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CALC III EXAM 2 REVIEW

Chapters: 11.5 Conic Sections 10.1 Sequences 10.2 Summing an Infinite Series 10.3 Convergence of Series with Positive Terms HW Assignments: 11.5: Prelims: 1,2,3,5; Exercises: 1, 3, 7, 9, 11, 13, 17, 18-21 all, 23-30, 31-40, 51-58 all 10.1: Prelims: 1-4; Exercises: 1-27 odd, 29-35 odd, 28, 39, 43-63 odd, 64, 65, 66, 70, 71, 77 10.2: 1-11 all. 13-16, 17-31 odd, 32, 33, 36, 52 10.3: 1-13 odd Chapter Review (pg. 617): 1-46 all

11.5 CONIC SECTIONS


Cutting a 3-D shape at various angles.

Ellipse
The set of all points P such that the sum of the distances from P to two fixed points (foci) is a constant. PF1 + PF2 = K - Standard position: (x/a)2 + (y/b)2 = 1 - Translation: x-a, y-b a = horizontal distance from origin, b = vertical. - Add to foci coordinates too! - If a = b, it is a circle - Focal axis = if x is greater, longer horizontally, if y is greater longer vertically - a vertices = distance horizontally to the right & left from center, b = vertical. Center is midpoint. - Reflective Property: - Beam of light at F1 is reflected off the ellipse toward F2 - How to draw: - Sketch vertical segments at (a, 0) and horizontal at (0, b), form a rectangle - Sketch the ellipse inside, tangent to outline a>b a<b FOCAL AXIS x-axis y-axis FOCI (c, 0) c = a2 b2 (0, c) c = b2 a2 VERTICES (a, 0) (0, b) (a, 0) (0, b)

Hyperbola
The set of all points P which the difference of the distances from P to two fixed points (foci) is a constant. PF1 - PF2 = 2a

- Opens around x-axis: (x/a)2 - (y/b)2 = 1 - Opens around y-axis: (y/b)2 - (x/a)2 = 1 - Asymptotes: y = (b/a)x - Use ratio to find values of b & a given c! Foci: around x: (c, 0) c = a2 + b2& around y: (0, c) c = a2 + b2 Reflective Property: - Beam of light directed to F2 is reflected off the hyperbola toward F1 How to draw: - Sketch vertical segments at (a, 0) and horizontal at (0, b), form a rectangle - Draw 2 diagonal asymptotes through the corners - According to major axis, sketch hyperbolic curves that follow the V from the asymptotes and the rectangle, only intersecting at the specific points -

Parabola

The set of all points P for which the distance from P to a fixed point (focus) is equal to the distance from P to a fixed line (directrix). PF = PD - y = ax2: - Vertex: (0, 0) - Focus: (0, 1/4a) - Directrix: y = -1/4a; y = -c - x = ay2: - Vertex: (0, 0) - Focus: (1/4a, 0) - Directrix: x = -1/4a; x = -c - Reflective Property: - Beam of light approaching P from above, perpendicular to directrix, is reflected off parabola toward the focus

Polar Equations of Conic Sections - Horizontal: - r = de/(1 ecos) - Vertical: - r = de/(1 esin)
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Eccentricity? - e = eccentricity - Coefficient of cos or sin. If not 1, factor out and divide correspondingly Directrix? - d = directrix; - Numerator divided by e Shape? - e > 1 ellipse - e = 1 parabola - e > 1 hyperbola

10.1 SEQUENCES

Axes? - Find r values by plugging in to ORIGINAL equation - : 0, /2, , 3/2; r: ? ? ? ? Focus/foci? - Since in polar form, one foci will ALWAYS be (0, 0) - Since a parabola only has one, it will always be at (0, 0) - To find the other, take r value of pole farther from origin, subtract r value of pole opposite to it. Depends on major axis. Ex. R(3/2) R(/2) = r @ 3/2 (+ shift) Shift? - Rotate clockwise (-) or counter clockwise (+) depending on the sign of the value that makes the sin( ) or cos( )= 0 - To find vertices, add shift to column and calculate - Shift will effect angle (but not distance) of second foci, and the vertices -

A sequence is a function whose domain is all integers greater than or equal to a starting integer. - an = a single number called the nth term - { an } = the entire sequence of numbers, the set of all terms - { an }n=3 = represents the sequence that starts with n = 3 Recursive Sequences: a rule that gives each new term in the sequence as a combination of some of the previous terms (plug in known values). Limit of Sequences, Convergence: the limit of a sequence { an } is L if the terms an are arbitrarily close to L for sufficiently large values of n. The terms at the beginning of the sequence can be any values, but for large values of n, the an terms are all close to L.

To prove that an converges to s specific limit L, take:

- |an L| < E - |(1/3)n 0| <E - |(1/3)n| <E - n ln(1/3) < lnE - n < lnE/ln(1/3) - n > lnE/ln(1/3) = answer. FLIPPED inequality because ln(1/3) is negative

Bounded and Monotonic Sequences


Bounded above: if there is a value A so that an A for all values of n: A is called an upper bound of the sequence. Bounded below: if there is a value B so that B an for all n: B is called a lower bound of the sequence. Bounded: if it has an upper bound and a lower bound. All of the terms of a bounded sequence are between (or equal to) the upper and lower bounds. Monotonically Increasing: each term is greater than or equal to the previous term, a1 a2 a3 . . . Monotonically Decreasing: each term is less than or equal to the previous term, a1 a2 a3 . . . - A monotonic sequence does not oscillate: if one term is larger than a previous term and another term is smaller than a previous term, then the sequence is not monotonic increasing or decreasing. 3 ways that a sequence is monotonically increasing (decreasing would be opposite signs): (i) by showing that an+1 an for all n, (ii) by showing that all the an are positive and an+1 an 1 for all n, or (iii) by showing that an = f(n) for integer values n and f '(x) 0 for all x > 0. Things that are implied: - Convergence DOES NOT imply monotonicity - Convergence DOES imply boundedness - Monotonic implies bounded on one end - IF A MONOTONIC SEQUENCE IS BOUNDED, THE SEQUENCE CONVERGES

10.2 SUMMING AN INFINITE SERIES


Definition:

Partial Sums:

Convergence of an Infinite Series:


Telescoping Series:

Harmonic Series: Diverges. See proof in Hoffman 10.3 pg. 6, pdf pg. 157.

Nth partial sum:

Geometric Series:

Divergence Test:

10.3 Convergence of Series with Positive Terms


Determining whether an infinite series converges or diverges from a series that is positive. Dichotomy Theorem:

Integral Test:

P-Series:

Comparison/Limit Comparison: