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39

African Religions A Bibliography

By

Wayne Parris

40

AFRICANUS, LEO.

1896 History and Description of Africa Done Into English by John Pory. 3 Vols. London: Hakluyt Society. 1954 Africa Today. New York: American Committee on Africa, Inc. General African history and recent socioeconomic and political matters.

ANDERSSON, EFRAIM.

1958 Messianic Popular Movements in the Lower Congo. Uppsala: Studia Ethnographia Upsalensia, 14. 287 p. Study of nativistic movements in the Lower Congo areas. 1959 Religious Behavior. Glencoe: The Free Press. 196 p. General study of psychological elements in religion. 1961 A History of the Sudan. London : The Athlone Press. 225 p N.d. "Canes in the Tenth Century." From A History of Dafur in Sudan Notes and Records. Vol. XXXII, part ii, p. 225. Cited in Oliver, Roland and Oliver, Carolina, (ads.) Africa in the Days of Exploration. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 151 p. 1956 "An Independent African Church in Sierra Leone." Hibbert Journal, OV, 216. pp. 57-63. Discussion of religious acculturation and nativistic movements. 1957 West African City: A Study of Tribal Life in Freetown. London: Oxford University Press. 228 p. Study of the social characteristics of the acculturation of persons from tribal societies living in an urban center, including religious acculturation and nativistic movements. 1941 "Acculturation and Messianic Movements." American Sociological Review, 6, pp. 663-69. Reprinted in Reader in Comparative Religion, Lessa and Vogt, (ads). 1965. New York: Harper and Row. pp. 506-09. Study of acculturation and nativistic movements. 1857 Travels and Discoveries in Northern and Central Africa. 3 Vols. London: Frank Cass & Sons, Ltd. 1944 "The Sociological Role of the Yoruba Cult Group." AAA Memoirs, 63. Discussion of the social roles of kinship groups and religious societies, including secret societies. 1959 Continuity and Change in African Cultures. Chicago : University of Chicago Press. 299 p. Articles by a number of authorities on factors of culture change including religious acculturation. 1921 Among the Ibos of Nigeria. New York: Barnes and Noble.

ARGYLE, MICHAEL.

ARKELL, A. J.

ARKELL, A. J.

BANTON, MICHAEL.

BANTON, MICHAEL.

BARBER, BERNARD.

BARTH, HEINRICH.

BASCOM, WILLIAM R.

BASCOM, WILLIAM R. AND M. J. HERSKOVITS (ADS) BASDEN, G. T.

Gibb.R. 1929 Travels in Asia and Africa. religion. Origins of religion. pp. London: Oxford University Press. London. and Culture.). acculturation. Cambridge University Press. FRANZ BOAS. No.) BOVILL. DOUGLAS BOVILL. MUHAMMED. P. Discussion and analysis of leadership roles in a religious context. BIVAR. 2 Vols. and Winston. New York: Holt# Rinehart and BEATTIE.) London: 1959 The Mugwe." Journal of African History. Cited in Hodgkin. including acculturation. 78.d. pp. General ethnography. Thomas. Rinehart. E. III. A. 1960 Bunyoro. E. by A. 1961 "The Wathiquest Ahl A1-Sudan: A Manifesto of the Fulani Jihad. 2. 647 p. General ethnography of the lbo." Journal of African History. JOHN BELLO. A. IBN(1304-68) BAXTER. 1961 Missions to the Niger. social structure. H. No. CCTA. 58 p Kingdom. 242 p. 1959 Archival Facilities in Sub-Saharan Africa. New York: Macmillan Co. 1963 The Mind of Primitive Plan. including a study of religion. Cambridge: The University 1966 Press for the Hakluyt Society. Vol. 1961 The Golden Trade of the Moors. London. BERNARDO B IVAR. London: Oxford University .E. General analysis of African history. 211 p. ADU 1962 "The Caravan Trade in the Nineteenth Century. A Failing Prophet. 158 p. 249 p. 235-43. Hodder and Stoughton. BOAS. 1965 An African Winston. W. 1961 The Knights of Bornu." Journal of African History. 2. BERNARDI. W. London. including a discussion of the religion. 349-59.A. SHINNIE BOAHEN. The psychology of religion in a primitive context. Whitting (ed. Schultze. No. BENTON. 325 p. W. 1913 The Sultanate of Bornu. A. New Yorks Holt. 83 p. II. Translated by H. T. Language. D. H. 1964 Africa and Africans. Vol. economics. (Translation of a monograph Des Sultanat von Bornu. 4 Vols. C. FRANZ. Garden Citys The Natural History Press. JOHN. Infaq-Al-Mansur. CSA Pub. Nigerian Perspectives. BOHANNON.41 321 p. ®. New York: The Free Press. n. BEATTIE. Oxford University Press. L. BATTUTA." Race. A. 1940 "Origin of Totemism. 1-10. Val. 1962 "Old Kanuri Capitols. pp. PAUL ROTTING. (ED. etc.J. III. 1. AND P.

