Chapters: 11.5 Conic Sections 10.1 Sequences 10.2 Summing an Infinite Series 10.3 Convergence of Series with Positive Terms HW Assignments: 11.5: Prelims: 1,2,3,5; Exercises: 1, 3, 7, 9, 11, 13, 17, 1821 all, 2330, 3140, 5158 all 10.1: Prelims: 14; Exercises: 127 odd, 2935 odd, 28, 39, 4363 odd, 64, 65, 66, 70, 71, 77 10.2: 111 all. 1316, 1731 odd, 32, 33, 36, 52 10.3: 113 odd Chapter Review (pg. 617): 146 all
Ellipse
The set of all points P such that the sum of the distances from P to two fixed points (foci) is a constant. PF1 + PF2 = K  Standard position: (x/a)2 + (y/b)2 = 1  Translation: xa, yb a = horizontal distance from origin, b = vertical.  Add to foci coordinates too!  If a = b, it is a circle  Focal axis = if x is greater, longer horizontally, if y is greater longer vertically  a vertices = distance horizontally to the right & left from center, b = vertical. Center is midpoint.  Reflective Property:  Beam of light at F1 is reflected off the ellipse toward F2  How to draw:  Sketch vertical segments at (a, 0) and horizontal at (0, b), form a rectangle  Sketch the ellipse inside, tangent to outline a>b a<b FOCAL AXIS xaxis yaxis FOCI (c, 0) c = a2 b2 (0, c) c = b2 a2 VERTICES (a, 0) (0, b) (a, 0) (0, b)
Hyperbola
The set of all points P which the difference of the distances from P to two fixed points (foci) is a constant. PF1  PF2 = 2a
 Opens around xaxis: (x/a)2  (y/b)2 = 1  Opens around yaxis: (y/b)2  (x/a)2 = 1  Asymptotes: y = (b/a)x  Use ratio to find values of b & a given c! Foci: around x: (c, 0) c = a2 + b2& around y: (0, c) c = a2 + b2 Reflective Property:  Beam of light directed to F2 is reflected off the hyperbola toward F1 How to draw:  Sketch vertical segments at (a, 0) and horizontal at (0, b), form a rectangle  Draw 2 diagonal asymptotes through the corners  According to major axis, sketch hyperbolic curves that follow the V from the asymptotes and the rectangle, only intersecting at the specific points 
Parabola
The set of all points P for which the distance from P to a fixed point (focus) is equal to the distance from P to a fixed line (directrix). PF = PD  y = ax2:  Vertex: (0, 0)  Focus: (0, 1/4a)  Directrix: y = 1/4a; y = c  x = ay2:  Vertex: (0, 0)  Focus: (1/4a, 0)  Directrix: x = 1/4a; x = c  Reflective Property:  Beam of light approaching P from above, perpendicular to directrix, is reflected off parabola toward the focus
Polar Equations of Conic Sections  Horizontal:  r = de/(1 ecos)  Vertical:  r = de/(1 esin)

Eccentricity?  e = eccentricity  Coefficient of cos or sin. If not 1, factor out and divide correspondingly Directrix?  d = directrix;  Numerator divided by e Shape?  e > 1 ellipse  e = 1 parabola  e > 1 hyperbola
10.1 SEQUENCES
Axes?  Find r values by plugging in to ORIGINAL equation  : 0, /2, , 3/2; r: ? ? ? ? Focus/foci?  Since in polar form, one foci will ALWAYS be (0, 0)  Since a parabola only has one, it will always be at (0, 0)  To find the other, take r value of pole farther from origin, subtract r value of pole opposite to it. Depends on major axis. Ex. R(3/2) R(/2) = r @ 3/2 (+ shift) Shift?  Rotate clockwise () or counter clockwise (+) depending on the sign of the value that makes the sin( ) or cos( )= 0  To find vertices, add shift to column and calculate  Shift will effect angle (but not distance) of second foci, and the vertices 
A sequence is a function whose domain is all integers greater than or equal to a starting integer.  an = a single number called the nth term  { an } = the entire sequence of numbers, the set of all terms  { an }n=3 = represents the sequence that starts with n = 3 Recursive Sequences: a rule that gives each new term in the sequence as a combination of some of the previous terms (plug in known values). Limit of Sequences, Convergence: the limit of a sequence { an } is L if the terms an are arbitrarily close to L for sufficiently large values of n. The terms at the beginning of the sequence can be any values, but for large values of n, the an terms are all close to L.
 an L < E  (1/3)n 0 <E  (1/3)n <E  n ln(1/3) < lnE  n < lnE/ln(1/3)  n > lnE/ln(1/3) = answer. FLIPPED inequality because ln(1/3) is negative
Partial Sums:
Harmonic Series: Diverges. See proof in Hoffman 10.3 pg. 6, pdf pg. 157.
Geometric Series:
Divergence Test:
Integral Test:
PSeries:
Comparison/Limit Comparison: