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Q3.2 At a distance d from a light source with luminoisty L, the radiant ﬂux is given by F = Rearranging, we have d= L . 4πF L . 4πd2

Then, with L = 100 W (the bulb’s luminosity), and F = 1365 Wm−2 (the solar irradiance), we ﬁnd that d = 0.076 m = 7.6 cm. Q3.3 (a). (i) d pc = 1/p = 1/0.379 = 2.64 pc (ii) 2.64 pc = 2.64 × 3.26 ly = 8.60 ly (iii) 2.64 pc = 2.64 × 206266 AU = 5.45 × 105 AU (iv) 5.45 × 104 AU = (5.45 × 104 ) × (1.5 × 1011 ) m = 8.17 × 1015 m (b). Distance modulus m − M = 5 log(d/10 pc). With d = 2.64 pc, m − M = −2.89 Q3.4 From the preceding question, mbol − Mbol = 5 log(d/10 pc) = −2.89. From Example 3.6.1 of Ostlie & Carroll, mbol = −1.53, from which we ﬁnd Mbol = 1.36. Then using L M − M = −2.5 log , L we ﬁnd L/L = 10(1.36−4.74)/−2.5 = 22.5. Q3.6 For any two stars, m1 − m2 = −2.5 log F1 F2 .

Let star 2 be the Sun placed at 10 pc; then, m2 = M , while F2 = F10, . Then, m1 − M = −2.5 log Rearranging, and dropping the 1 subscripts, m = M − 2.5 log F F10, . F1 F10, .

Q3.9 (a). The Stefan-Boltzmann equation gives the luminosity as L = 4πR2 σT 4 ; plugging in the supplied numbers, we obtain L = 1.17 × 1031 W = 3.05 × 104 L . (b). Applying equation (3.8) from Ostlie & Carroll, M = M − 2.5 log L L ,

with the Sun’s absolute bolometric magnitude M = 4.74, gives M = −6.47.

ehc/λkT − 1 0. The radiant ﬂux at the Earth’s surface is given by F = L 4πd2 Plugging in the numbers. 4πR2 = 3. The Rayleigh-Jeans value is twice as large as the Planck function at λ ≈ 2000 nm. (e). Then. T In the limit where λ hc/kT the argument of the exponential in the denominator is very small.45. Using the values found above. ehc/λkT − 1 In the limit where λ hc/kT the exponential in the denominator is very large.01. Then. This is a factor of ∼ 5 × 10−11 smaller than the solar irradiance F = 1365 Wm−2 . F = 6. and blows up in the short-wavelength limit. . we have Bλ (T ) = Bλ (T ) ≈ 2hc2 λ−5 e−hc/λkT . λmax = Plugging in the numbers. Fsurf = Plugging in the numbers. 1 + hc/λkT − 1 λ4 This is the Rayleigh-Jeans law.10 (a). which matches Wien’s empirically derived relation Bλ (T ) ≈ aλ−5 e−b/λT (for appropriate choices of a and b).44 × 10−8 Wm2 . 1. From Wien’s law. λmax = 103 nm.(c). we ﬁnd m = −1. the Planck function becomes Bλ (T ) ≈ 2hc2 /λ5 2ckT ≈ . At the star’s surface. and we can use the Taylor-series expansion ehc/λkT ≈ 1 + hc/λkT. and the “-1” term can be neglected. Q3.49 × 1010 Wm−2 .0029 Km . See Fig. Q3. (d). (b).11 The full Planck function is 2hc2 /λ5 . Fsurf (f). it does not depend on Plancks constant h. (g). With d = 123 pc. m − M = 5. L = σT 4 . m − M = 5 log(d/10 pc). The absolute and apparent magnitudes are related via the distance modulus. The full Planck function is Bλ (T ) = 2hc2 /λ5 .

Figure 1: The Planck function for the Sun (T (dotted). and the Rayleigh-Jeans approximation . = 5777 K).

If λx denotes the central wavelength of the passband. whose solution involves the Lambert W funtion (see Wikipedia). Assuming that Fλ ∝ Bλ (T). 78 of Ostlie & Carroll). A numerical approximation to the solution is u = −0. this becomes ueu+3 + 3 = 0. which can be rearranged to get the ﬁnal result νmax = 2.40 × 1014 Hz. Assuming a blackbody spectrum. The Planck function per unit frequency interval is Bν (T ) = 2hν 3 /c2 ehν/kT − 1 To ﬁnd the frequency maximum νmax .1. The wavelength is λ = c/νmax = 880 nm. the U − B color is given by U − B = −2. and ∆λx the full width.16 The ﬁltered ﬂux in some passband x is given by ∞ Fx = 0 Fλ Sx (λ)dλ.Q3.11 of Ostlie & Carroll) . FB ∝ 2. and FV ∝ 1.1. (c).82 kT = 5. with a blackbody temperature of 9.179. Substituting the deﬁnition of u back in. Evaluating the Planck function Bλ (T ) for the surface temperature T = 22. then this may be approximated by Fx ≈ Fλx ∆λx (see p. 3. The observed value of U − B = −0. we solve the equation ∂Bν 2h = 2 ∂ν c Simplifying. Q3.4. 3 ehν/kT − 1 − hν/kT ehν/kT = 0 Introducing u ≡ hν/kT − 3.5 log B365 ∆λU B440 ∆λB + CU −B (see p.23. Applying the above expression to the Sun gives νmax = 3. which can be rearranged as ueu = −3e−3 .13 (a).179.19 (a). Q3.88 × 1010 Hz K−1 · T. Vega appears brightest in the B band due to the larger bandwidth. Even though the Planck function is largest in the U band. this is in the infra-red.90 is rather redder than the calculated value. 600 K. h 3ν 2 ehν/kT − 1 − hν 3 /kT ehν/kT (ehν/kT − 1)2 =0 (b). we have hν/kT − 3 = −0. A similar procedure gives B − V = −0.5 (with the same constant of proportionality). 000 K of Shaula gives U − B = −1. gives FU ∝ 2. due to departures of the star’s spectrum from a true blackbody (see Fig. This is a nasty transcendental equation. 78 of Ostlie & Carroll).

The distance to Shaula is d = 1/p = 216 pc. using the formula V − MV = 5 log(d/10 pc) then gives the absolute visual magnitude as MV = −5.05. . the solar constant. this must equal the amount re-radiated every second — that is. Assuming blackbody emission. as usual. Bonus The amount of solar radiation intercepted by the Earth every second is given by the product of the solar irradiance and the Earth’s cross sectional area: dE 2 = F · πR⊕ . plugging in the numbers gives 278 K. dt where F is. In thermal equilibrium. this is given by 2 L⊕ = 4πR⊕ σT 4 . This is rather smaller than the global average temperatures of ∼ 287 K (14 ◦ C). Setting dE/dt = L⊕ and solving for T gives T = F 4σ 1/4 . the Earth’s luminosity.(b). the discrepancy is caused by the greenhouse eﬀect (the discrepancy would be much larger if we had included the fact that much of the solar irradiance is reﬂected of clouds in the Earth’s atmosphere).

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