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**Application of Nonbinary LDPC Codes Based on Euclidean Geometries to MIMO Systems
**

1 Xueqin

Jiang,

1 Yier

1 Institute

Yan,

Xia Fellow and 1 Moon Ho Lee Senior Member of Information and Communication Chonbuk National University, Korea. 2 Department of Electrical Engineering University of Delaware, USA.

1,2 Xiang-gen

Abstract—This paper ﬁrst presents an approach to the construction of non-binary low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes based on Euclidean geometries. Codes constructed by this method have multiple code rates and a constant code length. With the proposed codes, the MIMO systems can also support different data rate with the same basic structure. Simulation results show that these codes perform very well with either joint or separate MIMO detection and channel decoding. The complexity comparison shows that the nonbinary coded MIMO systems have lower complexity at the receiver side. Index Terms—LDPC, Euclidean geometry, MIMO, FFT, FHT.

the base matrix based on ﬂats of two different dimensions in Euclidean geometries. The method to get the mother and effective matrices of multiple-rate is introduced in Section IV. Examples and their simulations are given in Section V. The complexity analysis is presented in Section VI. Finally, section VII concludes the paper. II. S YSTEM M ODEL Fig.1 shows a block diagram of the nonbinary LDPC coded MIMO system. At the transmitter side, a sequence of information bits is mapped to a sequence of nonbinary symbols through a bit-to-symbol mapper. Let nt denote the number of transmit antennas. At the output of the LDPC encoder, every group of n0 coded nonbinary symbols S = {s1 , · · · , sn0 } ∈ GF (q) is mapped to a group of nt constellation symbols x = (x1 , · · · , xnt ) = f (S) through the mapper f (S). Given the constellation size 2m0 , we have p · n0 = nt · m0 , where p = log2 q. The sequence of constellation symbols is sent through the nt transmit antennas. The receiver performs optimal maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) detection to compute the prior probabilities for each group of nt transmitted constellation symbols. These prior probabilities will then be passed to the LDPC decoder for iterative decoding. When n0 = 1, the MAP detector produces prior probabilities for each symbol which can be used directly for nonbinary LDPC decoding. Hence, it is sufﬁcient to perform MIMO detection only once followed by channel decoding. This corresponds to SDD system that performs separate detection and decoding. When n0 > 1, the prior probabilities of the group of n0 nonbinary symbols are dependent because they are mapped to complex symbols that are transmitted simultaneously. Then it is necessary to pass soft information about the dependent symbols from the LDPC decoder back to the MAP detector to produce updated symbol-wise probabilities. This corresponds to a JDD system that performs joint detection and decoding. When q = 2, the block diagram shown in Fig.1 becomes a binary LDPC coded MIMO system. A sequence of information bits is directly passed to a binary LDPC encoder. At the output of the binary LDPC encoder, every group of n0 coded binary bits S = {b1 , · · · , bn0 } ∈ GF (2) is mapped to a group of nt constellation symbols x = (x1 , · · · , xt ) = f (S). Given the constellation size 2m0 , we have n0 = nt ·m0 . It is obvious that for an MIMO system, nt > 1, the SDD system is impossible for binary LDPC codes.

I. I NTRODUCTION Communication systems often need to work at different data transmission rates, which can be achieved by using different modulation schemes and/or multiple-rate codes. To keep the implementation as simple as possible, the same basic decoder architecture should be able to decode the codes with different code rates. The idea that higher rate quasi-cyclic (QC) effective low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes can be generated from a lower rate QC mother LDPC code by row combining in its parity check matrix was proposed in [1]. The main issue that have to be considered in the construction of the mother matrix and the effective matrices is that the rows that will be combined in the mother matrix do not have nonzero elements in the same column. Codes of this family support different rates while maintaining the same fundamental decoder architecture. The main contributions of this paper are summarized as: 1) We introduce an approach to the construction of multiple-rate nonbinery QC LDPC codes for the multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) systems. Furthermore, we examine the performance of the proposed nonbinary LDPC codes for MIMO systems that employ either joint detection and decoding (JDD) or separate detection and decoding (SDD) [2] and compare them to the performance of the binary LDPC coded MIMO system in which the binary LDPC codes are from the IEEE standard 802.16e [3]. 2) We analysis the complexities of the binary and nonbinary LDPC coded MIMO systems. The proposed nonbinary LDPC MIMO system has lower complexity compared to the binary LDPC MIMO system in which the binary LDPC codes are from the IEEE standard 802.16e. This paper is organized as follows. In Section II, we introduce the system model. Section III explains how to construct

