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HODDELLAND STOUGHTON
LONDON

TSEW^ YORK. TOROISTTO

First Edition in 1914

Second Edition March, 1915

PREFACE
This
is

not the ordinary conventional cookery book,
instructions

affording

how

to

dress,

cook,

and

serve every variety of joint,
etc.,

fish,

vegetable, etc.,

etc.

I

take for granted that

the reader

is

already

acquainted
is

with

ordinary

means

and

methods, and
food.

To

versed in the preparation of simple be a " good plain " cook always appears
:

to

me

a contradiction in terms

because,

if

a per-

son's treatment of plain dishes

is

good, she should

be equally good at more elaborate ones.

amount
test to

of application will serve for both.
is,

The same To make

"plain" dishes palatable
which a

indeed,

the highest

woman

can be put.

skni

demanded

in these pages is of

The culinary an everyday,

common-sense character, such as any housewife, old or young, may exercise with pleasure. For these are chiefly specimens of the " good plain cookiag " which

was done by our mothers, and grandmothers, and
great-grandmothers
tinned
things
is,

^the

old

home cookery

before

and preservatives were invented.
way, unique.

This book

in its

In almost every family, at one time (before the
present multiplication of printed cookery books)

vi

PREFACE
:

there existed a manuscript recipe book, or collection of old recipes tied together

passed on from

one neighbour to another, or handed down from one generation to another as something really worth knowing. Some of these books and papers have

been so frequently made use

of,

that they are almost
is

worn

out.

The neat Itahan handwriting
the

nearly

obhterated,
stained

yellow

edges

of

the
:

paper are

it is difficult and discoloured with wear to decipher the often shaky speUing and quaint phraseology of the MSS. To collect and select such recipes, therefore, is no easy task, and one very

seldom attempted.

They are often

so

jealously

guarded and treasured by their owners, that the

mere permission to copy them has to be besought I have, however, attempted to as a special favour.
bring together a fairly representative collection, and
I

am

sure that

among
some
some

the nearly eleven hundred

formulas here set forth,
nise with dehght
teristic of

many

a reader will recog-

little

bit of cookery charac-

her

own

old home, or will
long-lost

welcome with
after

much

satisfaction

method

whose

ingredients she has frequently
It will
dishes,
cities

made

search in vain.

be seen that these are chiefly country

dating back to the good old days

when

had not claimed the multitudes
disparity between

of the shires.

Some, indeed, go back to the seventeenth century,

when the
not so

great —^when

town and country was hardly a Londoner but had
from

his garden,

and

cornfields separated the City

a

PREFACE
the present

vii

West End.
its

Where

possible,

I

have

indicated the origin of the recipe, or at least the

county from which

possessor

came.

Should

any reader care to perpetuate some cherished recipe not included here, I shall be most happy, if it be
forwarded, to insert
it

in a future edition.

The country meals

are not as those of the town.
:

A

good hearty breakfast, about eight
:

a good

hearty dinner about one

and that

never-suffi-

ciently-to-be-praised evening meal entitled " high
tea," about six
:

this is the usual

farmhouse routine.
substituted for

Sometimes, indeed,
light

—as on Sunday, for instance,—
is

supper about eight-thirty
:

high tea

but for the most part, people who go to

rest early

need no more than a cup of cocoa or some
a

other hot beverage at bedtime. There is little doubt that " high tea "

is

much

more wholesome affair than late
this, it affords

dinner.

But, beyond

the opportunity for a vast variety of

dishes,

both salted and sweet, which do not easily

come

into the scope of
if

any other meal
it is

:

and, for

this reason

no

other,

devoutly to be en-

couraged. the

A

Guildhall banquet can hardly vary

accepted
:

courses
tinual

and monotonous sequence of its but " high tea " provides you with conunexpected
tit-bits,

surprises,

appetising

old- ashioned affairs.

It obviates the use of alcoof

holic liquors
friendly,

:

and

is

aU meals the most
I wish

sociable,

and

satisfactory.

some able author

would

arise

and devote

his talents to the offering

viii

PREFACE
Plea for High Tea.

of

A

A

large

number

of these

recipes

out of

would conduce to aid his eloquence. If only the hundred and fifty cakes here presented,
:

he might vary the biU of fare perpetually
all

out of

the various cheese, egg,

fish,

and savoury madetrial of

dishes, it
select

would be an interesting
bill

skiU to
latter

the evening's

of

fare.

But the

are equally useful to the town-dweUer, inasmuch

that they are of large avail

for

luncheon or for
list

Sunday supper.

A

glance at the

of

contents

win acquaint the reader with the very wide range
here proffered for choice
old authors
:

and " right

so," as the

would have expressed themselves, I commend this little book to aU and sundry. M. B.

CONTENTS
CHAPTER
I

Beef and Mutton Recipes
FRESH MEAT
1.

2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7.
8.

9.

10. 11.

Beet CoUop Minced (Jfeni, 1809) Galantine of Beef (Hertfordshire) Rolled Beef (Hertfordshire) Beef Kidneys k la Russe (Hertfordshire) Beef Olives (Olieshire) For Spiced Beef (Lancashire). Stewed Rump of Beef (Eighteenth Century) Broiled Beef Steaks (Eighteenth Century) To Dress Beef Steaks, etc. (Eighteenth Century) Madras Steak (Hertfordshire) Stewed Steak (Sussex)

PiQK 2

2 2 3
3

....
. .

4

4 6
S 5 6
6

.

Stew (Sussex) 13. French Stew (Surrey) H. Lancaster Stew (Hertfordshire)
12. Brazilian

6
7 7

16.

Boiled Tongue (Eighteenth Century)

VARIOUS
16.
17.

Comiah Pasty

(West-country)

18.

Mock Game (Warwickshire) Stewed Ox Tails (Devonshire).

19. Tripe (Surrey)

20. Curried Tripe (Hertfordshire)
22. Fricassee of Tripe,

21. Fricassee of Tripe (rorifcsWre, 1769)

..... ..... .... ..... ...
(Yorkshire, 1769)
.

8

8
8 9

9 10 10

another

way

ix

CONTENTS
MUTTON
23. 24.

25. 26.

Mutton {Eighteenth Centwry) Rolled Breast of Mutton (Hertfordshire) Best way to cook a Chop (Essex) Naples Chops (Warwickshire)
Basque
of
.

......11
. . .

....11
.
.

PAGE

10

12 12

27. Devilled Cutlets (Essex)

Haggis (Scotland) 29. Haricot of Mutton or Lamb (Eighteenth Century) 30. Haricot of Mutton or Lamb, another way (Eighteenth
28.

13
13

Century)
31.

Haricot of a Leg of Mutton (Eighteenth Century) 32. Haricot Mutton ( Yorkshire) 33. Potted Head (Sco«Zand) 34. Hodge Podge of Mutton (Eighteenth Century)
.

....

.....
.

...
.

14 14 14 15

.

(Kent, 1809) 36. Hot-Pot (Essex)
35.
37.

Hodge Podge

38.

39. 40.
41.

42.
43. 44.

Kidneys on Toast (Cheshire) Lambs' Tail Pie (JTenO Forced Leg of Mutton (Eighteenth Century) Navarine of Mutton (Hertfordshire). Mutton Olives (Hertfordshire) Mutton Patties with Fine Herbs (^igiAieeni/i Ceni«r2/). FienohSteakB of Neck oi Mutton (Eighteenth Century) Neck of Mutton to eat like Venison (Eighteenth
.
.

.

15 16 16 16 17
17

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.17 .18
18

19 19 19 20
21

Century)
45. Shoulder of 46.
47. 48.

Mutton Surprised
.

....
(Cheshire)

Raised Pies ( Yorkshire)

49. 50.

Squab Pie (Devonshire) Squab Pie (Kent) Oxford John (Eighteenth Century) Broiled Mutton Steaks (Eighteenth Century)
. .

.......21
(BigrftjeeratA Cen««rj/)
. .
. . .

...
. .

51. Sheep's

Head

.....
.

.21
22 22

COLD MEAT
62.
63.

Beef -Cakes (Cheshire)

54. 66.

Bubble and Squeak (Essex) Curry (Kent)
Hunters' Pie (Kent)

66. Souffle of
67.

Lamb

(Essex)

Macaroni with Meat (Essex)

68. 59. 60.

