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G. Phanikumar Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Indian Institute of Technology Madras Chennai 600036 India e-mail: gphani@iitm.ac.in url: http://mme.iitm.ac.in/gphani

course website: http://mme.iitm.ac.in/moodle February 1, 2010

Contents

1 Introduction to Tensors 1.1 Subscript notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2 Kronecker Delta . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.2.1 1.3.1 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3 Levi-Civita Symbol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7 8 8 9 9

1.4 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.5 Co-ordinate transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1.6 Tensors 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3 1.6.4 1.6.5 1.6.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Scalar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Bisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Trisor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Tetror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

1.7 Operations on tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.8 Types of tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.8.1 1.8.2 1.8.3 Symmetric Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Anti-symmetric Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Isotropic tensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

1.9 Tensors that represent physical properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1.10 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2 Navier-Stokes Equations 20

2.1 Types of speciﬁcation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.2 Continuity equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.3 Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.4 Equation of motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2

CONTENTS 2.5 Stress tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.6 Strain rate tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.7 Relation between stress and strain-rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.8 Navier-Stokes equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.9 Signiﬁcance of the linear relation and Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.10 N-S equations in cylindrical co-ordinate system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 3 Speciﬁc cases of ﬂuid ﬂow 31

3.1 Boundary Conditions and Problem Deﬁnitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 3.2 Trivial case reproducing Newton’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 3.3 Film ﬂow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3.4 Flow between two plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3.5 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 3.6 Flow through a pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.7 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3.8 Creeping ﬂow over a sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 3.9 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 3.10 Creeping ﬂow through a porous medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 3.11 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 4 Correlations for turbulent regime 49

4.1 Friction factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 4.2 Flow through tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 4.3 Flow across a sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 4.4 Flow through a porous medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 4.5 Flow through a packed bed of spheres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 4.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 5 Energy Transport 55

5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 5.2 Fourier’s ﬁrst law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 5.3 Fourier’s second law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 5.4 Boundary conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 6 Heat transfer in solids 60

6.1 Steady state 1D heat transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 6.1.1 Across a rectangular slab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 3 G. Phanikumar

Transport Phenomena Notes

. . . . . . . . . . . 83 Fixed boundary compositions . . . . . . .1 Steady state heat transfer . . . . . 61 Across a spherical shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Solidiﬁcation: mould and solid conductivity controlled . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Transient 1D heat transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Moving boundary condition . . . . . . . .6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Stagnant layer approach . . . . . 77 7. . . . . . 63 Across a cylindrical composite wall . 62 Point eﬀect of diﬀusion . . . . . . . . . . Phanikumar Diﬀusivity . . . . . . . . . 72 Heat transfer normal to plug ﬂow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 72 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Mass transfer coeﬃcient . . . . . . .3. . . . . . 89 4 Transport Phenomena Notes 8. . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 6. . . . . . . . 69 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Flux and concentration . .1 8. . . . . 84 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 8. .3 8. . . . . . . . . 64 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Across a planar composite wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Conduction dominated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . .4 Exercises . . . . . . . .4 Deﬁnitions of some non-dimensional numbers . . . . 68 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . .6 Across a cylindrical wall .1. . .5. . . .4. .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 8 Mass Transfer 81 8. 81 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 8. . . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . .3 Introduction . . . .3 Solid state diﬀusion . . . . . . . . . .4 6. . . . . . . 67 6. . . . . . .1. . . . . .6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 7. . . . . 71 7 Heat tranfer with advection term 7. . 86 . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . 65 6. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 6. . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Forced convection correlations . 65 Interface dominated . . . 84 Fixed total solute content . . . 73 7. . . . 77 7. .2 Exercises . .2 Governing equation . . . . . . . . . .3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.1 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 6. . . . . .2 G. . . . . . . . . . 82 8. . . . . . . . . . . 72 Heat transfer along plug ﬂow . . . .1 Bulk temperature . . . . . . . . . . . 66 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Heat transfer in a smooth pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Mass transfer with advection . . . . . .1.1. . . . . . 73 7. . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 A Derivations 94 A. . . . . . . 96 A. . . . . 96 A.1 The quotient rule . . . . . .5 Simpliﬁcation of tensor properties for crystals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Stress tensor is symmetric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 A. . . . . . . . . .8 Reynold’s transport theorem . . . . . . . . . . . .4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Levi-Civita tensor is isotropic . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Symmetric tensors are diagonalisable . . . . . 107 Transport Phenomena Notes 5 G. . . .5 Reaction mass transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Sherwood number . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Cauchy’s stress principle . . . . . .6 Change of variable with multiple integrals . .4 General form of isotropic tensor of order four . . . . . 90 Chilton-Colburn Analogy . . . . . . . . . . . 105 A. . . . . . . . . 102 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Dilation . . . . . . . . 91 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Stress is a tensor . .9 RTT and Continuity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 A. . . . . . .4. .14 Velocity gradient is a tensor . . . . . . . . Phanikumar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Meaning of terms in strain rate tensor . 100 A. 100 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 8. . 104 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS 8. . . . . . . . . . 99 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Temperature proﬁle during solidiﬁcation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Flow in a channel . . . . . . . 106 6 . . . 63 6. . . . . . .1 Heat ﬂow across a slab . . . . . . . 32 3.7 Mixing ﬁlm .13 Cubic network of pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Point eﬀect of diﬀusion . . . . . .16 Porous medium and its approximation as a bundle of tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Flow in a channel . . 38 3. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Velocity and Stress distribution in the Newton’s Law problem .2 Stagnant layer approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Solution to Pipe Flow . . . . . . . 35 3. . . . . . . . . . . .List of Figures 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3. .9 Pipe Flow . . . . . . . . . . . 61 6. . . . . 85 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 3. .4 Velocity and Stress distribution in a ﬁlm ﬂow problem . . . . . . . . 33 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Squeegee device . . . 12 3. . . . .14 Channel ﬂow between porous walls . . . . . . 44 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 3. . 88 8. . . . . . . 70 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Heat ﬂow across a cylindrical wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Axial ﬁlm ﬂow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 6. . . . . 38 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Analysis of deformation of a ﬂuid element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 A. . . . .12 Leaking Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Fixed Compositions . . .3 Surface Renewal Approach . . . . . . 42 3. . . . . . . . .1 Co-ordinate Transformation . . . . . . . . .1 Newton’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 3. . . . . . .15 Creeping ﬂow around a sphere . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Schematic of a ﬁlm ﬂow problem . . . . . . . . . 46 6. . .4 Temperature proﬁle during solidiﬁcation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3. . 42 3. . . . . . 41 3. . . . . . . . . . 68 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Ricci and popularised by Einstein. It simpliﬁes expressions. Examples • Vector • Matrices and Tensors u ˆ ˆ ˆ ui = (u1 u2 u3 ) = � = u1 x1 + u2 x2 + u3 x3 a11 a12 a13 aij = a21 a22 a23 a31 a32 a33 ∂ ∂ ∂ � x2 + ˆ x3 = ∇i ˆ ∇= x1 + ˆ ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 7 • Nabla or Del or Grad: . Subscripts can come anywhere in an expression. Since most of the time a 3D space is referred to. Subscript notation is useful to represent three and higher dimensional entities. Each subscript (or index) runs from 1 to the dimension of the space in consideration.Chapter 1 Introduction to Tensors Most of the discussion in the notes will assume a cartesian co-ordinate system unless otherwise mentioned. 5. 1. Following rules apply to the notation: 1. Subscripts after a comma indicate diﬀerentiation. 3. 4.1 Subscript notation Introduced by G. Cartesian Summation Convention: Subscripts that are repeated are called dummy subscripts and should be summed over the range that the subscript can take. Subscripts that are not repeated are called free subscripts. the subscripts run from 1 to 3. 2. Free subscripts on either sides of the ’=’ sign should match.

ai bi = a1 b1 + a2 b2 + a3 b3 2 2 2 ai ai = a1 + a2 + a3 cj = aij bi c1 = a11 b1 + a21 b2 + a31 b3 . it is also called as dot product. . a1 b1 a1 b2 a1 b3 ai bj = a2 b1 a2 b2 a2 b3 a3 b1 a3 b2 a3 b3 1. k and convince yourself that aik δij = ajk pi δij = pj G. For two vectors.2. Consider bik = aij δjk Expand the expression for a given i.i ∇φ = x1 + ˆ ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂xi � u ∂u1 + ∂u2 + ∂u3 ∇·� = ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂ui Div(u) = = ui.i ∂xi • Inner product is an operation where there is a contraction of the number of subscripts.2 Kronecker Delta δij = 1 if i = j 0 if i = j Deﬁnition: 1 0 0 δij = 0 1 0 0 0 1 1.CHAPTER 1. • δij is used to simplify expressions involving dummy indices.1 Examples Tr(a) = aij δij = aii = a11 + a22 + a33 Tr(a) = aii • Trace of a matrix a Trace of δij is δii = 3. Phanikumar 8 Transport Phenomena Notes . INTRODUCTION TO TENSORS • Gradient: • Divergence: ∂φ ∂φ ∂φ ∂φ � x2 + ˆ x3 = ˆ = ∇i φ = φ. . • Outer product is an operation where there is a an expansion of the number of subscripts.

k appear cyclic = −1 if i. xj . k donot appear cyclic 0 if i = j or j = k or k = i = ǫ312 = ǫ321 = ǫ211 = ǫ122 = ǫ133 =1 = −1 = ǫ121 = ǫ113 = ǫ311 = ǫ131 = 0 = ǫ212 = ǫ223 = ǫ322 = ǫ232 = 0 = ǫ313 = ǫ332 = ǫ233 = ǫ323 = 0 = ǫ231 = ǫ213 = ǫ112 = ǫ221 = ǫ331 Permutation matrix will help in writing expressions in a simpliﬁed manner. Phanikumar .1) Transport Phenomena Notes G.3. One can write ǫijk also in terms of a triple product as follows: ˆ ˆ ˆ ǫijk = [xi .1 Examples � � u p = ∇×� pi = ǫijk ∇j uk = ǫijk uk. bj and ck is: ǫijk ai bj ck = 0 • Determinant of a matrix a : � u v p = � ×� Det(a) = Iaij I Det(a) = ǫijk a1i a2j a3k • Relation between δij and ǫijk : ǫijk ǫklm = δil δjm − δim δjl The values of RHS are +1 if i = l and j = m and i = j −1 if i = m and j = l and i = j 0 for any other combination 9 (1.j = ǫijk Curl(u) = ǫijk ∂uk ∂xj • Curl : ∂uk ∂xj • Cross Product : pi = ǫijk uj vk • Condition for coplanarity of three vectors ai . Deﬁnition: ǫijk ǫ123 ǫ132 ǫ111 ǫ222 ǫ333 1 if i. xk ] 1. j.1. j.3. LEVI-CIVITA SYMBOL 1.3 Levi-Civita Symbol Also called as permutation matrix.

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO TENSORS For the ﬁrst case, it turns out that ǫijk = ǫlmk = ǫklm and the indices are non-repeating. Thus, whether they are cyclic or not, LHS is ǫ2 and is +1. For the second case, klm ǫijk = ǫmlk = −ǫklm and the indices are non-repeating. Thus, LHS is −ǫ2 and is −1. klm ǫijk ǫijm = 2δkm ǫijk ǫijk = 6 Based on the relations given above, the following vector identities can be derived using subscript notation. � � ∇ · (∇φ) = ∇2 φ ∂ ∂ ∂2φ � � ∇ · (∇φ) = φ= = ∇2 φ ∂x2 ∂xi ∂xi i � � ∇ × (∇φ) = 0 ∂ ∂φ ∂2φ � � = ǫijk pi = ∇ × (∇φ) = ǫijk ∂xj ∂xk ∂xj ∂xk For each term with the index i, there are two non zero terms on the RHS to be summed up. While the order of diﬀerentiation is immaterial, ǫijk is asymmetric about the indices j, k. Hence the RHS will vanish. Take for example, p1 = ǫ1jk ∂2φ ∂2φ ∂2φ ∂2φ = ǫ123 + ǫ132 = (ǫ123 + ǫ132 ) =0 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x3 ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂xj ∂xk (1.3) (1.2)

Similarly the other terms will also vanish.

1.4

Exercises

1. Prove the following vector identities using subscript notation. � � � ∇ · (∇ × f) = 0 � � � � � � � ∇(∇ · f) = ∇ × (∇ × f ) + ∇2 f � � � ∇(φψ) = φ∇ψ + ψ∇φ � � � ∇ · (φf ) = φ(∇ · f) + f · ∇φ G. Phanikumar 10 (1.4) (1.5) (1.6) (1.7) Transport Phenomena Notes

1.5. CO-ORDINATE TRANSFORMATIONS

� � � ∇ × (φf) = ∇φ × f + φ(∇ × f ) � g) g � � ∇ · (f × � = � · (∇ × f ) − f · (∇ × � g) � g) � � � � � ∇ × (f × � = f (∇ · � − � · f ) + (g · ∇)f − (f · ∇)g g) g(∇ � � g) � � � � � ∇(f · � = f × (∇ × � + � × (∇ × f) + f · (∇g) + � · (∇f) g) g g 1� � � � � � � � � ∇(f · f ) = f × ∇ × f + (f · ∇)f 2 � g) h � h)g � h)f (f × � × � = (f · � � − (g · � � � � h)g � g)h � h) f × (g × � = (f · � � − (f · � � � g) � g) � g) (f × � · (f × � = |f |2 |g|2 − (f · � 2

(1.8) (1.9) (1.10) (1.11)

(1.12) (1.13) (1.14) (1.15)

2. (Exercise 2.23.1 of [Ari62]) Show how to ﬁnd the vector which lies in the intersection of � the plane of � and � with the plane of � and d. a b c

1.5

Co-ordinate transformations

Cartesian co-ordinate system xi is used. Consider the following co-ordinate transformation ˆ where the xy plane is rotated about z-axis clockwise by an angle θ.

The new axes (starred) are given in terms of the old axes (unstarred) by the following relations: ˆ x∗ = x1 cosθ + x2 sinθ ˆ1 ˆ x∗ = −x1 sinθ + x2 cosθ ˆ2 ˆ ˆ ∗ x3 = x3 ˆ ˆ or x∗ = T11 x1 + T12 x2 + T13 x3 ˆ1 ˆ ˆ ˆ ∗ x2 = T21 x1 + T22 x2 + T23 x3 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ x∗ = T31 x1 + T32 x2 + T33 x3 ˆ3 ˆ ˆ ˆ or cosθ sinθ 0 x1 ˆ x∗ ˆ1 x∗ = −sinθ cosθ 0 x2 ˆ2 ˆ ∗ x3 ˆ 0 0 1 x3 ˆ ˆ x∗ = Tpi xi ˆp Transport Phenomena Notes 11

(1.16)

(1.17)

(1.18)

(1.19) G. Phanikumar

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO TENSORS

Figure 1.1: Co-ordinate Transformation

The transformation matrix Tpi used in the above expression is by the convention that ﬁrst index represents the row and the second index, the column. In one of the reference texts, viz., Aris’ book [Ari62], equation (2.11.1) shows that this convention is reversed. As a result the indices appear swapped in the deﬁnitions. This use of diﬀerent convention is clear also from equation (A.6.4) in the same book. When we express x∗ in terms of xi , the transformation matrix can be written as: i

∂x∗ ˆp Tpi = = ∂xi ˆ

∂x∗ ˆ1 ∂x1 ˆ ∂x∗ ˆ2 ∂x1 ˆ ∂x∗ ˆ3 ∂x1 ˆ

∂x∗ ˆ1 ∂x2 ˆ ∂x∗ ˆ2 ∂x2 ˆ ∂x∗ ˆ3 ∂x2 ˆ

∂x∗ ˆ1 ∂x3 ˆ ∂x∗ ˆ2 ∂x3 ˆ ∂x∗ ˆ3 ∂x3 ˆ

(1.20)

We have chosen cartesian co-ordinate systems which have the following properties of orthogonality:

x∗ · x∗ = 1 x∗ · x∗ = 0 x∗ · x∗ = 0 ˆ1 ˆ1 ˆ2 ˆ3 ˆ3 ˆ 2 ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ ˆ1 ˆ 3 x2 · x2 = 1 x3 · x1 = 0 x∗ · x∗ = 0 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ x∗ · x∗ = 1 x∗ · x∗ = 0 x∗ · x∗ = 0 ˆ3 ˆ3 ˆ1 ˆ2 ˆ3 ˆ 1 Expressing x∗ in terms of x and using equations 1.17 and 1.21, we get: ˆ ˆ G. Phanikumar 12

(1.21)

Transport Phenomena Notes

such as those that have a physical meaning. the entities can be classifed . If n is the dimension of the space we are concerned.. TENSORS T11 T12 + T21 T22 + T31 T32 T12 T13 + T22 T23 + T32 T33 T13 T11 + T23 T21 + T33 T31 T11 T11 + T12 T12 + T13 T13 T21 T21 + T22 T22 + T23 T23 T31 T31 + T32 T32 + T33 T33 or Tij Tik = δjk Rotating the co-ordinate system back.19 and 1. Inverse transformation relation is given using the ˆ ˆ transpose of the transformation matrix as follows.6 Tensors Many entities. −1 T Dip = Tip = Tip = Tpi xi = Dip x∗ = Tpi x∗ ˆ ˆp ˆp xi = Tpi x∗ ˆ ˆp (1. we can express x in terms of x∗ .1. are independent of the co-ordinate system we choose to represent them. xi = Dip x∗ ˆ ˆp The co-ordinate transformation matrix D for new to old system is related to the matrix for old to new the following manner. Transport Phenomena Notes 13 G. Phanikumar .. Exploiting the orthogonality of the old co-ordinate system: x1 · x1 = 1 x2 · x3 = 0 x3 · x2 = 0 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ x2 · x2 = 1 x3 · x1 = 0 x1 · x3 = 0 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ x3 · x3 = 1 x1 · x2 = 0 x2 · x3 = 0 ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ Tji Tki = δjk (1.6.24) Note: Compare equations 1.according to the number of components (ni ) they would have . =0 =0 =0 =1 =1 =1 (1.23) Similarly.24 and notice which of the indices is being repeated in the RHS.26) 1.25) (1.22) (1.as tensors of order i. Transpose of a matrix is nothing but the same matrix with the indices swapped around.

30) . Deﬁnition: Vector is an entity that transforms the following way under a co-ordinate transformation: (1..A species CA .2 Vector Vector is a tensor of order one. Electrical Resistivity ρij . Phanikumar 14 Transport Phenomena Notes (1. Composition gradient u ui . Pressure in a ﬂuid p. Thermal Conductivity kij . 1. Gyration Tensor gij 1.say .6. Magnetic Permeability µij . Temperature gradient ∂xi . Electrical Conductivity σij . Electric Current Ji etc. 27 components! Deﬁnition: Tensor of order three is an entity that transforms the following way under a co-ordinate transformation: a∗ = Tpi Tqj Trk aijk (1.6. Speciﬁc names for tensors of order 2 and above are often considered old fashioned. Diﬀusivity Dij . ∂CA .3 Bisor Bisor is a tensor of order two. Eg: Temperature T . Only one value would suﬃce to describe it at any location. 1. Electric Potential diﬀerence P . a set of three components in a 3D space.28) pq Eg: Stress σij .4 Trisor Trisor is a tensor of order three. Deﬁnition: Tensor of order two is an entity that transforms the following way under a coordinate transformation: a∗ = Tpi Tqj aij (1. Density ρ. etc. ∂xi Displacement 1. Composition of .CHAPTER 1. 81 components! a∗ = TpiTqj Trk Tsl aijkl pqrs Eg: Elastic Modulus cijkl G. It requires as many values / components as the dimension of the space (which is three for most of us) ie. Scalars are invariant under co-ordinate transformations.1 Scalar Scalar is a tensor of order zero.27) a∗ = Tpi ai p ∂T Eg: Velocity of ﬂuid � = ui.5 Tetror Tetror is a tensor of order four. A tensor of order 2 requires 9 components to describe it in general in 3D.. Strain eij .6.29) pqr Eg: Piezoelectric coeﬃcient eijk . Thermal Expansion Coeﬃcient αij ..6. All tensors of order 2 or more are called as just tensors. Deﬁnition: Scalar is an entity that remains invariant under all co-ordinate transformations. Dielectric Permittivity ǫij . INTRODUCTION TO TENSORS 1.6.

8.. Proof is given in section A. 1.7 Operations on tensors • Sum and diﬀerence of two tensors (of same order) is also a tensor. In the following example. Trace of a second order tensor aii is tensor of order zero or scalar or invariant across co-ordinate transformations. aij = bij + cij dij = bij − cij • An outer product of a tensor of order m with a tensor of order n will give a tensor of order m + n.7. if bij and cij are tensors.e.. Eg. aijk = bij ck • An inner product of a tensor of order m with a tensor of order n will give a tensor of order |m − n|. then aij and dij are also tensors. the entity obtained aij is a tensor of order 4 − 2 = 2. i. ai = bijk cjk • Contraction theorem : If aijkl.6 Tensor In general. OPERATIONS ON TENSORS 1..8 1.1.1 Types of tensors Symmetric Tensor a is a symmetric tensor if aij = aji Transport Phenomena Notes 15 G. Phanikumar . third and fourth).. if dijkl is a tensor of order 4..aijklm.31) 1. Combining with the theorem on outer product. a∗ pqrst.1. = Tpi Tqj Trk Tsl Ttm .. then by repeating two of its indices (say.6.. aij = dijkk A corollary to the above theorem is obtained when we take a tensor of order two and repeat the indices.. The number of indices of a indicate the order of the tensor which is the same as the number of times T occurs in the expression. (1. then the entity obtained by repeating any two subscripts is a tensor of order m − 2. quotient law can be extended to tensors of higher order. is a tensor of order m. a tensor is an entity that follows the following generalised rule for any co-ordinate transformation. • Quotient law of tensors: If there is an entity representable by (subscript notation as) aij relative to any cartesian co-ordinate system and if aij bi is a vector where bi is any arbitrary vector then aij is a tensor of order two..