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ps ) be a d-dimensional Euclidean geometry over the Galois ﬁeld GF (ps ). s. p) = i=μ1 p(d−i+1)s − 1 . p). p) = p(μ2 −μ1 )s and μ2 × bj ∈Bi PL→M (bj ) (2) where · 2 denotes the norm square of a vector. μ1 . μ2 . . μ1 . . (4) where x ∈ C is the complex transmitted signal vector that satisﬁes the component-wise energy constraint E( xi 2 ) = Es /nt .v=t Vpv .. s. but excludes the k-th symbol sk and S(Si . s. n0 . p) μ2 ﬂats containing a given μ1 -ﬂat [6]. A schematic block diagram of the proposed nonbinary MIMO system. Let μ1 . The μ-ﬂats in a parallel bundle are parallel to each other.c=t where t = 1. nt ×1 two steps [5]: 1) Variable node update for a degree dv node (1) dv k Utp = PM →L × v=1. The weight of vF is N (μ2 . The pμs points of the form c0 + β1 c1 + . p) μ1 -ﬂats contained in a given μ2 -ﬂat and A(m. s. where p is a prime and d. 1. p)/p(d−μ2 )s = p(d−i+1)s − 1 p(μ2 −i+1)s − 1 i=1 μ2 (9) . where 0 ≤ μ ≤ d. s. μ1 . p(μ2 −i+1)s − 1 +1 (8) × sj ∈Si PL→M (sj ) (3) k Let PM →L denote both of PM →L (bk ) and PM →L (sk ).sk )) 2 (2σ 2 ) p(μ2 −i+1)s − 1 p(μ1 −i+1)s − 1 i=1 μ1 (7) A(d. y ∈ C nr ×1 is the complex received signal vector. the subscript M → L denotes the message passed from the MIMO detector to the LDPC decoder and L → M denotes the message passed from the LDPC decoder to the MIMO detector. . The FFT with the correct symbol-bit labeling reduces to the Fast Hadamard transform (FHT). μ1 . μ2 .s. The μ2 -ﬂats in EG(d. Let denote both of PL→M (bk ) and PL→M (sk ). dc and F (·). F −1 (·) denote the FHT and inverse FHT (IFHT). one iteration includes mainly k PL→M k PM →L The μ1 -ﬂats are ordered from 1 to N (d. let Si denote the set of nt − 1 transmitted symbols. vN (d.p) ) of F be a binary N (d. s are two positive integers. respectively. For a nonbinary LDPC coded MIMO system. by computing PM →L (sk ) = all Si − 1 √ e nr ( 2πσ) y−Hc f (S(Si . ps ) can be partitioned into parallel bundles. we perform the bit based MAP detection [4] to determine the a posteriori probabilities (APP) of each binary bit bk . · · · . μ1 . constitute a μ-ﬂat that passes through the point c0 . . Let c0 . n0 .. but excludes the k-th bit bk while S(Bi . A point is a 0-ﬂat and a line is a 1-ﬂat. The channel model is given by y = Hc x + n. (6) The permutations between the check nodes and variable nodes are omitted. there are N (μ2 . Given each received signal vector y. . s. These values are passed to the FFT based LDPC decoder for iterative decoding. s. The number of μ2 -ﬂats in a parallel bundle is p(d−μ2 )s and there are K = N (d.. For a binary LDPC coded MIMO system.. μ1 . dv .μ1 . 2) Check node update for a degree dc node Vtp = F −1 ( dc F (Upc )). Hc ∈ C nr ×nt is the channel fading matrix with independent entries that are complex Gaussian distributed with zero mean and unit variance.. p).. k = 1. cμ be μ + 1 linearly independent points in EG(d.bk )) 2 (2σ 2 ) where t = 1. D ESIGN OF T HE BASE M ATRIX B Let EG(d. Hc is assumed to be known to the receiver but not the transmitter. . βμ cμ with βi ∈ GF (ps ) for 1 ≤ i ≤ μ. III. (5) c=1. . c1 . μ1 . . k = 1. μ2 . sk ) is a vector of nt components containing the symbols including Si and sk . ps ). and Es is the total transmitted power. we perform the symbol based MAP detection [4] to determine the a posteriori probabilities (APP) of each symbol sk . p)-tuple with vi = 1 if the ith μ1 ﬂat of EG(d. . where N (μ2 . nr is the number of receive antennas. v2 . . A μ-ﬂat and the μ-ﬂats parallel to it are called a parallel bundle. Given a μ2 ﬂat F and the incidence vector vF = (v1 . let Bi denote the set of (nt × m0 ) − 1 transmitted bits. and vi = 0 otherwise. Given each received signal vector y. . In the iterative decoding algorithm.2 Bit To Symbol GF(q) LDPC Encoder f Transmiter Receiver MAP Detector f -1 GF(q) LDPC Decoder Symbol To Bit JDD Fig. The extrinsic information pass from the LDPC decoder to MIMO detector is dv k PL→M = v=1 Vpv . μ2 be two integers and 0 ≤ μ1 < μ2 ≤ d. by computing PM →L (bk ) = all Bi − 1 √ e ( 2πσ)nr y−Hc f (S(Bi . . · · · . s. ps ) is in F . bk ) is a vector of nt components containing the symbols corresponding to the bit set of Bi and bk . n ∈ C nr ×1 is complex white Gaussian noise with variance σ 2 per dimension.

