B.IADesim Variables k Yam Characteristics B. MultipleBar -V. Numerical D. Fabric Enhancement Fabric Classifications A OneBar B. Number of Bars E. Underlap Length and Position D. Graphic C. ThreeBar D.
Figure 9-27 The Bearded Needle Eye Or Gmve Stem Butt _9-44 WttingFundanentab .
Figure 9-28 Compound Needle ..... I: *: U . . :: :: : : a : 1: :: i: *: :: :: .. :: :.
Comparison Of latch Needle and Spring Beard Needle Latch Needle SDrine Beard Needle Latched Not latched Self-closing To be closed Formsloop . Requireshelp to form loop Expensive Cheaper Coarser Finer bwneedlesper inch More needles per inch
Figure 9-29 Lapping Movements ..* .$?to 0.. 0.. .0 .e. 3.58a 3.. 3.58c 3.586 ..0 . . 5 00.. 3.-3.m 0.36th 3.m Knlttlng FU7damentals 9-47
Figure 9-30 Tricot Machine Knitting Action 9-48 KnlmngFundamentalp
I A 4 9-50 KnltHngFundamentak .
b WMng Fmdamentals 9-51 .
1-2 210 1 -2A-O ..* 1-0 $ .Figure 9-31 Half Tricot Structure .
B.G.T B. KnlttlngFundamentals 9-53 . F.G.B.Figure 9-32 Two Bar Fabrics B. F. 4.B.B.G.G.
Tricot Jersey (Full Tricot) Front Bar Back Bar Locknit Front Bar Back Bar Reverse Locknit Front Bar Back Bar LOODRaised Front Bar Back Bar Sharkskin Front Bar Back Bar Satin Front Bar Back Bar OR Front Bar Back Bar Bueenscord Front Bar Back Bar OR Front Bar Back Bar Standard Two Bar Fabrics 1-2/1-0/ 1-0/1-2/ 2-3/1-O/ 1-0/1-2/ 1-2/1-0/ 1-0/2-3/ 1-0/3-4/ .
1-0/2-3/ 1-0/1-2/ 3-4/1-0/ 34/1-01 1-0/1-2/ 4-5/1-0/ 1-0/1-2/ l-O/O-l/ 341-01 l-O/O-l/ 4-5/1-01 .
P v) Knltthgkndamentab 9-55 .
Wmng Fmdamentals 9-57 .
Figure 9-33 Diagram Of A Knitted Net .
Figure 9-34 Diagram Showing Laying In Yarn to Form Designs: Some guide bars are left empty. Knlmng Fundamentab 9-59 .
Characteristics Of Warp Knit Fabrics Extremely versatile in pattern effects with yarn Rigid to elastic Cannot be raveled Good air and water permeability Good crease resistance Good drapability Good dimensional stability Goodstrength 9-60 Wttlnghmdamentab .