S. 340 p. pp. R. pp 622-30. J. 158 p. 1909 Historical Notes on Certain Emirates and Tribes in Northern Nigeria. G. 1958 Marriage and the Family Among the Plateau Tonga of Northern Rhodesia. Routledge. 269 p. 2. Manchester University Press. BRIGGS. J. Ltd. The relation of the clan and totemism to primitive religion. pp. 1960 Tribes of the Sahara. New York: Harper and Row. C. 21-68." American Anthropologist. 321-28. COLSON. GLADWYN MURRAY. CHILDS. 112 p. Part I (1954). pp. 1949 Umbundu Kinship and Character. 1955 "Current Political Movements in Africa. 1914 "The Definition of Totemism.). Reprinted in Reader in Comparative Religion. CANNON. Rinehart and Winston. A. 251 p. General ethnography. London: Oxford University Press. 1942 "The Voodoo Death. SONIA." Journal of African History. A. CARDINALL." Africa Today (1959). XLVII. BURDON. III. 1920 The Natives of the Northern Territories of the Gold Coast. Lessa and Vogt (eds. RONALD COLE. No. J. BURNS. ELIZABETH. Analysisof acculturation and culture change in a political context. 1967 The Kanuri of Bornu. Vol. Lassa and Vogt (eds." Anthropos. pp. 1959 "The Role of Christianity and Islam in Contemporary Africa. New Yorks Mentor Books. CCXCVIII. . 1954 "Ancestral Spirits and the Social Structure Among the Plateau Tonga. London: G. COLEMAN. ALLAN V1. Londons 1942 History of Nigeria. The relationship of beliefs regarding ancestral spirits to the social structure of the society." Annals of the American Academy of Science. 1963 The Prehistory of East Africa. 90-113. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 437-41.42 press. 211-28. W. 16981. Psychological elements in witchcraft and sorcery. DESMOND.) 1965. Vol. CARPENTER. 245 p. CLARK. COLSON. COHEN.presenting role of nativistic movements. LLOYD C. Nativistic movements. A. Abridged reprint in Reader in Comparative Religion. 95-108." International Archives of Ethnography. pp. pp. 44. London: George Allen and Unwin. 379 p. W. B. New York: Holt. IX. pp. Ethnography of the Tonga which analyzes social structures and BROWN. 308 p. ELIZABETH. New Yorks Harper and Row. General ethnography of an Angola tribal group social structure and related religious elements 1962 "The Spread of Food Production in Sub-Saharan Africa.

ELIZABETH. sacrifice. London: Oxford University Press. J. 1932 "The Zande Corporation of Witchdoctors. 1964 Life and Thought in the Ancient World. 1964 The African Past.43 relationships. COLSON.Swain). New York: Free Press Paperback. including four chapters (10-13) dealing with religion. Denver : Allan Swallow. 409 p. including important political figures. EMILE. MAX GLUCKMAN. animism. EASTWOOD. 237 p. New York: Oxford University Press. MICHAEL 1966 A Short History of Nigeria. 63-100. CROWDER. Compendium of materials on religious themes: origins of religion. New York: Frederick A. totemism. ELLIS. 1959 The Lost Cities of Africa. A. MARY MANDELBAUM. General ethnography by of the tribal society. BASIL. E. 1957 The Chiga of Western Uganda. 135 p. London: Oxford University Press. 63 (1933) pp. 200 p. Classical sociological study of religion presenting the hypothesis that religion originated in totemic group experiences. 371 p. Statements and essays regarding religious acculturation by a number of Africans. W. COLSON. magic. 234 p. Manchester: Manchester University Press. DAVIDSON. 496 p. 337 p. General ethnography of a tribal society 1887 The Tshi-speaking Peoples of the Gold Coast of Africa. DAVIDSON. CYRIL EDEL. MARY. 1915 Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. including a number of religious elements. Emphasis on elements of social control in tribal religion. 1960 Social Organization of the Gwembe Tonga. COLSON. 313 p. 1962 Christianity in Africa as Seen by Africans. 1951 Seven Tribes of British Central Africa. 1963 The Lele of the Kasai. 343 p. monotheism. C. New York: Grossett and Dunlap. B. EVANS-PRITCHARD. RAM DOUGLAS. ELIZABETH. Praegen. Boston: Little. Philadelphia: The Westminister Press. General ethnology. 1966 A History of West Africa. pp. (Trans. BASIL. Brown and Co. DESAI. . E. Garden City: Anchor Books. A general ethnography written during the early days of colonial administration. immortality. BASIL. 291-336. ELIZABETH AND DR. DAVIDSON. Landon: Chapman and Hall Ltd. 314 p. 286 p. 1962 The Plateau Tonga: Social and Religious Studies. DURKHEIM. etc. 187 p." Journal 1933 Royal Anthropological Institute 62 (1932). Manchester: Manchester University Press.

