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What Significance Does Technology Offer To Mainstream Hollywood Cinema?
Khalyd Nazimi - 0717509
and thrillers mostly consist of a solid narrative. and what significance they have had in Hollywood mainstream films. These are a few examples of how powerful technology has become and we can only wait and bask at its glory as technology continues to advance. good screen play. sci-fi. Would they have been more successful if they had been offered greater technology? We can‟t overrule the question. 2 . It‟s used from applying make-up. The question under scrutiny is whether big budget Hollywood movies are treated as more of a spectacle and less of a narrative or is this just a myth? This question has been hovering around ever since Hollywood major distributors began releasing huge budget CGI (computer graphics integrated) films. This becomes quite the contrary when we look at genres such as action adventures. Further to discussing the use of green screens and the leap from 2D to 3D we must also look at the views of critics and the reception these films generated from their viewers. and what significance it has had in aiding mainstream Hollywood cinema. or the switch to 3D. in post war European cinema directors were made to use natural lighting. The second is CGI (Computer generated imagery) how computers and films blend together to offer more in terms of fantasy and action. Technology is a big word and when we use its terminology we could open up a web of definitions relating to different subject matters. having lacked in technology the directors made up with narrative and acting. having less technology didn‟t lead to poor film making and directors such as Ingmar Bergman were praised for classic titles like “The Seventh Seal and Persona”. We must also take into account the targeted audiences these blockbusters are aimed at and focus on film genre. However. creating props. We will also look at the scepticism behind the use of technology. and hardly any need for CGI. which were criticised for focusing more on explosions and less on the narrative. The third targeted area is the breakthrough of 3D film making and the leap from 2D to 3D in Hollywood mainstream cinema.Introduction Technology has vastly developed over the years and has offered many tools to improve the way we live. and discuss whether technology has complimented Hollywood mainstream cinema or has rather disguised poor narratives with over the top explosions and amazing visuals. and fantasy these genres mostly rely on the use of technology such as green screens and CGI. These films were successful due to their narrative. drama. The primary theme of this discussion is technology. films had no colour due to their budget. and there wasn‟t much technology involved. For example technology is used in almost every aspect of film making. capturing the footage right through to editing and releasing the film into cinemas and theatres. During the Auteur movement of 1950‟s. for example love. green screens. apart from capturing the scenes and editing the films. Certain genres require different methods of film making. How they are used. We need to breakdown the word and focus on three areas of technology in Hollywood screen media. We wait shorter periods of time for our food to cook. The first targeted area is the use of green screens. we sleep more comfortably and we commute more efficiently.
G. but also by its technology.d.I is a tool which allows computers to blend into films via computer software and film editing. Green screens have often been used all over media. Let us examine the success behind his major blockbusters and argue whether these films released were successful due to the support of advanced technology. to music videos. But because of the way they move. Computers have gotten very good at making detailed pictures. good filmmakers will often find other ways to get the shot they want without computers. and the human brain is very good at predicting what happens to things. This process is commonly known as Keying. Computer graphics are readily recognizable because they do things that would otherwise be impossible to film. or super natural powers where we see the antagonist display amazing abilities.G. The integration of computers allows directors to add imagery static or active within the film. This shift was indeed the progression and influence of media technology in Hollywood films. we understand that most of this is done via C. and even film making. Green is currently used as a backdrop more than any other colour because image sensors in digital video cameras are most sensitive to green. and Independence Day (1996) (IMDB. The principal of green/blue screens is when the subject is filmed or photographed against a background consisting of a single colour or a relatively narrow range of colours. mimicking the human eye's increased 3 . p. as he has become known as one of the most successful directors of our generation. philosophy. due to the bayer pattern allocating more pixels to the green channel. This statement almost defines the relationship between directors and film technology. from advertisement. The decade was dominated by special effects technology such as C. like clothes and human anatomy when affected by the force of gravity. When we see movies which deal with extra terrestrials. C. Titanic (1997). usually blue or green because these colours are considered to be the furthest away from skin tone. even with stunt men. especially things that aren't stiff. James Cameron has released some of the most highly grossing films of all time. Technology in Hollywood mainstream cinema throughout the 1990’s It is believed that the 1990‟s marked the shift in film making. Monaco argues (1991. one must also take into account the works of director and producer James Cameron.I and green screens enabling directors to indulge into their fantasies thus allowing them to offer more to their audiences. and how technology enabled his narratives a more compelling perspective when shown to worldwide audiences. n. The portions of the video which match the preselected colour are replaced by the alternate background video.When considering the role that technology has had on mainstream Hollywood cinema. directors visualise scenes and technology makes it a reality. if they don‟t follow the rules it‟s easy to spot.I. and economics of society.69) that every art is shaped not only by its politics.) With his films grossing an estimated 6 billion dollars. but they often move strangely because it‟s hard to apply the laws of physics precisely. weather forecasts.G. Looking back at the 1990‟s the use of technology in mainstream Hollywood has enabled him and other directors to release epic block buster‟s such as Terminator 2(1991).