CHAPTER 1.2 Anti-symmetric Tensor a is a skew-symmetric or anti-symmetric tensor if aij = −aji The vector formed by the components of an anti-symmetric tensor: ω1 ωk = ω2 ω3 0 ω3 −ω2 Ωij = −ω3 0 −ω1 ω2 −ω1 0 1 ωk = ǫkij Ωij 2 Also..8.32) 1. aij = 1 1 (aij + aji ) + (aij − aji ) 2 2 (1. where µ1 . Theorem: Every second order tensor is expressible as a sum of a symmetric tensor and an anti-symmetric tensor. there exists a co-ordinate system relative to which. The diagonal terms are called principal stresses. Proof is given in section A. INTRODUCTION TO TENSORS Theorem: For every second order symmetric tensor. • δij δkl is an isotropic tensor of order four. Relation between ǫijk and δij and the proof are given in equation 1. Most general form of an isotropic tensor of order four.8.3 Isotropic tensors Deﬁnition: A tensor is isotropic if its elements donot change under any co-ordinate transformation2 . µ2 and µ3 are constants: 1 This theorem has important implications when applied to the stress tensor in the mechanical behaviour of materials.3 It is also referred to as alternating tensor or permutation tensor. 1. • Kronecker delta is an isotropic tensor of order two. Proof is given in section A. Det(Tij ) is unity G. 2 involving only rotations and reﬂections but not expansions or contractions ie. Ωij = ǫijk ωk The two tensors ωk and Ωij are called dual tensors. Phanikumar 16 Transport Phenomena Notes .1. the matrix of the components of the tensor is diagonal 1 . The general form of an isotropic tensor of order two is aij = aδij • Levi-Civita density is an isotropic tensor of order three.2.

1.9. TENSORS THAT REPRESENT PHYSICAL PROPERTIES

µijkl = µ1 δij δkl + µ2 δik δjl + µ3 δil δjk Proof is given in section A.4.

(1.33)

1.9

Tensors that represent physical properties

• Constitutive relations are those that describe a physical phenomenon by connecting the cause with the eﬀect through a material property. In a constitutive relation, the entity that connects a tensor of order m with a tensor of order n is of the order m + n by the quotient law of tensors. • Neumann’s principle : The symmetry group of any physical property of a crystal comprises the point symmetry group of the crystal. A tensor that represents a physical property of a material should have at least the symmetry of the material. • Pierre Curie symmetry principle (1894): Eﬀect is at least as symmetric as the cause. The symmetry of a crystal of known symmetry in the presence of external ﬁelds is given by the intersection of the symmetries of the crystal and the ﬁelds. Examples of common physical phenomena, adapted from [PT83]. Property Pyroelectric eﬀect Thermal conduction Electrical conduction Thermal expansion Direct piezoelectric eﬀect Inverse piezoelectric eﬀect Linear electrooptical eﬀect Elasticity Equation ΔPi = γi ΔT

dT qi = −kij dxj

Quantities electric polarisation, pyroelectric coeﬃcient and change in temperature heat ﬂux, thermal conductivity and temperature gradient electric current, electrical conductivity and electrical ﬁeld thermal strain, thermal expansion coeﬃcient and change in temperature electric polarization, piezoelectric coeﬃcient and stress tensor strain, inverse piezoelectric coeﬃcient and electric ﬁeld polarization constants, tensor of linear electrooptical eﬀect and electric ﬁeld strain, elastic compliance and stress

Ji = σij Ej eij = αij ΔT Pi = dijk σjk ejk = lijk Ei Δηij = rijk Ek eij = cijkl σkl

Using the Neumann’s principle, the tensor representing a property of a material should have the same symmetry as that of the material itself. Transport Phenomena Notes 17 G. Phanikumar

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION TO TENSORS Liquids and glasses are isotropic ie., they have inﬁnite symmetry 3 . The stuﬀ remains the same in all the directions. So the physical property should also remain the same in all directions. So, the tensor representing the physical property of this stuﬀ should be isotropic. That is, any arbitrary transformation of the co-ordinate system should leave the matrix containing the values of physical property unchanged. It is possible only if the property is representable by an isotropic tensor of corresponding order. Thus, for second order tensors such as thermal conductivity, diﬀusivity etc., of liquids only one value is necessary. aij = aδij Polycrystalline materials have crystals in all possible directions and as a bulk they behave as if the material is isotropic. Most of the engineering materials of interest are polycrystalline. Exceptions are highly textured materials (eg. after rolling) and single crystals (for turbine blades or semiconductor industry). Take, for example, the second order tensor representing the thermal conductivity of a crystal. It should in general have 6 components (9 components become 6 thanks to the tensor being symmetric). Using the Curie principle, it can be shown as in section A.5 that for cubic crystals one needs to specify only one value for thermal conductivity.

1.10

Exercises

∂φ ∂xi

1. Prove that gradient of a continuous scalar function is a vector. ai = ∇i φ = (1.34)

2. Prove that the magnitude of a vector is invariant under co-ordinate transformations. 3. Prove that δij is (an isotropic) tensor of order two. 4. Prove that if ui and vj are vectors, then the dyad aij = uivj is a tensor of order two. 5. (Exercise 2.42.1 of [Ari62]) Prove that for any vector � ǫijk ak are the components of a a, second order tensor. 6. (Exercise 2.42.3 and 2.44.2 of [Ari62]) If r 2 = xk xk and f (r) is any twice diﬀerentiable function, show that the following nine derivatives are components of a tensor. � � f ′ (r) xi xj f ′ (r) ′′ f (r) − + δij r r2 r . Show also that the trace of that tensor is the following. � � 1 d 2 df r r 2 dr dr 7. Prove that strain rate or velocity gradient is a tensor of order two. eij = ∂ui ∂xj

3 Only on a long range. They do have a short range order allegedly close to icosahedral in case of liquid metals

G. Phanikumar

18

Transport Phenomena Notes

1.10. EXERCISES 8. If σij is a tensor, prove that σii , the trace of the matrix of σij is invariant under co-ordinate transformations. 4 9. Prove that ǫijk is a tensor of order three. Clue: Use the subscript notation for determinant of the transformation matrix. When two rows of a matrix are same, the determinant vanishes. 10. Prove that the dyad δij δkl is (an isotropic) tensor of order four. Considering that δij is an isotropic and hence a symmetric tensors, how many combinations of the four indices can you get so that you can arrive at possible isotropic tensors of order four. 11. If aij and bkl are tensors of order two, prove that the dyad aij bkl is a tensor of order four. Prove that aij bjk is a tensor of order two. Also, that a : b = aij bji is a scalar. 12. Use the Neumann’s principle to prove that the number of components necessary to describe the thermal conductivity of a tetragonal crystal is two. You can assume that the thermal conductivity is a symmetric tensor to start with, thanks to Onsager’s theory [Ons31a, Ons31b].

4

This quantity has a special meaning in mechanical behaviour of materials.

Transport Phenomena Notes

19

G. Phanikumar

acceleration of the ﬂuid element is given as below: ∂ui ∂uj ∂ui dui = + ui = + u j ∇j u i ∂t dt ∂t ∂xj or du ∂u � � � � � = + (u · ∇)u dt ∂t Proof of the same is given in section A. Unless otherwise speciﬁed.1 Types of speciﬁcation Consider a ﬂow ﬁeld and trace a particle that moves with the ﬂow. In the Lagrangian speciﬁcation. t)) is speciﬁed in terms of the absolute position where as the location of the ﬂuid element changes as dictated by the ﬂow (see section A. It gives the spacial distribution of velocity ui (xi .2) (2. acceleration of a ﬂuid element is given by ∂vi dvi = dt ∂t (2. t) is speciﬁed at the centre of gravity of the ﬂuid element. We now deﬁne the material derivative which is a time derivative following the motion of the ﬂuid as 20 (2. since the velocity vi (ai . t) similar to density. since the velocity (ui (xi . temperature and pressure at any given instant. one usually uses to the Eulerian frame of reference. Lagrangian speciﬁcation helps trace the path of an element directly. Eulerian speciﬁcation gives spacial gradients of velocities directly. the velocities are speciﬁed in terms of position (xi ) and time (t).1) In the Eulerian speciﬁcation. The ﬂow ﬁeld can be speciﬁed in two ways.3) . t). the dynamical history of a speciﬁc piece of material (ﬂuid element) is given. The ﬂow ﬁeld of the element is given in terms of the position (of the center of mass) of the element and time as vi (ai .Chapter 2 Navier-Stokes Equations 2.6).7. In Lagrangian type of speciﬁcation. In the Eulerian type of speciﬁcation.

6) V V For this relation to be valid at all locations in the ﬂuid.i Equations 2.2 Continuity equation Consider a ﬂuid element of surface area S and volume V though which a ﬂow � is taking place. 1 (2.4) 2.2.7 state the same thing more rigorously.10) A ﬂuid is called as incompressible if the density does not change due to changes in pressure (or) if the rate of change of density following the ﬂow is zero. � ∂ρ dV = − ∂t � � � ∇ · (ρu)dV (2. For incompressible ﬂuids.2.7) (2.8) and dividing by ρ.11) Actually Gauss-Ostrogradsky theorem Transport Phenomena Notes 21 G. u Conservation of mass requires that the increase in amount of ﬂuid in the element is equal to the amount brought in by the ﬂuid ﬂow (in the absence of sources and sinks that are singular).7 to expand the above equation as ∂ρ � u � � + (u · ∇)ρ + ρ∇ · � = 0 ∂t Identifying the deﬁnition of material derivative D Dt (2. the surface normal � points outwards and hence the conservation can be written n as: � ∂ρ dV = − ∂t � ρu · � � ndS (2.9) 1 Dρ � +∇·� = 0 u ρ Dt � u ∇ · � is called as rate of dilation or rate of expansion and is indicated by a symbol Δ. (2.6 and A. CONTINUITY EQUATION D ∂ = + (u · ∇) � � Dt ∂t (2.7 and 2. ∂ρ � � + ∇ · (ρu) = 0 ∂t Use the identity 1. � u Δ = ∇ · � = ∇i ui = ui.9 are two alternate forms of the continuity equation. Phanikumar . the continuity equation reduces to: � u ∇·� = 0 Sections A. By convention. (2.5) V S Using the Gauss theorem1 to convert the surface integral to volume integral.

Using D the material derivative Dt introduced earlier.3 Forces Long range forces decrease slowly with increase in distance between the interacting elements. These are called body forces or volume forces. σ is called the local stress. t)ρδV Eg. one can bring the material derivative inside the integral as illustrated in section [A. Phanikumar σij nj dS = V Fi ρdV + V � σij nj dS S � S ∂σij dv ∂xj (2. NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS 2. 2. � G.4 Equation of motion Consider a small ﬂuid element of volume dV and area dS on a surface with normal ni . Examples such as gravity (due to density ρ gradients). D Dt � ρui dV = V � ρ V Dui dV Dt The total force that acts on dV is the sum of body forces and surface forces: � Using Gauss theorem.9]. t)δA where. They can be represented as: Fi (xi .8] and the continuity equation. nj is the unit normal to the surface element δA. nj . Marangoni forces (due to surface tension gradients) act on a thin layer of the ﬂuid and are called surface forces. Examples such as forces applied on surfaces (normal and shear).CHAPTER 2. Local short range forces exerted by the ﬂuid on diﬀerent surface elements (δA) can be represented as: σ(xi . gravity pointing vertically downwards : ˆ Fi = gx2 Short range forces decrease rapidly with increase in distance between the interacting elements and are of molecular origin. the rate of change of momentum of a small ﬂuid element of volume dv is given by: D Dt � ρui dV V Using the Reynold’s transport theorem [A.12) Transport Phenomena Notes 22 . electromagnetic (in metals carrying electric currents) and ﬁctitious (centrifugal or coriolis) act on the whole of the ﬂuid element and are usually proportional to the size of the volume element (δV ).

2.17) σkk = σ11 + σ22 + σ33 1 σij = σkk δij + dij 3 (2. σ11 0 0 σ22 0 σij = 0 0 0 σ33 1 σ 3 kk (2.11 prove that stress is a tensor.14) We now need to express σij in a way that can minimise the number of unknown parameters in the above equation of motion.10 stating the Cauchy’s stress principle and section A.5 Stress tensor Section A. We can also use conservation of angular momentum to show that the stress tensor is symmetric as described in section A. Phanikumar .15) Since it is always possible to ﬁnd a co-ordinate system such that the matrix containing the elements of a symmetric tensor is diagonal. we can write σij as the follows.18) (2. � Dui ρdV = Dt � Fi ρdV + V V � V ∂σij dV ∂xj (2. STRESS TENSOR From Newton’s second law.13) Since the three integrands are being summed over the same volume element.5.19) We deﬁne static pressure of the ﬂuid with the convention that positive pressure is that which acts to compress a ﬂuid element. the rate of change of momentum is equal to the total force acting on the element.2. Hence it can be expressed as σ11 σ12 σ13 σij = σ12 σ22 σ23 σ13 σ23 σ33 (2. Transport Phenomena Notes 23 G.12.16) or 0 0 1 σ 3 kk σij = 0 0 where 0 0 1 σ 3 kk σ11 − 1 σkk 0 0 3 + 0 σ22 − 1 σkk 0 3 1 0 0 σ33 − 3 σkk (2. it will be applicable at any location in the ﬂuid if the equation applies to the integrands themselves: ∂σij Dui ρ = Fi ρ + Dt ∂xj (2. Hence.

on the other hand. Proof that velocity gradient is a tensor of order two is given in section A.CHAPTER 2.22) 2.25) (2.k = ǫijk G.14.13. because the ﬂuid element translates as time progresses.23) (2.. Strain rate or velocity gradient is represented as below and can be shown to be a second order tensor and thus expressible as a sum of symmetric and anti-symmetric tensors. we will notice that rate of change of shape is more appropriate to analyse a ﬂuid element. we can relate the deviatoric stress with the terms that quantify the shape changes of a ﬂuid element. ﬂow of the ﬂuid. (2. Phanikumar 24 ∂uj ∂xk � ∂ui ∂uj + ∂xj ∂xi ∂ui ∂uj − ∂xj ∂xi � � (2. It is easy to note that dkk = 0 We have separated the stress into two terms: • pressure term (−pδij ) that tends to change the volume of a ﬂuid element • deviatoric stress term (dij ) that tends to change the shape of a ﬂuid element while keeping the volume constant By analysing all modes of change of shape of a ﬂuid element.26) (2. NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS 1 p = − σkk 3 so that σij = −pδij + dij (2. For non-zero velocity ﬁeld.20) (2.24) � (2. leads to a shape-conserving change in the volume element. Static pressure.21) dij is called the deviatoric part of the tensor and leads only to volume conserving deformation of the ﬂuid elements ie. ∂ui = eij + Ωij ∂xj 1 eij = 2 1 Ωij = 2 Deﬁne ω as � u � ω = ∇×� or ωi = ǫijk uj.6 Strain rate tensor ∂ui The meaning of velocity gradient or a strain rate term ∂xj is given in section A.27) Transport Phenomena Notes .

7. Phanikumar (2.30) Since deviatoric stress dij is symmetric. By deﬁnition. this applies also to the R. The material in concern is a ﬂuid in which a directionality can safely be assumed to be absent ie.7 Relation between stress and strain-rate A relation between the deviatoric stress and strain-rate (velocity gradient) is necessary to proceed further to be able to use the equation of motion to solve for the velocity ui .H. We have to adopt a phenomenological approach..S. dij = Aijkl ∂uk ∂xl (2.2. Since both the quantities are tensors of order two. In the above equation. The deviatoric stress represents the frictional interaction between diﬀerent layers of the ﬂuid and is assumed to be dependent only on the instantaneous and local distribution of the velocities. it is a constitutive relation and the entity Aijkl is a physical parameter.28) 2. The velocities and thus the velocity gradients ∂ui ∂xj are zero for a stationary ﬂuid. ﬂuids are isotropic Hence.29) Since the above equation connects an eﬀect with a cause. 1 Ωij = − ǫijk ωk 2 (2.31) (2. dij is the deviatoric stress which implies that it is zero for a stationary ﬂuid. Aijkl = Ajikl ⇒ µ2 = µ3 Aijkl = µ1 δij δkl + µ2 (δil δkj + δik δjl ) Aijkl is now symmetrical in k and l also.32) . Aijkl must possess the same properties as that of an isotropic tensor of order four. we may assume that the deviatoric stress and the strain-rate are directly and linearly related to each other. From the properties of tensors. we know that the general form of an isotropic tensor of order four [A. ie. RELATION BETWEEN STRESS AND STRAIN-RATE so that. Transport Phenomena Notes 25 G. the entity that connects them both must be a tensor of order four.4] is Aijkl = µ1 δij δkl + µ2 δil δkj + µ3 δik δjl (2.. interchanging the subscripts i and j should keep the quantity identical. From the above observations.

7] to get dij = µ1 δij Δ + 2µ2 eij Recalling that dii = 0. G.34) (2. It can be true only when the term in parantheses vanishes.39) (2.37) We would like the above equation to be true also for incompressible ﬂuids ie. also when Δ = 0.41) Now that we have an expression for dij in terms of velocity gradients. Thus.. the Ωkl term drops out.38) (2. NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS Expanding the above equation. the equation becomes 2 dij = − µδij Δ + 2µeij 3 � � 1 dij = 2µ eij − Δδij 3 (2.35) For the ﬁrst term. Calling the one constant parameter as µ.36) (2. dij = (µ1 δij δkl + µ2 (δil δkj + δik δjl )) ekl dij = µ1 δij δkl ekl + µ2 (δil δkj ekl + δik δjl ekl ) We have already (2. dii = µ1 3Δ + 2µ2 Δ = (3µ1 + 2µ2 )Δ = 0 (2. we use the contraction theorem [section 1. we can substitute the same in the equation of motion.40) (2. bulk viscosity can be assumed to be zero: (3µ1 + 2µ2 ) = 0 or 2 µ1 = − µ2 3 Watch out for ﬂuids for which Stokes’ assumption is not valid.10) deﬁned compressibility or rate of dilation or rate of expansion as ekk = ∂u1 ∂u2 ∂u3 + + =Δ ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 (2. Phanikumar 26 Transport Phenomena Notes . dij = Aijkl (ekl + Ωkl ) (2. Stokes’ Assumption: For monoatomic ﬂuids since there is no conversion of translational energy into vibrationary / rotationary energies.CHAPTER 2.33) Since Aijkl is now symmetrical in k and l. when it is multiplied by an entity that is antisymmetric about k and l and the terms are summed over k and l they vanish.

8 Navier-Stokes equations Combining equation of motion (2. � � �� Dui ∂ 1 ρ = ρFi + −pδij + 2µ eij − Δδij 3 Dt ∂xj Expanding the term eij and using the kronecker delta to contract subscripts. u2 and u3 ) is called Navier-Stokes equations.21 and 2.44) ρ = ρFi − ∂xj ∂xi ∂xj ∂xi 3 Dt ∂xi ∂xj Dui ∂p ∂ + ρ = ρFi − Dt ∂xi ∂xj � � � � ∂ ∂ 2 ∂ui µ + (µΔ) + − µΔ ∂xj ∂xi ∂xi 3 � ∂ui µ ∂xj � + 1 ∂ (µΔ) 3 ∂xi (2. Δ = 0. The Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible ﬂuid ﬂow with constant viscosity are obtained by taking µ out of the derivative and setting Δ = 0 in the equation 2.. 3) corresponding to the three components of the velocity of the ﬂuid (u1 .43) (2. Phanikumar .8. we get: Dui ∂p ∂ + ρ = ρFi − Dt ∂xi ∂xj � ∂ui µ ∂xj � ∂ + ∂xj � � � � ∂uj ∂ 2 µ + − µΔ ∂xi ∂xi 3 (2.2. A further simpliﬁcation can be done starting from equation 2. � 2 � Dui ∂p ∂ 2 ui ∂ uj ρ = ρFi − +µ 2 +µ ∂xj ∂xj ∂xi Dt ∂xi ∂p ∂ 2 ui ∂ Dui +µ 2 +µ ρ = ρFi − Dt ∂xi ∂xj ∂xi ρ � ∂uj ∂xj � Dui ∂ ∂p ∂ 2 ui +µ 2 +µ (Δ) = ρFi − Dt ∂xi ∂xj ∂xi ρ Dui ∂p ∂ 2 ui = ρFi − +µ 2 ∂xj Dt ∂xi D Dt (2. NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS 2. 2. we get. � � � � � � Dui ∂p ∂ ∂ui ∂ ∂uj ∂ 2 + µ + µ + − µΔ (2.46 as follows.42) Since the order of diﬀerentiation should not matter and if µ is not a function of location.41).45) Dui ∂p ∂ + ρ = ρFi − Dt ∂xi ∂xj (2.46. If the ﬂuid being considered is incompressible. Most of the ﬂuids under normal ﬂow conditions are incompressible ie.46) The above set of three equations (for i = 1.47) Expanding the material derivative Transport Phenomena Notes and writing in vector notation: 27 G.14) and the expressions for stress tensor (2. we can set the last term to zero and obtain the N-S equation with variable property.

u3) . oils of low molecular weight and liquid metals.9 and the three N-S equations 2. NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS ∂u1 1 ∂p µ + (u · ∇)u1 = F1 − � � + ∇2 u 1 ∂t ρ ∂x1 ρ 1 ∂p µ ∂u2 + (u · ∇)u2 = F2 − � � + ∇2 u 2 ∂t ρ ∂x2 ρ 1 ∂p µ 2 ∂u3 + (u · ∇)u3 = F3 − � � + ∇ u3 ρ ∂t ρ ∂x3 (2. 2.9 Signiﬁcance of the linear relation and Viscosity The linear relation between the deviatoric stress tensor and the strain rate tensor (velocity gradient) is physically meaningful for a large number of ﬂuids. Examples are water.49) (2. Eg: air and most of the gases. air and most gases (in most of the situations except under shock wave) and liquid metals. G. Fluids that obey this linear relation are called Newtonian ﬂuids. water. Newton has observed that the shear stress is directly proportional to the velocity gradient.52) The proportionality constant µ is deﬁned as the viscosity of the liquid.51) The continuity equation 2. Often σ12 is referred to as τxy . u2 .thus the problem is well deﬁned. Phanikumar 28 Transport Phenomena Notes .2 .50) (2. d12 = d21 = µ ∂u1 ∂x2 (2.46 are solved together to obtain ﬂuid ﬂow. u1. we have four variables (p.CHAPTER 2. Consider the two dimensional case of pure shear stress applied on a layer of liquid. materials can be classiﬁed as follows: Newtonian ﬂuid : Strain rate or velocity gradient is linearly dependent on the shear stress as σ12 = µu1. In these four equations.48) These can be expanded to give the N-S equations for incompressible ﬂuids of constant property using the deﬁnition of kinematic viscosity as follows: ν= µ ρ � � � ∂ 2 u1 ∂ 2 u1 ∂ 2 u1 + + ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x2 1 2 3 ∂ 2 u2 ∂ 2 u2 ∂ 2 u2 + + ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x2 1 2 3 ∂ 2 u3 ∂ 2 u3 ∂ 2 u3 + + ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x2 1 2 3 � � � ∂u1 ∂u1 ∂u1 1 ∂p ∂u1 + u1 + u2 + u3 = F1 − +ν ∂x2 ∂x3 ρ ∂x1 ∂t ∂x1 ∂u2 ∂u2 ∂u2 ∂u2 1 ∂p + u1 + u2 + u3 = F2 − +ν ∂x2 ∂x3 ρ ∂x2 ∂t ∂x1 ∂u3 ∂u3 ∂u3 ∂u3 1 ∂p + u1 + u2 + u3 = F3 − +ν ∂x2 ∂x3 ρ ∂x3 ∂t ∂x1 (2. Based on their viscosity and the way they ﬂow.

These operators convey a meaning independent of co-ordinate system and enable us to assign a meaning to each term in the equation. One can (with some endurance) derive the equations by expressing x1 .10.viscosity increases at higher strain rate. viscosity can be taken as constant. For ﬂuids such as air and water. θ. Phanikumar . Hence we can borrow the N-S equations in cylindrical co-ordinate system for momentum transfer with these assumptions as reproduced below: Transport Phenomena Notes 29 G. chocolate mixtures. viscosity is negligible for most of the situations. θ. N-S EQUATIONS IN CYLINDRICAL CO-ORDINATE SYSTEM Bingham Plastic : Flow starts above a critical shear stress which is then linear with the strain rate. x3 in terms of r. x2 . Viscoelastic : The material returns back to its original shape after the stress is removed. Thixotropic : Viscosity decrease with time.48 are written for constant properties (ρ and µ) and using the operators ∇ and ∇2 .2. The expansion of these operators and the N-S equations for cylindrical coordinate system can be borrowed from Appendix A of [BSL02]. z for cylindrical co-ordinate system or r. greases.53) (2. In liquid metals viscosity follows an Arrhenius relation. ˆ u ˆ ˆ � = ur r + u θ θ + u z z ∂ 1 ∂ ˆ ∂ � θ+ z ˆ ∇= r+ ˆ ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ∂ ∂ uθ ∂ � · ∇ = ur + + uz u � ∂r r ∂θ ∂z 1 ∂ ∇ = r ∂r 2 (2. σ12 = σ0 + µu1. and sewage sludge. soap. Viscosity is a strong function of temperature. Rheopectic : Viscosity increases with time. Pseudoplastic : Shear thinning material . 2. toothpaste. paper pulp. Following are the expressions that will be of use to us later.55) � � ∂2 ∂ 1 ∂2 r + 2 2+ 2 ∂z ∂r r ∂θ (2. � Equations 2. Eg: drilling muds.56) Most of the time we are concerned about incompressible ﬂuids of approximately constant properties.2 . φ for spherical co-ordinate system and derive the necessary relations. grain-water suspensions. peat slurries.54) (2.viscosity decreases at higher strain rate. margarine. Such ﬂuids are called inviscid.10 N-S equations in cylindrical co-ordinate system We should choose a co-ordinate system with an orientation that best captures the symmetry of the problem and simpliﬁes the ﬁnal form of the solution. In situations where the temperature is roughly constant through out the ﬂow. Dilatant : Shear thickening material .

NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS ∂ur ∂ur uθ ∂ur ∂ur u2 1 ∂p + ur + + uz − θ = Fr − ∂t ∂r r ∂θ ∂z r ρ ∂r � � � � 2 2 1 ∂ ur 2 ∂uθ ∂ ur ∂ 1 ∂ {rur } +ν + 2 − 2 + r ∂θ ∂z 2 ∂r r ∂r r ∂θ2 ∂uθ ∂uθ uθ ∂uθ ur uθ ∂uθ 1 ∂p + + + uz = Fθ − + ur ∂t ∂r r ∂θ r ∂z ρr ∂θ � � � � 2 1 ∂ uθ 2 ∂ur ∂ 2 uθ ∂ 1 ∂ {ruθ } +ν + 2 + 2 + r ∂θ ∂z 2 ∂r r ∂r r ∂θ2 ∂uz ∂uz uθ ∂uz ∂uz 1 ∂p + ur + + uz = Fz − ∂t ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ρ ∂z � � � � 2 2 1 ∂ uz ∂ uz 1 ∂ ∂uz r + 2 + +ν ∂z 2 r ∂r ∂r r ∂θ2 (2.58) (2. Phanikumar 30 Transport Phenomena Notes .57) (2.CHAPTER 2.59) G.

τ |liquid. liquid tends to stick to solid and a relative motion is not possible1 .Chapter 3 Speciﬁc cases of ﬂuid ﬂow 3. u|liquid. � � � ∂ui � ∂ui � � µ1 = µ2 � � ∂xj xj →−0 ∂xj xj →+0 Fluid-Gas: Because the density of gas is usually much smaller than that of liquid. Thus. there is no relative motion between two layers of liquids in contact with each other2 . Additionally. � � ∂ui � =0 � ∂xj xj →0 ∂ui =0 ∂t except under situations where surface tension plays a major role except in situations where the two liquids in contact with each other are immiscible and interfacial tension plays a major role 2 1 Steady state: Time derivative of the velocity is to be taken zero. since most liquids wet each other. if we take the interface to be at zero. interface For Newtonian ﬂuids. interface = u|solid Fluid-Liquid: Using the arguments similar to above.1 Boundary Conditions and Problem Deﬁnitions Fluid-Solid: Due to van der Waals attractions. interface = τ |liquid2. wetting and any other atomistic phenomena. τ |liquid1. if we take the interface to be at zero. the shear stress at the interface of two liquids has a unique value. Often the solid wall is stationary making the velocity of liquid at the wall zero. it cannot sustain any shear stress at the top of the liquid layer and will lead to surface deformation. the shear stress at a free surface is zero. 31 . free surface = 0 For Newtonian ﬂuids. In most of the situation this phenomena of a solid preventing a liquid in contact with it from having a motion relative to it is called no slip condition.

A transition from laminar to turbulent regimes is governed by the non-dimensional number indicating the ratio of intertial to viscous forces and is named after Reynolds.CHAPTER 3. De = 4δ.. such an assumption is not valid and the ﬂow is said to be turbulent. SPECIFIC CASES OF FLUID FLOW Unidirectional ﬂow: Velocity has only one component and the other components are to be taken zero. Phanikumar 32 x1 Transport Phenomena Notes .). Equivalent diameter: For tubes of non-circular cross sections or for other geometries. Range of Re for validity of a laminar solution for a problem of certain geometry is obtained from careful experiments. u0 is the characteristic velocity (typically the average velocity or far ﬁeld velocity) and ν is the kinematic viscosity. width of channel for ﬂow between two parallel plates etc. 3. the equivalent diameter can be deﬁned as 4 × cross sectional area De = wetted perimeter Thus. u2 = u3 = 0 = u1 Fully developed ﬂow: The velocity has no variation along the direction of the ﬂow.2 Trivial case reproducing Newton’s Law 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 x2 u1. Assumptions: G. When the intertial forces acting on the ﬂuid are far greater than the viscous forces. ∂ui =0 ∂xi Validity of solution: The analytical solutions given in this chapter are applicable for laminar regime of ﬂuid ﬂow where the ﬂow can be visualised as layers of liquid moving with respect to each other and the eﬀects of wall penetrate far into the liquid.1: Newton’s Law Figure 3.max 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 Figure 3.1 shows the problem deﬁnition. ρDu0 Du0 Re = = µ ν D is the characteristic length scale (diameter for a tube ﬂow. for the case of ﬂow between two parallel plates separated by a distance of 2δ that is much smaller than the width of the plates W .

2. Only u1 is to be known. A= u1. ∂u1 ∂x1 • Flow is fully developed.3. u1 = u1.max δ The solution is plotted schematically in ﬁgure 3. Solution: Use N-S equation for u1 and eliminate terms as per the assumptions above. • Flow is steady state. Boundary Conditions: • No slip condition at bottom layer: at y = 0. TRIVIAL CASE REPRODUCING NEWTON’S LAW • Flow is unidirectional.max δ B=0 y δ ∂u1 ∂x2 (3. ∂u1 ∂t = 0. 1 ∂p ∂u1 ∂u1 ∂u1 ∂u1 + u1 + u2 + u3 = F1 − +ν ρ ∂x1 ∂t ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ν or u1 = Ax2 + B Using the boundary conditions.max u x1 τyx Figure 3. Phanikumar .3) ∂ 2 u1 =0 ∂x2 2 � ∂ 2 u1 ∂ 2 u1 ∂ 2 u1 + + ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x2 1 2 3 � (3.max . u1 = 0.1) (3. • Flow is entirely due to the top surface being moved at u1.2: Velocity and Stress distribution in the Newton’s Law problem Transport Phenomena Notes 33 G.2.max Using Newton’s law σ21 = τyx = µ τyx = µ u1. = 0. • No slip condition at top layer: at y = δ. u2 and u3 are zero.max and no body force or pressure gradients exist. x2 x2 x2 δ u1.2) or u1 = u1.

∂u1 ∂x1 • Flow is fully developed i. Note: Figure 2.CHAPTER 3.. this being the force per unit area exerted by the ﬂuid in the region of the lesser y on the ﬂuid of greater y.2-2. we have used the convention that the shear stress is positive and it is exerted 1 by the top layer on the ﬂuid beneath it so that Newton’s law is written as τ21 = µ ∂u2 . • Flow is steady state: ∂u1 ∂t = 0. the words ”lesser” and ”greater” are interchanged and Eq 1. x1 . Watch out! 3.2-6 is arbitrary.2.7 and Table 19. In most ﬂuid dynamics and elasticity books.1-2 (and in the generalization in this section) that τyx is the force in the positive x direction on a unit area perpendicular to the y direction. Shear stress τxy is stress exerted on plane x in direction y by the layer at lesser y on the layer at greater y.1-5 have the same sign. 24.1-2 and 1. the terms pδij and τij have the same sign aﬃxed. 1. there are two diﬀerent convections adapted in the literature. Convention +: In the above case.8 of [Gas92] shows a symmetric plot of velocity proﬁle as well as shear stress proﬁle for a channel ﬂow. = 0 for all � • The only driving force for the ﬁlm to fall is gravity: F = g cos θx1 + g sin θx2 . The advantages of the sign convention used in this book are: (a) the sign convention used in Newton’s law of viscosity is consistent with that used in Fourier’s law of heat conduction and Fick’s law of diﬀusion. Quoting from [BSL02] section 1. Phanikumar 34 Transport Phenomena Notes . it varies only along x2 but not along x1 or x3 . page 19: Note on the Sign Convention for the Stress Tensor We have emphasised in connection with Eq. provided the physical meaning of the sign convention is clearly understood.3. 1. As for the sign.e. There is an error in the shear stress proﬁle. u2 = u3 = 0. Assumptions: • Flow is unidirectional. ∂x Shear stress τyx is stress exerted on plane y in the positive direction x by the layer at greater y on the layer at lesser y. This is the convention adapted in this handout. and the terms p and τii are both positive in compression (in accordance with common usage in thermodynamics). and either sign convention can be used. (b) the sign convention used for τij is the same as that for convective momentum ﬂux ρvv (see section 1. Clearly the sign convention in Eqs.1-2 is written as τyx = +µ(dvx /dy). (d) all terms in the entropy production in Eq.2-2). Only u1 needs to be known.3 Film ﬂow Consider the case of a ﬁlm of liquid falling on an inclined plane as shown in ﬁgure 3. SPECIFIC CASES OF FLUID FLOW Convention: σ12 or τ12 is on plane 1 and in the direction 2. Convention -: This is favoured by [BSL02] for the reasons quoted below. (c) in Eq 1. ˆ ˆ G.

FILM FLOW Figure 3. Solution: Use N-S equation for u and eliminate terms as per the assumptions above.5) ∂ 2 u1 ρg cos θ =− 2 µ ∂x2 u1 = − ρg cos θx2 2 + C1 x2 + C2 2µ Using the boundary conditions. ∂u1 ∂u1 ∂u1 1 ∂p ∂u1 + u1 + u2 + u3 = F1 − +ν ∂x2 ∂x3 ρ ∂x1 ∂t ∂x1 0 = g cos θ + ν ∂ 2 u1 ∂x2 2 � ∂ 2 u1 ∂ 2 u1 ∂ 2 u1 + + ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x2 2 3 1 � (3.4) (3.3. Phanikumar Using Newton’s law σ21 = τyx = µ Transport Phenomena Notes 35 . ρg cos θδ 2 2µ � ( x )2 � ρδ 2 g cos θ 2 u1 = 1− 2µ δ u1 |max = ρδ 2 g cos θ 2µ ∂u1 ∂x2 G.3: Schematic of a ﬁlm ﬂow problem Boundary conditions: • Thickness of the ﬁlm is δ.3. C1 = 0. • No slip condition at the bottom of the plane: at x2 = δ. ∂u1 • At x2 = 0. there is a free surface on which the shear stresses are zero. u1 = 0. µ ∂x2 = 0 at x2 = 0. C2 = Hence.

4.5: Flow in a channel Figure 3. Only u1 is to be known.4: Velocity and Stress distribution in a ﬁlm ﬂow problem Validity: Re = 4δρu1 ¯ ≤ 25 µ 3.max x1 u τyx Figure 3. u2 and u3 are zero. x2 x2 x2 δ u1. We choose the axes to make the maximum out of the symmetry of the problem.5 shows the problem deﬁnition.CHAPTER 3.4 Flow between two plates pH x2 x1 2δ 11111111111111111 00000000000000000 11111111111111111 00000000000000000 11111111111111111 00000000000000000 11111111111111111 00000000000000000 p 11111111111111111 00000000000000000 L 11111111111111111 00000000000000000 11111111111111111 00000000000000000 11111111111111111 00000000000000000 L Figure 3. 36 Transport Phenomena Notes . SPECIFIC CASES OF FLUID FLOW τyx = −ρg cos θx2 u1 = ¯ �δ 0 u1 dx2 ρδ 2 g cos θ 2 = = u1 |max δ 3µ 3 ˙ If W is the width of the plane. • Flow is steady state. Phanikumar ∂u1 ∂t = 0. Assumptions: • Flow is unidirectional. mass ﬂow rate M is: ρ2 δ 3 W g cos θ ˙ M = ρW δu1 = ¯ 3µ The solutions are plotted schematically in ﬁgure 3. G.

. Interpretation of τ21 . u1 = 0.3. Transport Phenomena Notes 37 G. Recollecting convention + we are using for Newton’s law.6. by the wall on the liquid (thus the negative sign). The shear stress is exerted by the layer at greater x2 on the layer at lesser x2 ie.7) (3. ∂u1 ∂u1 ∂u1 1 ∂p ∂u1 + u1 + u2 + u3 = F1 − +ν ∂x2 ∂x3 ρ ∂x1 ∂t ∂x1 ν or ∂ 2 u1 1 ∂p p L − pH = = 2 ρ ∂x1 ρL ∂x2 ∂ 2 u1 = −2A ∂x2 2 A= p H − pL 2Lµ � ∂ 2 u1 ∂ 2 u1 ∂ 2 u1 + + ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x2 1 2 3 � (3. Use N-S equation for u1 and eliminate terms as per the assumptions above. τ21 = +Aµδ. Phanikumar . pH − pL δ 2 − x2 2 L 2µ ∂u1 ∂x2 u1 = Using Newton’s law σ21 = τ21 = µ τ21 = Maximum velocity: u1 |max = Average velocity: p H − pL (−2x2 ) 2L p H − pL δ 2 L 2µ 2 p H − pL δ 2 u1 = u1 |max = ¯ 3 L 3µ The solutions are plotted schematically in ﬁgure 3.4. ∂u1 ∂x1 = 0. by the liquid on the wall.8) u1 = −Ax2 + Bx1 + C 1 Using the boundary conditions. At x2 = δ. At x2 = 0. FLOW BETWEEN TWO PLATES • Flow is fully developed. u1 = 0.6) (3. • No slip condition at top layer: at y = δ. pH −pL L ∂p • Pressure gradient is constant − ∂x1 = Boundary Conditions: • No slip condition at bottom layer: at y = −δ. the shear stress is exerted by the layer at greater x2 on the layer at lesser x2 ie.. τ21 = −Aµδ.

4 of [BSL02]. v0 g 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 y B 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 x Figure 3. (d) Fraction of slag that remains on the plane for times equal to or greater than the mean residence time.6: Flow in a channel 3. Mixing ﬁlm: Problem 2B. calculate (a) thickness of the slag layer (b) average linear ﬂow velocity of the slag and (c) mean residence time of slag on the plane. Determine the mass rate of oil as a function G. The amount of oil that is carried through can be controlled by the squeegee device. SPECIFIC CASES OF FLUID FLOW x2 x2 x2 δ u1.5 Exercises 1. Gravity g = 9. (a) Calculate v0 such that the net volume ﬂow rate across a y plane is zero. An incompressible Newtonian ﬂuid is contained between two long plates of width W = 1 m (along z) and a distance B = 1 mm apart as shown in ﬁgure 3. Assume the ﬂow is uniaxial. density of ﬂuid ρ = 1000 kg m−3 and viscosity of ﬂuid 0.3 Pa s is being transferred from one reverberatory furnace to another by ﬂow down a plane between the two furnaces inclined at 10o to the horizontal.3 m s−1 .77 × 10−3 kg m−1 s−1 (b) 0. (b) What is the ratio of the width of the ﬂuid layer that ﬂows downwards to the width of the ﬂuid layer that ﬂows upwards.5 kg s−1 .5 m wide) of metal is cold-rolled by passing vertically between rolls at a constant speed of 0. (c) Sketch a schematic of the ﬂow ﬁeld.7 below. The plate on the right is moved upwards at a velocity v0 .max u x1 τyx Figure 3. Answer: (a) 4. Before entering the rolls. The plane is 5 m in width and 5 m in length and the mass ﬂow rate of the slag is 7. Neglecting the end eﬀects.423 3. Phanikumar 38 Transport Phenomena Notes .116 m s−1 (c) 43 s (d) 0.81 m s−2 acts along y axis downwards.7: Mixing ﬁlm 2.3 and 2B. the sheet passes through a tank of lubricating oil equipped with a squeegee device that coats both sides of the sheet uniformly as it exits. Squeegee device: A continuous sheet (1.01 Pa s. steady state and fully developed. A layer of molten slag of density 2700 kg m−3 and viscosity 0.CHAPTER 3.5 of [Gas92]. Slag ﬁlm: Problem 2.

Squeegee d Figure 3. ur and uθ are zero • Flow is steady state: ∂uz ∂t =0 ∂uz ∂z • Flow is fully developed: =0 ∂p ∂z • Pressure gradient is constant: Boundary Conditions: Transport Phenomena Notes = Δp L 39 G. Properties of the lubricating oil: ρ = 962 kg m−3 . Assumptions: • Flow is unidirectional: Only uz is to be known. FLOW THROUGH A PIPE of thickness of oil ﬁlm that usually range between 0 mm and 0. µ = 4.8: Squeegee device 3.6 mm. Phanikumar .6.3.9 shows the problem deﬁnition.6 Flow through a pipe 111111111111111111 p000000000000000000 H r Fz z p 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 L 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 L 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 R Figure 3.1 × 10−3 Pa s.9: Pipe Flow Figure 3.

• Finite velocity at center: at r = 0.CHAPTER 3. ∂uz ∂uz uθ ∂uz ∂uz 1 ∂p + + uz = Fz − + ur ∂t ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ρ ∂z � � � � 1 ∂ 2 uz ∂ 2 uz 1 ∂ ∂uz +ν r + 2 + ∂z 2 r ∂r ∂r r ∂θ2 1 Δp µ 1 ∂ 0 = Fz − + ρ L ρ r ∂r � � � ∂uz r ∂r (3. uz = 0. uz = ∞.16.9) � 1 Δp 2 ρFz − r + C1 ln(r) + C2 uz = − 4µ 4µ L Using boundary conditions. Phanikumar 40 Transport Phenomena Notes . Use N-S equation in cylindrical co-ordinate system for uz and eliminate terms as per the assumptions above. uz |max Average ﬂow velocity uz : ¯ � 1 Δp ρFz = − R2 4µ 4µ L � ˙ Volume ﬂow rate V : � ρFz 1 Δp ˙ ¯ − πR4 V = πr uz = 8µ 8µ L 2 uz 2πrdr 1 uz = 0 R ¯ = uz |max � 2 2πrdr 0 � �R ˙ Mass ﬂow rate M (Hagen-Poiseuille Equation): � 2 � ρ Δp ρ Fz ˙ ˙ − πR4 M = ρV = 8µ 8µ L G. SPECIFIC CASES OF FLUID FLOW • No slip condition at pipe wall: at r = R. C1 = 0 � ρFz 1 Δp R2 C2 = − 4µ 4µ L � � 1 Δp ρFz uz = − (R2 − r 2 ) 4µ 4µ L � Using Newton’s law σ21 = τzr = µ � ∂uz ∂r τzr � 1 Δp ρFz = − (−2r) 4µ 4µ L The solution is plotted schematically in ﬁgure 3.

7 Exercises 1. what should be h such that the ﬂow rate in the tube is one litre per minute.10: Solution to Pipe Flow 3. Answer: (a) uz ln (r/R) = u0 ln k (b) � � πR2 u0 ρ 1 − k 2 2 ˙ − 2k M= 2 ln (1/k) (c) 2πLµu0 Fz = ln (1/k) 2R 2kR v0 Figure 3.max τzr u Figure 3.12. Leaking tank: Water of viscosity µ = 0. Phanikumar .3. (b) Find the mass ﬂow rate through the annular region. EXERCISES r R z uz. Assuming that the pressure at both ends of the cavity is same and ﬂuid ﬂows through the annular region only because of the rod motion.7 of [BSL02].01 Pa s and density ρ = 1000 kg m−3 from a large tank is to be transported using a rigid smooth tube of 1 cm dia connected at the bottom across a distance of L = 100 m as shown in ﬁgure 3. (c) Obtain the viscous force acting on the rod over a length L.7. Axial ﬁlm ﬂow: Problem 2B. (a) Find the velocity distribution in the narrow annular region. Transport Phenomena Notes 41 G.11: Axial ﬁlm ﬂow 2. Assuming that at steady state the tank is large enough that the height of water in it (h) does not change much in time. A cylindrical rod of radius kR moves axially with velocity v = v0 along the axis of a cylindrical cavity of radius R as shown in ﬁgure below.

The ﬂuid leaks through the walls at a constant velocity of vw . For steady viscous ﬂow through a circular tube. Channel ﬂow between porous walls: Problem 3B.13. Neglect the disturbances at the various tube junctions. as depicted in ﬁgure 3. Newtonian ﬂuid ﬂows through a rectangular channel with porous walls with a height h and inﬁnite extensions along x1 and x3 directions as shown in ﬁgure 3. Answer: 0.16 of [BSL02]. Obtain an expression for the mass ﬂow rate w of the ﬂuid entering at A (or leaving at B) as a function of the modiﬁed pressure drop pA − pB . The ﬂow takes place due to a constant pressure G. The plane ﬂow is steady. Assuming the density is constant. the axial velocity proﬁle is given approximately by the Blasius’ equation below. Answer: 3π (pA − pB ) R4 ρ ˙ M= 20µL Figure 3. SPECIFIC CASES OF FLUID FLOW h 2R L Figure 3. Cubic network of pipes: Problem 2B.1 of [Gas92]. ( r )m u = u0 1 − R For turbulent ﬂow. what is the average velocity? Is it closer to the maximum than in the case of Poiseuille ﬂow? Comment. Neglect any body forces that may act on some of the segments due to their orientation. Blasius equation: Section 4. Phanikumar 42 Transport Phenomena Notes . density ρ and viscosity µ are constant and there are no body forces.CHAPTER 3.817u0 5.12: Leaking Tank 3. m = 1/7.13: Cubic network of pipes 4.14.12 of [BSL02]. A ﬂuid is ﬂowing in laminar ﬂow from A to B through a network of tubes.

p v2 + gz + z = constant ρ 2 7. Annular region between two coaxial cylindrical surfaces of radii ri and ro (for inner and outer radii.. Assume that the ﬂuid ﬂow is uniform. (a) Use the information given at the end of the question paper and write down Euler equation in one dimension case for ﬂow in a vertical tube due to both gravity as well as pressure gradient. EXERCISES gradient Δp . (b) Show that in steady state. Velocity is fully developed along x1 . ﬂuids with nearly zero viscosity. The outer cylinder is rotating with an angular velocity of Ωo and the inner cylinder is rotating with an angular velocity of Ωi . Couette ﬂow: The Navier-Stokes equation for the θ component of velocity in cylindrical coordinate system is given to you. Channel ﬂow of two stratiﬁed immiscible ﬂuids: Section 2. we retrieve the velocity proﬁle of a plane channel ﬂow. (b) Show that the result will approximate to Newton’s Law when the diﬀerence of radii is very small compared to either radii. (a) Determine the velocity distribution in the liquid in the annular region. (b) Write the Navier-Stokes equation for u1 after simpliﬁcation.7. vw x2 Δp h x2 1 − e ν u1 (x2 ) = − vw h L ρvw h 1−e ν vw x2 x1 vw Figure 3.e. (a) Derive an expression for the shear stress as a function Transport Phenomena Notes 43 G. 8. (c) Assuming no slip boundary conditions applicable for u1 . Euler equation: Euler equation governs the ﬂow of inviscid ﬂuids i. respectively) is ﬁlled with a ﬂuid. both clockwise.14: Channel ﬂow between porous walls 6. The thickL ness of the two layers δ is same. show that the velocity distribution can be given by the expression below. Assume µ1 > µ2 . (a) Use the continuity equation to L obtain u2 (x2 ).3. Two immiscible incompressible ﬂuids of viscosities µ1 (bottom) and µ2 (top) are ﬂowing between two stationary parallel plates under a pressure gradient ΔP . Phanikumar . steady state and fully developed and is only due to the rotation of outer cylinder. Note the location of axes diﬀerent from the ones used in the class.5 of [BSL02]. it reduces to the following expression popularly known as Bernouli equation. (d) Show that in the limit vw → 0.

G. Pressure: 3 µu∞ p = p0 − ρgz − 2 R Stress: � �2 R cos θ r � �2 � �4 R 3µv∞ R − cos θ + τrr = r r R � �4 3 µu∞ R τrθ = sin θ 2 R r The normal force along z due to the z component of pressure and normal stress τrr is given as: � π � 2π Fn = (p|r=R + τrr |r=R ) cos θR2 sin θdθdφ 0 0 4 Fn = πR3 ρg + 2πµRu∞ 3 The ﬁrst term 4 πR3 ρg is called buoyancy force and the second term 2πµRu∞ is called form 3 drag. Creeping flow Normal pressure Tangential shear stress z v∞ θ Figure 3. we are interested not in the ﬂow distribution around it but the viscous drag. Phanikumar 44 Transport Phenomena Notes .6 of [BSL02].8 Creeping ﬂow over a sphere When Re < 0.15. SPECIFIC CASES OF FLUID FLOW of distance between the two plates.CHAPTER 3.15: Creeping ﬂow around a sphere We borrow the expressions for pressure and stress for creeping ﬂow around a sphere from section 2.1. The velocity of a sphere falling in a liquid column (terminal velocity) or the far ﬁeld velocity of a ﬂuid ﬂowing around a sphere is u∞ as shown in the ﬁgure 3. 3. around a sphere. (b) Determine the location of zero shear stress from the bottom. the ﬂow around a smooth sphere is such that the viscous eﬀects are present all around the sphere and no ﬂow separation takes place. (c) Draw schematically the shear stress proﬁle. For such a ﬂow regime called creeping ﬂow.

Answer: (a) 46.3.005 m and composite density 1500 kg m−3 is dropped into a column of oil of density 888 kg m−3 .01 m s−1 . 4. (a) Calculate the viscosity of the oil. It forms throughout the liquid and ﬂoats to the top. it attains a terminal velocity of 0. The product of the deoxidation of liquid steel by the addition of aluminum is solid alumina. This process is performed for a ﬁxed duration of time after which the ﬂoating mass is skikked oﬀ. Density of platinum is 21 450 kg m−3 . the measured velocity is 0. (b) Comment if the estimate is valid. 2.2 of [Gas92]. When dropped into an experimental glass of density 3000 kg m−3 .0258 m s−1 . The weight of the falling sphere should equal the sum of form drag and friction drag: 4 4 3 πR ρs g = πR3 ρg + 6πµRu∞ 3 3 Stokes Law: 4 3 πR (ρs − ρ) g = 6πµRu∞ 3 3. Problem 3. Calculate the viscosity of the experimental molten glass.9.9 Exercises 1.28 mm s−1 Transport Phenomena Notes 45 G.2 µm. Assuming that the solid alumina forms as small spheres.0168 m s−1 . 3. Answer: µ = 14.96 Pa s.8 µm (b) 1. Example 3. Answer: R = 33. Viscosities of experimental glasses are being determined by measuring the terminal velocity of a platinum sphere falling through a column of molten glass. When a hollow sphere of diameter 0. Small glass spheres of density 2620 kg m−3 are allowed to fall through CCl4 of density 1590 kg m−3 and viscosity 9. Phanikumar . (a) calculate the size of the smallest sphere that can ﬂoat to the surface of a 1.1 of [Gas92]. the measured terminal velocity is 0.3 of [Gas92]. (b) Comment if the estimate is valid.5 m deep quiescent liquid steel in 20 min.58 × 10−4 Pa s. Those particles that take longer to ﬂoat will remain in the solidiﬁed steel as inclusions and are detrimental to the mechanical properties. When dropped into a column of standard glass of viscosity 10 Pa s and density 2500 kg m−3 .4 of [Gas92]. Answer: µ = 0.834 Pa s. EXERCISES The tangential force along z due to z component of shear stress τrθ is given as: Ft = � π 0 � 2π 0 τrθ |r=R sin θR2 sin θdθdφ Ft = 4πµRu∞ This term 4πµRu∞ is called friction drag. Calculate (a) the maximum diameter of sphere for which the ﬂow obeys Stoke’s law (b) the terminal velocity that a sphere of this diameter attains. Problem 3. Example 3.

10) If A is the cross sectional area of the porous body.11) We take clue from the Poiseuille ﬂow the connects the pressure gradient with the ﬂow through a tube: Δp R2 1 Δp R2 u= ¯ = (3. If u is the actual velocity of the ﬂuid through the ¯ void. then the equivalent diameter could be deﬁned as hydraulic radius: Rh = volume of voids wettable surface area Using the deﬁnition of ǫ. SPECIFIC CASES OF FLUID FLOW = dp Figure 3. the wettable surface area is S0 V (1 − ǫ). Phanikumar 46 Transport Phenomena Notes . Using the deﬁnition of S0 . then Aǫ is the cross sectional area of the voids through which the liquid can ﬂow. volume of voids is V ǫ. Thus a porous medium is also characterised by surface area per unit volume of solid S0 . the distribution of porosity could be such that the surface area is a second variable. ǫ= volume of voids volume of porous body For a given porosity.16: Porous medium and its approximation as a bundle of tubes 3. S0 = wettable surface area volume of solid If a porous medium can be imagined to act like a bundle of thin tubes. we can deﬁne the average (superﬁcial) velocity us through the entire porous body such ¯ ˙ is same: that the volume ﬂow rate V ˙ us A = uAǫ = V ¯ ¯ or ¯ us = uǫ ¯ (3.CHAPTER 3.10 Creeping ﬂow through a porous medium A porous medium is characterised by the fraction of voids or porosity ǫ.12) L 8µ K1 L µ G. Rh = ǫ S0 (1 − ǫ) (3.

10 into 3.16) Evaluating Re for porous medium made of spherical particles (packed bed of spheres) and taking the equivalent diameter as dp . 3.12 with 4. The proportionality constant is called as permeability coeﬃcient.11. we get the BlakeKozeny equation: 1 Δp ǫ3 2 4. the constant K1 in equation 3. Re = uDρ ¯ ρus ¯ =2 µ µS0 (1 − ǫ) We deﬁne the Reynolds number for porous medium as: Rec = ρ¯s u µS0 (1 − ǫ) (3. then S0 .13) Considering that the nature of ﬂow through a porous medium is a lot tortuous than through a tube.12 is taken not as 8 but 4. Phanikumar .3. CREEPING FLOW THROUGH A POROUS MEDIUM Darcy’s Law: Considering a porous medium as a bundle of tubes.15) The Blake-Kozeny equation is valid for Rec < 2 Packed bed of spheres: If the porous medium is made of spherical particles of diameter dp .10. we get the following equation: Δp 150µus (1 − ǫ)2 ¯ = L d2 ǫ3 p (3.14) Evaluating Re for porous medium taking the equivalent diameter as 2Rh .2 L µS0 (1 − ǫ)2 us = ¯ Validity: (3. the surface area per unit volume of solid can be estimated directly since total wettable area is the sum of surface area of all spheres and total volume of solid is the sum of volume of all spheres.2 as the constant. Now substituting equations 3. S0 = 3 6 4πR2 = = 4 R dp πR3 3 Substituting this in Blake-Kozeny equation.2 as has also been validated through experiments. Re = uDρ ¯ ρus dp ¯ = µ µ3(1 − ǫ) We deﬁne the Reynolds number for packed bed of spheres as: Transport Phenomena Notes 47 G. Δp ˙ V = kD A L (3. the volume ﬂow rate is proportional to the cross sectional area and the pressure gradient.

The reactor has 3 m × 3 m square cross section and is 15 m in height.07 × 10−5 Pa s and ρ = 1. Preliminary experimental studies have shown that the porosity in a newly developed packed bed reactor is ǫ < 0. Problem 3. SPECIFIC CASES OF FLUID FLOW ReE = ρus dp ¯ µ(1 − ǫ) (3.2 kg m−3 . A constant pressure diﬀerence of 690 Pa is maintained between the inlet and outlet nozzles. G. You are required to evaluate the bed porosity.054. Phanikumar 48 Transport Phenomena Notes .17) 3.11 Exercises 1.025 kg s−1 . The pellets have a diameter of 30 mm and the reducing gas ﬂows through the bed at a rate of 0.CHAPTER 3.12 of [GP94]. and it may be assumed that the temperature is uniform throughout the reactor. The properties of the gas are µ = 2. Answer: ǫ = 0.6. Comment if the solution is valid.

¯ For internal ﬂow. we deﬁne a quantity called friction factor and express it as a function of non-dimensional quantities such as Re and relative roughness ζ. For ﬂow through a tube.1) is the kinetic energy per unit volume of the ﬂuid with average velocity u. 4. the ﬂow distribution cannot be obtained through a simple analytical expression as it could be time dependent. A is the wetted area. For external ﬂow or ﬂow over submerged objects.2) . length L due to pressure gradient Δp · π or f= 1 Δp D 4 L 1 ρu2 ¯ 2 49 D2 1 = f · πDL · ρu2 ¯ 4 2 (4.2 Flow through tube Δp . For a sphere falling through a liquid. For this. the expression for friction factor must result back to the analytical expressions derived for the situation.Chapter 4 Correlations for turbulent regime At large Reynolds numbers. we are interested in the force associated with the ﬂow and its eﬀectiveness in imparting kinetic energy to the ﬂuid. it would be the pressure times the cross-sectional area over which it acts. it would be the buoyancy force.1 Friction factor Friction factor f is deﬁned in the following expression: 1 Fk = f A ρu2 ¯ 2 1 ρu2 ¯ 2 (4. In such cases. 4. For laminar ﬂow. A is the area projected on a plane perpendicular to the velocity u. ¯ Fk is the force associated with the ﬂuid ﬂow. L For internal ﬂow through a tube of diameter D.

6 log10 � ζ 3.25 Turbulent ﬂow through rough pipe (4 × 104 < Re < 108 ): f Here. CORRELATIONS FOR TURBULENT REGIME For laminar regime.3 Flow across a sphere For laminar regime.3) using the expression for Poiseuille ﬂow.9 Re 4.1: A = 2πRL Fk = ΔpπR2 to get Δp ρu2 ¯ =f L R Eliminating Δp L Δp R2 L 8µ (4.1: A is projected area for ﬂow over submerged objects: A = πR2 u = u∞ ¯ Fk = 6πµRu∞ G. Substitute the following in equation 4. we know that the force associated with the ﬂow is given by Stoke’s law.0791Re−0.7 �1.5 = −3. Phanikumar 50 Transport Phenomena Notes . we know that u= ¯ Substitute the following in equation 4. ζ is relative roughness −0.CHAPTER 4.11 + 6. we get f= 8µ µ 16 = 16 = ρRu ¯ ρDu ¯ Re Friction factors for pipe ﬂow: Laminar ﬂow through smooth pipe (Re < 2100): f= 16 Re Turbulent ﬂow through smooth pipe (3000 < Re < 105 ): f = 0.

4 Flow through a porous medium For creeping ﬂow through a porous medium.4) 24 Re 4.5Re−0.1 2 < Re < 500 Re < 6000 500 < Re < 2 × 105 Remarks Laminar Turbulent Turbulent Newtons Law (4.2 (1 − ǫ) S0 µ = Rec ρus ¯ (4. Phanikumar 51 .44 Re range Re < 0.4. we get f= Friction factors for ﬂow over sphere: 1 F = f πR2 ρu2 2 ∞ Friction Factor f = 24/Re f = 18. FLOW THROUGH A POROUS MEDIUM to get 1 6πµRu∞ = f · πR2 · ρu2 2 ∞ Simplifying.5) Friction factors for ﬂow through porous medium: For Rec < 2: f= Transport Phenomena Notes 4.6 (� )2 f= 24/Re + 0. Use the deﬁnition of friction factor applied for tube ﬂow and expressions as used in the derivation of 3. we can use the Darcy’s law to approximate the porous medium to be a bundle of tubes and obtain the following relation from equation 3. Δp S0 (1 − ǫ) 2 ρus =f L ǫ3 Substituting equation 3.14 in the above to eliminate pressure drop.14: Δp · π 2 1 Dh = f · πDh L · ρu2 4 2 Δp ρu2 =f· 2 s L ǫ Rh Thus.4.5407 f = 0. f = 4.14.2 Rec G.2 4.

7) we get fE = 150 (1 − ǫ) µ 150 = ReE ρus dp ¯ Friction factors for ﬂow through packed bed of spheres: For ReE < 10: fE = For 10 < ReE < 1000: fE = For 1000 < ReE < 105 : fE = 1.CHAPTER 4.2 + 0. It is found that.292 4. S0 = Substitute the same in equation 4. L 6 dp (4. we can use the porous medium equation 3. Flow past inﬁnite cylinder: Problem 6B. The ﬂow past a long cylinder is very diﬀerent from the ﬂow past a sphere.75 150 ReE 150 + 1.4/Re) Transport Phenomena Notes 52 .6 Exercises 1.75 ReE 4. the kinetic force acting on a length L of the cylinder is given by: Fk = G. Phanikumar 4πµu∞ L ln (7. CORRELATIONS FOR TURBULENT REGIME For 2 < Rec < 1000: f= For 1000 < Rec < 105 : f = 0.14 and substitute expression for S0 . when the ﬂuid approaches a velocity u∞ .9 of [BSL02].5 to get Δp 6 (1 − ǫ) 2 =f ρus L dp ǫ3 We deﬁne 6f as fE so that: (1 − ǫ) 2 Δp = fE ρus dp ǫ3 L Eliminating Δp .6) (4.5 Flow through a packed bed of spheres For creeping ﬂow through a packed bed of sphere.292 Rec 4.

85 × 10−5 Pa s. Answer: (a) 0. Answer: 0. 5.07 m inner diameter when the pressure drop per unit length is 125 Pa/m. µ = 8. 7. Calculate the required diameter of the smooth walled pipe.83 m s−1 . (a) Calculate the pressure drop over the length of pipe. density of air is 1.177 kg m−3 and viscosity of air is 1. Answer: 21 kPa. Water at 300 K is pumped at an average linear ﬂow velocity of 2 m s−1 through a 30 m length of horizontal pipe of inside diameter 0. Answer: (a) 1. Assuming smooth spherical shapes of particles. 4. Example 4.01 m when it is dropped in still air. Calculate (a) the drag force that the shot experiences as it leaves the gun barrel at a velocity of 150 m s−1 (b) the terminal velocity that it attains when it falls through the still air and (c) the terminal velocity that it attains when it falls through the still water. which with the same pressure drop.1. Density of minerals are ρA = 2700 kg m−3 and ρB = 3400 kg m−3 .002. what is the formula for the friction factor as a function of the Reynolds number? 2.35. Problem 4.002.05 m at the rate of 1. (a) Calculate the pressure drop required to pass water at 300 K through a smooth pipe of inside diameter 0. (a) Calculate the ﬂow rate of water at 300 K in a smooth pipe of 0. EXERCISES The Reynolds number is deﬁned here as Re = Du∞ ρ/µ and the above equation is valid up to Re = 1.8 of [Gas92].41.4 of [Gas92].7 of [Gas92].2 kPa is ﬂowing through a packed bed of spheres of 1 cm diameter. Examples 4.2 of [Gas92]. Air at 300 K and an average pressure of 101.3 of [Gas92].0183 m.05 kg s−1 .17 kg s−1 .8 × 104 Pa (b) 4.004. The average ﬂow velocity of water at 300 K in a smooth pipe of internal diameter 0. Settling ratio is deﬁned as the ratio of sizes of two particles that settle at the same time.2.3 m s−1 (c) 0. The properties of water are ρ = 997 kg m−3 .5 × 10−3 m3 s−1 . 6. 9. gives the same average linear ﬂow velocity.57 × 10−5 Pa s.1 m in dia and 0.0412 N (b) 29. (b) The rough pipe is replaced by a smooth walled pipe of that diameter.07 kPa (b) 0.002? Answer: (a) 3.4 of [Gas92]. (b) What would be the answer if the pipe is not smooth but has a relative roughness of 0.2 m in height and a porosity of 0. estimate the settling ratio of mineral A to mineral B in water for (a) laminar ﬂow regime and (b) turbulent ﬂow regime. The bed is cylindrical in geometry with 0.19 (b) 1.5 of [Gas92]. Calculate the average ﬂow velocity if the relative roughness were 0.6. Phanikumar . 4. Answer: (a) 3.57 × 10−4 Pa s. 4. Density of lead is 11 340 kg m−3 . 3. Problem 4. ρ = 997 kg m−3 . A lead shot of diameter 3 mm is ﬁred upward into still air at 300 K over open water.4. Problem 4.7 kg s−1 (b) 3. Problem 4. (b) What would be the answer if the pipe has a relative roughness of 0. Transport Phenomena Notes 53 G. The density of steel is 7500 kg m−3 .025 m and relative roughness of 0.07 m is 1 m s−1 when the rate of pressure drop is 125 Pa m−1 . It is useful to know the settling ratio of two minerals in a given medium so that they could later be mechanically separated using a sieve.9618 m s−1 .5 m s−1 . µ = 8. Answer: (a) 72. Answer: 43. Calculate the pressure drop across the bed required to give a mass ﬂow rate of air of 0.64 × 104 Pa. For this range. Calculate the terminal velocity attained by a steel sphere of diameter 0. 8. Examples 4.

The ﬁlter bed comprises of two diﬀerent packings arranged in series.CHAPTER 4.13 of [GP94].2. ǫ1 = ǫ2 .175 (b) 0. Problem 3. Phanikumar 54 Transport Phenomena Notes . The ﬁrst packing encountered by the ﬂow captures large drossy particles and the second packing captures the smaller drossy particles.7L2 . compute the ratio of the pressure drop across the ﬁrst and second beds for the cases of (a) creeping ﬂow through the bed (b) fully turbulent ﬂow through the bed. Given the lengths as L1 = 0.1 = 2dp.35 G. dp. CORRELATIONS FOR TURBULENT REGIME 10. Molten aluminum is passed through a horizontal ﬁlter bed of Al2 O3 spheres in order to remove drossy oxides from the aluminum. Answer: (a) 0.

In that process we had followed the following sequence of steps: • Balance equation or conservation principle • Gauss theorem to convert surface integral to volume integral • Linear constitutive relation • Curie principle to simplify property tensor We will follow the same steps to derive the governing equation for energy transport. If dU is the change in the internal energy.1 Introduction Energy transport or heat transfer is basically through two means: conduction and radiation. 55 . rotational and translational degrees of freedom of atoms. one can consider that radiative heat transfer is mostly a surface phenomena for solids and liquids. The balance equation for heat transfer is the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics or the conservation of energy. it is often taken in to account in the boundary conditions. Taking cue from Lambert’s law that the attenuation of electromagnetic radiation in a medium is exponential (qz = q0 exp (−mz)). The ﬁrst two are predominant modes of energy exchange between atoms in solid and liquid states while the third is predominant in gaseous state. Conduction is a mode of energy transport by vibrational. the absorption coeﬃcient m being higher for medium of higher density. dU = dq − pdV + dWother dWother is usually zero for the kind of situations we are interested in. −pdV is the work done by the system and dWother is the work done by the system other than reduction in volume.Chapter 5 Energy Transport 5. Thus. Using deﬁnition of enthalpy H as H = U + P V . The governing equation for heat transfer by conduction can be derived similar to the way the governing equations for momentum transfer (Navier-Stokes equations) were derived. The third mode of heat transfer by convection could be imagined as a combination of conduction and advection. dq is the heat ﬂow into the system. Energy transport by radiation involves emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation as photons typically in the infrared wavelength range.

both of which can be considered as isotropic in G. Hp = dq = ρCp dT = ρCp (T − Tref ) (5. the materials of interest are polycrystalline metallic materials and liquids. ENERGY TRANSPORT dH = dU + pdV + V dp = dq − pdV + pdV + V dp = dq + V dp Writing H as a function of T and p.4) To obtain a relation between the surface heat ﬂux Ji and its eﬀects. Usually. 5. � d ρCp (T − Tref )dV = dt � gdV − � ∂Ji dV ∂xi (5. H is usally Hp . Thus. we seek a linear constitutive equation as given in the following section. H= � ∂H ∂T � dT + p � ∂H ∂p � dp T Since pressure is usually left constant at atmospheric pressure.3) V V V Since the integration is over the same control volume dV . then we can write the energy balance for a control volume of volume dV as d dt � HdV = � gdV − � Ji ni dS V V S Using equation 5. d ∂Ji ρCp T = g − dt ∂xi (5. we can equate the integrands.1 and making use of Reynold’s transport theorem (section A.CHAPTER 5.1) If the volumetric heat generation term is g and Ji is the surface heat ﬂux through a surface of area dS and surface normal ni .2) V V S Using the Gauss theorem to convert the surface integral to volume integral.2 Fourier’s ﬁrst law Since surface heat ﬂux Ji tends to increase temperatures locally leading to temperature diﬀerences in the body. it can be related to temperature gradients. The most general way of such a relation could be as given below: Jj = −kij ∂T ∂xi The thermal conductivity (kij ) is a tensor of order 2.8) to take the material derivative inside the integral: � d ρCp (T − Tref )dV = dt � gdV − � Ji ni dS (5. Phanikumar 56 Transport Phenomena Notes .

e. thermal conductivity being a material property.2). liquids and single crystalline materials with four fold symmetry: kij = kδij However. the property tensor can be represented by a symmetric matrix. the ﬂux can be expressed in terms of temperature gradient as : Jj = −kδij or First law of Fourier heat conduction: Ji = −k ∂T ∂xi (5. z): � = −k q Spherical (r. FOURIER’S FIRST LAW most of the situations1 . θ. θ. x3 ): � = −k q Cylindrical (r. Using the theorem that all symmetric tensors can be diagonalised (section A. φ): q � = −k 1 � ∂T ∂T ∂T x2 + ˆ x3 ˆ x1 + ˆ ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 � � � ∂T 1 ∂T ˆ ∂T r+ ˆ θ+ z ˆ ∂r r ∂θ ∂z � � ∂T 1 ∂T ˆ 1 ∂T ˆ r+ ˆ θ+ φ ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ Highly textured polycrystalline materials and liquid crystals are exceptions Transport Phenomena Notes 57 G. isotropic). Lars Onsager’s reciprocal relations come of great use here in stating that for crystals of rotational symmetry such as 3. it must exhibit at least as much symmetry as the material itself.. we can write the thermal conductivity tensor as following for polycrystalline materials. for the kind of materials that we interested in (i. thermal conductivity should be written as a tensor (with two or more components). x2 . and applying the four fold symmetry on the tensor to reduce the number of independent values to one as shown in section A.5) ∂T ∂xi The Fourier’s equation can be written in a co-ordinate system independent general form as: � q � = −k∇T such that it can be written for diﬀerent co-ordinate systems as follows: Cartesian (x1 .5. one can use symmetry arguments to reduce the number of independent values necessary to write the thermal conductivity tensor. Thus. For single crystalline materials that are anisotropic. 4 and 6 fold. for single crystalline materials that donot possess cubic symmetry such as graphite.2. Thermal conductivity for an isotropic material will be an isotropic tensor and can be written as kij = kδij . Using Curie principle. Phanikumar .5.

8) � � � � 1 ∂ ∂T 1 ∂2T ∂2T g r + 2 2 + 2 + ∂z ρCp r ∂r ∂r r ∂θ (5. Phanikumar 58 (5.9) (5.CHAPTER 5. x2 .5 in to 5. � = 0.3 Fourier’s second law Substituting equation 5.4: � � d ∂ ∂T −k ρCp T = g − ∂xi dt ∂xi � � dρCp T ∂ ∂T = k +g ∂xi dt ∂xi For constant properties. z): ∂T =α ∂t � � � � 1 ∂ ∂T 1 ∂2T ∂2T g r + 2 2 + 2 + ∂z ρCp r ∂r ∂r r ∂θ � ∂2T ∂2T ∂2T + + 2 2 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂x2 1 � g ρCp (5.12) (5.7) Cartesian: � ∂2T ∂2T ∂2T + + 2 2 ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x3 1 � + g ρCp (5. leading to dt = ∂t + � · ∇ = u system independent notation to write the Fourier’s second law as: ∂ . θ. x3 ): ∂T =α ∂t Cylindrical (r.10) we can use co-ordinate ∂T g = α∇2 T + ∂t ρCp The expanded forms for the three co-ordinate systems of interest are: Cartesian (x1 .6) ∂T g + � · ∇T = α∇2 T + u � ∂t ρCp Expanding the ∇ operator for diﬀerent co-ordinate systems: ∂T ∂T ∂T ∂T + u2 + u3 =α + u1 ∂x2 ∂x3 ∂t ∂x1 Cylindrical: ∂T ∂T uθ ∂T ∂T + + uz =α + ur ∂t ∂r r ∂θ ∂z Spherical: uφ ∂T ∂T ∂T uθ ∂T + ur + + = ∂t ∂r r ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ � � � � � � g 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂T 1 ∂2T 2 ∂T r + 2 sin θ + 2 2 + α 2 2 ∂θ ρCp r ∂r ∂r r sin θ ∂θ r sin θ ∂φ ∂ d u � Recognising that for solids. φ): � � � � � � ∂T 1 ∂ 1 ∂ ∂T 1 ∂2T g 2 ∂T =α 2 r + 2 sin θ + 2 2 + 2 ∂r r sin θ ∂θ ∂θ ρCp ∂t r ∂r r sin θ ∂φ G. θ. ENERGY TRANSPORT 5. ∂t (5. using thermal diﬀusivity α = k ρCp (5.11) + (5.13) Spherical (r.14) Transport Phenomena Notes .

Dirichlet boundary condition: Temperature is speciﬁed at the boundaries. geometry of the surface and thermophysical properties of the two materials. if the surfaces are not smooth and the contact is not perfect. However. it can written as: q = eσSB T 4 σSB is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant and e is the emissivity. Newton’s Law of cooling: Heat ﬂux as a function of boundary temperature is speciﬁed at the boundary. the interface can be said to be at one temperature. The rate of heat transfer from a surface of a solid to the ﬂuid it is in contact with is proportional to the diﬀerence in temperatures of the ﬂuid and the solid. Phanikumar . When expressed as a boundary heat ﬂux. interfacial heat transfer coeﬃcient.5. A heat ﬂux balance at the surface will connect the Fourier’s equation with the Newton’s law of cooling as follows: ∂T |x=0 ∂x Since h is always deﬁned as a positive quantity irrespective of the direction of heat ﬂow.4. q|x=0 = h (Ts − T∞ ) = −k � � � −k ∂T | � � ∂x x=0 � h=� � � Ts − T∞ � Interface resistance: When smooth surfaces of two solids are in perfect contact. Kapitza resistance is an exception Transport Phenomena Notes 59 G.4 Boundary conditions Neumann boundary condition: Heat ﬂux is speciﬁed at the boundary. there could be a jump in the interface temperatures2 and the resistance to heat ﬂow across the interface is characterized by a parameter h. radiation can be a signiﬁcant mode of energy transport. The heat ﬂux across the two interfaces can then be written similar to Newton’s law as q|interface = h (Ts1 − Ts2 ) Radiative heat ﬂux: For gases at high temperatures or surfaces of solids or liquids at high temperatures. The temperature will be continuous without a jump when measured at micro-scale. Radiative heat ﬂux from surface 1 to surface 2 (of areas A1 and A2 ) that have view factors F12 and F21 is 4 4 4 4 q12 = A1 F12 (T1 − T2 ) = A2 F21 (T1 − T2 ) 2 at a macro-scale. q = h (Ts − T∞ ) The heat transfer coeﬃcient (h) is a property dependent on several factors including velocity of the ﬂuid. BOUNDARY CONDITIONS 5.

1 6. q is the ﬂux similar to current and Δx is the resistance. Now the resistance to heat ﬂow is known.1 Steady state 1D heat transfer Across a rectangular slab T T1 T2 Δx x1 x2 x Figure 6.1: Heat ﬂow across a slab At steady state. 60 . T1 − T2 is the driving force similar to voltage.Chapter 6 Heat transfer in solids 6.1) Taking the analogy of electricity. then: � T2 T1 −q dT = Ak � x2 dx x1 T2 − T1 = q q (x1 − x2 ) = − Δx Ak Ak Δx T1 − T2 = q Ak (6. they can Ak combined in serial and parallel similar to the circuits in electricity. if q is the rate of heat transfer (Js−1 ) across a slab area A: q ∂T = −k A ∂x If the surface temperatures of the slab are T1 and T2 at x1 and x2 . respectively.1.

2 Across a cylindrical wall T T1 T2 ΔR R1 R2 x Figure 6. STEADY STATE 1D HEAT TRANSFER As can be seen from the equation for ﬂux: q T1 − T2 =k A Δx doubling the slab thickness Δx will halve the heat ﬂux.1.2: Heat ﬂow across a cylindrical wall At steady state. 6. the resistance to heat ﬂow across a cylindrical wall is ln R2 R1 2πLk . q q T1 − T2 T1 − T2 |r=R1 = =k =k R2 A 2πLR1 R1 ln (1 + ΔR ) R1 ln R1 R1 As can be seen from the equation for ﬂux: Transport Phenomena Notes 61 G.6. if q is the rate of heat transfer (Js−1 ) across a cylindrical wall of (variable) area A = 2πrL: q q ∂T = = −k A 2πrL ∂r Heat ﬂow across a hollow cylindrical wall of inner radius R1 and outer R2 at temperatures T1 and T2 .1. Phanikumar .2) R2 ln R1 T1 − T2 = q 2πLk Drawing the analogy to electricity as above. respectively. is then given by: � T2 T1 −q dT = 2πLk � R2 R1 dr r T2 − T1 = −q R2 ln 2πLk R1 (6.

T1 − T2 q� (T1 − T2 )R2 � =k =k � A r=R1 →∞ ΔRR1 ΔR � �� ΔR � T1 − T2 � 1+ =k � R1 R1 →∞ ΔR which is the limit where a spherical shell of thickness ΔR can be approximated to a rectangular slab of same thickness.1. 6. 6. edge. respectively. corner. the resistance to heat ﬂow across a cylindrical wall ( ) 1 1 1 is 4πk R2 − R1 .with the following geometries in the decreasing order of eﬀectiveness: point. heat ﬂux (heat per unit time per unit area) depends on the geometry . plane. R1 → ∞.3) −q T2 − T1 = 4πk T1 − T2 1 = q 4πk 1 1 − R1 R2 1 1 − R1 R2 � Drawing the analogy to electricity as above. Such a sequence of eﬀectiveness of thermal diﬀusion arises from the amount of space available for exchange of energy. As can be seen from the equation for ﬂux: G. line. HEAT TRANSFER IN SOLIDS Doubling the slab thickness ΔR will not necessarily halve the heat ﬂux. Point eﬀect of diﬀusion comes of use when interpreting defects in casting. is then given by: � T2 T1 −q dT = 4πk � � R2 R1 dr r2 � � (6.3 Across a spherical shell At steady state.CHAPTER 6. ΔR is a small quantity and ln (1 + ΔR ) can be R1 R1 approximated to ΔR leading to the above expression as: R1 q T1 − T2 T1 − T2 |r=R1 →∞ = k =k ΔR ΔR A R1 R1 which is the limit where a cylindrical wall of thickness ΔR can be approximated to a rectangular slab of same thickness. if q is the rate of heat transfer (Js−1 ) across a spherical shell of (variable) area A = 4πr 2 : q q ∂T = = −k 2 ∂r A 4πr Heat ﬂow across a hollow sphere of inner radius R1 and outer R2 at temperatures T1 and T2 .1. It can be noted that in the limit of large curvature. Phanikumar 62 Transport Phenomena Notes .4 Point eﬀect of diﬀusion When the temperature diﬀerences and the properties are kept constant.

5 Across a planar composite wall q A Using the electrical analogy of the previous section.6. = h (Ts − T∞ ) At steady state. if q is the rate of heat transfer (Js−1 ) across a planar composite wall of constant area A: q T2 − T1 T3 − T2 T4 − T3 = hb (Tb − T1 ) = −k12 = −k23 = −k34 = ha (T4 − Ta ) Δx23 Δx34 A Δx12 or � � 1 q 1 Δx12 Δx23 Δx34 + + + + Ta − Tb = k12 k23 k34 hb A ha 1 Analogy with electricity: h and Δx act as resistances.3: Point eﬀect of diﬀusion 6. Temperature is analogous to voltage k q diﬀerence (driving force for the current). cylindrical ΔR = 5. ﬂux boundary condition 1 can be written such that the resistance to heat ﬂow is Ah . A is analogous to current. spherical 40 60 radius of curvature R 80 100 Figure 6. STEADY STATE 1D HEAT TRANSFER Doubling the slab thickness ΔR will not necessarily halve the heat ﬂux. The rationale behind this is the what we call as point eﬀect of diﬀusion. Phanikumar . It can be noted that in the limit of large curvature.1. Transport Phenomena Notes 63 G. R1 → ∞.1. we plot the three geometries below: Point eﬀect of diﬀusion 6 Denominator in ﬂux term 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 20 Δx = 5 ΔR = 5. Taking the wall thickness to be same. ΔR is a small quantity and goes to zero leading to the R1 above expression as: q� T1 − T2 � =k � A r=R1 →∞ ΔR which is the limit where a spherical wall of thickness ΔR can be approximated to a slab of same thickness.

respectively.7 of [Gas92]. Thermal conductivity of the wall material is approximated to be linear function of temperature with a value of k1 at the inner wall temperature T1 and k2 at the outer wall temperature T2 .5 mm around it. The temperatures of the inner and outer surfaces of the tube are. Example 6. Answer: (a) 285. Example 6. (b) Simplify the expression for the case when the wall thickness is very small compared to the radius of the cylinder. (b) Temperatures at each junction. Phanikumar 64 Transport Phenomena Notes . (a) what is the highest temperature that can be set in the furnace and (b) what is the power consumption at that temperature setting? Ignore end eﬀects and assume steady state. ρ = 7210 kg m−3 and Cp = 750 J kg−1 K−1 .2 Exercises 1.1. Assume room temperature to be 300 K .4 W m−2 (b) Ti = 481 ◦C.4 of [Gas92]. what should be the temperature of the left side face such that all the heat ﬂux in the slab is from the left face to the right face at steady state? Properties of steel are k = 45 W m−1 K−1 . Answer: (a) 51. If the insulating plastic softens above 100 ◦C. (a) Calculate the rate of heat loss from the tube per unit length. Hot water ﬂows through a glass tube of inner radius 3 cm and outer radius 5 cm.7 W m−1 (b) 31. Example 6. Inner temperature of the furnace is 500 ◦C and heat transfer coeﬃcient on the inner wall is 15 W m−2 K−1 . A copper wire of diameter 1 mm has an insulating plastic sheath of 0. a 5 cm glass ﬁbre (k = 0. HEAT TRANSFER IN SOLIDS 6. T1 = 442 ◦C. 5. Heat is ﬂowing at steady state through an annular wall of a cylinder of inner radius R1 and outer radius R2 . Knowing that the glass wool would melt at 800 ◦C and that furnace converts all its electrical power to heat energy. 90 ◦C and 85 ◦C and the mean thermal conductivity of the glass is 0. A 50 cm long tubular furnace is made of a 1 cm thick silica tube of 10 cm inner radius kept in a 5 mm thick steel tube of 15 cm outer dia with glass wool in between.1 W m−1 3. 2.1 W m−1 K−1 ). A furnace wall consists of 15 cm thick silica brick (k = 1.035 W m−1 K−1 and a 1 cm steel (k = 45 W m−1 K−1 ).CHAPTER 6. the heat ﬂow across a composite hollow cylindrical wall is given by: � � r1 r2 ln r2 ln r3 ln r3 q 1 1 r4 Ta − Tb = + + + + k12 k23 k34 r4 h4 2πL r1 h1 6. (a) Calculate the power loss per unit area of furnace wall at steady state. (a) Derive an expression for the heat ﬂow across the cylindrical shell. If the right side face of the slab is at 20 ◦C. The heat transfer coeﬃcient on the surface exposed to ambient air at 30 ◦C is 8 W m−2 K−1 . Properties of copper are G.6 Across a cylindrical composite wall Using the electrical analogue of the previous section.3 of [Gas92]. An iron slab of thickness 2 cm carries an electric current that generates heat at a rate of 10 × 106 W m−3 . (b)By how much is the rate of heat loss decreased if the wall thickness of the tube is doubled keeping the inner radius same. The heat transfer coeﬃcients for inside and outside of the furnace can be taken to be 20 W m−2 K−1 . T2 ≈ T3 ≈ 34 ◦C. Ambient temperature is 20 ◦C and heat transfer coeﬃcient on the outer wall is 20 W m−2 K−1 . 4. calculate the maximum current that can be passed through the wire.84 W m−1 K−1 . 6.

1. one can assume that no thermal gradients would be present within the solid and use what is known as lumped heat capacitance method to obtain the variation of average temperature of the solid with time. In the ﬁrst case. This forms the conduction dominated heat transfer.3. In the second case. Answer: 14. we require that the inner temperature of the object Ti is as close to the surface temperature Ts as possible. A balance of ﬂux at the surface gives: k or Ti − Ts = h (Ts − T∞ ) L Ti − Ts hL = Ts − T∞ k Bi = hL k We deﬁne Biot Number as If Bi ≤ 0.2 Interface dominated The change in the temperature of an object immersed in a ﬂuid at diﬀerent temperature can be estimated easily if the thermal conductivity of the object is high enough that no thermal gradients develop within the object. 6. This forms the interface dominated heat transfer. An example could be a hot ceramic piece kept in front of a fan. If the characteristic length scale of the object is L.3. This is when the removal of heat from the interface is not constrained. Phanikumar . Properties of the insulating plastic are k = 0.1 Transient 1D heat transfer Introduction Within the domain of unidirectional heat transfer where the transient evolution of temperatures is of interest.3. one needs to solve the equation of thermal diﬀusion in solid to determine the thermal gradients that drive the heat ﬂux across the interface of the solid with the ambient medium.6. The ﬁrst where the heat transfer from the solid is limited by thermal diﬀusion through its bulk. The second case is when bulk diﬀusion of heat within the solid is not constrained at all but the heat transfer at the interface is limited by the surrounding medium. TRANSIENT 1D HEAT TRANSFER k = 380 W m−1 K−1 .3 A 6.3 6. An example could be a hot copper block kept in still air. hA (T − T∞ ) = −ρCp V Transport Phenomena Notes 65 dT dt G.96 × 10−8 Ω m.35 W m−1 K−1 and σ ≈ 0 Ω m. Ti is close enough to Ts that thermal gradients within the object can be neglected so that Newtonian cooling is applicable. one can think of two extreme cases. In such as case. we can write. σ = 1.

CHAPTER 6. T − T∞ = exp (−Bi. the characteristic length scale. ht hL αt = = Bi. Put leading to x η= √ 2 αt ∂η 1 = √ ∂x 2 αt ∂η −η = ∂t 2t ∂T ∂T 1 √ = ∂x ∂x 2 αt ∂2T 1 ∂2 T = ∂x2 4αt ∂x2 G. temperature as a function of time and spatial coordinates can be obtained by solving the Fourier heat conduction equation. it leads to summation of a series. ∂T ∂2T =α 2 ∂t ∂x While variable separation is one way of solving this equation. We use a co-ordinate transformation to make the equation simpler.3 Conduction dominated In problems where heat transfer is dominated by conduction.F o) T0 − T∞ αt kt = ρCp L2 L2 6. we deﬁne Fourier number as: Fo = Thus. when Bi ≤ 0. the governing equation can be written for a one dimensional case as follows.3. Phanikumar 66 Transport Phenomena Notes .F o k L2 ρCp L where. HEAT TRANSFER IN SOLIDS or or � T T0 dT −hA = T − T∞ ρCp V ln � t dt 0 −hAt T − T∞ = ρCp V T0 − T∞ � � T − T∞ hAt = exp − T0 − T∞ ρCp V Deﬁning V /A as L.1. For the problem of semi-inﬁnite domain where temperature at one end is ﬁxed and we are interested in its evolution as a function of distance and time.

A long copper wire of 2 mm diameter is exposed to air stream at a temperature of 400 K.4 Exercises 1. Transport Phenomena Notes 67 G. After a minute. 6. EXERCISES Equation 6. Phanikumar . T = � η=η C1 e−η dη + C2 2 η=0 The integral cannot be simpliﬁed and is often given as a tabulated function with the following deﬁnition and properties 2 erf(η) = √ π � η e−η dη 2 0 ∂ 2 2 erf(η) = √ e−η ∂η π erf(0) = 0 erf(∞) = 1 erf(−η) = −erf(η) Thus.3 in a semi-inﬁnite domain can be written as : x T = Aerf( √ ) + B 2 αt The constants A and B can be determined using the boundary conditions. the solution of 6. the average temperature of the wire increased from 280 K to 350 K.3. comment on the validity of your solution.3.4. ˙ log T = −η 2 + constant or 2 ˙ T = C1 e−η Integrating once more.3 becomes ∂2T ∂T = −2η 2 ∂η ∂η or ¨ T = −2η ˙ T Integrating once. (a) Estimate the average heat transfer coeﬃcient on the surface (b) Using the Biot number.6.

25 m s−1 where h = 580 W m−2 K−1 . Properties of glass are ρ = 3000 kg m−3 . 6. Small droplets of a molten glass maintain their amorphicity if they cool at a rate of atleast 10 K s−1 measured at 1070 K. estimate how long a human can stay alive in (a) quiescent water at 10 ◦C where h = 230 W m−2 K−1 and (b) in ﬂowing water at 10 ◦C moving at 0. Cp = 840 J kg−1 K−1 . evaporation and conduction that are dynamically balanced depending on the outside temperature. AJ = −ρs ΔHf 1 ∂V ∂t Solidiﬁcation in undercooled melts is an exception G. 3. In order to keep the body temperature at 37 ◦C. the heat must be dissipated through various mechanisms such as convective heat transfer. Verify if your answer is valid for lumped capacitance method to work. k= 17 W m−1 K−1 . what is the required heat transfer coeﬃcient to achieve the minimum cooling rate? The quench environment is maintained at 293 K.CHAPTER 6. T0 ) Figure 6. radiation. If the heat loss is signiﬁcant and the core temperature drops below 21 ◦C. Phanikumar 68 Transport Phenomena Notes .1 mm diameter. Assuming the surface area of a human body to be about 2 m2 . T0 ) −x x (0. Assuming that all the latent heat is extracted through mould. death occurs.5 Moving boundary condition Problem: Liquid is poured at TM in a thick mould kept at T0 . arrive at the rate of solidiﬁcation. HEAT TRANSFER IN SOLIDS 2. T 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 TM (−∞. A typical human body generates about 100 W due to metabolism.4: Temperature proﬁle during solidiﬁcation Solution: Solidiﬁcation is usually antiparallel to the direction of heat ﬂux 1 Heat ﬂux at x = 0 is � � � = −km ∂T � J x ˆ ∂x �x=0 Latent heat release per unit volume of solid formed is ρs ΔHf Let the heat transfer be across a constant mould-solid surface area of A Balancing the two. Assume Cp of human body to be about 3470 J kg−1 K−1 . For a spherical droplet with 0.

6. derive expressions to estimate the two quantities. Phanikumar .5. V 2 (TM − T0 )HD m √ =√ t A ρs ΔHf π Chvorinov’s Rule: √ V ∝ t A 6. Heat transfer is controlled by conduction through solid as well as mould. If the mould-solid interface temperature is TS after a thickness of M of solid has formed.5. Boundary conditions: BC2: T = TS at x = 0 and t = τ BC3: Flux balance −km BC4: T = TM at x = M and t = τ BC5: Flux balance � � ∂T � ∂T � � � = −ks ∂x �x→−0 ∂x �x→+0 BC1: T = T0 at x = −∞ Transport Phenomena Notes � ∂T � ∂V � Aks = ρs ΔHf � ∂x x=M ∂t 69 G.1 Solidiﬁcation: mould and solid conductivity controlled Problem: Liquid at TM is poured in to a mould at T0 . 2 1 ∂V = ρs ΔHf Akm (TM − T0 ) √ √ ∂t π 2 αm t or 1 ∂V (TM − T0 ) � 1 √ = km ρm Cpm √ A ∂t ρs ΔHf π t HD = � km ρm Cpm Deﬁne heat diﬀusivity HD as Integrating from V = 0 at t = 0 to V = V at t = t. MOVING BOUNDARY CONDITION since a positive J implies heat ﬂux in +ˆ direction leading to a negative rate of solidiﬁcation. x Akm � ∂T � ∂V � = ρs ΔHf � ∂x x=0 ∂t Writing the error function solution to the temperature in the mould (properties of mould indicated by subscript m ). TM − T −x = erf( √ ) TM − T0 2 αm t Substituting.

G.5: Temperature proﬁle during solidiﬁcation Solution: Using BC1 and BC2. TS ) (−∞. T0 ) −x x Figure 6. HDm (TS − T0 ) = Call p= HDs HDm erf(φ) pTM + T0 p+1 HDs (TM − TS ) erf(φ) TS = BC5 provides an estimate for φ as a function of physical parameters. HEAT TRANSFER IN SOLIDS 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 T (M. TM ) (0. Phanikumar 70 Transport Phenomena Notes . write the solution for temperature in the solid as � x √ 2 αs t � TM − TS erf T = TS + erf(φ) BC3 provides an estimate of TS for a given φ: TM − TS 1 TS − T0 km √ = ks √ παm τ παs τ erf(φ) Using the deﬁnition of heat diﬀusivity.CHAPTER 6. write the error function solution for heat conduction in the mould as: −x TS − T = erf( √ ) TS − T0 2 αm t Similarly the error function solution for heat conduction in the solid is: T = Aerf Using BC2 and BC4 and naming M √ 2 αs τ � x √ 2 αs t � +B as φ.

6.m = 1 × 103 J kg−1 K−1 . Phanikumar . ρL = 8. (a) estimate the heat diﬀusivity of the unknown mould material. φerf(φ)eφ = 2 2 Cps (TM − TS ) √ ΔHf π Using a table / plot of φerf(φ)eφ as a function of φ. From the properties of mould materials given below. one can look up for the RHS of above √ equation for the corresponding φ which gives the relation M = 2φ αs τ . ﬁne the minimum pouring temperature to prevent instantaneous freezing. EXERCISES 2 ∂V TM − TS 2 √ = ρs ΔHf Aks √ e−φ π ∂t erf(φ)2 αs t Recognising that V A = M. ﬁnd its temperature Ts when the freezing is yet to start. The cast slab is sectioned to look at the plane of last solidiﬁcation that can be identiﬁed by porosity.6 1500 Mullite 0.52 × 103 kg m−3 .6 Exercises 1. Neglect superheat.0 2720 Cp /J kg−1 K−1 1160 770 840 2. (b) guess which one comes closest. Cp. (a) If the mould-metal surface reaches thermal equilibrium instantly. Typical values of physical properties: Material k/W m−1 K−1 ρ/kg m−3 Silica 0. ρm = 3.6.L = 385 J kg−1 K−1 . If it is known that the plane is located 30 mm away from the silica side of the mould. kL = 109 W m−1 K−1 . 6.37 1600 Zircon 1.2 × 103 kg m−3 .6 W m−1 K−1 . (b) A component is formed from an alpha brass alloy poured into a mould kept at 25 ◦C. 2 ∂M 2 (TM − TS ) = ρs ΔHf ks √ e−φ √ π ∂t 2 αs terf(φ) Integrating the equation from M = 0 at t = 0 to M = M at t = τ . A two inch slab of aluminium is cast in a mold made of silica sand on one side and an unknown material on the other side. Transport Phenomena Notes 71 G. If the freezing takes place over a temperature range from 1055 ◦C to 1045 ◦C. √ 2 −φ2 (TM − TS ) τ = ρs ΔHf M ks √ e √ π αs erf(φ) Simplifying. Cp. km = 1. Properties are as follows. A liquid metal (L) at temperatute Tp is poured into a mould (m) kept at temperature T0 .

we can write: k ∂2T u2 0 +µ 2 =0 δ ∂x2 2 We can solve the above equation subjec to the following boundary conditions: BC1: BC2: T |x2 =0 = T0 � ∂T � � =0 ∂y �x2 =δ 72 . One usually approximates ﬂow regimes in a chemical reactor to be plug ﬂow. Also. g = 0. plug ﬂow normal to steady state unidirectional heat transfer has no eﬀect on the temperature proﬁle. The equation for heat transfer is given as: ∂T ∂T ∂T ∂T + u1 + u2 + u3 =α ∂x1 ∂x1 ∂t ∂x1 � ∂2T ∂2T ∂2T + + 2 2 ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x3 1 � + g ρCp Let us assume that the constant ﬂow is along x1 and the steady state unidirectional heat transfer ˆ is along x2 . ﬂow across a porous medium under constant pressure drop leads to constant ﬂow.Chapter 7 Heat tranfer with advection term 7. Setting these values.1 7. often. we can see that the governing equation reduces to: ˆ ∂2T k 2 +g =0 ∂x2 Thus.1. Since there are no velocity gradients in a plug ﬂow. Thus. viscous dissipiation is also not considered. Assuming that the ﬂuid is Newtonian and the ﬂow to be channel ﬂow.1 Steady state heat transfer Heat transfer normal to plug ﬂow Plug ﬂow is deﬁned as spatially constant ﬂuid ﬂow. In the case of a velocity proﬁle such as channel ﬂow normal to steady state unidirectional heat transfer. the equation remains the same except that the source term g can be given by the viscous dissipation.

The angular velocity of the shaft is 1000 rpm. then the solution can be written subject to the following boundary conditions.8 Pa s. A journal bearing of outer diameter 20 cm has a separation between the rotating shaft and the stationary journal of 1 mm ﬁlled with a lubricant liquid.1) . 7.2 Exercises 1. Assume the liquid to be ﬂowing with usual limitations as that of Couette ﬂow.3 Heat transfer in a smooth pipe Energy transport in ﬂuids involves the complete form of equation 5.7. EXERCISES k x2 1 ( x2 )2 (T − T0 ) = − δ 2 δ µu2 0 7. We can write the governing equation as: ˆ u1 g ∂T ∂2T =α 2 + ∂x1 ρCp ∂x1 If we ignore heat generation term due to viscous dissipation.7. 7. The properties of the lubricant are: ρ = 900 kg m−3 . µ = 0.1. Assuming that the shaft is kept at 20 ◦C and the journal at 30 ◦C. BC1: T |x1 =0 = T1 BC2: T |x1 =δ = T2 ( x ) exp u1α 1 − 1 T − T1 ( ) = 1 T2 − T1 exp uαδ − 1 One can see that as u1 → 0.15 W m−1 K−1 .2 Heat transfer along plug ﬂow Let us assume that the constant ﬂow and the steady state unidirectional heat transfer are both along x1 . determine the temperature distribution along the radial direction in the lubricant layer taking viscous dissipation into account. the solution approaches the linear proﬁle as in steady state conduction for unidirectional heat transfer. Calculate the maximum temperature in the liquid lubricant layer.2. ∂T g + � · ∇T = α∇2 T + u � ∂t ρCp We will limit this chapter to the cases with the following assumptions: • � is known analytically u Transport Phenomena Notes 73 G. Phanikumar (7. k = 0.

Assumptions: � ( r )2 � • � = umax 1 − R u z ˆ • Surface heat ﬂux is constant. what is T (r. Scaling: T∗ = T − T0 q0 R k ∂T ∂r r R zα z∗ = umax R2 r∗ = leading to ∂T ∂T ∗ kRumax = ∂z ∂z ∗ αq0 G.CHAPTER 7. q0 = k ∂T = constant ∂r ˆ • Cylindrical symmetry. In this process. it is a good idea to non-dimensionalize the variables that could possibly simplify the derivation as well as the ﬁnal expressions. z = 0) = T0 Before attempting to solve the above diﬀerential equation. HEAT TRANFER WITH ADVECTION TERM • Flow is unidirectional. we make the following ones too. k 2 τ0 = R is the characteristic time scale and that along z the ﬂuid moves a characteristic distance ˆ α of umax τ0 that can be used to scale z. Phanikumar 74 Transport Phenomena Notes . R is the characteristic length scale. steady state and fully developed • Heat transfer is steady state Problem: For a ﬂuid ﬂowing unidirectionally through a pipe at steady state and with fully developed velocity proﬁle and a given entry temperature. z) for a given surface heat ﬂux. We can write the governing equation as follows: umax 1 − � ( r )2 � ∂T R 1 ∂ ∂T =α r ∂z r ∂r ∂r � � subject to the following boundary conditions: BC1: Finite temperature at the center of pipe T (r = 0. In addition to the assumptions above. we recognise that q0 R has units of temperature. Nothing happens along θ direction. z) = ﬁnite BC2: Constant wall heat ﬂux q0 = −k BC3: Entry temperature T (r.

φ = C0 Thus. z ∗ ) = ﬁnite BC2: � ∂T ∗ � � =1 ∂r ∗ �r∗ =1 BC3: T ∗ (r ∗ .r. Phanikumar . 1 ∂ (1 − r )C0 = ∗ ∗ r ∂r ∗2 � ∂φ r ∂r ∗ ∗ � Integrating once w. ∂φ = C0 r ∂r ∗ ∗ � r∗2 r∗4 − 2 4 � + C1 Integrating once more. HEAT TRANSFER IN A SMOOTH PIPE ∂T ∂T ∗ k = ∂r ∂r ∗ q0 R2 Thus the governing equation can be non-dimensionalised to: 1 ∂ ∂T ∗ (1 − r ) ∗ = ∗ ∗ ∂z r ∂r ∗2 � r ∗ ∂T ∗ ∂r ∗ � The above equation needs to be solved subject to the following boundary conditions: BC1: T ∗ (r ∗ = 0.7. the solution is: T = C0 z + C0 BC1 implies C1 = 0 BC2 implies C0 = 4 T = 4z + Transport Phenomena Notes ∗ ∗ ∗ ∗ � r∗2 r∗4 − 4 16 � + C1 ln r ∗ + C2 � r ∗2 r ∗4 − 4 16 � + C1 ln r ∗ + C2 (7.3) G.3.2) � r∗2 r∗4 − 1 4 75 � + C2 (7. We propose the following solution: T ∗ = C0 z ∗ + φ(r ∗ ) Substituting the solution into the governing equation. BC3 should actually be stated in integral form to state that the starting temperature is not given as a function of r ∗ but as a ﬂow averaged (bulk) value.t r ∗ . z ∗ = 0) = 0 As we would notice later.

4) 4z + r ∗ ∗2 or � 1� 0 � � � 1 ∗4 − r + C2 1 − r ∗ 2 r ∗ dr ∗ = z ∗ 4 r ∗2 or C2 + 4 � � � � 1 ∗4 − r + C2 1 − r ∗ 2 r ∗ dr ∗ = 0 4 1 0 � � � 1 ∗4 � ∗2 1 − r ∗2 r ∗ dr ∗ = 0 r − r 4 7 24 We use the above integral BC4 to arrive at C2 = Thus.4. HEAT TRANFER WITH ADVECTION TERM BC3 is not useful in arriving at C2 . We use the overall balance of energy for the same. z)u(r)dr rdθ 0 The overall energy entering the pipe at a length z = 0 is given by Q0 = � 2π 0 � R ρCp T0 u(r)dr rdθ 0 The overall balance Qz − Q0 = 2πRzq0 can now be written as: � or � R 2π 0 � R 0 ρCp (T − T0 ) umax 1 − � ( r )2 � R dr rdθ = 2πRzq0 0 (T − T0 ) 1 − � ( r )2 � R rdr = Rq0 zα Rzq0 = umax ρCp k umax This can be expressed in the non-dimensional form as: � Substituting 7.3 in to 7. � 1� 0 1 0 T ∗ (1 − r ∗2 )r ∗ dr ∗ = z ∗ (7. the ﬁnal solution for temperature distribution in a ﬂuid ﬂowing through a tube with constant heat ﬂux is 1 7 T ∗ = 4z ∗ + r ∗2 − r ∗4 − 4 24 G. BC4: The overall energy entering the pipe at a length z is given by Qz = � 2π 0 � R ρCp T (r.CHAPTER 7. We need one more boundary condition. Phanikumar 76 Transport Phenomena Notes .

DEFINITIONS OF SOME NON-DIMENSIONAL NUMBERS 7. �R 0 T (r.4 Deﬁnitions of some non-dimensional numbers Bi = hL ks G. z)u(r)rdr �R u(r)rdr 0 2πRzq0 R2 + 2πρCp umax T0 ρCp 4 0 � R u(r)dr rdθ = 0 2πumax R2 4 Tb = T0 + Surface temperature is given by setting r = R.1 Bulk temperature We now deﬁne bulk temperature or ﬂow averaged temperature Tb as < T uz > Tb = = < uz > � 2π � R 0 For our case of unidirectional. 4q0 z ρCp Rumax 4q0 z q0 R 11 q0 D 11 + = Tb + k 24 k 48 ρCp Rumax 11 (Ts − Tb ) k = 48 q0 D or Nu = 48 q0 D = 11 (Ts − Tb ) k We deﬁne the heat transfer coeﬃcient for tube ﬂow as: h= q0 (Ts − Tb ) 7.3. Ts = T0 + Rearranging. fully developed ﬂow.4.7. Phanikumar Biot Number: Transport Phenomena Notes 77 . z)u(r)dr rdθ 0 � 2π � R u(r)dr rdθ 0 0 Tb = Numerator is 2πRzq0 + T0 ρCp Denominator is � 2π T (r.

CHAPTER 7.664Re1/2 P r 1/3 Nux = x k • Laminar Flow of liquid metal for P r ≤ 0.0296Re4/5 P r 1/3 x G.332Re1/2 P r 1/3 x k • Laminar external ﬂow for 0.6 < P r < 60. Phanikumar 78 Transport Phenomena Notes .5 Forced convection correlations External ﬂow over ﬂat plate at uniform surface temperature: • Laminar external ﬂow for P r ≥ 0.05. Re < 108 : Nux = StRex P r = 0.0468 )2/3 �1/4 1 + Pr 1/2 • Turbulent ﬂow for 0. P ex ≥ 102 where P ex = Rex P r : Nux = 0.6 : Nux = hx x = 0.565P e1/2 x • Laminar ﬂow of ﬂuids of all Prandtl numbers. HEAT TRANFER WITH ADVECTION TERM Fourier Number: Fo = Grashof Number: GrL = Rayleigh Number: Rax = Nusselt Number: NuL = Peclet Number: P eL = Prandtl Number: Pr = Stanton Number: St = αt L2 gβ(Ts − T∞ )L3 ν2 gβ(Ts − T∞ )x3 να hL kf VL α ν α h ρV Cp 7.3387Rex P r 1/3 Nux = � ( 0.6 < P r < 50 : ¯ hx x ¯ = 0. P ex ≥ 102 : 0.

5 × 105 < ReL < 108 : ( ) 4/5 ¯ NuL = 0.33 0.37 and if P r ≥ 10. for 0.40 40 .62ReD P r 1/3 ¯ NuD = 0.6 < P r < 60 : Nux = 0.3 + � ( 0.5.027 m 0.911 0.4 )2/3 � 1 4 1 + Pr Transport Phenomena Notes 79 1+ � ReD 282000 �5 8 4 5 G.618 0.7 Comprehensive equation for all ReD and P r > 0.076 m 0. 0.805 When properties are not constant over the temperature range involved. � �1 Pr 4 m n ¯ NuD = CReD P r P rs If P r ≤ 10.989 0.75 0.466 0. n = 0. Phanikumar .7.5 0.7 < P r < 500 and 1 < ReD < 106 .103 2 × 105 .683 0.037ReL − 871 P r 1/3 Flat plate with uniform surface ﬂux: • Laminar ﬂow.385 0.193 0.2 1/2 0.36 ReD 1. P r ≥ 0.0308Re4/5 P r 1/3 x External ﬂow over circular cylinder: • Correlation for wide range of parameters: ¯ hD m ¯ = CReD P r 1/3 NuD = k ReD 0.4 0.6 : • Turbulent ﬂow. FORCED CONVECTION CORRELATIONS • Laminar + Turbulent ﬂow where the representative Rex.453Re1/2 P r 1/3 x Nux = 0.106 C 0. 0.4 − 4 4 − 40 40 − 4000 4 × 103 − 4 × 104 4 × 104 − 4 × 105 C 0. n = 0.51 0.c for transition is taken as 5×105.6 < P r < 60.

6ReD P r 1/3 Internal ﬂow through circular tube: • Laminar.66 • Turbulent.71 < P r < 380.4 µ Nu D D µs • For freely falling droplets of liquids: 1/2 ¯ NuD = 2 + 0. estimate the surface temperature at the outlet.05×105 . fully developed.025 (ReD P r)0. P r ≥ 0. Phanikumar 80 Transport Phenomena Notes .7 ≤ P r ≤ 16700.CHAPTER 7.2 : � �1 � � 4 ¯ D = 2 + 0. G.6: NuD = 4. 0.027ReD P r 3 � µ µs �0.827 • Liquid metals. uniform surface temperature. fully developed ﬂow.0 + 0. uniform surface temperature.67 W m−1 K−1 . 102 < P eD < 104 : NuD = 4.6: NuD = 3. uniform heat ﬂux. P r ≥ 0. µ = 0. Turbulent. what should be the length 48 of the tube? Assuming fully developed ﬂow of water through the tube with Nu = 11 applicable. A solar water heater is made of a parabolic mirror that concentrates a total heat ﬂux of 2 kW s−2 on to a thin copper tube that carries the water. fully developed ﬂow.5 < ReD < 7. 3. Properties of water are: Cp = 4200 J kg−1 K−1 . fully developed ﬂow.6×103 < ReD < 9. fully developed.35 × 10−3 Pa s.8 7.02 kg s−1 and the outlet shall have 60 ◦C. k = 0. L/D ≥ 10 : NuD = 1 4/5 0. HEAT TRANFER WITH ADVECTION TERM External ﬂow over a sphere : • For 0.36 • Laminar.6 Exercises 1. Turbulent. ReD ≥ 104 . If the inlet water is at 20 ◦C and at a ﬂow rate of 0. 1 < µ/µs < 3.0185 (ReD P r)0. 3. uniform heat ﬂux. P r = 2.14 • Liquid metals.82 + 0.2.06Re2/3 P r 0. P eD > 102 : NuD = 5.4Re1/2 + 0.6 × 104 .

In addition.1 Introduction Mass transfer topics fall into the following four major categories. 81 . • Convective mass transfer: when ﬂux is more important than the acutal composition distributions. really we have Ci as our set of variables where i goes over the range of number of species participating in the mass transfer. We can use balance of ﬂuxes taking into account the fact that more than one species are involved in the transport. instead of C as our variable. The rate of formation of a certain product is of interest here. We will look at a sample solution. We can look at the governing equation and couple of sample solutions. Unless speciﬁed. unless otherwise speciﬁed.Chapter 8 Mass Transfer 8. Meaning. • Solid state diﬀusion: discussed mainly in the context of physical metallurgy. • Solute redistribution: as it occurs during solidiﬁcation. we will be dealing with a situation where the balance is written down only for one species. • Reaction with a generation term: when solute is generated or consumed at a location because of a reaction. we must also specify for which of the species are we writing down the balance equation. we deal with the composition as our variable and convert the rest of the quantities to composition when necessary. the parameters used for mass transfer are varied in their physical meaning as well as in their units. Unlike the parameters used for Momentum transfer (Velocity) and heat transfer (Temperature). • Composition (mass per unit volume): default variable for us • Atom/Mole fraction or percentage or ppm: popular in physical metallurgy • Weight fraction or percentage or ppm: a practicable quantity used in process metallurgy • Partial pressure: useful unit when dealing with gases In our discussion.

j = vC If velocity of a species is the eﬀect. Recognize the balance of integrands as every integral is over the same arbitrary control volume. Convert the suface integral into volume integral using Divergence theorem. For our discussion. Phanikumar 82 Transport Phenomena Notes . The quantity that connects a cause and eﬀect is a material property and one can use relevant theories to deduce the minimum number of entities necessary to represent that property. one can say that M is a symemtric tensor.meaning that atoms move to reduce the free energy of the system. � = −MC ∂µ j ∂x Using an ideal solution approximation. Using Onsager’s reciprocal relations [Ons31a. then the cause is a gradient in chemical potential . MASS TRANSFER 8.14 of Feynman j. Lecture Series for more discussion at this point. dC � j = −∇ · � + g dt Expanding the material / complete derivative ∂C ( � ) � j + � · ∇ C = −∇ · � + g u ∂t (8.CHAPTER 8. Rate of increase in mass = inﬂux of mass + rate of generation d dt � CdV = − � � · ndS + j ˆ � gdV V V S Take the material derivative into the integral using the Reynold’s Transport Theorem.2 Governing equation First we write down the balance of mass for a control volume and then write the same in a geometry free form using integrals. G. Ons31b]. It is isotropic for isotropic media.1) We now seek a linear constitutive relation to determine � Refer to the section 43. µ = µ0 + RT ln Xγ = µ0 + RT (ln X + ln γ) Where. X is mole fraction and is proportional to C and γ is the activity of the species in the solution. Flux of a species is usually expressed as a product of composition of that species and the velocity of that species. polycrystalline materials that can be approximated to istotropic media. gases. we are usually limited to liquids. v = −M ∂µ ∂x M is called the mobility tensor.

� � ∂C ( � ) � · D ∂C + g + � ·∇ C = ∇ u ∂t ∂x (8.2) ∂x Substituting the same in the balance equation.1 Diﬀusivity Unlike the relevant properties for momentum and heat transfer. D is the diﬀusivity of the solute in the solution.4) 8.2. GOVERNING EQUATION −MC ∂µ ∂µ ∂C ∂µ ∂C = −MC = −M ∂x ∂C ∂x ∂ ln C ∂x Since composition can be related as C = XMw ρ ∂µ ∂µ = ∂ ln C ∂ ln X ∂µ −M = −MRT ∂ ln X � ∂ ln γ 1+ ∂ ln X � = −D Where.8. we get the Fick’s second law of solute diﬀusion ∂C = D∇2 C ∂t (8. Phanikumar � kB T 2 2πσA ρ 8kB NT πMA . • Diﬀusivity in gas: Using kinetic theory of gases.3) Assuming the D is constant over the range of variation of C. λ is mean free path and u is the average velocity of the atoms in the gas.2. Thus. the diﬀusivity in gas goes as T 3/2 . 1 DAA = λu 3 Where. λ= √ u= Thus. absence of any generation term and that the domain is solid. the kind of diﬀusivity to be used depends on the situation of mass transfer problem. the Fick’s ﬁrst law of solute diﬀusion goes as ∂C j = −D (8. Following are some examples. Transport Phenomena Notes 83 G.

due to quenched-in vacancies – Pipe diﬀusion aided by dislocations – Grain boundary aided diﬀusion – Surface diﬀusion – Stress induced diﬀusion – Bulk diﬀusion 8. • Liquid Diﬀusivity: Using the Einstein equation.CHAPTER 8. MASS TRANSFER • Diﬀusivity in gas entrapped in a pore: In case the gas is entrapped in a pore. we are supposed to use the pore diameter. 2 Dt one can integrate the equation subject to the above C − C∞ x x = 1 − erf √ = erfc √ C s − C∞ 2 Dt 2 Dt G. Phanikumar 84 Transport Phenomena Notes . composition is ﬁxed with the following boundary conditions: C = Cs at x = 0 and t > 0 C = C∞ at x = ∞ C = Cs at t = ∞ and x > 0 The governing equation is ∂C ∂2C =D 2 ∂t ∂x By using a variable substition η = boundary conditions as: x √ .. instead of the mean free path from the kinetic theory of gases. 8. This means the temperature dependence of Diﬀusivity goes as T 1/2 .3.3 Solid state diﬀusion We consider two simple cases of solid state diﬀusion. kB T = 6πrA µB DAB • Solid Diﬀusivity: Arrhenius variation D = D0 e RT −Q The activation energy for Diﬀusion in solid Q depends on the way diﬀusion takes place and following are some situations where they are diﬀerent: – Diﬀusion aided by non-equilibrium defect concentration eg.1 Fixed boundary compositions In the domain.

we use the property of erf(x). 2 erf(∞) = 1 = √ π Using algebraic manipulations. Transport Phenomena Notes 85 G.1: Fixed Compositions 8.3 Flux and concentration Most of the time. � ∞ −∞ � ∞ exp(− 0 x2 1 ) √ dx 4Dt 2 Dt M x2 √ exp(− )dx = M = 4Dt 2 πDt � ∞ Cdx −∞ One can verify that the following form of solution for C will not only satisfy the boundary condition as given above but also the governing equation. one is interested in determining ﬂux of a species as a function of the concentration of that species. the total solute is ﬁxed with the following boundary condition: � ∞ Cdx = M −∞ The governing equation to be solved is same as Fick’s second law of solute diﬀusion. M x2 C= √ exp(− ) 4Dt 2 πDt 8.8.3. SOLID STATE DIFFUSION C Cs C∞ x 0 Figure 8. In order to ﬁgure out the form of C that will satisfy the governing equation as well as the boundary condition. Phanikumar .2 Fixed total solute content In the domain.3.3.

the ﬂux is given by Fick’s ﬁrst law. 8. • Species B is present and the domain is not stagnant.4 Mass transfer with advection In a situation where the domain consists of species A and B and we are interested in the ﬂux of species A. 1 H2 → [H] 2 Equilibrium constant is given by [H] K=√ p H2 If the concentration of hydrogen is given in ppm and the partial pressure in atm. For the second case. • Species B is not present / species A is very dilute in B and thus B can be said to not take part in the diﬀusion process. This is because pressure could be in units such as bar (atm). mbar or Pa. Conversion of partial pressure of a gas into concentration is done by approximating the gas to be an ideal gas. This approach is called stagnant layer approach. • Species B is present and takes part in the diﬀusion process. torr (mmHg). Consider the mass balance equation in cartesian co-ordinate system: ∂CA ∂CA ∂CA ∂CA ∂ ∂CA ∂ ∂CA ∂ ∂CA +u +v +w = DAB + DAB + DAB +g ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z G. we can proceed by assuming that the ﬂux is one dimensional and the velocity of the species A is v which is same (but opposite in direction) for species B. MASS TRANSFER Sievert’s Law For absorption of gases in metals. one can use the following expression to obtain the concentration. the inﬂuence of bulk velocity on the ﬂux of both species be determined separately. there are following possible situations. CA is given in mol/vol and may need to be converted to mass/vol using molar weight and density. One must watch the units of K to know the convention followed. Additionally.CHAPTER 8. In such a situation. In this situation. then K would √ be in ppm/ atm. We can ﬁrst derive the expression of ﬂux to accommodate eﬀect of advection into Fick’s ﬁrst law. pA V = nA RT CA = pA nA = V RT Here. Phanikumar 86 Transport Phenomena Notes . The ﬁrst case is simple as discussed in the previous section. an assumption can be made that net ﬂux of B is zero and species B moves only to replace species A.

the continuity equation can be written as: ∂u ∂v ∂w + + =0 ∂x ∂y ∂z Multiplying the above equation with CA and additing to the balance equation.2. there is no net ﬂux of B.4.4. the modiﬁed Fick’s ﬁrst law that takes advection into account can be given as: � � uC jA = −DAB ∇CA + � A � Where. Phanikumar . jA is the net ﬂux of species A taking the advection into account. C A + CB = 1 such that ∂CB ∂CA =− ∂x ∂x DAB ∂CB CB ∂x Substituting in the equation of net ﬂux of A. 8. The net ﬂux equations are: ∂CA + uCA ∂x ∂CB jB = −DAB + uCB = 0 ∂x jA = −DAB or u= If only species A and B are present. species A is being generated and we are interested in the net ﬂux of A and its distribution in the layer above.1 Stagnant layer approach Consider a situation such as in the ﬁgure 8. MASS TRANSFER WITH ADVECTION Assuming the ﬂuid to be incompressible. At the bottom layer. It can be taken that in the stagnant layer. Transport Phenomena Notes 87 G.8. ∂CA ∂CA ∂u ∂CA ∂v ∂CA ∂w ∂ ∂CA ∂ ∂CA ∂ ∂CA +u +CA +v +CA +w +CA = DAB + DAB + DAB ∂t ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂ ∂CA ∂ ∂CA ∂ ∂CA ∂CA ∂uCA ∂vCA ∂wCA + + + = DAB + DAB + DAB ∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂ ∂CA = ∂t ∂x � � � � � � ∂CA ∂ ∂CA ∂ ∂CA DAB − uCA + DAB − vCA + DAB − wCA ∂x ∂y ∂y ∂z ∂z ( ) ( ) ∂CA � � � � = ∇ · DAB ∇CA − � A = ∇ · −jA uC ∂t Thus.

CHAPTER 8. CA = CA0 we obtain the solution for distribution of CA in the stagnant layer as: ln G. concentration of species A at x = L. the height of the layer can be taken as CAL . MASS TRANSFER B 11111111111111111 00000000000000000 B 1 0A 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 B B 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 A 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 B Figure 8. • At x = 0.2: Stagnant layer approach jA = −DAB ∂CA DAB ∂CA − CA ∂x (1 − CA ) ∂x 1 ∂CA (1 − CA ) ∂x jA = −DAB At steady state. usually zero. Phanikumar 1 − CA x 1 − CAL = ln L 1 − CA0 1 − CA0 88 Transport Phenomena Notes . � � ∇ · jA = 0 or � � ∂ 1 ∂CA =0 ∂x (1 − CA ) ∂x Integrating twice with the boundary conditions: • Considering that species B is being ﬂushed at the top.

as used commonly.. are mass/vol then the units of kA are same as those of velocity. Phanikumar . Eg. ﬂux can be determined using the above equation. if one were to use partial pressures of the respective species. kA can be determined by evaluating the slope of the species distribution (say. error function) itself. Once the mass transfer coeﬃcient is known.4. one would have the following equations valid: pA + pB = p pA = RT CA ln x p − pAL p − pA = ln L p − pA0 p − pA0 pDAB p − pAL ln RT L p − pA0 jA = jA when expressed in rate of loss of mass can be accuarately measured and thus provides an excellent means to obtain DAB by weight loss method using a setup similar to that of ﬁgure 8. MASS TRANSFER WITH ADVECTION Using the above expression. It is easy to see that instead of concentrations. the above equation reduces to AL jA = −DAB CL .2. it may be favourable to deﬁne a mass transfer coeﬃcient akin to heat transfer coeﬃcient such that one can experimentally or otherwise determine it. Writing the composition distribution for species A in the domain. which is the same as Fick’s ﬁrst law valid for the case of no advection. 8. the stagnant layer approach with very dilute species can be approximated to the regime where Fick’s law is applicable even though the other species is also taking part in the diﬀusion process.8. for transient diﬀusion in solid / quiescent liquid whose bulk composition is CA0 and is in contact with atmosphere with zero concentration of species A as illustrated in the ﬁgure. Transport Phenomena Notes 89 G.2 Mass transfer coeﬃcient In many situations. we can write the following ﬂux balance.4. ∂CA (1 − CA ) 1 − CAL =− ln ∂x L 1 − CA0 Substiting the same to obtain jA . Thus. In situations such as solid state diﬀusion. The deﬁnition is as given below: jA = kA (CA − CA0 ) If the units of CA . jA = DAB 1 − CAL ln L 1 − CA0 In the limit of CA0 = 0 and the value of CAL being small.

� x √ 2 DAB t � � „ «2 � � − √x 1 � 2 ∂CA � � √ e 2 DAB t √ | = DAB CA0 kA.t (CA0 − 0) = jA = | − DAB � � ∂x x→0 π DAB t � kA. The time averaged coeﬃcient will be obtained by averaging the coeﬃcient over the time interval t = 0 to t = t. MASS TRANSFER CA0 CA = 0 jA = kA (CA0 − 0) CA x Figure 8. mass transfer G.CHAPTER 8.max πz plays the role of kA = 8. The z averaged mass transfer coeﬃcient will then be given as � DAB uz.max kA = In case of a steadily falling (along z axis) ﬁlm of liquid.3 Sherwood number Like the heat transfer coeﬃcient is obtained in non-dimensionalized form by encapsulating it with the thermal conductivity and characteristic length scale as Nusselt number. the quantity time.3: Surface Renewal Approach CA = erf CA0 Evaluating the ﬂux at the interface at time t.t = 2 � DAB πt x→0 This is the instantaneous mass transfer coeﬃcient. Phanikumar 90 Transport Phenomena Notes .4. � DAB πt z uz.

4.4 Chilton-Colburn Analogy In case the transport properties are known for one quantity (say. Mass transfer from a plate of length L (for Re < 2 × 105 ): ShL = 0. heat transfer coeﬃcient and mass transfer coeﬃcient at an interface. temperature and solute proﬁles are fully developed..4. MASS TRANSFER WITH ADVECTION coeﬃcient is also obtained in non-dimensionalized form by encapsulating it with the solute diﬀusivity and characteristic length scale as Sherwood number. Sh = kA Lc DAB Sherwood number is determined experimentally as a function of Reynold’s number and Schmidt number to obtain correlations for advection aided mass transfer. then the following three expressions will all be the same functions (eg. If the velocity. The problem is to connect friction factor. Sc = Examples: Mass transfer from a sphere: ShD = 2 + CRem Sc 3 D The constants C and m depend on the range of Re and Sc. .∞ − CA0 �x→0 ∂x v∞ �x→0 µ µCp = =1 k ρDAB or Transport Phenomena Notes 91 G. solute).∞ − CA0 Equating the slopes at the interface since the proﬁles are the same: � � � ∂ v � ∂ T − Ts � ∂ CA − CA0 � � � � = = ∂x T∞ − Ts �x→0 ∂x CA.5 Sc 3 L 1 1 ν DAB 8.664Re0.8. parabolas for a tube): v T − Ts CA − CA0 = = v∞ T∞ − Ts CA. heat) and we are interested in the transport of another quantity (say.. we can make use of the similarity expressions thanks to the fact that under laminar conditions and when fully developed proﬁles are present. Phanikumar Take the case of a hypothetical ﬂuid that has P r = Sc = 1 ie. similarity relations are valid.

6 < P r < 100 and 0. Phanikumar 92 Transport Phenomena Notes .∞ − CA0 �x→0 τ q ρjA = = Cp (T∞ − Ts ) (CA∞ − CA0 ) v∞ Dividing each quantity with ρv∞ . MASS TRANSFER µ= k = ρDAB Cp Multiply these quantities with the respective slopes of the proﬁles as: � � � ∂ CA − CA0 � ∂ v � k ∂ T − Ts � � � � µ = = ρDAB ∂x v∞ �x→0 Cp ∂x T∞ − Ts �x→0 ∂x CA.CHAPTER 8.6 < Sc < 2500 provided a 2 2 correction factor of P r 3 for heat transfer and Sc 3 for mass tranfer are used: 2 f kA 2 = StP r 3 = Sc 3 2 v∞ Each of the above three quantities are called as j-factors. G. 1 τ q jA = = 1 2 2 2 ρv∞ ρCp (T∞ − Ts )v∞ (CA∞ − CA0 )v∞ Recognize the following quantities: Skin friction coeﬃcient: τ 1 2 ρv∞ 2 =f Heat transfer coeﬃcient: q =h (T∞ − Ts ) jA = kA (CA∞ − CA0 ) f h kA = = v∞ 2 ρCp v∞ Mass transfer coeﬃcient: We deﬁne Stanton number as: St = h ρCp v∞ The following analogy is called as Reynold’s analogy: f kA = St = 2 v∞ Chilton-Colburn realized that the above expression can be made to be applicable even when P r and Sc are not unity but for a range of 0.

one can use the following expression for jB jB = pDAB p − pBL ln RT L p − pB0 The quantity jC can then be converted to appropriate rate of formation as mass or volume or moles or thickness as desired using the properties of C. we are interested in the rate of formation of a particular product. A(g) → nB(g) + C(s) K= [B]n pn = B [A] pA p A + pB = p One can solve for pB by solving the above two equations.5. Consider the following example. say A. Once the value of K is known. The compositions of the participating species are related by the equilibrium constant of the reaction. One has to know the value of K at a given temperature and should watch out the units of K to know the convention for the units of [A] and [B]. REACTION MASS TRANSFER jH = StP r 3 = 2 2 h Pr3 ρCp v∞ jD = kA 2 Sc 3 v∞ In situations where the analogy is applicable. using either the Fick’s law or the stagnant layer approach depending on how dilute the system is.5 Reaction mass transfer In a reaction.8. It can usually be obtained by knowing the ﬂux of that species by balacing with the ﬂux of a diﬀusing species and applying appropriate boundary conditions. 8. The ﬂuxes of the diﬀusing species A and B are related to as: jB = njA = njC If B is a dilute species in a stagnant layer of A of height L and a total pressure p. Transport Phenomena Notes 93 G. one can obtain the mass transfer coeﬃcient from the heat transfer coeﬃcient or the skin friction factor by using the above analogy and the appropriate property values. it is possible to obtain the ﬂux of one of the species. usually a condensed one. Phanikumar .

the vector ci could be in the same orientation such that if λ is the ratio of their magnitudes. If a relation could be found such that aij bi = cj is vector. 2. For some bi .1 The quotient rule Adapted from section 2. (aij − λδij ) bi = 0 94 . cj = aij bi is a vector. then aij is a tensor of order 2.62 of [Ari62]. j = 1.Appendix A Derivations A. aij bi = λbj = λδij bi . 3). b∗ = Tpi bi or bi = Tpib∗ (A. Consider a co-ordinate transformation with the tranformation matrix Tij . Let bi be any vector and aij be a matrix of nine numbers (i. Since b and c are vectors.s A.2 Symmetric tensors are diagonalisable Adapted from section 2.1) p p c∗ = Tqj cj q In the new co-ordinate system: ∗ a∗ bp = c∗ = Tqj cj = Tqj aij bi = Tqj aij Tpib∗ pq q p (a∗ − Tpi Tqj aij )b∗ = 0 pq p Since b∗ is only the arbitrary vector bi in new co-ordinate system which is independent of aij p the only way the above equation can hold is if a∗ = Tpi Tqj aij pq which is the deﬁnition for the entity aij to be a tensor of order 2. If aij is a tensor and bi is an arbitrary vector then by quotient rule.5 of [Ari62].

.2. the corresponding characteristic vectors (bi(p) . SYMMETRIC TENSORS ARE DIAGONALISABLE This is a set of three unknowns (a1 . aij Tj1 Ti2 = λ1 Ti1 Ti2 aij Tj2 Ti1 = λ2 Ti2 Ti1 Transpose the second equation (swap the indices i and j in second equation): aij Tj1 Ti2 = λ1 Ti1 Ti2 aji Ti2 Tj1 = λ2 Tj2 Tj1 If aij is symmetric. aij Tj1 Ti2 = λ1 Ti1 Ti2 = λ2 Tj2 Tj1 Since λ1 and λ2 are distinct.5) (A. a2 and a3 ) and for a solution to exist.6) (A. Tj2 and Tj3 .3) . T11 T12 T13 b1(1) b1(2) b1(3) T = b2(1) b2(2) b2(3) = T21 T22 T23 b3 (1) b3 (2) b3 (3) T31 T32 T33 aij Tj1 = λ1 Ti1 aij Tj2 = λ2 Ti2 Multiply the ﬁrst equation with Ti2 and the second equation with Ti1 . λ must satisfy the following equation: det (aij − λδij ) = 0 λ3 − Xλ2 + Y λ − Z = 0 X = aii = Trace(aij ) Y = a22 a33 − a23 a32 + a11 a33 − a13 a31 + a22 a11 − a12 a21 Z = det(aij ) X. Y and Z are three invariants of aij under rotation of co-ordinate system. p = 1 : 3. The above is called the characteristic equation of the tensor aij and the three values of λ its characteristic values / latent roots / eigen values. the above equation can be true only if Transport Phenomena Notes 95 G. p = 1 : 3 be denoted as Tj1.A. then aij Tj1 Ti2 = λ1 Ti1 Ti2 aij Ti2 Tj1 = λ2 Tj2 Tj1 ie.4) (A. For the three eigen values λ(p) .2) (A. Phanikumar (A.

2. G. 2).H. If p.8) In the above determinant.g. 3) then the R. apq is diagonal. go to 0. A.7 of [Ari62]. Hence the R. These are the values deﬁned for ǫpqr . is the determinant of the transformation matrix (with two rows interchanged) which is -1. if p = q or p = r or q = r. q and r are anti-cyclic (e.7) If we choose a co-ordinate transformation with the transformation matrix to contain the elements of Tij made out of the three eigen vectors. Thus. j. An isotropic tensor aijkl of order 4 should be invariant under any co-ordinate transformation Tij . If p.S.g. Since ǫijk is a tensor of order 3. pqr ǫ∗ = Tip Tjq Tkr ǫijk pqr Since the above result is applicable for any Tij . a∗ = Tip Tjq aij = λp Tip Tiq = λp δpq pq ie. DERIVATIONS Ti1 Ti2 = δij (A.S.H. then the R.. ǫijk is isotropic. two columns being same will make the R. is the determinant of the transformation matrix itself which is 1..7 of [Ari62]. k. 1.H. 3. Phanikumar 96 Transport Phenomena Notes .S. can be equated to ǫ∗ .4 General form of isotropic tensor of order four Adapted from section 2. 3 in to classes to ﬁgure out the non-zero (independent) components..S. apqrs = Tip Tjq Tkr Tls aijkl We categorise the 81 components of aijkl : i.3 Levi-Civita tensor is isotropic Adapted from section 2. l = 1. for an arbitrary co-ordinate transformation Tij .APPENDIX A.H. q and r are cyclic (e. � � T1p T1q T1r � = � T2p T2q T2r � � T3p T3q T3r � � � � � � Tip Tjq Tkr ǫijk (A. A. 1. 2.

9) We now choose co-ordinate rotation operations so that Tij can take such values that will make a conclusion about the relation between components in each of the above mentioned classes is clear. GENERAL FORM OF ISOTROPIC TENSOR OF ORDER FOUR Class I II III(i) III(ii) III(iii) IV component T1111 T1112 T1122 T1221 T1212 T1123 remark All suﬃxes are same (nnnn) Three suﬃxes are same (nnnm) Two suﬃxes are same (nnmm) Two suﬃxes are same (nmmn) Two suﬃxes are same (nmnm) Only two suﬃxes are same (mmno) Since class II doesnot include the elements of class I. introduce a tensor Xijkl deﬁned as below: if i = j = k = l Xijkl = 1 else Xijkl = 0 (A. Phanikumar Transport Phenomena Notes . Operation A B C Description Rotation about [111] axis by 120o Rotation about [001] axis by 90o Rotation to inverse the direction of [111] 97 form of Tij T12 = T31 = T23 = 1 T12 = −T21 = T33 = 1 T13 = −T22 = T31 = −1 G.A.4.

the elements will not remain the same under such a transformation. Given the form of Xijkl. III(i).APPENDIX A. we can represent aijkl by a linear combination of each class: aijkl = µ1 (δij δkl − Xijkl ) + µ2 (δik δjl − Xijkl ) + µ3 (δil δjk − Xijkl ) + µ4 Xijkl or aijkl = µ1 δij δkl + µ2 δik δjl + µ3 δil δjk + (µ4 − µ1 − µ2 − µ3 )Xijkl Choose an operation D : arbitrary rotation by some angle. Phanikumar 98 Transport Phenomena Notes . Hence the last term in the above equation drops oﬀ giving the most general form of a fourth order isotropic tensor as: aijkl = µ1 δij δkl + µ2 δik δjl + µ3 δil δjk G. DERIVATIONS Class I conclusion T1111 = T2222 T1111 = T2222 T1111 = T3333 all equal Xijkl T1112 = T2223 T1112 = −T2221 T1112 = T3332 T2223 = T2221 all zero T1122 = T2233 T1122 = T2211 T1122 = T3322 all equal δij δkl − Xijkl T1221 = T2332 T1221 = T2112 T1221 = T3223 all equal δil δjk − Xiljk T1212 = T2323 T1212 = T2112 T1212 = T3232 all equal δik δjl − Xikjl T1123 = T2231 T1123 = −T2213 T1123 = T3321 T2231 = T2213 all zero operation A B C Overall conclusion Representation A B C C Overall conclusion A B C Overall conclusion Representation A B C Overall conclusion Representation A B C Overall conclusion Representation A B C C Overall conclusion II III(i) III(ii) III(iii) IV Since there is no obvious relation between the components of classes I. III(ii) and III(iii).

k11 k12 k13 kij = k12 k22 k23 k13 k23 k33 (A.[Ons31b]) using microscopic reversibility that for crystals with symmetries of order 3.5 Simpliﬁcation of tensor properties for crystals Lars Onsager has proved ([Ons31a]. the thermal conductivity tensor is symmetric. Transport Phenomena Notes 99 G.A.11) Since the tensor in discussion is a property that should not change upon co-ordinate rotations that leave the crystal identical. Take co-ordinate system rotations about x3 by 900 for which the transformation matrix is: ˆ 0 1 0 T = −1 0 0 0 0 1 By deﬁnition. only one value of k is needed to completely specify the second order symmetric tensor property such as thermal conductivity of a cubic crystal.4. if T is the transformation matrix of a co-ordinate axes rotation. SIMPLIFICATION OF TENSOR PROPERTIES FOR CRYSTALS A. ∗ kij = Tpi Tqj kpq (A. k∗ = k Take k11 and expand the above deﬁnition of tensor: k11 = Ti1 Tj2 kij = T21 T21 k22 = k22 or k11 = k22 Similarly.6 etc. the form of the tensors simpliﬁes even further. 0 k11 0 k11 0 = kδij kij = 0 0 0 k11 (A..12) Thus.5.10) For cubic crystals. k21 = Ti2 Tj1 kij = T12 T21 k12 = −k12 = −k21 or k21 = k12 = 0 Similarly rotating the co-ordinate system about the other two axes will show that all oﬀ diagonal terms of kij vanish and all diagonal terms are same. Phanikumar .

the determinant is zero. � � � � � � � � � � � (A. 2. ξ1 .13) A.21 of [Ari62] G. ξ2 . The change of co-ordinate system must be given by ﬁxing a point x such that xi = xi (ξ1 .APPENDIX A. say. when two of the rows are same. 3 then the volume of the element is ∂ξ dV = dx(1) · (dx(2) × dx(3) ) Using ǫijk to write the short form of determinant (triple product). ξ3) Small diﬀerences in the new co-ordinate system are given by dxi = ∂xi dξj ∂ξj If dx(j) are vectors with components ( ∂xji dξj ) for j = 1.6 Change of variable with multiple integrals Adapated from section 3. DERIVATIONS A. x2 . Phanikumar 100 Transport Phenomena Notes . x3 ) ∂xi ∂xj ∂xk = ǫijk ∂(ξ1 . ξ2 and ξ3 . J= In determinant form. ξ3 ) ∂ξ1 ∂ξ2 ∂ξ3 Evidently. dx2 and dx3 : dV = dx1 dx2 dx3 It is sometimes convenient to describe position by some other co-ordinates.16 of [Ari62] In cartesian co-ordinates the element of volume dV is the volume of rectangular parallelepiped of sides dx1 . ξ2 . it is � � � � � � J =� � � � � ∂x1 ∂ξ1 ∂x2 ∂ξ1 ∂x3 ∂ξ1 ∂x1 ∂ξ2 ∂x2 ∂ξ2 ∂x3 ∂ξ2 ∂x1 ∂ξ3 ∂x2 ∂ξ3 ∂x3 ∂ξ3 ∂(x1 . dV = ǫijk ∂xi ∂xi ∂xi dξ1 dξ2 dξ3 ∂ξ1 ∂ξ2 ∂ξ3 dV = Jdξ1 ξ2 dξ3 where J is the Jacobian of the transformation of variables.7 Dilation Adapated from section 4.

The ﬁrst term is non zero only when l = i and the second when l = j and the thrid when l = k as the determinant goes to zero when two of its rows are same. Transport Phenomena Notes 101 G. Phanikumar . dt The change in dilation as we follow the motion is given by the material derivative d dt � ∂xi ∂ξj � ∂ = ∂ξj � dxi dt � ∂ui ∂ξj = Since ui is a function of x1 . DILATION dV = Jdξ1ξ2 dξ3 = JdV0 or J= dV dV0 dJ . Since incompressible ﬂuids are deﬁned � u as those with no dilatation during ﬂow. ∂ui ∂ui ∂x1 ∂ui ∂x2 ∂ui ∂x3 ∂ui ∂xl = + + = ∂x1 ∂ξj ∂x2 ∂ξj ∂x3 ∂ξj ∂xl ∂ξj ∂ξj Using diﬀerentiation by parts in J = ǫijk ∂xi ∂xj ∂xk ∂ξ1 ∂ξ2 ∂ξ3 � ∂uj ∂ξ2 � ∂xk ∂xi ∂xj + ∂ξ3 ∂ξ1 ∂ξ2 � � ∂uk ∂ξ3 � �� �� dJ = ǫijk dt dJ = ǫijk dt �� �� ∂ui ∂ξ1 � � ∂xj ∂xk ∂xi + ∂ξ2 ∂ξ3 ∂ξ1 � ∂ui ∂xl ∂xl ∂ξ1 ∂xj ∂xk ∂xi + ∂ξ2 ∂ξ3 ∂ξ1 ∂uj ∂xl ∂xl ∂ξ2 ∂xk ∂xi ∂xj + ∂ξ3 ∂ξ1 ∂ξ2 ∂uk ∂xl ∂xl ∂ξk Each of the terms in the above equation is expressible as a determinant shown in the previous section. x2 and x3 . ∇i ui = 0 or ∇· � = 0 is the condition for incompressible ﬂuid ﬂow. � �� � dJ ∂ui ∂vj ∂vk ∂xi ∂xj ∂xk = ǫijk + + + + ∂xk ∂ξ1 ∂ξ2 ∂ξ3 dt ∂xi ∂xj or dJ = J [∇i ui ] dt Divergence of a velocity ﬁeld ∇i ui can now be interpreted as the rate of dilation or rate of change of elemental volume following the ﬂow path. Hence.7. The dummy index l can take values from 1 to 3.A.

D Dt � D f (x. The transformation x = x(ξ. G. we can take the diﬀerentiation operator inside the integral. DERIVATIONS A. Let f (ˆ. Phanikumar 102 Transport Phenomena Notes . it D would be possible to interchange diﬀerentiation and integration since Dt is diﬀerentiation with respect to time keeping ξ constant. t)dV = Dt V (t) � f (x(ξ.APPENDIX A. t)dV x V (t) is a function of t that can be calculated.8 Reynold’s transport theorem Adapted from section 4.22 of [Ari62]. t) with V = JdV0 allows us to this. t) be any function and V (t) be a closed volume moving with the ﬂuid ie. If the diﬀerentiation is with respect to a volume in the material co-ordinate system (ξ1 .. D Dt � V0 ) f (x. We are interested in the material derivative Df .14) dt D ∂ � = + (u · ∇) Dt ∂t D Dt � � � V0 f (x. consisting x of the same ﬂuid particles. t)JdV0 V0 Since the integral is over the same volume V0 . with S(t) as the surface of the element following the ﬂuid ﬂow and n as the unit normal to S(t): ˆ D Dt � � ∂f + ∂t � f (x. ξ2 . t)dV = V (t) � ∂f + ∇ · (f � dV u) ∂t Apply Green’s theorem to the second term. � f (t) = f (ˆ. t)dV = = = � ( df V0 V0 dt Using the expression for material derivative � ( df V0 � ( df ) J + f dJ dV0 dt dt ) + f (∇ · � JdV0 u) ) + f (∇ · � dV u) (A. t). ξ3 ). t)dV = V (t) V0 S(t) f � · ndS u ˆ Rate of change of the integral of any function f within a moving element is the sum of integral of rate of change at a location and the net ﬂow of f over the surface enclosing the element. Since Dt the integral is varying over V (t). for V (t) has been deﬁned as ˆ a moving material volume and so came from some ﬁxed V0 at time t = 0. diﬀerentiation cannot be taken through the integral sign.

Then Cauchy’s principle asserts that σ(ˆ ) is a n function of the position x. Thus the total internal force exerted on the volume V through its bounding surface S is � σ(ˆ )dS n S If f is the external force per unit mass (e. D Dt � � � � � ∂ρ ∂G � ρGdV = G +ρ dV + ∇ · (ρui F ) dV ∂t ∂t V V V Keeping ρui together and expanding the integrand of the second integral.11 of [Ari62].8.9.A.8 where G is any dynamical property per unit mass (such as G = ui.10 Cauchy’s stress principle Adapted from section 5. D Dt � ρGdV = V � V ∂ρG dV + ∂t � S ρGu · ndS � ˆ Using Gauss theorem to convert a surface integral to volume integral. D Dt Regrouping. momentum per unit mass) one can bring the material derivative inside the integration. RTT AND CONTINUITY EQUATION A. one recovers continuity equation. Let n be the unit outward normal at a point of the surface S and σ(ˆ ) the force per unit ˆ n area exerted there by the material outside S. Phanikumar V . D Dt � ρGdV = V � ρ V DG dV Dt A.g. the total external force will be ˆ � Transport Phenomena Notes ρf dV 103 G. Using f = ρG in RTT given in section A. the time t and the orientation n of the surface element. f = −gx3 ). D Dt � ρGdV = � � � � ) � ∂ρ � ∂G ( � G dV ρ + ui · ∇ G + ∇ · (ρui ) dV + ∂t ∂t V � � � � � � � � ∂ρ ∂G � · (ρui ) + (ρui ) · ∇G dV � ρGdV = G +ρ dV + G∇ ∂t ∂t V V V V V Recognising that the term in square brackets in the ﬁrst integral is zero because of continuity equation and the integrand of the second integral could be simpliﬁed using the material derivative..9 RTT and Continuity Equation Using f = ρ in the Reynold’s Transport Theorem given in section A.

n ˆ σi (ˆ ) = σij nj Since the vectors σi (surface force per unit area) and n (unit normal to the surface) donot ˆ depend on the choice of co-ordinate axes. The three orthogonal faces have areas δA1 .3. d dt � ρvdV = � ρf dV + � σ(ˆ )dS n S V V If V is a volume of a given shape with a characteristic dimension d then V ∼ d3 and S ∼ d2 . ˆ ˆ δA1 = a · nδA b ˆ δA2 = ˆ · nδA ˆ ˆ δA3 = c · nδA Thus the balance of forces along direction i can be written as � � � � ˆj σi (ˆ2 ) + cj σi (ˆ3 ) nj n ˆ x x ˆ x ˆ δA σi (ˆ ) − aj σi (ˆ1 ) + b As we shrink the volume (V ∼ d3 ).11 Stress is a tensor Adapted from section 5. The fourth inclined ˆ b ˆ face has area δA and unit normal n.9 of [Bat67]. ie.S.. δA2 and δA3 and unit outward normals as −a. � � σi (ˆ ) = aj σi (ˆ1 ) + ˆj σi (ˆ2 ) + cj σi (ˆ3 ) nj n ˆ x b x ˆ x ˆ If we represent the quantity in the ﬂower brackets on R. the stresses are locally in equilibrium. the quantity in square brackets must go to zero for local equilibrium. −ˆ and −c. This is also true by the quotient rule of tensors. pg. the quantity connecting them σij must represent (i. DERIVATIONS The principle of conservation of linear momentum asserts that the sum of these two forces equals the rate of change of linear momentum of the volume. As we let V shrink on a point but preserve the shape. as σij .APPENDIX A. 1 lim 2 d→0 d ie. a tensor of order 2. � σ(ˆ )dS = 0 n S A. G. So. The resultant of surface forces is ˆ σ(ˆ )δA + σ(−a)δA1 + σ(−ˆ n ˆ b)δA2 + σ(ˆ)δA3 c In view of the orthogonality of three of the faces..H. Phanikumar 104 Transport Phenomena Notes . the ﬁrst two integrals decrease as d3 where as the last will as d2 . Consider all the forces acting instantaneously on the ﬂuid within an element of volume δV in the shape of a tetrahedron. since the area shrinks only as S ∼ d2 .12 of [Ari62] and section 1. Stress σ is deﬁned as force per unit area. j)-component of a axes-independent entity namely.

12 Stress tensor is symmetric Adapted from section 2.13 Meaning of terms in strain rate tensor Figure A. σ12 = σ21 or The tensor σij is symmetric. since the term in the bracket on the right goes to zero. is ¨ zero.S. A. The torque produced by the forces about an axis along x3 and through the center of gravity of ˆ the CV is T = σ12 δx1 δx3 δx2 − σ21 δx2 δx3 δx1 or T = (σ12 − σ21 )δx1 δx2 δx3 The torque may be equated to the product of angular acceleration (α3 ) and the moment of ¨ inertia taken about the previously mentioned axis (ˆ3 ): x (σ12 − σ21 )δx1 δx2 δx3 = or (σ12 − σ21 ) = ρ (δx2 + δx2 )α3 2 ¨ 12 1 ρ δx1 δx2 δx3 (δx2 + δx2 )α3 1 2 ¨ 12 As we shrink the CV to inﬁnitesimal size. Consider stress at the center of a control volume of size δx1 × δx2 × δx3 as shown in the ﬁgure. Phanikumar . Initial Positions: A B D x0 (x0 + Δx) x0 y0 y0 (y0 + Δy) Velocities: A B D u (u + (u + ∂u Δx) ∂x ∂u Δy) ∂y v (v + (v + ∂v Δx) ∂x ∂v Δy) ∂y Transport Phenomena Notes 105 G. It can be prevented only if L.A.12. STRESS TENSOR IS SYMMETRIC A. if the L.. 57 of [SAH89]. The deformation can be analysed into diﬀerent modes and the respective strains and strain rates can be expressed in terms of the velocity gradients as shown below.S.1 shows how a ﬂuid element deforms during its motion.7 pg.H.H. ie. were to remain ﬁnite α3 must blow up.

Phanikumar Δy = 1 1 1 = (α + β) = 2 dt 2 1 1 1 = (α − β) = 2 dt 2 106 � ∂v ∂u − ∂x ∂y . AB P Sy −AD .1: Analysis of deformation of a ﬂuid element Positions after dt: P Q S x0 + udt (x0 + Δx) + (u + ∂u Δx)dt ∂x x0 + (u + ∂u Δy)dt ∂y y0 + vdt ∂v y0 + (v + ∂x Δx)dt (y0 + Δy) + (v + ∂v Δy)dt ∂y Shear strain along y is Shear strain along x is P Qy .APPENDIX A. AB P Sx . DERIVATIONS Translation Rotation Shear Dilation R S D C β Q α P B A Figure A. AD Dilational strain along x is Dilational strain along y is Dilational Strain rate: P Qx −AB . AD e11 = ∂u Δxdt ∂x Δx ∂v Δydt ∂y 1 ∂u = dt ∂x 1 ∂v = dt ∂y e22 = Δy Shear Strains: α= ∂v Δxdt ∂x Δx ∂u Δydt ∂y = ∂v dt ∂x ∂u dt ∂y � ∂v ∂u + ∂x ∂y � � Transport Phenomena Notes β= Pure shear strain rate: e12 Pure rotational rate: Ω12 G.

by quotient rule. the components of ∂xj form a tensor or order 2. t) − x(ξ. t) and x(ξ + dξ. ∂ui 1 = 2 ∂xj � ∂ui ∂uj + ∂xj ∂xi � 1 + 2 � ∂ui ∂uj − ∂xj ∂xi � We denote the symmetric part of the velocity gradient tensor as eij (strain rate tensor) and the anti-symmetric part as Ωij (vorticity tensor). This is called velocity gradient tensor. by quotient rule. the nine quantities a tensor of order 2. t) = xi (ξ. t) where dxi = ∂xi dξj ∂ξj ∂xi ∂ξj Since dx and dξ are vectors. Like any tensor of order two. ∂ui ∂ξk ∂ui dxj = dxj ∂ξk ∂xj ∂xj dui = ∂ui Once again. VELOCITY GRADIENT IS A TENSOR A. t). At time t they are to be found at x(ξ. one symmetric and one anti-symmetric. Since we deﬁne velocity v as v = is dx . ∂ui = eij + Ωij ∂xj Transport Phenomena Notes 107 G. t) + So the displacement vector is dx = x(ξ + dξ.14 Velocity gradient is a tensor Adapted from section 4. ∂xi dξj ∂ξj xi (ξ + dξ.41 of [Ari62] Consider two points P and Q at co-ordinates ξ and ξ + dξ. Using only the ﬁrst term of Taylor’s expansion. velocity gradient tensor can be split into two tensors.A. Phanikumar . dt form the components of the relative velocity of two ﬂuid particles at ξ and ξ + dξ dui = ∂ui d ∂xi dξk = dξj ∂ξk dt ∂ξj Using the inverse of the relation given above.14.

Phanikumar 108 Transport Phenomena Notes .13. G. DERIVATIONS As shown in the section A.APPENDIX A. we can recognise that eij represents rate of strain (both dilational and shear) and Ωij represents rigid body rotation.

Cambridge University Press. 37:405–426.i. Mir Publishers... Fluid Flow : A ﬁrst course in Fluid Mechanics. 109 . Hauptmann. 1983.J. 1967. and Edward G.ii. 3 edition. John Wiley and Sons. Eaglewood Cliﬀs. N. Transport Phenomena in Materials Processing. Tensors and the Basic Equations of Fluid Mechanics. Macmillan Publishing Company. Physical Review. Geiger and G.M. N. Sabersky. Physical Review. 1992. Stewart. TMS. 38:2265–2279. 1931. D. 1931. [BSL02] R. USA. Warren E. Macmillan Publishing Company. Transport Phenomena. 1989. 2002. Eaglewood Cliﬀs. [Gas92] [GP94] David R. Poirier. 1962. Tagieva. Warrendale. PA. Gaskell. New York. [PT83] N. Problems in Crystal Physics with solutions. Perelomova and M. Acosta. Reciprocal relations in irreversible processes . Lightfoot. G. Prentice Hall Inc. [SAH89] Rolf H. An Introduction to Transport Phenomena in Materials Engineering. 1994.V. and Edwin N. New York 10022. [Ons31a] Lars Onsager.R.J. Batchelor. [Ons31b] Lars Onsager. Moscow.Bibliography [Ari62] [Bat67] Rutherford Aris. Reciprocal relations in irreversible processes . An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics. Vectors.K. Byron Bird.H. Allan J.

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