Meat Cake (Sussex) Meat Salads (Essex) Scalloped Meat (Hertfordshire)

.

.

CONTENTS
61.

XI
FIOR

Cold Meat Stew {Sussex)

62.

Muttoa Olives

{Devonshire)

63. Pilafi {Hertfordshire)

64. 65.

Potato Pie {Derbyshire)

25 26 26 26
27 27 27

66.
67.

Forcemeat for Patties {Cheshire) Foroemeat for Pies {Eighteenth Century) Observations on Made Dishes, etc. {Eighteenth Century)

CHAPTER
PORK
68.

II

PoEK AND Veal Recipes

Bacon and Egg Pie

to eat cold (Eighteenth Century)

29
30 30
31

69.
70.
71. 72. 73.

Brawn {Surrey) Brawn {Essex) Brawn {Staffordshire) To Boil a Ham {Eighteenth

Century)

31 31

74.
75.

Ham Cake {Essex) Minced Ham {Isle of

Wight)

.

32

76.
77.

78. 79.

80.
81.

82.
83. 84.

85. 86.
87.

Pepper Hams (ifen*, 1809) To Pot Ham {Ireland) Pig's Cheek Collared {Surrey) Pig's Shin and Sausages {Sussex) Pork Cheese {French) Pork Cheese {Italian) Leicestershire Pork Pie Roast Pork in Vinegar {Oerman) Broiled Pork Steaks {Eighteenth Century). Stufied Pork {Isle of Wight) Savoury Goose {Sussex) EppLag Sausages {Kent) Oxford Savisagea
. .
. .

.

32 32 33 33 33 34 36 35

.

.

Brain Cakes {Essex) 89. Boiled Breast of Veal {Eighteenth Century)
88.

.... ....
VEAL

36 36 36 37
37

Boiled {Middlesex) Pie {Eighteenth Century) 92. To Dress a Calf's Heart {Eighteenth Century) 93. Veal Cutlets {Yorkshire, 1769)
90. Calf's
91. Calf's

Head Head

37 38 38 38 38 39

xii

CONTENTS

Veal Cutlets, another way 95. Neok-of-Veal Cutlets {Eighteenth Century) 96. Calves' Feet {Cambridgeshire)
94.
97. Calves'

....
.

PlOE

39
40 40 40
41 41 41

Tongues {Seventeenth Century)
.

98.

99.

100.
101. 102. 103.

104. 105. 106.
107. 108.

109.

Veal Cake {Lancashire) Scotch Collops {Kent, 1809) Scotch CoUops, the French Way {Eighteenth Century) Veal Kidney Pie {Hertfordshire) Veal Loaf {Surrey) Minced Veal {Eighteenth Century) Veal Olive Pie {Eighteenth Century) Veal Olives {Eighteenth Century) Scotch Oysters {Yorkshire, 1769) Common Veal Patties {Eighteenth Century) Savoury Veal Pie {Eighteenth Century) Stuffed Shoulder of Veal {Hertfordshire) .
.

42 42 42 43 43 44 44 44 45

VABIOUS
110. Cold
111. 112. 113.

Curry {Surrey)

Dry Curry

....
. .

{Hertfordshire)
{Isle of Wight)

StuHed Liver

Mock Sweetbreads

{Cheshire)

114.

Thatched-House Pie {Eighteenth Century)

45 46 46 46 47

CHAPTER

III

Fowl and Game
115. 116.
117.

To Boil Fowls {Eighteenth Century) To Dress an Old Fowl (OAesAire)
Fowl Spatchcocked with Tartare Sauce ( Hertfordshire) Fowls {Seventeenth Century).

48 49
49

118. Stuffed

49
50

119. Salmi of
120. 121.

122. 123.
124.

Grouse with Claret {Surrey) Jugged Hare (rorisAire, 1769) Jugged Hare {Surrey) Roasted Hare {Eighteenth Century) Heron Pudding {Kent) Roast Partridges, Italian way {Seventeenth Century)

.....
.

50
61 51

125. Rolled Partridges {Eighteenth Century)
126. Pillau {Cheshire)

.

52 52 52 53

CONTENTS
127.

Xlll PAOB

To

Boil Rabbits (1815)
.

128. Five Recipes for

129.
130.
131.

132.
133.

Cooking Rabbits {Cheshire) To Fricassee Rabbits Brown {Eighteenth Gentury) To Fricassee Rabbits White (Eighteenth Gentury) Jugged Rabbit {Cheshire) Roasted Rabbits {Eighteenth Gentury) Made Dish of Rabbits' Livers {Eighteenth Gentury)

....

134. 135.

Roman
Rook

Pie {Sussex) Pie {Eighteenth Gentury)

.....
.

53 54 65 55 56 56 57 57 68

CHAPTER IV
Soup Recipes
136.

137.

Almond Soup {Eighteenth Gentury) Very Good White Ahuond Soup {Yorkshire.
Broth {Kent, 1809) Head Broth {Kent, 1809) Spinach Broth {Seventeenth Gentury) Vegetable Broth {Kent, 1809) Chestnut Soup {Sussex) . Egg Soup {Seventeenth Century)
.

1769)

60 60
61

138. Barley

139. Sheep's
140.
141.
142. 143.

.

61
61

144. Farine Bruise {Surrey)

.

62 62 62 63
{Eighteenth

146.
146. 147. 148.

Gravy Soup Thickened with Yellow Peas
Gentury)

....
.

63

149.

150.
151.

Hare Soup {Eighteenth Gentury) Lentil Soup {Hertfordshire) German Lentil Soup, Vegetarian {Kent) Milk Soup {Essex) Mulligatawny Soup {Hertfordshire)
Mulligatawny {Kent, 1809) Onion Soup {Eighteenth Gentury) Onion Soup {Kent, 1809) Brown Onion Soup {Eighteenth Gentury) White Onion Soup {Eighteenth Gentury) Ox-Cheek Soup {Ireland) Ox-Cheek Soup {Eighteenth Century) Passover Balls for Soup {Jewish)

152.
163.

154. 155. 166.
167.

158.

159.
160.
161.

Pea Soup

{Essex)

Common Pea Soup

....
.

64 64 64 64 66 66 66 66 66 67 67 68 69 69
70 70
71 71

{Eighteenth Century)

Green Pea Soup (^«sea;) 162. Green Pea Soup {Hertfordshire) 163. Green Pea Soup {Eighteenth Century)

XIV
164.

CONTENTS
VkOM

165.
166.
167.

168. 169.
170. 171. 172.

Green Pea Soup without Meat (Eighteenth Century) Potato Soup (Uasex) Potato Soup (Ireland) Rice and Bone Soup (Sussex) Sago Soup (Hertfordshire) Cream Sago Soup (Hertfordshire) Tasty Soup (Essex)
. .

72 72
72

Tomato Soup

(Hertfordshire)

.

Transparent Soup (Eighteenth Century)

173. Excellent

174. 175. 176.

White Soup (Eighteenth Gerltury) White Soup with Poached Eggs (Eighteenth Century) Good Vegetable Soup (-Bssea;) Rich Vermicelli Soup (Eighteenth Century)

....

73 73 73 73 74 74 75 75 76 76

CHAPTER V
Fish Recipes
177. 178.

179.
180.

Home-made Bloater Paste (Yorkshire) To Bake Cod (Middlesex) To Dress Salt Cod (Eighteenth Century) To Dress Cods' Sotmda (Eighteenth Century)
.
.

Cakes (Middlesex) 182. To Caveaoh Fish (Eighteenth Century) 183. Fish Custard (Surrey) 184. Fish Pie (Cape Colony)
181. Fish
. .

... ... ... ...
. .

.

.

77 78 78 78 79 79

185. Fish Pie (Hertfordshire). 186. Fish Pie (Ireland)
187. Fish Pie (Sussex)

.

.

79 80 80
81 81

188. Fish

189.

* Pudding (Surrey) Fish and Potato Pudding (Kent, 1809)
. .
.

Salad (Devonshire) 191. Scalloped Fish (Hampshire) 192. Good Way to Stew Fish (Eighteenth Century)
190. Fish
193.

.....
.

...
.
.

.82
82

.

ToStewFlounders,

Plaice, or Soles (SigrAteenjfeCenton/)

194. Flounders with SorreU (Eighteenth Century)
195.
196.
197.

To Bake Haddocks
Baked Herrings

(Middlesex)

....
.
. .

82 83 83 84 84

Finnan Haddocks Steamed (Surrey)
(Eighteenth Century)

Boil Herrings (Eighteenth Century) 199. Fried Herrings (Eighteenth Century)
198.

To

... ... ...
, .

85 85' 85 86 86

CONTENTS
200. To Marinate Herrings {Middlesex) 201. Herrings and Potatoes {Essex) 202. Potted Herrings {Lancashire) 203. Kedgeree {Essex) 204. Kedgeree {Kent)
205. Kedgeree {Sussex) 206. Bashawed Lobster {Cheshire) 207. Lobster Fritters {French) 208. Scalloped Lobster {Cheshire)

XV

.... .... ....
... ... ...
. .

PAGE

...... .....
.

209. Boiled Mackerel {Eighteenth Century) 210. Mackerel Farced {Eighteenth Century)
211. Pickled Mackerel {Essex)

87 87 87 88 88 88 89 89 89 90 90
91

212. 213.

To Pickle Mackerel (Middlesex) Ked Mullet {Eighteenth Century)

.... ....
.
.

91

214. Fried Perch or Trout {Eighteenth Century)

215. Perch in Water Sokey {Eighteenth Century) 216. Salmon in Broth {Seventeenth Century)
217.

218. Pickled

Salmon Cutlets {American) Salmon {Essex)

219. Rolled Salmon. {Eighteenth Century). 220. Salmon Steak with Cucumber (Yorkshire)
221.

... ..... ...

Salmon Timbales {American) 222. To Caveaoh Soles {Eighteenth Century) 223. Solomon Gundy, to eat in Lent {Yorkshire, 1769)
.
.

.....
...
. .

.

224. Baked Sprats {Eighteenth Century). 225. Sardine Sandwiches {Isle of Wight) 226. Curried Sardines {Kent) 227. Sardines on Toast (Cheshire)

.....

92 92 92 93 93 93 93 94 94 94 95 95 96 96 96
97

228. Sardine Toast (Essex) 229. Twice Laid (Kent)

97

CHAPTER VI
Vegetables and Vegetablan Dishes
231. 230. Artichokes with Cheese (Surrey) Broad Windsor Beans Pudding (Middlesex)
.

232. Cabbilow (Kent, 1809) 233. Stuffed Cabbages (Middlesex) 234. Chestnuts and Brussels Sprouts (Devonshire)

....
.

99 99 100 100
101

235. Chestnut

Tea Cakes

(Surrey)

101

b

XVI
236.

CONTENTS
PAQB
,
.

Cuoumbera with Eggs {Eighteenth Century) 237. Fried Cucumbers {Eighteenth Century) 238. Dried Haricot Beans {Surrey) 239. Herb Pie for Lent {Eighteenth Century)
. .

.
.

....
.

101 102 102

240.
241.

Hot

Pot, Vegetable {Ireland)

Kailcannon {Ireland)

242. Boiled Lettuces {Middlesex) 244. Macaroni Rissoles {Kent)

243. Stuffed Lettuces {Middlesex)

245. Macaroni with
247.

Tomatoes {Kent)

246. Maize {American)
248. Fricasseed

249. 250.
251. 252.

Baked Mushrooms {Surrey) Mushrooms {Eighteenth Century) Mushrooms au Gratin {Ireland) Scalloped Mushrooms {Middlesex) Mushroom Powder {Eighteenth Century) Baked Onions (Surrey)
.

...... ..... ..... .... ....... .....
.... ....
, .

.

253. Risotto {Lancashire) 254. Risotto for

Two

Persons {Hertfordshire)

Boil Parsnips {Eighteenth Century) 256. Parsnips Fried to look like Trout {Yorkshire, 1769) 257. Jugged Peas {Surrey)
255.
. .

To

258. Peas Pudding {Ireland) 259. Peas Pudding Hot {Ireland) 260. Stewed Feaa {Eighteenth Century)
261.

...... ......
. .
. .

,

.

.

103 103 103 103 104 104 105 105 105 106 106 107 107 107 108 108 108 108 109 109 109

.

.

.

262.

Browned Potatoes with Cheese Creamed Potatoes {Kent)

{Surrey)

.

.

.110 .110
110

263. Curried Potatoes {Hertfordshire)

.

.

.

264. Seethed Potatoes {Kent, 1809)
265. Potato Sanders {Surrey) 266.
.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.111 .111 .111
112

Stewed Potatoes (Xere*, 1809) 267. Potatoes with White Sauce (Af«fd?esea;) 268. To Stew Spinach {Eighteenth Century) 269. Spinach with Poached Eggs ( rorfcaAire, 1769)
.
.

.

.

.112 .113
.

.

113

270. Succotash {American) 271. Scalloped Tomatoes {Sussex)
.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.114 .114
114

Curry {Kent) 273. Vegetable Goose {Surrey) 274. Vegetable Hot Pot {Kent)
272. Vegetable

.

.

.

.

.114
115 115 115

275. Vegetable Pie {Surrey)

.

.

...
.

276. Vegetable-Marrow au Gratin {Sussex)

.

.

CONTENTS

XVll

CHAPTER
Salads

VII

PiQB

Apple Salad (Sussex) 278. Cheese Salad {Sussex) 279. Endive Salad (Middlesex)
277.
.
.

German Salad (Hertfordshire) 281. Haricot Salad (Kent)
280.
.

282. Winter Salad (Surrey)
283. 284. Salad Dressing (Kent)

.

Winter Salad (Middlesex)
.

285.

Cheap Salad Dressing (Ireland) 286. Mayonnaise Sauce (Isle of Wight)

118 118 118 118 119 119 119 119 120 120

CHAPTER

VIII

Cheese Dishes
287. Cheese Biscuits (Sussex)

Creamed Cheese (Cheshire) 289. Cottage Cream Cheese (Rutlandshire)
288.
.

.....
.

.

.

290. Cheese Fritters (Sussex) 291. Macaroni Cheese, Boiled (Isle of Wight) 292. Macaroni Cheese and Tomatoes (Devonshire) 293. Cheese Pudding Boiled (Isle of Wight)
. .
.

.

.

.

.

.

.

122 123 123 123 124 124

.

.

294. Cheese Pudding (Kent) 295. Cheese Puddings (Surrey) 296. Gloucester Rabbit
297.

Ramakins

(Surrey)

298. Cheese Straws (Essex)

.

..... ...... ...
. .

.124
125 125 126 126 126
127 127 128 128

299. Cheese Straws (Isle of Wight) 300. Cheese Straws (Kent)
301. Cheese Straws (Staffordshire) 302. Cheese Straws (Surrey) 303. Cheese Straws (Yorkshire)

.

.

.127

.....
.

....
.

304. Crouatades (Yorkshire) 305. Stewed Cheese (Surrey)

.

,

,

.128
129

XVUl

CONTENTS

CHAPTER IX
Egg Dishes
PAQB 306.

Baked Eggs

{Kent)

131 131
.

307. Birds' Nests {Essex)

308. Cheesed 309.
310. 311.

312. 313. 314.

Eggs {Surrey) Curried Eggs {Essex) Curried Eggs Yorkshire) Eggs S, la Duchesse (^e«<) A Pretty Dish of Eggs ( Yorkshire) Brown Fricassee of Eggs {Yorkshire 1769) White Fricassee of Eggs {Yorkshire, 1769)
.

(

316. Omelette {Kent)
317. Palestine

.

316. Omelettes {Surrey)

Eggs (/SMrrei/) Eggs (Devonshire) 319. Scotch Eggs {Middlesex) 320. Scotch Eggs (Scotland) 321. Scrambled Eggs (Cheshire) 322. Eggs Stewed in Gravy (Yorkshire, 1769) Yorkshire) 323. Egg and Tomato Mould 324. Eggs and Tomato Sauce Yorkshire) 325. Eggs in the Turkish Way (Surrey)
.

318. Scalloped

.

(

(

.

132 132 132 133 133 133 134 134 135 136 136 136 137 137 137 138 138 138

CHAPTER X
Savouries
326. 327. 328.

Anchovy Creams (Hertfordshire) Anchovy Fillets and Green Butter
Bread and Cheese Custard (Kent)
h,

329. Bouehes
330. Beef

I'ludien (Hertfordshire)

and

Ham

Roll (Hertfordshire)
.

331. FrioateUes (Hertfordshire) 332. Jamaica Fritters (Devonshire) 333.

.... .... .... ....
(Hertfordshire)
. .

.

.

139 139 140 140 140
141 141

.

.

.

.141 .141
142 142

334. 335. Onion

Haddock Souffle (Hertfordshire) Kebobs (Hertfordshire)
and Kidney Savoury

.

.

.

(Isle of Wight)

.

,

336. Potted Liver (Hampshire)

CONTENTS
337. Liver

xix
PAOB
.

and Potato Turnovers

[Hertfordehire)

,

338. Dressed Oysters (Kent)

142 143

339. Fine Patties (Eighteenth Century) 340. Savoury Patties (Yorkshire, 1769)
341.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.143 .143
.

342. 343. 344. 345. 346.
347.

Savoury Mutton Rolls (Hertfordshire) Baked Pig's Fry (Hertfordshire) Savoury Pudding (Sussex) Italian Rice (Middlesex) Savoury Rice (Isle of Wight) Savoury Rice Mould (Hampshire) Fried Sandwich (Hertfordshire)
.
.

.

.

..... .....
. .
.

144

.144
144 145 145 145
146 146 147 147 147 148 148 148

348. Sardine Puffs

Hot

(Hertfordshire)

.

349. Savoury Toast (Hertfordshire) 350.
351.

.... ....
.
.
.

.145 .146 .146

Mock Crab Toast

(Derbyshire)
.

.

.

French Toast (Lancashire) Ham Toast (Hertfordshire) 353. Tomato and Mushroom Savoury (Isle 354. Savoury Tomatoes (Hertfordshire)
352. Excellent
355. Savoiu-y

...
. . .

Tongue

(Hertfordshire)

Nice Whet before Dinner (Eighteenth Century) 357. Scotch Woodcock (Hertfordshire)
356.

A

.... ....
of

Wight)

.

.

.

.

.

CHAPTER XI
Sauces
sauces for meat
358. Sauce for Cold Meat (Kent) 359. Simple Sauce for Cold Meat (Kent) 360. Sharp Sauce for Cold Meats (Middlesex)
. .

...
. . . .

160

.151 .151

361. Sauce for

362.
363.

364.

365. 366.
367.

Roast Meat in General (Eighteenth Century) 151 Cumberland Sauce (Hertfordshire) 151 152 Devil Sauce (Ireland) .152 Gherkin Sauce (Hertfordshire) .152 Gooseberry Sauce (Eighteenth Century) " Gubbins " Sauce (Middlesex) .152 .153 Horseradish Sauce (Middlesex)
. . .

...
.
.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

368. India Sauce (Kent, 1809) 369. Italian Sauce (Essex)
.

.

371. 372.

370. Piquant Sauce (Hertfordshire) Savoury Sauce (Hertfordshire)

Tomato Sauce

(Sussex)

.... .... ......
.

...
.
.
.

153
163 153 154

.

.153

XX
373.

CONTENTS
PAGE

374.

375.
376.

White Sauce {Kent, 1809) White Sauce for Fowls (Eighteenth Century) Sauce for Wild Fowl (Eighteenth Century) Gravy without Meat (Kent, 1809)
.

377. Sauce for a

Goose (yorisAtVe, 1769)

154 164 155 155 155

SAUCES FOR FISH
378.

379.
380. 382.
383.

Dutch Sauce (Middlesex) Cucumber Garnish for Fish (DeuojwAire) Geneva Sauce
.
.

155
.

.

.

.

.

.

.156 .156
156

381. Sauce for Fish (Scotland)

Very 'Slice SancetoT Fish {Eighteenth Century) White Fish Sauce {Eighteenth Century)
. . . . .

.

.

384. Oyster Sauce (Ireland)

.

385. Egg-Sauce for Salt

Cod

(Eighteenth Century)
.

.

386. Lobster Sauce (Eighteenth Century) 387. Lobster Sauce, another way (Eighteenth Century)
.

.157 .157 .157 .158 .158
.

158

388. Sauce for

Salmon (Eighteenth Century)

,

.

.158

BOTTLING SAUCES
389. Black Butter (Middlesex)

390.

Browning

for

Made Dishes

(Eighteenth Century)
.

.

159 159
160

391. Excellent Bottling Sauce (Kent, 1809) 392. Bottled Fish Sauce (Kent)

.

.160

393. Fish Sauce for Bottling (Kent, 1809)

.

394. King's
395. Liver 396. 397.

Own

Sauce (Hampshire)
.

.

.

Ketchup (Lancashire) Mushroom Ketchup (Surrey) Tomato Sauce for Bottling (Essex)
.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.160 .161 .161 .161
.

.

.

.

1

62

SWEET SAUCES
398.

Brandy Sauce

(Hertfordshire)

399. Caramel Sauce (Hertfordshire) 400. Ginger Sauce (Hertfordshire) 401. Orange Sauce (Sussex)
.

.

402. Raspberry Sauce (Hertfordshire) 403. Saracen Sauce (Fourteenth Century Modernised) 404. Sauce for

162 163 163 163 164

Hot Pudding

(Hertfordshire)

164 164

CONTENTS

XXI

CHAPTER
Pickles

XII

PAGE

405. Pickled Beet Root (Middlesex) 406. Pickled Cabbages {Middlesex)
407. Pickled

Red Cabbage
.

{Essex)

.

408. Pickled Cauliflower {Middlesex)

409. Chutney {Kent) 410. Bengal Chutney {Surrey) 411. Bengal Chutney {Devonshire) 412. Tomato Chutney (Sussex) 413. To Pickle Gherkins (Surrey) 414. Indian Pickle (Middlesex) 415. Lemon Pickle (Eighteenth Century) 416. Lyons Pickle (French) 417. To Pickle Mushrooms (Sussex) 418. To Pickle Mushrooms Brown (Surrey) 419. Nasturtium Buds (Seeds) Pickled (Yorkshire, 420. Pickled Young Onions (Middlesex)
.

165 166 166 167 167 168 168 169 169 170 170
171

1

769)

421. Pickled Prunes (Ireland)

172 172 172 173 173

Pickle Samphire (Eighteenth Century) Walnuts (Surrey) 424. Ripe Walnut Pickle (Middlesex) 425. Vegetable Marrow Pickle (Sussex) . 426. Pickling Mixtures (Surrey)
422. 423. Pickled Green

To

173 174 174 175 175

CHAPTER

XIII

Puddings
427. Albert 428.

Pudding (Yorkshire) Apple Amber (Hertfordshire)

.

.

429. Buttered Apples (French) 430. Apple Dowdy (Essex)
431.

....
(Yorkshire)
.

Egg and Apple Pudding

432. Grandmother's Apple
433. 434. Auntie's

Pudding (Somerset)
,

Royal Apple Pudding (American) Pudding (Hertfordshire)

177 178 178 178 179 179 180 l«0

xxu
435. Australian

CONTENTS
PAGB
.

Pudding {Essex) 436. Austrian Pudding {Hertfordshire) 437. Bakewell Pudding {Derbyshire)
438. Betsy SouiH6 {Hertfordshire) 439. Cream Blano Mange {Somerset)
.

Pudding {Isle of Wight) Pudding {Ireland) 442. Bradford Pudding {Hertfordshire)
440. Bolton
441. Bonita

443. Bread-Puddings, Small {Cheshire)

181 181 181 182 182 183 183 184 184

444.

Brown Betty

{Yorkshire)

Pudding {Kent, 1809) 446. Canterbury Pudding {Kent) 447. Carrot Pudding {Yorkshire, 1769) 448. Carrot Pudding (1815) 449. Castle Pudding {Lancashire)
445. Cabinet
.

.

.

450. Carolina Snowballs {American) 451. Cauliflower Pudding {Seventeenth Century) 452. Citron Puddings {Kent, 1809)
.

453. Chocolate 454. Chocolate

Mould

{Devonshire)

455. Cornish 456.
457. 458.

459.

Pudding {Hertfordshire) Pudding {Cornwall) Colchester Pudding {Essex) Cumberland Pudding {Hertfordshire) Dame Blanc Pudding {Hertfordshire) Excellent Date Pudding {Hertfordshire)
. .