FELDMANN. 38 (1936). General study of African mythology and folklore. 335 p. New Yorks Dell Publishing Company. sorcery and magic in a tribal society. Themes on religious philosophy and ideology. 1940 African Political Systems. FORTES. 1954 African Worlds: Studies in the Cosmological Ideas and Social Values of African Peoples." Africa. 1949 The Web of Kinship Among the Tallensi. JAMES G. FRAZER. 8. 1955 Peoples of the Niger Benue Confluence. 107 p. General ethnography of a Sudanese pastoral society. E. EVANS-PRITCHARD. 1954 The Institutions of Primitive Society. 1959 Oedipus and Job in West African Religion. DARYLL. E. E. E. EVANS-PRITCHARD. E. 419-42. 283 p. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. etc.44 EVANS-PRITCHARD. N. London’s Oxford University Press. 590 -604. E. MEYER. Ideology and techniques of witchcraft. Oracles and Magic Among the Azande. 672 p. SUSAN FORDE. DARYLL (ED) FORCE. New York: Oxford University Press. Oxfords Clarendon Press. The Worship of Nature. Social functions of ritual festivals. EVANS-PRITCHARD. Concepts of witchcraft. E. EVANS-PRITCHARD. 1940 The Nuer. 1936 "Ritual Festivals and Social Cohesion in the Hinterland of the Gold Coast. 1963 African Myths and Tales. especially their religious concepts and traits such as sacrifice. EVANS-PRITCHARD. 1956 Nuer Religion. MAYER. General ethnography of several tribal societies in Central Nigeria. Glencoe: The Free Press. E. 35• p. Analysis of social and political structures in primitive society. especially in the context of African tribal societies. (1935). 1964 Yako Studies. 313 p. FORTES. MAYER." American Anthropologist. Ethnography of an Eastern Nigerian tribal society with three chapters (7-9) on religion. Oxfords Clarendon Press. FORTES. including the role of religion in these structures. 1935 "Witchcraft. Psychoanalytic approach to the dynamics of primitive religion with the concept that the individual does not understand the reasons for his behavior in witchcraft. Witchcraft. 266 p. Specialized study of the Nuer. London: International African Institute. AND E. 152 p. 243 p. MEYER.d. 558 p. pp.. E. 301 p. E. London: Oxford University Press. pp. New York: Macmillan Co. Study of social structures and religious roles in Trans-Volta. . sorcery. Essays on African social structures by a number of authorities. E. FORTES. Oxfords The Clarendon Press. London’s Oxford University Press. DARYLL (ED) FORDE. 81 p. etc.

1959 Shona Ritual. FREUND. J. Australia. JAMES G. GREEN. Fictional biography of a half-caste African nurse describing the acculturation and religious problems of a marginal person.. and its spread into Asia. 145 p. Augustin. Nostrand Co. and Winston. W. Oxfords Blackwell. 1951 Religion Among the Primitives. Property. S. 1958 The United States of Africa. Inc. 244 p. MARGARET M. Melanesia. GORER. 1955 Mohammedanism: A Historical Survey. New York: Mentor Books. Stanford. New York: American Assembly. P.304 p. 206 p. GIBBS. . 582 p. Sociological analysis of religion in West Africa. One volume abridged edition. Ethnographic account of religion and cults of healing. Polynesia. 1962 Africa Dances. GOODY. Funereal and mortuary customs of primitive peoples. 250 p. Classic encyclopedic study of magic and religion. GLUCKMAN. 1946 The Influence of Islam on A Sudanese Religion. Travelogue presenting philosophy of African art forms and some religious implications in them.245 p.. 73 p. PHILIP GARNIER. 1962 Death. and the Ancestors. 258 p. Columbia University. WALTER (ED. Social structure of a village in Eastern Nigeria including religion and rituals. New York’s Washington Square Press. (Trans. Judaism. Europe and Africa. Religious acculturation among GEFLAND. JOSEPH. Ethnographic studies of fifteen African societies made by authorities in each field. H. Naomi Walford) New York s G. 1955 Custom and Conflict in Africa. Capetowns Juta and Co. 262 p. New York’s W. A. New Yorks Hdt. New York: Macmillan Co. 452 p.45 Discussion with African examples of religious philosophies arising from nature worship. Study of the origins of Islam in animism. GEOFFREY. and Southwestern U. W. California’s Stanford University Press. Rinehart. Ltd. Inc. Psychoanalytic approach to the creation myths of the world. Ltd. MAY GOLDSCHMIDT. 173 p. Inc. Putnam's Sons. R. J. and Christianity. MICHAEL GIBB. and witchcraft. Glencoe& The Free Press. 1965 Peoples of Africa. JOHN R. 1965 myths of Creation. New York: J. CHRISTINE 1952 Fetish. 714 p. 1949 The Golden Bough. JAMES L. 1964 Igbo Village Affairs. London: Frank Cass and Co. FRAZER.) GODDE. GREENBERG.

etc. ROBIN. New York: Harper and Row. HERSKOVITS. HAUKAL. rituals. 1958 The Planting of Christianity in Africa. Vol. VII. 1938 Dahomey. Lessa and Vogt (eds. AND FRANCES HERSKOVITS." American Anthropological Association Memoirs No. IBN (TENTH CENTURY). Putnam's Sons. London. 1957 "Possession 'Hysteria' in a Kenya Tribe. ancestral cults. R. General ethnology of a South African tribal society. pp. Acculturation and nativistic movements. 538 p. Translation by de Slane in Jornal Asiatique. Relationship of magic and religion to healing in a Liberian tribal society. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. No. 635 -43." Journal of African History. Vol. GEORGE W. Ouseley. London’s Lutterworth Press. MELVILLE J. 1959 “Anthropology and Africa." American Anthropologist. I. pp. New York: G. HERSKOVITS. H. GRIMAL. XXXIX.) 1965." American Anthropologist 59 (1957). 1. MELVILLE J. HARLEY. 1933 "An Outline of Danomean Religious Belief. Augustin. GROVES. London: Oxford University Press. Putnam's Sons. 3." Africa. XXXIX (1937). GREENBERG. deities. 2 Vols. R. 1941 Native African Medicine. HALLAM. pp.46 Hausa-speaking people of Northern Nigeria. Various factors in religious acculturation. HAYS. 1966 “The Bayajida Legend in Hausa Folklore. C. 398 p. HAUKAL. 225-37. K. 1842 Description de 1'Afrique. 1937 "African Gods and Catholic Saints in New World Religious Belief. 294 p. Encyclopedia of world religions. 1963 In the Beginning. 1962 Bhaca Society. GRACE. 325 p. New York: G. 41. Paris. Comprehensive study covering religious philosophy and ideology. 1046-66. 645 p. JOSEPH H. 180 p. . 1800 The Oriental Geography. Translated by W. P. 1963 Languages of Africa. HAMMOND-TOOKE. New Yorks J. The Hagues Mouton & Co. Larousse World Mythology. Reprinted in Reader in Comparative Religion. pp. W. including nativistic movements.D. 1965 The Penetration of Africa. Ethnographic study of this area of West Africa. HERSKOVITS. MELVILLE J. HALLETT. Pierre. HARRIS. P. MELVILLE J. W. J. 47-60. 4 Vols. London: Routledge and Kezan. Comprehensive study of religious acculturation in Africa. HERSKOVITS. Place of ritual in the psychological aspects of religion. P. Extensive study of theories of the origins of religion and of its development in prehistoric and historic times. With Special Reference to Its Practice in the Mano Tribe of Liberia. magic. IBN. Ltd. A Wider Perspective. belief in spirits.

