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Separating and Purifying the Liquid by Distillation Method

Rinda Aseta Prafianti Syahirul Alim Department of Chemistry Faculty of Mathematics and Science State University of Surabaya

Abstract The aim of this research are to know how distillation method can separate and pure the liquid and to determine the boiling point of the liquid. Distillation is a method of separating mixtures based on differences in volatilities of components in a boiling liquid mixture. Distillation is a unit operation, or a physical separation process, and not a chemical reaction. The result is we got the pure H2O, it can be proven by drop AgNO3 and there is no precipitate (white). The constant temperature we get at 98° C. , it can be concluded that distillation experiment that we had done successfully is to produce a pure distillate purity aquades is same. Keyword: Distillation, Separating, and Purifying Introduction Most of the chemical compounds found in nature in an impure state. Typically, a chemical compound is in a state mixed with other compounds. For some purposes such as synthesis of chemical compounds that require chemical raw materials in a pure state or process of producing a chemical compound with high purity, the separation process needs to be done. The process of separation of a mixture can be done by various methods. Separation method chosen depends on the phase composition of the mixture. A mixture can be a mixture of homogeneous (single phase) or heterogeneous mixture (more than one phase). A heterogeneous mixture may contain two or more phases: solid-solid, solid-liquid, solid-gas, liquid-liquid, liquid-gas, gas, mixed gas-liquid-solid, and so forth. In many cases, two or more separation processes should be combined to obtain the desired separation. For the separation of a heterogeneous mixture, there are four main principles of the separation process, namely sedimentation, flotation, centrifugation, filtration. The process of

chromatography. leaching. and sublimation. the liquid will boil. The vapor temperature rather than the pot temperature is measured because if you .separation of a homogeneous mixture. crystallization. the components often separate from a mixture when the mixture is distilled. they are the same temperature as the boiling liquid. For instance. Basic Theory Distillation is used to purify a compound by separating it from a non-volatile or lessvolatile material. Different compounds boil at different temperatures because each has a different. The vapor pressure of the liquid will increase as the temperature of the liquid increases. stripping. recrystallization. Because different compounds often have different boiling points. fractional freezing. The distillation method of boiling point determination measures the temperature of the vapors above the liquid. Boiling points are usually measured by recording the boiling point (or range) on a thermometer while performing a distillation. characteristic vapor pressure: compounds with higher vapor pressures will boil at lower temperatures. Various methods are used for the seven new phase so that a homogeneous mixture can be separated is: absorption. Since these vapors are in equilibrium with the boiling liquid. This method is used whenever there is enough of the compound to perform a distillation. In this experiment. Liquid-liquid extraction. The boiling point is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid phase of a compound equals the external pressure acting on the surface of the liquid. evaporation. consider a liquid heated in an open flask. adsorption. distillation. we selected distillation method to separate and pure homogen (NaCl and water). Solid-liquid extraction. evaporation. and when the vapor pressure equals the atmospheric pressure. precipitation. The goals of this experiment are to know how distillation method can separate and pure the liquid and to determine the boiling point of the liquid. The new phase occurs / is formed from the different physical and chemical properties of each component. the principle is the separation of the formation of a new phase so that the mixture became a heterogeneous mixture is easily separated. electrophoresis. The external pressure is usually the atmospheric pressure. extraction.

put a termometer actually in the boiling liquid mixture. Pour the solution into distillation flask using funnel 6. Preparing the distillation set (see figure 1) 2. Setting the distillation set 4. Running the water in the liquefier 7. the temperature reading would likely be higher than that of the vapors. Prepare beaker glass 400 mL. Method a) Equipment and Materials • Equipment: Distillation flask : 1piece Pipette drops Wire gauze Bunsen Tripod Funnel Spatula : 1piece : 1piece : 1piece : 1piece : 1piece : 1piece Beaker glass 400 mL : 1piece Beaker glass 100 mL : 1piece Liquefier Thermometer Boiling stones • Materials: NaCl 1 gram AgNO3 0. pour 100 mL H2O and 1 gram NaCl. Setting the Bunsen and put under distillation flask 8. 5. This is because the liquid can be superheated or contaminated with other substances. Boiling the distillation flask until the temperature increase and constant . Entering boiling stones into distillation flask by keel over the distillation flask 3. and therefore its temperature is not an accurate measurement of the boiling temperature.1 M Aquades : 1piece : 1piece : 2pieces b) Procedure 1. Mix them until become homogeneous mixture.