Directed and written by Roland Emmerich who came across the plot when asked by a news reporter why he made a movie like Stargate. Terminator 2 made extensive use of computer-generated imagery to demonstrate the main two Terminators.) In 1996 we saw the release of yet another sci-fi/action adventure blockbuster – Independence Day. The movie held the world record for the highest opening-weekend gross of an R-rated film with over 52 million. The story follows Sarah Connor (Linda Hamilton) and her son John(Edward Furlong) as they are pursued by a new. n. The film was distributed by 20th Century Fox and had a budget of 75 million dollars. Models of the Whitehouse and buildings were created and an explosion would be ignited below the model. more advanced Terminator as a posed to the one they were facing in the fist instalment. Additionally. Terminator 2 was distributed by TriStar pictures an American film production/distribution studio subsidiary of Columbia Pictures. less light is needed to illuminate green. An older. and is considered hugely influential in the genres of action and science fiction. marking the first use of natural human motion for a computer-generated character and the first partially computer-generated main character. less advanced Terminator (Arnold Schwarzenegger) is also sent back in time to protect John. The film's visual effects included many breakthroughs in the use of computers. and was essential to the critical success of the film.d. The use of such technology was the most ambitious since the 1982 science fiction film Tron. (IMDB. sent back in time to kill John to stop him from becoming leader of the human resistance. a "mimetic poly-alloy" (liquid metal) structure. 000 plus special effects for the shots required for the film. This method of film and computer integration would engulf the tilted model and create the rolling "wall of 4 . such as jeans. including four Academy Awards for makeup. sound mixing. and visual effects. In the year 1991 Director and producer James Cameron wrote and directed one of the year‟s most ground breaking sci-fi/action called Terminator 2 – Judgement day. or a dark-navy suit. With the budget of around 95 million dollars the movie grossed five times its budget worldwide grossing just fewer than 520 million dollars. since the shapeshifting character can morph into almost anything it touches. Having been able to make full use of C.sensitivity to green light. the liquid metal. David stated that he was fascinated by aliens and alien invasions and wondered what it would be like to wake up one morning and face a 15 mile wide alien mother ship. Bright green has also become favoured as a blue background may match a subject's eye colour or common items of clothing. This idea progressed to a script and the release of Independence Day. the green camera channel contains the least "noise" and can produce the cleanest key/matte/mask. sound editing. Although green screens and CGI were used before the 1990‟s I consider this decade to be the stepping stone in the relationship between computers and film making for Hollywood blockbusters. It received many film awards. CGI was required particularly for the T-1000.I James Cameron‟s Terminator 2 was praised for its special effects. again because of the higher sensitivity to green in image sensors.G. Terminator 2 was a significant box office and critical success. shapeshifting T1000 (Robert Patrick). In order for director Roland Emmerich to release the alien invasion film he needed the 3. and flames would rise towards the camera. It had an impact on popular culture. Therefore.
With a budget of $75 million the film grossed over $815 million (IMDB. These suits were 8 feet tall. Entertainment Weekly would rate the movie as one of the best disaster movies of all-time. The reception the film obtained was very positive . and purposely designed to show it could not sustain a person inside so it would not appear to be a man in a suit. The narrative focuses on the life of a computer hacker who goes by the alias Neo (Keanu Reeves) who is on the search for “the Matrix” which references on his computer. Lisa Schwarzbaum of Entertainment Weekly gave it a B+ for living up to its massive hype. The Matrix is considered as a breakthrough in film visuals when they stunned their audience with the famous “bullet. visual effects. Pictures the film had a budget of $63 million and starred Keanu Reeves and Laurence Fishburne. Warner Bros received positive feedback from audiences who were most pleased by The Matrix’s visuals and fighting scenes. The script is witty. ranking only behind Jurassic Park. equipped with 25 tentacles. which allows the viewer to explore a moment progressing in slow-motion as the camera appears to orbit around the scene at normal speed. The film depicts a future in which reality as perceived by most humans is actually a simulated reality created by sentient machines to appease and suppress the human population. The Matrix received Oscars for film editing. n. The Matrix was placed 66th in the American Film Institute's "100 Years.In 2001. yet they managed to sweep all four of their 5 . Distributed by Warner Bros. 100 Thrills" list. 1996) Reaching the penultimate year of the 90‟s we saw the release of The Matrix (1999). The Matrix was voted as the fourth best sci-fi film in the 2011 list Best in Film: The Greatest Movies of Our Time. and Jeff Goldblum the movie was a success and received positive feedback by critics. the readers of Entertainment Weekly rated it the second greatest summer movie of the previous 20 years. like Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. With its stunning special effects and a cast of renowned actors such as Will Smith.d..d. while their bodies‟ heat and electrical activity are used as an energy source." Eight years later. In a 2010 poll. n.) "The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time”. In 2007. and sound. The filmmakers of the movie were competing against other films with established franchises. When learning this. Entertainment Weekly called The Matrix the best science-fiction piece of media for the past 25 years. The film is known for popularizing the use of a visual effect known as "bullet time". The shot of the White House's destruction has been declared a milestone in visual effects and one of the most memorable scenes of the 1990s. The actual aliens of the film are minuscule and based on a design Tatopoulos drew when tasked by Emmerich to create an alien that was "both familiar and completely original". The film is also ranked number 39 on (Empire Online.destruction" look seen in the film. and cool.time” scene. The aliens in the film were designed by production designer Patrick Tatopoulos. computer programmer Neo is drawn into a rebellion against the machines with other people who have also been freed from the "dream world" and live in reality. (Schwarzbaum.) worldwide holding a position as the 30th highest grossing movie of all time. knowing. These creatures wear "bio-mechanical" suits that are based on another design Tatopoulos pitched to Emmerich. adding "charm is the foremost of this epic's contemporary characteristics. based on a poll conducted by ABC and People.. sound effects editing.
a fatal vision for those who sailed in her. The genre of action/ sci-fi took a powerful boost with the development of media technology. The film was released by 20TH Century Fox and was written and directed by Cameron. Titanic. 1999) 6 . The film ultimately results in the ship crashing into to an undiscovered Iceberg which causes the ship to sink. Film makers and programmers were able to create more powerful computer generated tools to enable a successful fusion of film and computer imagery. (Gaylyn. Before the release of the film. Upon falling in love the two characters Jack Dawson (Leonardo Di Caprio) and Rose Dewitt Bukater (Kate Winslet) are forever being forced to break up by the fiancé and husband to be Calderon „Cal‟ Hockey (Billy Zane). Rose lives to tell her story as she rests on a floating door but Jack dies which formulates a very emotional ending. In 1999. The book TitanicAnatomy Of A Blockbuster describes that with the support of computer generated images which seemed realistic and graphical. many pundits and critics were understandably sceptical of the films potential for success. With the combination of super star actors and advanced film technology this decade is known to release some of the most influential blockbusters of all time. who feared for the worse and sold off some rights to Paramount in exchange for cash due to the films escalating production costs. in addition to nominations in the cinematography. Titanic tells the story of two people falling in love who come from different social classes and aboard the ship during its ill fated maiden voyage. When finally released into theatres and cinemas in thirteen short weeks became the highest grossing film in North America which shortly led to the film being the first motion picture to hit $1 billion worldwide. this drove home the Titanic as a dream. with several seeing Cameron‟s treatment of the ship as emblematic of his admiration for movie making apparatus itself and for futuristic technology. This view was also shared with its production company Twentieth Century Fox. It is logical that the box office and cultural impact of Titanic leads us to ask why this film which is one among the many fictionalised accounts of the sinking of the Titanic should have such appeal with the public. it won Saturn Awards for Best Science Fiction Film and Best Direction. and a kind of unreal. awesome trip for those watching her now. The Matrix also received BAFTA awards for Best Sound and Best Achievement in Special Visual Effects. thus resulting in incredible blockbusters for Hollywood mainstream cinema. Titanic has been acknowledged for the famous sinking scenes which brought forward the excellent depiction of the historic event. The film was known to be the most expensive and technologically advanced movie ever made. Avatar the extremely popular films of James Cameron In 1997 James Cameron took on the role of recreating the devastating events of the Titanic and how it sank due to a collision with an Iceberg.nominations. The films unprecedented success resulted to a grossing of just over $2 billion worldwide making it the second highest grossing film of all time. Critics had unanimous praise for the production values of Titanic. production design and editing categories.