AND A. 1948 The Heathens. 267 p. ed. Collection of folk tales. 1951 Bantu Folklore Tales of Long Ago. W. London: Oxford University Press. 1963 myth and Cult Among Primitive Peoples. H. Dozy. pp. AL (C. W. 1100-66). A. Witherby. HOGBEN. 1960 Nigerian Perspectives. 107 p. HOYT. 368 p. Wichita: Day's Print Shop. 1938 Bantu beliefs and Magic. F. HOPEN. Paperback. Characteristics of the Fulani family. London: H. including religious and moral stories. ADOLF . 1866 Description de I" Afrique et de 1" Espagne. Place of magic in the tribal healing practices. Translated by R. ALTA HOWARD HUNTIGFORD. Leyden. Recent analysis of underlying dynamics of African culture. JANHEINZ. Bantu practices of sacrifice. Philosophy and ideology of religion. from Bantu peoples of Kenya. and witchcraft. 1956 Nationalism in Colonial Africa. Place of nativistic cults in the rise of nationalism in Africa. J. London: George Routledge and Sons. 103 p. HODGKIN. HODGKIN. No. 283 p. THOMAS L. THOMAS L. London: Oxford HODGKIN. 585 p. I. especially culture change process." The Bantu-speaking Tribes of South Africa. and funeral customs. R. London: Oxford University Press. 2. 1966 The Emirates of University Press. W. THOMAS L. W. including religion. Washington Squares New York University Press. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. JENSEN. Effects of religious ideology on village social structure. Nature of mana. 165 p. 169 p.47 HOBLEY." In Roland Oliver's (ed) Dawn of African History. tabu. 1958 Muta. magic. totem. General ethnography of Kenya tribal society. 1937 "Magic and medicine. HORTON. B. New York: Grove Press. KIRK-GREENE. JAHN. HOWELLS. THOMAS L. New York: Doubleday and Co. HODGKIN. shamanism. London: Oxford University Press. and the Land in a Northern Ibo Village Group. C. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. III. EDWARD 1958 The Pastoral Fulbe Family in Gwandu. Schapera. HORNLE. 17-28." Africa XXUI. W. M. W. 1961 "Kingdoms of the Western Sudan. 349 p. pp. and G. Man. 323-27. C. 1956 "God. Northern Nigeria. 216 p. 328 p." Journal of African History. divination. 1962 “Islam and National Movements in West Africa. magic and oaths. ghosts. Ltd. IDRISI. G. Vol. 1953 The Nadi of Kenya. S. Ltd. G.

1947 An African Aristocracy: Rank Among the Swazi. etc. D. IBN (1332-1406). Green and Co. New York: Holt. 1965 743 p.. Nigerian Perspectives. 1867 Myth. London: Oxford University Press. 312 p 1898 The Making of Religion. and Winston. PHYLLIS. New York: Humanities Press. HENRI A. Londont Longmans and Green. 251 p. New Yorks Henry Holt and Co. KRIGE KUPER. Early description of primitive societies. MARY KRIGE. pp. 3 Vol. esp. Lang's concepts of origins of religion. New York: Barnes and Noble. 380 p. New York and London: Routledge and Kegmi Paul. London: Macmillan and Co. Delafosse. JUDOD. KHALDUN. Ritual. Translated and edited by 0.48 JOHNSTON. H. and Religion. 2 Vols. 84 p. General ethnography. 1961 “Peoples and Kingdoms of the Central Sudan. D. LANG. London: Oxford University Press. KINGSLEY. J. 254 p. Comprehensive ethnography of a South African tribal society. London: Oxford Univ. 1927 The Life of a South African Tribe. ANDREW. T. Houdas and M. KUPER. with many traits common to all primitive women. Paris: 1925. HILDA. HILDA. AND 1943 The Realm of a Rain Queen. 507 . 1897 Travels in West Africa. Rinehart. Study of mythology. Study of social structure. 1911 The Opening Up of Africa. London: Oxford University Press. more analytic sequel to above book. Paris. KATI. ritual and other religious features of primitive and higher cultures. 103 p. Cited in Hodgkin. General ethnography with analysis of social structure. H. place of ancestor worship. 1950 Aboriginal Woman. 1960 "Kanem-Bornu and the Hasfids. cult roles. Trans. JONES." In Roland Oliver's (ad) The Dawn of African History. LANG. the theory of high gods in primitive religions. MAHMUD (1468-1593 OR 1543). IBN KINGSLEY." Histoire des Beberes. including religious practices. Ltd. 380 p. Translated by Franz Rosenthal. 294 p. 2 Vols. KHALDUN. KABERRY. . Classic study of aboriginal Australian women. Leroux. Sacred and Profane. New York: Barnes and Noble. 1958 The Moqaddimah: An Introduction to History. H. 1887 Custom and Myth. 335 p. 1964 The Swazi. E. SIR. ANDREW. 74 -75. 1913 Tarikh al Fattash. Ltd. LANG. MARY. London: Longmans and Green. 1899 West African Studies. Press. London: Longmans. ANDREW. M1. de Slang.

J. pp. VITTORIO. Uppsala: Appelbergs Boktryckeri Aktiebolag. New York: Vintage Books. and Pathology.A. LEVY-BRUHL. 230-40.. 458 p." American Anthropologist 45 (1943). Religious cult characteristics of Dinka cattle-herding. London: Methuen and Co. showing acculturation problems arising from relations to Europeans and rise of nativistic movement. 114 p. HERBERT S. Nine selections from various world areas. dreams. 1960 Anthropology of Folk Religion. General ethnography of an Ethiopian tribe. 448 p. pp. 1954 African Leopard Men. religious elements.C. 1959 "Gusii Sex Offenses: a Study in Social Control. L. Psychoanalytic approach. CHARLES (ED. 1952 Sex.49 LANTERNARI. LEVINE. LEWIS. ROBERT LEVINE. ads. Ltd. Role of religious elements in social control." American Anthropologist 61:6. 607 p. 148 p. 280 p. New Yorks Harper and Row. 328 p. Oxford: Clarendon Press. LESLIE. M. 142-47. VOGT. GODFREY.J. 343 p. 1952 Mau Mau and the Kikuyu. (ED) 1966 Islam in Tropical Africa. GERHARD. 1961 Divinity and Experience. divination. No. RALPH. 460 p. LEAKEY. West African murder cults. 1963 The Religions of the Oppressed.F.) LESSA. 347 p. 3. LAUBSCHER. psychopathologies. ROBERT LEVY-BRUHL. S. BIRGER LINTON." Natural History LXVII. General ethnology of a society undergoing acculturation and change. 629 p. LAWRAANCE. London: Macgibbon and Kee. pp. LINDSKOG. 1943 “Nativistic Movements. London: Oxford University Press. LINDBLOM." 1965 A Galla Monarchy. 219 p. 1965 Reader in Comparative Religion. 351 p. LIENHARDT. the leopard men. Reprinted in Reader in Comparative Religion. Custom. WILLIAM AND EVAN Z. B. etc. General ethnography. 1958 “Omoriori: Smeller of Witches. 1966 The 'Soul' of the Primitive. LEWIS. asp. Uppsala: Almqvist and Wiksells. New York: The Humanities Press. NewYork: Harper and Row. New York’s Frederick Praeger. LUCIEN. LUCIEN. Religious cults arising in oppressed peoples such as nativistic movements.D. Primitive concept of "self" and "soul. Religious elements. . pp. arising from primitive religions. 1923 Primitive Mentality. New York: Macmillan Co. Lessa and Vogt.I. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. B. 1920 The Akamba. 965-90. Primitive psychology. London: Oxford University Press for T. 1957 The Itescu. I.

1952 Primitive Religion. 278 p. Pictorial ethnography of African cultures. 224 p. Science and Religion. General. 2 (1950). les Civilisations Noire. 320 p. tabo. 215-33. London: Routledge and Kagan Paul.. No.MANDOUR MALINOWSKI. 100-12. M. 1951 The Mende of Sierra Leone. BRONILAW. 274 p. Essays on the dynamics of primitive religions and myth in the context of subsistence bases. London:Oxford University Press.L. Religion. MACMICHAEL. ROBERT LUGARD. DONALD A. the Myths of the Creation." Africa. LITTLE. Ltd. MARETT. MARWICK. 1957 Religion and Society in Buganda 18751900. London s Methuen and Co. 307 p.. 363 p. 151 p. especially agriculture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. MARWICK. LEOPOLD. General ethnography of a West African tribe 1963 Alpha. LADY LYSTAD. 1964 A Tropical Dependency. pp. New York : Doubleday Anchor Books. 500 p. Kinship bonds and other social structures in the context of religion and witchcraft. 212 p. Ltd. MINUET. Vol. LOW. General ethnography." Africa. A. CHARLES H. Geneve: de Roto-Sadag. H. A. 1954 Magic. London: Frank Cass and Co. myth. 285 p. LOWIE. 1940 The Swazi. : Rutgers University Press. 16 p. 1952 Peoples and Policies of South Africa. etc. Religious acculturation. Kampala. 1922 The History of the Arabs in the Sudan. Political movements of South Africa in the context of nativistic movements. F. Psychological and social bases of primitive religious practices. New York: George Braziller. KENNETH L. Rev. Acculturation processes arising from contact with Islam and Christianity.. London: Oxford University Press. MARWICK. Ungandas East African Institute of Social Research. LONG.' 1952 “The Social Context of Cewa Witchcraft Beliefs. 264 p. animatism. 1962 Afrique. Nativistic movements and religious acculturation. pp. 22 (1952). J.50 499506. nativistic movements and healing cults. 1965 A Short History of the Sudan. 20. Ed. ROBERT. ethnography. B. A Proud People. 1958 The Ashanti. 120-35. New Yorks Grosset and Dunlap Paperback. MAHDI. M. 1950 "Another Modern Anti-witchcraft Movement in East Central Africa. G. New Brunswick. G. N. 1914 The Threshold of Religion. JACQUES J. . ROBERT R. MARQUARD.

1958 The Akan of Ghana. 1950 Tribal Studies in Northern Nigeria. JR.F. NADEL. JOHN AND DAVID TAIT MIDDLETON. Nativistic movements and religious acculturation. 149 p. Ltd. C. S. 1956 The Yao Village. London: Oxford University Press. Cults of East African Lugbara. General ethnography 1958 Tribes Without Rulers. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. K. 235 p. London: Faber and Faber. 229 p. MESSENGER. London: Faber and Faber. eds. R. 222 p. ODEN. 2 Vol. 92 p. EVA L. New York: McGraw-Hill. London: Oxford University Press. Manchester: Manchester University Press. 245 p. MEYEROWITZ. C. Rinehart and Winston. H. MEYEROWITZ. 355 p. 276 p. 2 Vols.51 MEEK. 1951 The Sacred State of the Akan. Origin of Akan myths. Bascom and Herskovits. K. Allah.) MITCHELL. R. 1962 God. More recent ethnography with study of religious cults. MEEK." Journal of MEYEROWITZ. 1942 A Black Byzantium. 1963 Witchcraft and Sorcery in East Africa. GEORGE PETER. 1959 “Religious Acculturation Among the Anang Ibibio. ethnography of a Gold Coast society (Ghana). 1960 Lugbara Religion. 1959 African: Its Peoples and Their Culture History. Conflicts and adjustments made by Islam and Christianity with animism in the emerging African nations. JOHN MIDDLETON. MENDELSOHN. 1925 The Northern Tribes of Nigeria. JOHN C. New York: The Humanities Press. S. 1952 Akan Traditions of Origin. General ethnography of the Nupe of Nigeria.F. London: Faber and Faber. 1965 The Lugbara of Uganda. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. R. 401 p. EVA L. Boston: Beacon Press. 1937 Law and Authority in a Nigerian Tribe. pp.Ltd. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. London: Oxford University Press. MEEKER. Social structure of a Nyasaland tribal society. MEEK. . 302 p. 1954 Report on Africa. 279-99. 164 p. NADEL. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. 420p. K. New York: Holt. WINTER (EDS. Ethno-history. 1946 “Study of Shamanism in the Nuba Mountains. Ltd. MIDDLETON. C. MURDOCK. JACK. Gen. EVA L. Ltd. JOHN AND E. Witchcraft and sorcery ideologies and techniques. and Ju Ju. Oxford University Press. London. Social control and tribal law. JOHN MIDDLETON." Continuity and Change in African Culture. 421 p. JAMES CLYDE.

527 p. 1966 A Short History of Africa. EDWARD. Memoirs 1926 History of the First Twelve Years of the Reign of Mai Idris Alooma of Bornu (1571-1583) by His Imam Ahmed ibn Fartua. 288 p. S. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall. A Number of ethnographic studies by several authors. 58-98. LXXVI (1946). 18-29. Together with the Diwan of the Sultans of Bornu and Girgarn of the Magumi.) PALMER. 25q7. p." Journal of The Royal Anthropological Institute. New York: Barnes and Noble. pp. and acculturation. healing practices. FAGE OLIVER. Glencoe: The Free Press. New York: Harper and Bros. NADEL. PALMER. NADEL. H. F. 368 et seq. H. 257 p. Lagos: 1928 Sudanese Memoirs. sorcery. Comparison of ideology. PALMER. S. General survey. F. 38. 54 (1952). (TRANS. Baltimore: Penguin Books. 1952 “Witchcraft in Four African Societies: An Essay in Comparison. F. 661-79. OLIVER. OTTENBERG. eds. PARRINDER. R. New York: Random House. Baltimore: Penguin Books. ORR. PALMER. Study of ideology. 1908 "The Kano Chronicle. NADEL. Inc. Also in Vol. NORBECK. SIR RICHMOND." 1929 Journal of the African Society. 280 p. along with sex roles. F. London: Oxford University Press. SIR CHARLES. 286 p. R. rituals. GEOFFREY. pp. D. 1955 “Two Nuba Religions: Essay in Comparison. ritual. 464-479. PALMER. 223 p. 1947 The Nube. SIMON AND PHOEBE OTTENBERG. Lessa and Vogt. HERBERT RICHMOND." American Anthropologist. 208 p.52 the Royal Anthropological Institute. Reprinted in Reader in Comparative Religion. . London: John Murray. 564 p. ROLAND AND J. Comparison of witchcraft and sorcery. 3 Vols. PARRINDER. Sudanese. 1965 Africa in the Days of Exploration. 1936 The Bornu Sahara and Sudan. pp. Inc. 1961 West African Religion. ROLAND AND CAROLINE OLIVER. 151 p. III. S. etc. 1958 Witchcraft. pp. pp." American Anthropologist. S. witchcraft. D. 1965 The Making of Northern Nigeria. 1961 Religion in Primitive Society. General ethnography of a Sudanese tribal society. London: Epworth Press. 280 p. New York: Harper and Row. 1954 Nupe Religion. 1928-29. Lagos: 1928 "The Central Shar and Sudan in the Twelth Century A. R. H. 57 (1955). 1960 Cultures and Societies of Africa. NADEL.

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Congo Area: Evans-Pritchard (1932-33. M. (1952) Middleton and Tait (1958) Mitchell (1956) Wilson (1951. 1958. G. Western Sudan: Fortes (1949) Fortes and Evans-Pritchard (1940) Hopen (1958) Radcliffe Brown et al (1950) Smith. sorcery. total Africa: Gorer (1962) Myth. M. etc. magic and divination. Guinea Coast: Meyerowitz (1952) Rattray (1927) Myth. Guinea Coasts Horton (1956) Meek (1937) Cults. and divination. sorcery. Congo Area: Colson (1954) Turner (1962) Social structures and roles. 1937) Richards (1935. lore. art. Western Sudan: Nadel (1946. ritual„ sacrifice. sorcery. 1956) Turner (1964) Witchcraft. lore. generals Smith (1956) Social structures and roles. sacrifices etc. total Africa: Evans-Pritchard (1935) Fortes (1959) Witchcraft. East Africa Cattle Area: Hoyt (1951 ) . magic and divination. art and dance. lore. total Africas Gorer (1962) Myth. magic and divination. Sorcery. sorcery. magic and divination. Guinea Coasts Harley (1941) Nadel (1954) Shelton (1965) Witchcraft. 1960. art and dance. ritual. 1957) Myth. maagic. and dance.. East Africa CattleArea: Hobley (1938) Hornle (1937 LeVine (1958) Marwick (1952) Middleton (1963) Ramponi (1937) Schapera (1950) Social structures and roles. 1952) Witchcraft.61 Cults. 1962) Gluckman (1955) Kuper (1947) LeVine (1959) Marwick. East African Cattle Areas Gefland (1959) Harris (1957) Middleton (1960) Witchcraft. (1961) Social structures and roles. East Africa Cattle Areas Colson (1954. art and dance. lore.

East Africa Cattle Areas: Bernardi (1959) Carpenter (1959) Leakey (1952) Low (1957) Marquard (1952) Marwick (1950) Sachs (1947) Schapera (1954) Shepperson (1954.62 Acculturation and nativistic movements.. 1962) Acculturation and nativistic movements. Western Sudan: Greenberg (1946) Trimingham (1949. Congo Area: Andersson (1958) Garnier (1952) Watson (1958) Acculturation and nativistic movements. Guinea Coast: Banton (1956. 1959. East Horn: Trimingham (1952) Acculturation and nativistic movements.1958) Sundkler (1948) Tracey (1955) Willoughby (1928) Wilson (1959) Wishlade (1965) . total Africa: Bascom (1959) Coleman (1955) Desai (1962) Gibb (1955) Goldschmidt (1958) Groves (1958) Herskovits (1937. 1957) Masssenger (1959) Polyam (1957) Smythe and Smythe (1960) Acculturation and nativistic movements. 1959) Hodgkin (1956) Jahn (1958) Lewis (1966) Meeker (1954) Mendelsohn (1962) Ross (1955) Taylor (1957) Van den Berghe (1965) Westermann (1949) Acculturation and nativistic movements.