distillate. Use beaker glass 100mL to get the distillate (25 mL) then the process is stopped 10. Pouring 5mL NaCl solution (solution before distillation) in test tube 1 12.9.1M for each test tube 15. Pouring 5mL distillate in test tube 2 13. Reaction : NaCl(aq)+AgNO3(aq) AgCl(s)+NaNO3(aq) NaCl(aq) . it can be indicated that there is NaCl solution. Pouring 5mL aquades in test tube 3 14. the result is white precipitate and the color of the solution is white. Dropping 3drops AgNO3 0. Comparing the purity between NaCl solution (solution before distillation). (Figure 1) Result After 1 gram of NaCl is dissolved in water the result is colorless (NaCl solution) Reaction : NaCl(s)+H2O(l) Compare the purity After the solution of NaCl (5 mL) 3 drops with AgNO3. and aquades. Preparing 3 test tube 11.

After that. So we had the experiment succeed. Running the water into liquefier is to cool the vapor that can turned into distillate. And then. The purpose of adding boiling stones in that Erlenmeyer flask is to even out the boiling process. the solution will vaporize and the pure water vapour will pass in the liquefier and form a colorless distillate. It is pure water. before entering the solution. the result is colorless solution After doing distillation process. NaCl solution and aquades by adding AgNO3 0. But.1M into each test tube. 5mL of colorless distillate which reacted with 3 drops of a colorless AgNO3 and produce AgNO3 solution (colorless). we got the result that same as the theory. . Because there is no NaCl. that purity of distillate is same as the purity of aquades. After compared the result of the experiment. Discussion Pouring 100mL Aquades (colorless) and 1gram NaCl (white crystal) into beaker glass until NaCl dissolve and become NaCl solution (colorless). the result is colorless solution. The boiling point of NaCl solution is 98 ◦C. 5mL of colorless aquades which reacted with 3 drops of a colorless AgNO3 and produce AgNO3 solution (colorless). Because there is no NaCl. the result is colorless solution. pouring the NaCl solution into distillation flask using funnel. 5mL of colorless NaCl solution which reacted with 3 drops of a colorless AgNO3 and form of precipitate that change the color of solution become white. In this condition. boiling stones by keel over the distillation flask. took solution and drops with AgNO3. Reaction : H2O(l)+AgNO3(aq) AgNO3(aq) After 5 mL distillate 3 drops with AgNO3. Added some of AgNO3 to see whether or not a pure solution.After 5 mL aquades 3 drops with AgNO3. compare the purity between distillate.

Ainur Hilmi whose guidance. the boiling point water is less than the boiling point NaCl.about. s/s/f/destillation htm Tim Kimia Dasar.about. Penuntun Praktikum Kimia Dasar II. enthusiasm and attention to detail in developing this experiment has been invaluable.Conclusion Based on the result of this experiment. 2011. References      Tim kimia dasar. . Surabaya : http// : chemistry. Thanks also to our friends that help the success of this experiment.wikipedia. The boiling point of water vapor is 98 °C. Acknowledgements Great thanks are due to Mr.htm http // : http://en. UNESA http // : http://chemistry. We are most grateful to State University of Surabaya where this experiment was initiated. 2010. Petunjuk Praktikum Kimia Dasar 1. it can be concluded that distillation experiment that we had done successfully is to produce a pure distillate purity aquades is same.