Filming was supposed to take place after the completion of Titanic. The expansion of the mining colony threatens the continued existence of a local tribe of Na'vi (a humanoid species indigenous to Pandora). Cameron's retelling of the disaster showed the ship breaking into two pieces before sinking entirely. Titanic received many praises including 11 academy awards which included best motion picture. The film's title refers to a genetically engineered Na'vi body with the mind of a remotely located human. he quoted that “The only thing that has eluded our imagination is the sense of actually going down with the ship”. The film‟s rendering of this event in its final ninety minutes was almost unanimously judged as Cameron‟s true triumph. the sinking of the Titanic gave the film considerable significance. the film was released with 2D and 3D versions. as well as traditional miniatures. Development of Avatar began in 1994. the film is composed of 60% computer-generated elements and 40% live action. 3-D viewing (using the RealD 3D. and for "4-D" experiences in select South Korean theaters. In 2009 audiences were excited and amazed with the release of Avatar. powerful game engine”. the necessary technology was not yet available to achieve his vision of the film. and is used to interact with the natives of Pandora. As a subject matter. During filming. James Cameron took an 11 year gap from film making which would see him come back with something even more spectacular. when Cameron wrote an 80 page treatment for the film. and IMAX 3D formats). and thus enlisted Digital Domain to continue the developments in digital technology which the director had established while working on The Abyss and Terminator 2. The film is set in the mid22nd century. Directed and written by James Cameron.Judgment Day. and best visual effects. a lush habitable moon of a gas giant in the Alpha Centauri star system. According to Cameron. when humans are mining a precious mineral called unobtanium on Pandora. The virtual camera system is showing the actor‟s virtual counterparts in their digital surroundings in real time. Cameron wanted to push the boundary of special effects with his film. Cameron made use of his virtual camera system which was a new way of directing motion-capture filmmaking. Work on the film 7 . The film had a budget of $237 million and with a $150 million budget for marketing. Released in 2009 James Cameron could rely on the extensive use of cutting edge motion capture filming techniques. the first class lounge located on the ship was a miniature set incorporated into a green screen backdrop. Unlike previous Titanic films. As the film was released in 3D audiences were fascinated with the stunning visuals portrayed by big cinema screens. Cameron's film was the second Titanic film to show the ship breaking in half after the 1996 television movie Titanic. Cameron stated that when using this system "It's like a big.Downplaying the demand for cinematic realism enabled critics to celebrate Cameron‟s delirious visual style. for a planned release in 1999. allowing the director to adjust and direct scenes just as if shooting live action. best director. The stereoscopic filmmaking was touted as a breakthrough in cinematic technology. Jack Matthews of Newsday stated that none of the previously made films or documentaries on the subject had tackled Cameron‟s focus. The film was released for traditional viewing. The scenes were an account of the moment's most likely outcome. Dolby 3D. but according to Cameron. In order to save money. XpanD 3D.