ps ).n) means cyclic shift a square matrix to the right by a(m. ⎠ . Then we obtain the following base matrix: ⎛ ⎞ b1 ⎜ b2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ (10) B=⎜ . s. μ1 . p) (13) and code length L · N (d. We replace each a(m. j HEδ j where HEi corresponds to HMi and has p(d−μ2 )s−j block rows and N (d.n) element of E(HM ) with a k(q − 1) × k(q − 1) α-multiplied circulant permutation matrix. From Lemma 4. . 3)L = k(q − 1). Since the row weight of B is a constant number N (μ2 .n) positions. no two incidence vectors of two μ2 -ﬂats in Pi can have any “1-component” in common. . The j effective matrix HE is given by ⎛ j ⎞ HE1 ⎜ Hj ⎟ ⎜ E2 ⎟ j (14) HE = ⎜ . Each row of the β-multiplied circulant permutation matrix is the right cyclic shift of the row above it multiplied by β and the ﬁrst row is the right cyclic shift of the last row multiplied by β. the number of possible effective matrices with different rates is D = (d − μ2 )s. p) incidence matrix bi whose rows are the incidence vectors of the p(d−μ2 )s μ2 -ﬂats in Pi over the μ1 -ﬂats in EG(d. The mother matrix HM is ⎛ ⎞ H M1 ⎜ HM 2 ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ (12) HM = ⎜ .3 parallel bundles of μ2 -ﬂats. bδ with N (d. μ1 .n) of E(HM ) with a (q − 1) × (q − 1) α-multiplied circulant permutation matrix. μ1 . HM δ where HMi corresponds to bi and has p(d−μ2 )s block rows and N (d. p) block columns. Therefore. . The shift values assigning algorithm in [7] is used in this paper to prevent short cycles in the mother and effective matrices. 2)(q − 1) = kL. p) (16) and code length L · N (d. Construction of The Effective Matrices j For j = 1. P2 . p). p) and therefore concentrated check node degree distribution. μ1 . μ1 . μ1 . Check node degree distribution for the effective code will j be concentrated if all the block rows in HEi result from combining the same number of block rows of HMi . . PK .n) with a (q−1)/k×(q−1)/k β-multiplied circulant permutation matrix. HE has regular row weight pj N (μ2 . let HE be an effective matrix obtained by combining a number of block rows of HM . μ1 . the check nodes of HM have the same degree. we only need to consider the effective matrices when we assign the shift values in (11). we can combine every pj block rows in HMi to get one block j j row in HEi . the block rows in HMi do not have circulant permutation matrices in the same block column. B. . The null space of HM gives a mother code over GF (q) with design code rate rM = 1 − δp(d−μ2 )s N (d. μ1 . b2 . M ULTIPLE -R ATE N ONBINARY QC-LDPC C ODES A.where β = αk . The effective matrices will be introduced in the next subsection. . s. . We replace each ‘-1’ of E(HM ) with a (q−1)×(q−1) zero matrix and replace each a(m. ps ). . . Then. Since the effective matrices have more short cycles than the mother matrix with the row combining method. ⎠ . The μ2 -ﬂats in a parallel bundle are disjoint. the rows and columns of bi correspond to the μ2 -ﬂats in the parallel bundle Pi and the μ1 -ﬂats in EG(d. . . s. s. . s. . In this paper we consider three classes of L × L circulant permutation matrix over the nonzero elements of GF (q): 1) L = q − 1. Consequently. We replace each a(m. Lemma 4. . μ1 . ⎟ ⎝ . μ1 . D. p) columns and δp(d−μ2 )s rows. E(HMδ ) is obtained. s. ⎝ ⎠ . bδ be δ incidence matrices of P1 . It is stated in [1] that the rows that will be combined in the mother matrix should not have ‘1’s in the same column. p) block columns. . Consequently. s.n) with an L × L nonbinary circulant permutation matrix whose shift value is a(m. Note that the number of block rows of each HMi is p(d−μ2 )s . where α is the primitive element of GF (q) [8][9][10]. ⎟ ⎝ . the shift matrix ⎛ ⎞ E(HM1 ) ⎜ E(HM2 ) ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ (11) E(HM ) = ⎜ ⎟ . . . ⎟ ⎝ . 2.1. we know that in each HMi there is at most one circulant permutation matrix in each block column. Pδ for 1 < δ ≤ K. s. Let b1 . . Denote these parallel bundles of μ2 -ﬂats by P1 . Each row of the α-multiplied circulant permutation matrix is the right cyclic shift of the row above it multiplied by α and the ﬁrst row is the right cyclic shift of the last row multiplied by α. s. Therefore the rows in bi do not have ‘1’s in the same column. p).n) and replace ‘0’ element with ‘-1’. For each parallel bundle Pi form a p(d−μ2 )s × N (d. Construction of The Mother Matrix After replacing each ‘1’ entry in the m-th row and n-th column of B with a shift value a(m. IV. Proof: Since the μ2 -ﬂats in each parallel bundle Pi are disjoint (no points in common). p). P2 . where a(m. (15) The null space of HEi gives an effective code over GF (q) with design code rate rj = 1 − δp(d−μ2 )s−j N (d. ⎠ . respectively. The mother matrix is obtained by replacing each ‘-1’ element of E(HM ) with an L × L zero matrix and replacing each a(m. s.1: The block rows in HMi do not have circulant permutation matrices in the same block column. In this paper we simply call all of them the α-multiplied circulant permutation matrices.n) .

bn0 }. μ2 = 4.16e r =1/2 M 802. the decoding operations require the evaluation of all possible input symbol conﬁgurations containing the k-th bit of {b1 . Hence. the number of multiplications needed for the apriori probability calculation is reduced to (nt − 1). We construct a 8 × 16 base matrix B. respectively. Using 1 the row combining method. Example 1: Consider the Euclidean geometry EG(4.16e for the same modulation schemes. we replace each ‘0’ of B with an 49 × 49 zero matrix and replace each ‘1’ with a 49 × 49 α-multiplied circulant permutation matrix over GF (8). Let μ1 = 0. 3/4 GF(4). of Super Iterations Channel Code Rates Galois Fields Modulation schemes System throughput 2 2 25 4 Uncorrelated Rayleigh Fading 1/2. There are 2m0 nt values of S(Bi . since L = 7 × (8 − 1).5 bits/symbol BER 10 −4 1 1. of Receivers Max No. of Transmitters No. the required number of multiplications becomes ((m0 × nt − 1) + (nt × nr + 2)) × 2m0 ×nt = (nt × (m0 + nr ) + 1) × 2m0 ×nt . δ = 4 and L = 72. S IMULATION R ESULTS Now. Thus for each decoded bit. From these the simulation results of these two examples. MIMO systems coded by our proposed nonbinary LDPC codes outperform the MIMO systems coded by the binary LDPC codes given in IEEE 802. then we obtain the a 576×1152 mother matrix HM over GF (4). Simulation Results of Example 1 10 0 802. we can see that.4. We construct a 8 × 16 base matrix B. Let μ1 = 0. δ = 4 and L = 49. C OMPLEXITY A NALYSIS 1 2 3 4 5 Eb/No(dB) 6 7 8 9 Fig. The required number of additions is 2m0 ×nt + 2m0 nt −1 − 1. Consider the third class of α-multiplied circulant permutation matrix introduced in the last section. The well-known Bahl-Cocke-Jelinek-Raviv (BCJR) algorithm can be used for MAP decoding. The binary code length is 2304.4 and Fig. 2).4.16e r =1/2 M 1 802. 8PSK 2. The null space of HM and HE give 8-ary QC LDPC codes of rate rM = 1/2 and r1 = 3/4. respectively. since L = 24 × (4 − 1). 3. As shown in Fig. 2). we can replace each ‘0’ of B with an 72 × 72 zero matrix and replace each ‘1’ with a 72 × 72 αmultiplied circulant permutation matrix over GF (4). GF(8) QPSK. we get effective matrices HE of size 1 192 × 768. Again consider the third class of α-multiplied circulant permutation matrix. Furthermore. Thus the overall number of multiplications per bit is (nt (nr + 1) + 1) × 2m0 ×nt /m0 and the number of additions is 2m0 ×nt /m0 + (2m0 (nt −1) − 1)/m0 per bit. One more array multiplication .3. Example 2: Again consider the Euclidean geometry EG(4. Every group of two coded nonbinary symbols over GF (8) is mapped to a group of two 8PSK symbols and sent through two transmit antennas. The binary code length is 2352. μ2 = 4. · · · .5 3 3. 2m0 nt −1 −1 additions are needed for the summation all Bi . the same code rates and the same binary code length. bk )) 2 in (2) requires nt × nr multiplications. then we obtain the As seen from (2). BER 10 −3 10 −4 VI.16e r =3/4 proposed r =1/2 10 −1 M proposed r1=3/4 10 −2 a 392 × 784 mother matrix HM over GF (8). bk ). the variable node needs 3(dv − 1) array multiplications.5 6 Fig. we will give two examples of our proposed codes and compare them with the LDPC codes given in IEEE 802.16e. and one for carrying out the required diving. respectively. The variable node and check node architectures are shown in Fig. For a nonbinary coded system using (3). Using the row 1 combining method. we get effective matrices HE of 1 size 288×1152. One substraction is needed for ﬁnding the Euclidean distance between the received sample and each of the constellation points. of LDPC Iterations Max No.5 2 2. one multiplications for evaluating the square.5.5 4 Eb/No (dB) 4. the computation of the term y − Hc f (S(Bi .5 5 5. as well as the calculation of the a priori probability provided by the neighbouring bits.4 10 0 TABLE I S YSTEM SIMULATION PARAMETERS 802. Assume one array multiplication include q multiplications. m0 × nt − 1 multiplications are needed for calculating the term bj ∈Bi PL→M (bj ). The null space of HM and HE give 4-ary QC LDPC codes of rate rM = 1/2 and r1 = 3/4. All the simulation parameters are listed in Table 1. Every group of two coded nonbinary symbols over GF (4) is mapped to a group of two QPSK symbols and sent through two transmit antennas. Simulation Results of Example 2 V.16e r1=3/4 10 −1 proposed rM=1/2 proposed r1=3/4 10 −2 10 −3 No. for a system having nt transmitters and m0 bits per constellation symbol. 2. The number of additions used in the summation term is reduced to 2m0 nt /2m0 − 1.

