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Application of Nonbinary LDPC Codes Based on Euclidean Geometries to MIMO Systems
1 Xueqin

Jiang,

1 Yier

1 Institute

Yan,

Xia Fellow and 1 Moon Ho Lee Senior Member of Information and Communication Chonbuk National University, Korea. 2 Department of Electrical Engineering University of Delaware, USA.

1,2 Xiang-gen

Abstract—This paper ﬁrst presents an approach to the construction of non-binary low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes based on Euclidean geometries. Codes constructed by this method have multiple code rates and a constant code length. With the proposed codes, the MIMO systems can also support different data rate with the same basic structure. Simulation results show that these codes perform very well with either joint or separate MIMO detection and channel decoding. The complexity comparison shows that the nonbinary coded MIMO systems have lower complexity at the receiver side. Index Terms—LDPC, Euclidean geometry, MIMO, FFT, FHT.

the base matrix based on ﬂats of two different dimensions in Euclidean geometries. The method to get the mother and effective matrices of multiple-rate is introduced in Section IV. Examples and their simulations are given in Section V. The complexity analysis is presented in Section VI. Finally, section VII concludes the paper. II. S YSTEM M ODEL Fig.1 shows a block diagram of the nonbinary LDPC coded MIMO system. At the transmitter side, a sequence of information bits is mapped to a sequence of nonbinary symbols through a bit-to-symbol mapper. Let nt denote the number of transmit antennas. At the output of the LDPC encoder, every group of n0 coded nonbinary symbols S = {s1 , · · · , sn0 } ∈ GF (q) is mapped to a group of nt constellation symbols x = (x1 , · · · , xnt ) = f (S) through the mapper f (S). Given the constellation size 2m0 , we have p · n0 = nt · m0 , where p = log2 q. The sequence of constellation symbols is sent through the nt transmit antennas. The receiver performs optimal maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) detection to compute the prior probabilities for each group of nt transmitted constellation symbols. These prior probabilities will then be passed to the LDPC decoder for iterative decoding. When n0 = 1, the MAP detector produces prior probabilities for each symbol which can be used directly for nonbinary LDPC decoding. Hence, it is sufﬁcient to perform MIMO detection only once followed by channel decoding. This corresponds to SDD system that performs separate detection and decoding. When n0 > 1, the prior probabilities of the group of n0 nonbinary symbols are dependent because they are mapped to complex symbols that are transmitted simultaneously. Then it is necessary to pass soft information about the dependent symbols from the LDPC decoder back to the MAP detector to produce updated symbol-wise probabilities. This corresponds to a JDD system that performs joint detection and decoding. When q = 2, the block diagram shown in Fig.1 becomes a binary LDPC coded MIMO system. A sequence of information bits is directly passed to a binary LDPC encoder. At the output of the binary LDPC encoder, every group of n0 coded binary bits S = {b1 , · · · , bn0 } ∈ GF (2) is mapped to a group of nt constellation symbols x = (x1 , · · · , xt ) = f (S). Given the constellation size 2m0 , we have n0 = nt ·m0 . It is obvious that for an MIMO system, nt > 1, the SDD system is impossible for binary LDPC codes.

I. I NTRODUCTION Communication systems often need to work at different data transmission rates, which can be achieved by using different modulation schemes and/or multiple-rate codes. To keep the implementation as simple as possible, the same basic decoder architecture should be able to decode the codes with different code rates. The idea that higher rate quasi-cyclic (QC) effective low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes can be generated from a lower rate QC mother LDPC code by row combining in its parity check matrix was proposed in [1]. The main issue that have to be considered in the construction of the mother matrix and the effective matrices is that the rows that will be combined in the mother matrix do not have nonzero elements in the same column. Codes of this family support different rates while maintaining the same fundamental decoder architecture. The main contributions of this paper are summarized as: 1) We introduce an approach to the construction of multiple-rate nonbinery QC LDPC codes for the multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) systems. Furthermore, we examine the performance of the proposed nonbinary LDPC codes for MIMO systems that employ either joint detection and decoding (JDD) or separate detection and decoding (SDD) [2] and compare them to the performance of the binary LDPC coded MIMO system in which the binary LDPC codes are from the IEEE standard 802.16e [3]. 2) We analysis the complexities of the binary and nonbinary LDPC coded MIMO systems. The proposed nonbinary LDPC MIMO system has lower complexity compared to the binary LDPC MIMO system in which the binary LDPC codes are from the IEEE standard 802.16e. This paper is organized as follows. In Section II, we introduce the system model. Section III explains how to construct