with the aid of advanced filming technology. was CG animation. but Terminator 2 VFX supervisor Dennis Muren convinced me it could be done. narrative A spectacle is a specially arranged display of a somewhat public nature usually on a large scale that is an impressive show for those viewing it. and advancing and we can only wait impatiently for his next motion picture. I really didn‟t know if it was going to work. as well as the sequence's cockpit interior shots. Internationally the film opened on a total of 14 604 screens in 106 different countries of which 3. 2007) and was released theatrically from December 16th to 18th. I was an early adopter. To achieve the blend of animation and real life. including Best Picture and Best Director. While working on the script Cameron was also working on a new motion-capture animation technology which he had developed in 2006. and Magic) a special effects company. The information on the actor‟s facial expressions was then collected and transferred to computers. Cinematography. Avatar won the 2009 Academy Awards for Art Direction. It is also used to mean a person or a thing exhibited to the public either as an object of curiosity or condemnation or an object of miracle or admiration. John Knoll from ILM was called in for the job. With the aid of advance technical innovations James Cameron‟s Avatar was at its completion. taking responsibility for the shots of all the vehicles taking off. Technology is forever expanding. James Cameron is known for his compelling script writing and excellent film directing.7 billion worldwide making it the highest grossing film ever released.had been delayed for over a decade due to lack of technical requirements Cameron needed in order to grasp his narrative. obviously. recreating. he has been able to release some of the most notable sci-fi/ action adventures of our current generation. because my natural curiosity and technical bent had found a new toolset… Things I wanted to see in movies were now possible”. The word spectacle is derived from the Latin root spectare which is “to 8 . That was a defining moment for me as a moviemaker. The film was set for a release on December 10th 2009 (Thompson. At one point there was too much data and technical requirements needed for specific shots and so Cameron called on the help of ILM (Industrial Light. and was nominated for a total of nine. The films total budget came up to $237 million and grossed a staggering $2. ILM also did the effects work on the film's final battle scene. Cameron made his actors wear skull caps which were fitted with miniature cameras positions in front of the actor‟s face. Spectacle vs. Phillip Williams (2010) of website Movie Maker – The Art and Business of Making Movies asked James Cameron “What have been the most pivotal advances in technology that made what you do possible and have in a sense blended with who you are as an artist?” James Cameron in response to the question stated that “The first. the Oscar-winning visual effects supervisor was tasked with finishing the most crucial stages of the Avatar CGI work. 671 was shown in 3-D. Cameron claimed that this type of technology allowed him to transfer 100% of the actor‟s physical performances to their digital equivalent. The two films mentioned above are to name but a few of his list of inspiring motion pictures. and Visual Effects.
view.Images can be the means of narration. and thuds. Let us consider comparative analysis between narrative and spectacle in movies. He takes on this breed of filming. and the reception they have received. An example of this in Hollywood mainstream cinema would be the release of Transformers. On a year-end poll administered by Moviefone. films can be classified into two categories. and it‟s not an either or decision.T companies to implement computer technology in films. for either spectacle or narration. Gilles Deleuze proclaims that to combine the visual pleasure with spiritual touching is the only way for the development of films. Mulvey argues that the narratives in Hollywood films are characterised by spectatorial passivity and spectator‟s voyeuristic isolation making these films for her explicitly ideological. spectacle or narrative. it tells both a nice story and satisfies the audience's sensitive appetite. Having poor reviews the film did exceptionally well at the box office. Debates on spectacle over narrative in cinema has been going on for some time. He then begins to compare blockbusters of our current generation to 3-D films stating that “Much like 3-D films. He argues that blockbusters follow an “impact-aesthetic. metal groans. Hollywood movies and Chinese directors of “the fifth generation” are evidences of this shift. In June 2009. the shift in film making with the help of technical innovations. can be used to interpret narrative films and spectacle films. In Geoff Kings book (2000) Spectacular Narratives: Hollywood in the Age of the Blockbuster. David Edelstein of NYMAG criticised the film for being a computer-generated hash. or put it simply. with a budget of $200 million and grossing over 9 . As we reach a more advanced age in terms of technology. the film was voted the worst film of 2009 and Fox's performance the worst by an actress that year. Are they two difficult choices? Could there be a film that completes its narration in miraculous sights. Empire named the film the 25th worst movie ever made. today‟s special effects epics send objects flying towards the viewer with a promise of immediate sensual stimulation/gratification”. based to a large extent on pace and motion towards the camera”. weightless even with the nonstop booms. wild hydraulic embrace of a car compactor -exhilarating or excruciating. a French philosopher. Comcast ranked the film as the 4th worst sequel of all time. The dualistic concept theory. can they co-exist. what effects do they have? In Laura Mulvey‟s book titled Visual pleasure and Narrative Cinema (1975) she examines Hollywood narrative films. directors and film makers are offered more from software and I. compared with words. ear-splitting and unrelenting. Theoretically and practically. i. an Associated Press article by David Germain called the film as the worst-reviewed $400 million hit ever. advocated by Gilles Deleuze. images and sights have their unique advantages. She goes on to saying that it's easy to walk away feeling like you've spent 2 1/2 hours in the mad. depending on your point of view. Movie is now undergoing a dramatic shift from narrative to spectacle in the era of visual culture.Revenge of the Fallen which received poor reviews from critics worldwide. The criticism behind films being treated more of a spectacle and less of a narrative is aimed at the films which use special effects to cover up a poor narrative. watch” and specere “to look at”.e. Betsy Sharkey (2009) a film critic for the Los Angles Time described the films as inyour-face.