1303-1308. VII. “Application of Nonbinary LDPC Cycle Codes to MIMO Channels. IEEE Std. Ding. Peng and R. For a binary LDPC coded MIMO system. the MIMO system with this code can support different data transmission rates with the same basic structure. 75-83. Wesel. pp. V. vol. The complexities of the systems given in Table [1] A. is (nt ×(nr +1)+1)×2m0 ×nt /m0 +q(3dv +1)/p and the number of additions required is 2m0 ×nt /m0 +(2m0 (nt −1) − 1)/m0 +2dv q. the number of multiplications required for decoding each bit.” IEEE Trans. Korea. 55. For the nonbinary LDPC coded MIMO system. [4] F. 2009. and R. A q-point FHT or IFHT needs q log2 q additions.” IEEE Trans. Therefore the above formulas for the number of multiplications and additions can also be used for the binary LDPC codes. no. Therefore. “Low Complexity Non-Binary LDPC and Modulation Schemes Communicating over MIMO Channels. D. Theory. Zhou.5 TABLE II C OMPLEXITY C OMPARISON Code 802.” IEEE Trans.16e r1 = 3/4 proposed code rM = 1/2 proposed code r1 = 3/4 802.” IEEE Trans. Variable Node Architecture U p1 U p2 U p3 U pc U pd c FHT FHT FHT FHT FHT Forward Backward This work was supported by World Class University R322008-000-20014-0 NRF. no. 2. ”A uniﬁed approach to the construction of binary and nonbinary quasi-cyclic LDPC codes based on ﬁnite ﬁelds. 57. Note that the binary LDPC codes is a special case of the LDPC codes over GF (q) (q=2). and KRF-2007-521-D0030. Hanzo. Fossorier “Decoding Algorithms for Nonbinary LDPC Codes Over GF (q)”. Y. dc FHTs and dc IFHTs. Xu. of additions 37 37 56 56 109 109 56 56 First Example Second Example q q L q U q I are listed in Table II.Part 16: Air Interface for Fixed and Mobile Broadband Wireless Access Systems. vol. no. Tai. Check Node Architecture with FHT and IFHT is needed to calculate U which is the output of the decoding hard decision. [8] S. 57. the number of multiplications required for decoding each bit. 1298-1311. vol. 7. Lin..2005. IEEE Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks . Los Angeles. April 2007.5. B. 4. “Codes on Finite Geometries. no. USA.16e. Therefore. IEEE Trans. vol. Lin..” Communications. S. May 2009. These codes of multiple-rate can be supported by the same decoder architecture. 84-93. pp. 5. . 