460. Devil's Food {American) 461. Devon " Stir-up " Pudding {Devonshire) 462. Devonshire White-Pot {Eighteenth Century)

185 185 185 185 186 186 186 187 187 187 188 188 188 189 189 190 190 190
191

Pudding {Hertfordshire) 464. Exeter Pudding {Hertfordshire) 465. Favourite Pudding {Hertfordshire) 466. Fig Pudding {Ireland)
463. Elizabeth's
.

.

191 191 192

467. Friar's Omelette {Essex)

468. Fruit 469. 470.
471.

Pudding

{Hertfordshire)

German Pufis (Hertfordshire) German Treacle PuSs {Hertfordshire) German Pudding (Hertfordshire)
Pudding (Essex)
(Devonshire)
.
.

472. Preserved Ginger

473. 476. 477.
478.

A

Good Pudding

474. Helston

Pudding ( Yorkshire)
(Sussex)
.

Hominy Snowballs

.

476. Kentish Pudding-Pies

Lemon Pudding (1815) Baked Lemon Pudding (Hampshire)
.

192 193 193 193 193 194 194 194 195 195 196 196 196

CONTENTS
479. Cold Lemon Pudding (Hertfordshire) 480. Light Pudding {Kent)
481. Light
.

XXIU
F^OE
.

.196
196 197

482.
483.

484. 485.

486.
487.

488. 489.

490.
491. 492.

493. 494. 495. 496. 497.

498.

499. 500.
501.

502. 503.
504.

605. 506.
507.

508.

509.
510.
511.
512.

513. 514.

515.
516. 517. 518.

519. 520.
621. 522.

Pudding (iSwMea;) Jjistei Fuddxag {Weatmorland) Marguerite Pudding {Surrey) Marmalade Pudding {Devonshire) Marmalade Pudding {Isle of Wight) Mattress {Durham) Mountain Pudding {Isle of Wight) Muffin Pudding (K'ent, 1809) Mysterious Pudding {Surrey) Newark Pudding {Hertfordshire) Norfolk Dumplings Nottingham Pudding Oxfordshire Pudding Patriotic Pudding {Yorkshire) Pineapple Pudding {Hertfordshire) Christmas Plimi Pudding {Hertfordshire) Christmas Plum Pudding {Ireland) Vegetable Plum Pudding (Kent) Polka Pudding (Kent) Pommes au Riz (Hertfordshire) Poudiag h. la Monsieur Plaroh (Hertfordshire) Potato Pudding (Ireland) Boiled Pudding to be eaten cold (Kent) Pudding to be eaten cold (Shropshire) Quaking Pudding (Eighteenth Century) Queen of Puddings (Surrey) Queen's Pudding (Kent) Raspberry Pudding (Hampshire) Raspberry Pudding (Hertfordshire) Railway Pudding (Ireland) Reform Puddings ( yori«Aire) Regency Pudding (Kent, 1809) Rice Cake Mould (Hertfordshire) Rice Cheese Pudding (1815) Baked Rice Pudding (Ireland) Boiled Rice Pudding (Ireland) Small Rioe Puddings (Kent, 1809) Fnddiag k la, Royale (Hertfordshire). Sandown Pudding (Isle of Wight) SnowbaUa (Surrey) Snowdon Pudding (Devonshire) Sponge Pudding (Devonshire)
.
.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.197 .197 .198 .198
198

.... ..... .... ...... .... .... .... .... ....
.

.

.

.199
199 199 200 200 200 201
201

.

.

.

.

.

.201
.

.

.

.

.

.

...
.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.....
.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.... .... ....
. .
.

.

.

.

202 202 202 203 203 203 203 204 204 204 205 205 205 205 206 206
206 207 207 208 208 208 209 209 209

.

.

.

.206

.

.

.

.

.

.

.208

.

.

.

.

..... ....
. .

....

xxiv
523. Spoonful

CONTENTS
PAGE
.

Pudding {Seventeenth Century) 524. Suffolk Dumplings 525. Sunday Pudding or Fritters (Isle of Wight) 526. Sweetmeat Pudding (Hertfordshire)
.

,

.210
.

.

210 210

.

527. Tapioca, SoutR^ (Hertfordshire)

.

.

.

528. Treacle

Pudding (Lancashire)
(Kent)

.

.

.

.211 .211 .211
211 212 212

529.
530.
531. 532.

Town Pudding

533.

Welsh Pudding (Shropshire) White Pot (Forfes^iwe, 1769) Dr. Wilson's Pudding (Hertfordshire) Yeast Pudding (Ireland)

.

.

.212
212

CHAPTER XIV
Pastry and Sweet Dishes

PASTRY
534. Observations 536.
537.

on Pies (Eighteenth Century)
(Yorkshire)

.

535. Apple Tart (French)

Almond Cheesecakes

....
. .
.

.213
214 214 214 215

Apple Cheesecake Mixture

(Oloucestershire)

.

538.

539.
540.
542.

Lemon Cheesecakes (Hertfordshire) Lemon Cheese (Isle of Wight) Lemon Curd (Essex)
.

.

.

.

. .

.

541. Potato Cheesecakes (Hertfordshire)

Ground Rice Cheesecake Mixture

(Gloucestershire)

543. Codling Pie (Eighteenth Century)

544. 545. 546.
547.

Egg

.... ....
.

.

.215 .215
.

Lemon Lemon

Pies (Yorkshire, 1769) Pie (Surrey)
.

216 216 216 217

.

.

.

.

Tartlets (Lancashire)

.

.

.

.

.217 .217
.

Mincemeat Pie without Meat (Eighteenth Century) Mincemeat (Hertfordshire) 549. New England Molasses Pie (^iTOericon) 550. Orange Pie (Surrey)
548.
. . . . . . . . .

218

.218
.

.

.

218 219

551. Swiss

Rhubarb Tart

(Hertfordshire)

552. Tart of

Rose-Hips (Seventeenth Century)

653. Sultana Pufis (Surrey)

554. Sussex Pancakes (Seventeenth Century)
555. Treacle-George (Devonshire) 656.

To make

Crisp Paste for Tarts (Eighteenth Century)

...... .....
. .

.

.

.219 .219
220 220 220 220
221

.

.

.

657. Vegetable-Marrow Tart (Sussex)

....
.

CONTENTS
FRUIT DISHES
558. Scraped Apples {Surrey) 559. Simple Recipes for Cooking

XXV
FAOB

Jamaica Bananas

560.
561. 562.
563.

Date Cake (Somerset) Dates in Custard (Hampshire) Date Mould (Middlesex) Green Figs (Hertfordshire)
.
.

221 222 222 223

564. Fig Jelly (Surrey) 565.
566. 567. 568.

569.
570.

Stewed Figs (Surrey) Pear Compote (Sussex) To Stew Pears (Eighteenth Century) To Stew Pippins whole (Eighteenth Century) Raspberry Sponge (Essex) Sago Fruit (Kent, 1809)
.

223 223 224 224 224 225 225 225 226

VARIOUS
571. 572. 573.

574.

575.
576.

French Bances (Eighteenth Century) Benita Shape (Devonshire) Brown Bread-crumb Trifle (Surrey) Coldharbour Balls (Surrey) Apple Fritters (Cheshire)

Common

Fritters (Eighteenth Century)

577. Plain Fritters with Rice (Eighteenth Century) 578. Water Fritters (Eighteenth Century)

579. French Pancakes (Cumberland) 680. French Pancakes (Ireland)

Madras Pancakes Pink Pancakes (Eighteenth Century) 683. Russian Pancakes (Hertfordshire) 584. A Delicious Cold Sweet (Kent) 685. An Excellent Sweet (Staffordshire)
581. 582.
.

226 226 227 227 227 228 228 228 229 229 229 230 230 230
231 231 231

586. Tapioca
687.

Cream Tapioca Snow

(Essex)

.

(Lancashire)

.

CHAPTER XV
Creams, Custards, Junkets, Syllabubs,
588.

Etc.
232 233 233

689.

Burnt Cream (Middlesex) CoHee Cream (Middlesex)

590. Cofiee

Cream

(Berleshire)

XXVI
691.

CONTENTS
PAGE

692.
593.
694.

595.
696.
697.

Cream for Fruit Pies {Middlesex) . To make Devonshire Cream (Sussex) Frothed Cream {Kent) Italian Cream {Middlesex) King William's Cream {Eighteenth Century) Lemon Cream {Ireland)

....
.

Madeira Creams {Hertfordshire)

698.

Lemon Cream

{Middlesex)

599. Ratafia 600.
601.

602.
603.

604.

605.

Cream {Hampshire) Snow Cream {Kent) Spanish Cream {Seventeenth Century) Spanish Cream {Surrey) Stone Cream {Middlesex) Strawberry Cream {Middlesex) Swiss Cream {Surrey)
.

....

233 234 234 234 234 235 235 235 236 236 236 236 237 237 237

CUSTARDS
606. Custard {Kent)
607.

608.

Baked Custard Cheap Custard

{Berkshire)
(

Yorkshire)
.

609. Chocolate Custards {Surrey)
610. Countess Custard {Sussex)

611. Wassail Custard {Hertfordshire)

238 238 238 239 239 239

JUNKETS
Junket {Somerset) 613. Junket (Surrey) 614. Coffee Junket (Surrey)
612.

240 240
241

SYLLABUBS
615. Syllabub (Kent, 1809)
616. Syllabub (Surrey)
. .

617. Everlasting Syllabub (Isle of Wight) 618. Syllabub with Cakes (Middlesex)
.

619.
620.

Whipped Syllabub

Lemon

(Yorkshire, 1769) Posset (Yorkshire, 1769)

241 241 241 242 243 243

TRIFLES
621. Trifle (Isle of Wight)

622. Trifle (Kent)
623. Trifle (Middlesex) 624.

.... ....
Trifle (Surrey)

Tinned Apricots and

243 244 244 245

CONTENTS

xxvli

CHAPTER XVI
Jams, Jellies, Preserves, Pruit Pastes, Etc.
jams, jellies,
625. Apple Ginger
626. 627. 628.
(

marmalades
PAGE

YorkaUre)

629.
630.
631. 632. 633. 634.

Apple Jam (Cheshire) Apple Jelly (Essex) Apple Jelly (Ireland) Apple Jelly (Kent) Apple Jelly (Lancashire) Apple Marmalade (MiMleaex) Apple Marmalade (Surrey) Barberry Jam (1815) Blackberry Jam ( Yorkshire)

..... .... .....
.

635. Celery in Imitation of Ginger (Middlesex) 636.

.

.

247 247 248 248 248 248 249 250 250 250 250
251 251

Cherries without Sugar (Seventeenth Century) 637. Preserved Citrons (Kent) 638. To preserve Siberian Crabs (Cheshire)
.
.

To dry

.252
252 252 252 253

639. Crab-Apple Jelly (Kent) 640. Preserved Cranberries (Middlesex)
641. Preserved

Cucumber
of

(Ireland)

642. 643.

Quiddany

Damsons

Currants (rorfeftire, 1769) for Winter use (Kent)
. . .

Red

.... ....
. .

.

644. Gooseberry Jelly (Lincolnshire)

Grape Conserve (American) Grape Jelly (American) 647. Grape Marmalade (American) 648. Lemon Marmalade (Surrey) 649. Mountain Ash Jelly (Surrey) 650. Mountain Ash Jelly, another way (Middlesex) 651. Preserved Melons or Cucumbers (Kent)
645. 646.
.

..... ...... .... ..... .....
. .
. . . .

.253 .253
254 254 254 254 255 255 256 256 257 257 257 258 258 259 259 259 260

652. 653.

To Preserve Mulberries in Sugar (Middlesex) To Preserve Mulberries dry (Middlesex)
.

.

.

.

.

654. 655.
656. 657. 658.

Orange Jelly (Kent) Orange Marmalade Conserve (Devonshire) Smooth Orange Marmalade (Kent, 1809)
.

.

.

To Preserve Pears

(Devonshire)

Pear Marmalade (Yorkshire)

659.

To Preserve Jargonel Pears

(Ireland)

660. Preserved Peaches (Kent)
661. Quince

Jam

.....
.
.

.... .....
.
.

.

(Kent)

xxvm
662. 663.

CONTENTS

Quince Marmalade (Kent) Unboiled Raspberry Jam {Oloueestershire)

664.

665. Preserved

Rhubarb Jam {Essex) Rhubarb {Lincolnshire)

....
.
. . .

260 260 261
261

666. Conserve of
667. Rose-Petal

Red Roses {Seventeenth Jam {Surrey)

Century)

668.

Compote

of

669. Preserved 670.
671. Preserved

Wild Rose-Berries {Surrey) Stewed Fruit (Somerset)
Tomatoes {Essex)

To Sugar Small

Fruit {Seventeenth Century)

672. Vegetable 673.

674.

Marrow Jam {Middlesex) Preserved Vegetable Marrow {Ireland) Dutch Recipe for Preserving Fruit {Gape Colony)
.

262 262 262 263 263 264 264 264 265

FRUIT CHEESES AND PASTES
675. 676.
677.

Almaoks (Kent, 1809) Apple Cheese (1815) Apple Paste (Middlesex)
.

678. Apricot Paste (Middlesex)

679. Bullace Cheese {Eighteenth Century)
680. Cherry Cheese (1815)
681.
.

682.
683.

684. 685. 686.

Black Currant Paste (Middlesex) Damson Cheese (1815) Damson Cheese (Cheshire) Gooseberry Pasta (Surrey) Conserve or Paste of Peaches (Middlesex) Lozenges of Red Rosea (Seventeenth Century)
.

265 266 266 267 267 267 268 268 268 269 269 270

CHAPTER XVII
Sweetmeats and Candies
Candied Angelica (Middlesex) Burnt Almonds (Eighteenth Century) 689. Burnt Almonds, Red (1815) 690. Burnt Almonds, White (1815)
687.

688.

.

691.

Almond Paste

(Somerset)

Candied Apricots (Surrey) 693. Candied Barberries (Surrey) 694. Barley Sugar (Middlesex)
692.

.

271 272 272 273 273 274 274 274

CONTENTS
695. Barley Sugar [Surrey)
696. Black Currant 698. Chocolate
.

XXIX
PAGE

Drops (1815)

697. Butterscotch (Middlesex)

Almonds (Surrey) 699. Chocolate Drops (1815) 700. Coconut Candy (Hampshire)
.

701. 702. 703.

Coconut Candy (Surrey) Coconut Candy, another way Coconut Ice (Hampshire)

704.
705.

To Candy
Hardbake

Cowslips (Seventeenth Century)
(Surrey)
.

Candied Filberts (Middlesex)

706.
707.

708. 709.
710.

Lemon Pralines (Hampshire) Lemon Prawlongs (1815) Cqndied Lemon or Orange Chips
.

(Kent)

275 275 276 276 276 277 277 278 278 279 279 279 280 280 280
281 281 281

Marzipan (Middlesex) 711. Marzipan Pomme de Terre (American) 712. Marzipan Potatoes (Hampshire)
713. 715.

714. Orange-flower

Nougat (Middlesex) Candy (Middlesex) Peppermint Creams (Hampshire)

.

716. Crystallised Roses or Violets (Surrey) 717. Sugar 718.

Candy (Middlesex)
is

282 282 283 283 283
(

To know when Sugar
1769)

at

Candy Height

Yorkshire,

719.

To Make Sugar-plums

(Surrey)

720. Fruit Pastes for Sugar-pliuns (Surrey)
721. Toffee (Kent) 722. Devonshire Toffee 723.

....
.

Everton Russian 725. Turkish 726. Turkish
724.

Toffee (Lancashire) Toffed (Surrey) Delight (Hertfordshire) Delight (Surrey)

284 284 285 285 285 285 286 286 286

CHAPTER XVIII
Cakes
(Qloiu:esterahire) 727. General Rules for Mixing Cakes 728. Baking Powder (Somerset)

729.

Good Baking Powder

(Kent)

.... ....

290 290 290

XXX

CONTENTS
P4QB

730. Excellent Chocolate Filling (HertfordsMre) 731. Icing (Kent) 732. 733.

290
291 291 291 291 292 292 292 292 293 293 293

To Ice a Cake Yorkshire) Almond Icing (Somerset)
(

734. Chocolate Icing (Cheshire)

735. Chocolate Icing (Surrey) 736.
737. 738.

Almond Cake

(Middlesex)
.

739.
740.
741.

742.

743.
744.

American Cakes (Kent) American Cake Arbeth Cake (Hertfordshire) Aimt-Mary Cake (Ireland) Austrian Cake (Hertfordshire) Banbury Cakes (Oxfordshire) Barm-brack (Ireland)
Barm-brack, another way

.

.

745.

Bordeaux Cakes (French) 746. Small Brandy Snaps (Hertfordshire) 747. Caraway Cakes (Middlesex) 748. Charlie's Cake (Gloucestershire) 749. Cherry Cake (Hertfordshire) 750. Chocolate Cake (Somerset) 751. Chocolate Cake (Sussex)
. .

752. Chocolate Puffs (Eighteenth Century) 753. Christmas 754. Christmas

Cake (Hertfordshire) Cake (Yorkshire)
.

755.
756.
757.

Cinnamon

Biscuits (Kent)
(Gloucestershire)
.

Coconut Biscuits

Coomber Cake
Cake

(Sussex)

758. Cornflour Cakes (Hertfordshire)

759. Cornflour
760. Cornish
762. 763.

(Gloucestershire)

Heavy Cake
.

(Cornwall)
.

761. Cracknels (Yorkshire, 1769)

Cup Cake (Kent) Isle of Wight Doughnuts
American Doughnuts

764. 765.

Durham Yule Cake
.

294 294 294 294 295 295 295 295 296 296 297 297 297 297 298 298 298 298 299 299 299 299 300 300
301 301 301

Cakes (Cumberland) Cakes (Sussex) 768. Delicious Finger Cakes (Hertfordshire) 769. Fleed Cakes (Kent)
766. Ecoles 767. Ethel's

770. Galette (French)
771. Gfiteau k la

.

772.

Mocha German Gaufres

(Hertfordshire)

.

773. Italian Gaufres

.

.

302 303 303 304 304

XXXll
818.

CONTENTS
(Hertfordshire)

Richmond Cake

819. Rich
820.
821.
823.

Cake (Hamp«feire) Rich Plum Cake (Devonshire)

Rout Cakes (Middlesex)
.

.... ....
. .
.

PAGB

822. Oat-cakes (Scotland)

319 319 319 320 320
321 321 322 322 323

Oatmeal Cakes (Lancashire) Orange Cake (Somerset) 825. Oswego Cakes (Kent)
824. 826. Paisley Circles (Kent) 827. Parkins (Derbyshire) 828. Parkin (Lancashire) 829. Parkin (Shropshire) 830. Yorkshire Parkin
.

.321

......
.
. . . .
.

831. Yorkshire Parkin, another 832. Plain 833.

way

.

.

.

834.

Cake (Cape Colony) Plain Cake (Surrey) Plain Cake (Forfc«;iire)

835. Primbles (Hertfordshire) 836. Potato-Cakes, salt (Ireland)

837. Potato-Cake, sweet (Devonshire)

Queen Cakes (Oloucestershire) Queen Cakes (Surrey) 840. Sand Cake (Oloucestershire) 841. Sandwich Cake (Devonshire) 842. Sandwich Cake (Oloucestershire) 843. Scotch Cake 844. Seed Cake (Cheshire)
838.

839.

845. Seed Biscuits (Kent)
847.

846. Seed Cake, rich (Oloucestershire)

Seed Cake (Ireland) Seed Cake (Yorkshire) 849. Tipperary Seed Cake (Ireland) 850. Ayrshire Shortcake (Scotland)
.

848.

Common

.... .... ..... .... .... .... .... .... ....
.

... ..... ..... ....
. .

323 323 323 324 324
324 325 325 326

.324

.326
327 327 327 327 328 328 329 329 329 330 330
331 331 332 332 332 332 333 333 33J 333 334

851. Saffron

Cake (Cornwall)

852. Shortbread (Kent, 1809) 853. Shortbread (Leicestershire)

854. Shortbread Biscuits (Hertfordshire) 855. Ginger Shortbread (Hertfordshire) 856.
857.

868.

859.
860.
861.

Shrewsbury Cakes (Shropshire) Shrewsbury Cakes (Kent) Shrewsbury Cakes (Staffordshire) Silver Cake (American) Simnel Cake (Gloucestershire) Mrs. Stookdel's Small Cakes (Seventeenth Century)
. . .

.... .... .... ......
.
. .

.....
.

CONTENTS
862. Slim Cakes {Kent)

XXXI II
FAQB

Soda Cake {Kent) 864. Soda Cake, another way 865. Soda Cake ( Yorkshire) 866. Sponge Cake {Surrey) 867. Cheap Sponge Cake {Surrey) 868. Rich Sponge Cake {Hampshire) 869. Sultana Cake {Devonshire) 870. Sussex Cakes 871. Sweet Biscuits {Yorkshire)
863.
! .
.
.

872. Swiss Rolls {Kent) 873.

Tea

Biscuits {Surrey)

.

874. Little Tea-Biscuits {Surrey)

.

875.
876.
877.

878.

879.

Tea Cakes {Middlesex) Buttermilk Tea Cakes (Somerset) Fried Tea Cakes (Somerset) Potato Tea Cakes (Isle of Wight) Treacle Cake (Yorkshire)
.
. . .

880. Iced Triffies (Hertfordshire)
881. Waffles (Hertfordshire)

334 335 336 335 335 336 336 336 337 337 337 337 338 338 338 339 339 339 340 340
341 341 341

882. 883. 884.

885.

Walnut Cake (Hertfordshire) Wennington Cakes (Yorkshire) The Most Wholesome of Cakes Wiggs (Yorkshire, 1769)
.

(Surrey)

342

CHAPTER XIX
Bread, Rolls, Buns, Muffins, Etc.
886.
887.

888.

To Make Household Bread (Middlesex) Home-made Bread (Middlesex) Home-made Bread (Essex)
.

889.

Com

890.
891.

892.
893.

894. 895.
897.

Bread (Ireland) Italian Bread Mannheim Bread (Qerman) Potato Bread (French) Yankee Brown Bread (Ireland) Little Loaves (Kent) French Rolls
.
.

.

896. Milk Rolls (Devonshire)

SuSolk Rusks

344 346 347 348 348 348 348 349 349 349 350 360

XXXIV
898.

CONTENTS
FAQB

899.

Rusks {Kent) Tops aad Bottoms {Kent)

350 350

BUNS
Buns and French Bread {Hertfordshire) Brown Meal Buns {Hertfordshire) 902. Bath Buns {Kent, 1809) 903. Buttermilk Buns (Kent) 904. Coburg Buns {Northumberland) 905. CoHee Buns {Somerset) 906. Easter Buns {Surrey) 907. Lemon Buns {Kent) 908. Plain Buns {Kent) 909. Plain Buns {Cape Colony) 910. Saffron Buns (Cornwall)
900.
901.
.

911. Currant Loaf {Hertfordshire)

.

351 351 351 352 352 353 353 353 354 354 354 355

SCONES
912. Scone Flour {Hertfordshire) 913. Scones (Devonshire) 914. Scones (Hertfordshire)

915. Scones (Kent) 916. Scones, another
917. Scones, another

way way

918. Irish Scones

919. Scotch Scones (Lancashire) 920.
921.

Soda Scones

(Scottish)

.

Wheatmeal Scones

(Isle of

Wight)

355 355 356 356 356 357 357 357 357 358

CRUMPETS. ETC,
922.

Crumpets (Kent)

.

923. Muffins (Middlesex)

924. Pikelets (Staffordshire) 925. Sally 926. Sally

.

Lunn Lunn

(Lancashire)

(Kent)

927. Splits (Kent)

928. Tea-Cakes (Lancashire)

929. Tea-Cakes (Yorkshire) 930. To Make Barm or Yeast (Cheshire) 931. To Make Barm or Yeast, another way
.
.

358 359 359 360 360 360 360 360
361 361

932.

To make Barm

or Yeast (Lancashire)

362

CONTENTS

XXXV

CHAPTER XX
Beverages

HOME-MADE WINES (ALCOHOLIC)
PAOB
933.

Apple Wine (1822)

934. Blackberry 935.
937.

Wine

{Eaaex)

364 364
. .

936. Cowslip 938. Cowslip

Balm Wiue {Yorkshire, Wine (1815) Cowslip Wine (/Surrey)

1769)

.