but there are films that have the ability to balance both firmly. And The Spectacular Hollywood Blockbuster. fetish-fashion. (King. 2003) He goes on to describe the sceptical view of a Hollywood blockbuster. n. Narrative. The virtual world of the Matrix asserts its authenticity by conforming to physical laws.) The Matrix grossed over $460 million worldwide. however. resulting in an environment grounded in what Stephen Prince terms perceptual realism: that distinctive facet of CGI which aligns it with photorealism by virtue of its detailed textural resemblance to its referent.d. Consistency is maintained across the Matrix trilogy through the integration of narrative and spectacle. This example of Hollywood cinema would back the argument of spectacle overcoming narratives in mainstream blockbusters. and special effects. Visual spectacle asks spectators to marvel at the comparison of it with the „real‟. But budgets are wasted if expensive special effects go unnoticed. CGI thus creates visual images which are “referentially fictional but perceptually realistic” . extra-textual reference points help to preserve its integrity. however. digital special effects perform two functions. to create convincing deceptive worlds and to make it known. The view from inside the Matrix provides the spectator with all of the films‟ comforting filmic pleasures (the spatio-temporal manipulations of bullet-time. With the popularity of the film Warner Bros decided to do a sequel which then turned into a trilogy. It makes logical sense that the plot fluctuates between two separate environments. locations and characters by virtue of its extreme malleability. Geoff King (2000) questions “What though of narrative in the spectacular blockbuster?” in his book Spectacle. which starred Keanu Reeves and Lawrence Fishburne. Almost covering up the poor acting and lacking narrative the film makes up with special effects and in-your-face action. and though it might be a gap narrowed by photorealism. The photorealistic aesthetic of digital effects have led to a popular belief that digital imaging technologies are about to usher in a new age of absolute simulation where the filmed and generated are indistinguishable. The film received several awards including 4 academy awards for editing. and that what he thought of as his body was a digital avatar of his excorporeated mind. Having a budget of only $63 million dollars (IMDB. allowing the spectator to question its construction as well as its evolution from previous imaging techniques. The plot of the typical Hollywood spectacular blockbuster may not be terribly challenging or complex. a basic mistake that is often made. The discrepancy between them is the space in which visual effects can be understood by the spectator. is to confuse this . the first (the Matrix) seductively deceptive and the other (the „real‟ world) inhospitably solid. This makes us wonder if having a poor narrative has any effect to the film‟s success once the special effect takes course. indestructibility and choreographed violence) – what Jeffrey Sconce calls a “hipster playground of high-action and high-fashion” while the real world is a harsh and hungry wasteland. In 1999 Warner Bros released what has been widely regarded as one of the greatest science fiction films of all time The Matrix.$830 million worldwide. but which enables it to create impossible objects. sound editing.a perfectly valid qualitative 10 . Neo (Keanu Reeves) finds that he has been plugged into the reconfigured post-apocalyptic planet. It is assumed that complete engagement is the ultimate goal. sound mixing.
Spectacle is important. He claims that narrative is interrupted by the intrusive presence of the commodity-form insufficiently integrated into the fictional world. with its high budget. and at more than one level. The film has all the characteristics of a spectacular blockbuster. but not everyone thinks they're getting their money's worth and a minority complain of dizziness and headaches. continue to invest strongly in narrative dynamics. He goes on to argue that the fact remains." said 11 . a mere advertisement forced arbitrarily onto the screen. however. are no more immersive. I would say you're increasing your chances of having some discomfort. According to a study of 400 filmgoers by L Mark Carrier. but one that could be applied to many other Hollywood films . He describes the spectacle to be seen as a source of distraction or interruption. New research has for the first time supposedly offered proof that 3D offers no measurable improvement in enjoyment for the vast majority of film audiences. He breaks down the two sides to Hollywood mainstream blockbusters by claiming narrative to be understood primarily in terms of the telling of coherent and carefully developed characterbased story throughout the course of the film. and a box office hit. He describes the film having a strong carefully orchestrated narrative dimension. "All other things being equal. (2002) he declares that some people suggest spectacle has become the dominant tendency of contemporary blockbuster production. that spectacular Hollywood blockbusters. of both varieties. He further describes the experience we go through when watching blockbusters. and do not offer any advantage over their 2D counterparts in terms of enhancing the ability to recall a film's details. In Geoff Kings other book New Hollywood Cinema: An Introduction. do we find a complete abandonment of narrative. Geoff King makes reference to one of the recent Hollywood spectacular blockbuster Terminator 2 – Judgement Day. He explains the opening moments of the film as both largescale spectacle and narrative exposition. The two sides to Hollywood mainstream cinema are needed in different ways and needed in different genres. headache or trouble with vision. Conclusion Hollywood's 3D revolution has changed the shape of the modern blockbuster and helped boost box office income for studios in an era of financial uncertainty. of California State University. They tell carefully organized. Narrative is usually identified as the victim. Narrative and spectacle are intertwined in complex ways and so by dividing them as mere polar opposites is immoral in films. more or less linear cause/effect stories organized around central characters.judgment. 3D movies do not allow viewers to experience more intense emotional reactions. sometimes dominant. however. Thus the balance between spectacle and narrative varies amongst contemporary Hollywood blockbusters. by stating that our focus on the narrative is halted while we sit back to contemplate with amazement/pleasure/horror the sheer sensory richness of the audio/visual experience. large-scale. In no case however. suggest that watching films in stereoscope increased threefold the risk of eyestrain.with the idea that narrative is in some way absent or displaced by spectacle. Carrier's study did.
"Many of us were like. 3-D movies are so cool. "There aren't going to be any benefits in terms of understanding the movie better or making the movie more meaningful. which surprised researchers. 3D films practically printed money in 2009 and early 2010 things started to fall apart with the release of Toy Story 3. Viewers are forced to pay up to 30 per cent extra just for the privilege of snazzy effects in cinemas where it is often impossible to see the film in „normal vision‟. plus there was an unfortunate side-effect – that they were more likely to get headaches. prices will come down – which I think will be fair to the consumer. it just becomes another tool and helps tell a story. British cinema goers have said 3D makes little difference to the quality of a movie. (Bates." Carrier said. and realize that slapping a 3D badge on a movie and expecting people to pay a premium to see is a losing proposition. James Cameron hit it right on the nose when he said that movie goers "don't want to pay extra for something that's not a great experience. 2011) Participants in the research were asked to watch one of three films – Alice in Wonderland. to the more intense. except that the per-theatre revenue of the 3D version of the film was 5 percent less than the 2D version. That's an unfortunate implication." Hopefully Hollywood will listen. 2011) Avatar Director and 3D evangelist. (Rettner. "Then maybe they can make ticket prices comparable to a 2D movie and not charge such exorbitant prices just to gain entry into a 3D one. "It didn't seem to enhance your memory at all. as far as we can tell. it's gotta do something. Because once they stop noticing it.Carrier at the America Psychological Association's annual meeting on Sunday." he said. 2011) The research adds to the growing body of studies which suggest that going to 3D films might not be all they are cracked up to be. such as "enjoyment". "I am certainly hoping that 3D gets to a point where people do not notice it. Steven Spielberg said at Comic-Con in San Diego last month that he hoped to see ticket prices for 3D and 2D films converge in the future. Many recent films shot in the format – a notable exception is Transformers: Dark of the Moon – have failed to offer a 3D box-office boost in the US. Clash of the Titans and How to Train Your Dragon – in either 2D or 3D. and film-makers are beginning to turn against studios that authorise cheap post-production conversions in the hope of achieving a short-term financial return. (Rettner. This kicked off a downward trend that seems to be getting worse. Carrier says there was very little difference between the response of those who watched in 2D and those who viewed in 3D. The Adventures of Tintin. such as "anger" and "rage". 2011) Speaking at a presentation of his own 3D movie. Daniel Bates of daily Mail Online24 released an article conducting a study which had found that when a film was shown in three dimensions viewers did not have a greater sense of „being there‟ than normal pictures. Hopefully someday there will be so many 3D movies. which is great. They were then asked to detail their responses using a list of 60 words ranging from the mild. according to a 12 ." he added." The research is just the latest suggestion that the tide is turning against 3D. (Baldwin. Their emotional reactions were the same.3 million at the box office." According to Roberto Baldwin of Gizmodo. The film made $110.
But responding to a YouGov poll. With the use of tools such as CGI and green screens. Many of this year's blockbusters such as Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 2 and Transformers: Dark of the Moon was made using the technology. dramas don‟t require them at all. Electronic companies are also joining in on the hype. 3D movies aren’t just a Fad. Examples here back the importance of technology as being Hollywood‟s key factor in releasing blockbusters with high grossing potentials. and almost every major retailer has released a 3D TV set. film makers can interpret any idea into a film. we are able to see films which offer more visually stunning pictures while keeping its originality through clever narratives. With the aid of new innovative media tools. Some genres require technology such as sci-fi. A good example is Titanic as mentioned above. Hulk. He states that According to numbers available from False Creek Productions. 2011) Technology has enabled directors and film makers to give their audiences a more prolific movie experience. Figure 2: Total Recall 1990 13 Figure 1. According to the figure some 30. from flying men. The nature of these films is mainly to show people events which they could only dream about and ideas which manifest only in ones fantasy. and some like romantic-comedies. (Taylor.000 new installations are currently undergoing across all regions. action. we are at a stage in technical evolution where anything is possible in the films industry. According to an article by Roy Taylor. The film was hugely successful and presented its audiences with a strong narrative and visually stunning depiction of the sinking RMS Titanic. or the transformation from comic book to motion pictures such as Spiderman. There are also films that don‟t require special effects technology. Just under half of those polled said it made no difference at all. they would rather see a film in the traditional two dimensional formats. and so the possibilities are almost infinite. while there were fewer 3D films that reached a gross of $1 million+ in 2010.1 Total Recall 2012 . to alien abduction. With the ability to almost portray any fantasy. and Superman etc. a significantly higher percentage of them reached the top 20 of that year. Through the examples we have seen. and this comes down to the genre. 41% of people called it a gimmick with just 19% agreeing that 3D improves a film. thrillers. Without advanced visual technology we may have never witnessed epic movies such as Titanic and Avatar. and adventures. Price does not appear to be an issue for more than a third of cinema goers who said that even if the more expensive 3D films tickets were the same price as their 2D counterparts.new survey. the significance is shown clearly through ground breaking box office hits and innovative fantasy genres. He went on to claim that more cinemas are investing in 3Denabled theatres.
14 .Another implication is that technology has created a more realistic universe within their films as compared to the technology being used in films of the 1990‟s. Thus opening new realms of possibilities in creativity and offering directors the chance to delve deep into their fantasies bringing more and more ground breaking motion pictures to mainstream Hollywood.
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com/total-recall-2012-official-full-trailer-video-03-04-2012/>[ Accessed on April 24th 2012] Filmography Alice in Wonderland. 2010. Pictures Toy Story 3. 20th Century Fox How to train your dragon. Paramount Pictures. 1996. 1997. 20th Century Fox Transformers – Revenge of the Fallen. 1957. Paramount Pictures.moviemaker.d. Walt Disney Pictures Avatar. 2011. Warner Bros.geekygadgets. 1999. 20th Century Fox Persona. 2010. Paramount pictures 17 . 1966. MGM The Adventures of Tintin. United Artists. 2009. 2009. AB Svensk Filomindustri.com/blog/index. AB Svensk Filmindustri Terminator 2 – Judgement Day.com/directing/article/avatar_james_cameron_jon_landau_20100119/ > [Accessed on April 17th 2012] Electronic images [Arnold Schwarzenegger in distress] n.php/tag/total-recall/>[Accessed on April 24th 2012] [Colin Farrell in Total Recall] n. [image online] Available at:< http://www. Columbia Pictures The Matrix. TriStar Pictures Titanic. [image online] Available at:< http://www.welovemusic.d. Paramount Pictures Independence Day. 2010. 1991.at:<http://www. Walt Disney Pictures The Seventh Seal.