57. Y. [7] Xueqin. Weng.16e 2005. pp. Commun. Dec. 26-29 September 2004. we proposed a class of multiple-rate nonbinary LDPC codes for MIMO systems.125 2 2 GF (q) GF (2) GF (2) GF (4) GF (4) GF (2) GF (2) GF (8) GF (8) Modulation Scheme QPSK QPSK QPSK QPSK 8PSK 8PSK 8PSK 8PSK No.125 2 2 3. One check node of degree dc needs 3q(dc − 2) multiplications and 2dc q log2 q additions. S. 2005.” IEEE Trans. ACKNOWLEDGMENT V p1 Vpv q U1 p q q V pd U tp q v U dp v Backward Forward Combination Fig. of multiplications 165 165 163 163 725 725 168 168 No. Guo and L.1. 6. J. Lin. in one super iteration. in one super iteration. [6] H.16e rM = 1/2 802. C ONCLUSION In this paper. Song. Inf. [9] S. June 2008. on Commu. Y. Circuits and Systems Proceedings. Jiang and Moon Ho. Abdel-Ghaffar. Wireless Communications.125 3. 4. S. Song. vol. 51. vol. Casado. J. [5] D. Declercq and M. on Commu. 16. Jan. 572-596. R.16e rM = 3/4 proposed code rM = 1/2 proposed code r1 = 3/4 Column Weight 3. Lan and L. Furthermore. on Commu. As shown in Fig.” IEEE VTC’04 (Fall). Valle. no. one variable node of degree dv needs 3qdv − 2q multiplications. 1. Lin and K. 2009. [3] 802. S. 6.” IEEE Signal Processing Lett. Feb. 25-28 June 2006. vol... the check node needs 3(dc − 2) array multiplications. vol. 2. pp. ”High performance nonbinary quasi-cyclic LDPC codes on Euclidean geometries. and K. Zeng “Algebraic Constructions of Nonbinary Quasi-Cyclic LDPC Codes. I. Abdel-Ghaffar. Y.16e rM = 1/2 802. W.. MIMO systems coded by the proposed codes have lower complexities and better performance than the systems coded by the binary LDPC codes given in IEEE 802. L. no. [10] B. Tang. Jun 2009. and Z. The number of multiplications and additions required for each decoding bit can represented as (3qdv − 2q)/p + 3q(dc − 2)/(p × dc ) ≈ q(3dv + 1)/p and 2dv q log2 q/p. Chen. “Multiple-Rate LowDensity Parity-Check Codes with Constant Blocklength. Zhou. no. R EFERENCES Conbination IFHT IFHT IFHT IFHT IFHT V1 p V2 p V3 p Vtp Vdp c Fig. is (nt × (m0 + nr ) + 1) × 2m0 ×nt + 6dv + 2 and the number of additions required is 2m0 ×nt + 2m0 nt −1 + 4dv . [2] R.125 3. Lee “Large Girth Non-binary LDPC Codes based on Euclidean Geometries and ﬁnite ﬁelds. 5. Jan. S. Tai. Kang. pp. respectively.

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