.364
365 366 366 367 367 368 368 369 370 370
371 371 372 372 372 373 374 374 375

Wine, another way

939. Currant

940.
941.

942.
943. 944.

945.
946.
947.

948.

949.
950.
951.

952. 953.

954. 955.
956.
957.

Wine (1815) Cvirrant Wine (1822) Currant Wine (Kent) Elderberry Wine (Essex) Elderberry Wine {Surrey) Elderberry Wine (Sussex) Ginger Wine (1815) Ginger Wine (Kent, 1809) Gooseberry Wine (1822) Green Gooseberry Wine (Lancashire) Green Gooseberry Wine, another way Grape Wine (Kent) Lemon Wine (Kent, 1809) Lemon Wine (1815) Madeira Wine (Kent, 1809) Marigold Wine (Surrey) Mead (1815) Mead (Middlesex) Mead (Surrey)

.....

.

.

.

...

.

.

.

.

.

.....

958. Metheglin (Cornwall)

959.
961.

Orange Wine (1815)

960. Raisin

Wine (1815) Rhubarb Wine (Suffolk)
Wine
(Kent, 1809)

962. English Sherry (Kent, 1809)
963. Valentia

376 376 376 376 377 377 378 378 378

BEERS (NON-ALCOHOLIC)
964. Ginger Beer (1822)
965. Ginger Beer (Kent) 966. Ginger Beer, another

way

379 379 380

XXX VI
967. Ginger

CONTENTS
PAQH

Beer {Middlesex) 968. Ginger Beer {Staffordshire) 969. Ginger Beer {Sussex) 970. Ginger Pop {Ireland)
971. Imperial

Pop

{Kent, 1809)

Beer {Hampshire) 973. Nettle Beer {Surrey) 974. Nettle Beer, another way 975. Treacle Beer (1822)
972. Nettle

380 381 381 381 382 382 382 383 383

LEMONADE,
976. Blackberry
977.

SYRUPS,

FBUIT

VINEGARS,

ETC.
384 384 385 385 385 386 386 386 386 387 387 387 387 388 388 388 389 389 390

Syrup {Essex) Blackberry Vinegar {Surrey) 978. Cherry Water 979. Cowslip Syrup {Surrey) 980. Elder Rob {Eighteenth Century)
981.

.....
....
. . .

Flummery

(Ireland)

982. Fruit

Syrup {French)

983. Gingerette {Sussex)

984. Ginger-Wine, non-Alcoholic {Ireland) 985.
986. 987. 988.

Syrup of

Gilliflowers {Yorkshire, 1769)

.

.

Lemonade {Ireland) Lemonade {Sussex) Lemonade Syrup {Lancashire)

989. 990.
991.

Lemon Syrup Lemon Syrup

(Essex)

.... .... ......

(Kent, 1809)

Raspberry Vinegar (1815) Raspberry Vinegar (Surrey) 993. Raspberry Shrub (Surrey)
992. 994. Sherbet (Sussex)

..... ...

.

VARIOUS MIXED BEVERAGES (ALCOHOLIC)
995. Ale Syllabub (American)
996. Bishop (Middlesex)
997.
.

Bishop (Surrey)

998. Claret

Cup

(Cheshire)

999. Claret Cup, another

way

..... .... .....

390 390 390
391 391 391

1000.
1001.

1002.

Egg Flip (American) Egg Flip (Cheshire) Egg Hot (Middlesex)

1003. Mint Julep (American) 1004. Mulled Wine (Middlesex)

392 392 393 393

CONTENTS
1005. Mulled 1006.
1007.

xxxvu
.
.

Wine

{Surrey)

.

.

Negus

{Surrey)
{Eighteenth Century)

A

Restorative {Sussex)

1008.

White Wine Whey

393 394 394 394

COFFEE AND TEA
1009. CoSee {Surrey)
1010.
.

Tea

for a

Headache

{Surrey)

395 396

LIQUEURS, CORDIALS, RATAFIAS
1011. Alkermes {French) 1012. Aniseed (1815) 1013. Anisette {French)

AngeUoa Ratafia {Surrey) 1015. Apricot Ratafia {Middlesex) 1016. Aqua Vitse Composita {Sixteenth Century) 1017. Caraway Cordial {Surrey)
1014.
. . .

1018. Cherry

1019. Cherry
1020.
1021.

Brandy {Kent) Brandy {Middlesex, 1822) Black Cherry Brandy (yorfeiAire, 1769) Lisbon Cherry Bounce {Kent, 1809)
.

..... .....
. .

397 398 398 398

.398
399 399 400 400 400 400
401

.

....
. . . .

.

.

1022. Chocolate Liqueur (1815) 1023. Cinnamon Water {Middlesex)
1024. Clove Water (Middlesex) 1025. Coffee Liqueur (1815) 1026. Coriander Cordial {Surrey)

.

.

.401
401

1027. Coriander 1028.

Water {Middlesex) Cornelia or Cinnamon Cordial

1029. Curasao {Surrey)
1030. Curajao, another
1031.

way

.

1032.
1033.

Hawthorn Brandy Hawthorn Brandy
Lovage {Surrey)

..... .....
. .

.

(18l'5)

.

.

.

402 402 402 402 403 403 403 404 404 405 405 405 406 406

1034.
1035.

1036.
1037.

{LaruMshire) (Middlesex) 1039. Oil of Roses (Surrey) 1040. Oil of Roses, another way 1041. Oil of Roses (Frerwh) 1042. Perfetto Amore(1815)
1038.

Noyeau Noyeau Noyeau Noyeau Noyeau

(1822) {Kent, 1809) (Kent)

....... ......
. .

{Middlesex, 1822) {Surrey)

.

.

.403

.

.

.407
407 407

xxxviii

CONTENTS

CONTENTS
1075. Pearl Barley-water {Cheshire) 1076. Beef
1077.

XXXIX
PAOB

Tea {Lancashire) Good Cooling Drink {Cheshire)
.

1078. Imperial {Surrey)

1079. Lively Imperial {Kent, 1809) 1080. Quiet Imperial (JTerei, 1809)
.

1081. Sago Posset {Cheshire)

.

419 419 419 419 420 420 420

CHAPTER XXn

SOME PRELIMINAEY REMAEKS
Please read these
attentively.

They

are

most im-

portant to the successful carrying-out of the recipes.
Practised and expert cooks may regard them as " coals to Newcastle," but to less experienced women

they

will

be of value
life

:

there

is

a

moment

in

everybody's
first

when a thing

is

learned for the

time,

and indeed, some

of the following points

are

unknown

to, or neglected by,

cooks

who

profess

themselves quite proficient.
1.

Let all hot foods be served upon hot dishes, with

hot plates,

and kept

hot under a

warmed

cover.

This

rule is frequently ignored

they are
carefully

by people who consider good cooks, with the result that the most prepared dish is spoiled. The simplest
is

food served " hot-and-hot "
recherche one

better than the most

upon cold

plates
etc.,

and

dishes.

If

you

can't heat your dishes,
rack,

in the oven or on the

put them in the fender, or dip them in hot

water, or stand

them on top

of a boiling pan.

But,

by hook
2.

or crook, heat them.

Never serve cold foods upon lukewarm or just-washed plates and dishes. Be sure
Vicer^oersa.

xU

:

xlii

SOME PRELIMINARY REMARKS
is

that a cold preparation

cold
it

:

and

if

not, take

means to make
but get
3. it

it so.

Stand

out-of-doors, or in a
of

bowl of cold water, or in a basin

wet silver-sand

:

cold, not horridly tepid.
little

Always allow a

more than

the time allotted

in a recipe, in arranging for the hour of a meal.

Punctuality in serving a plain dish

is

better than

a costly dish served

late.

As a

rule, it is safe to

allow at least a quarter of an hour per lb. for baking (plus a quarter of an hour extra " for the

oven,"

i.e.

before the

meat
for
;

starts cooking),

and
with

twenty minutes per
rather

lb.

boiling

meat,

more

for steaming

it

being remembered,
alike,

in the former case, that no

two range ovens are
to maintain the

and that

it is

very

difficult

same

degree of uniform heat for hours at a time (especially as certain

ovens are affected by certain winds)

and
is is

in the second case, that boiling, as regards meat,

not boiling but quiet simmering.

Meat

boiled

meat

spoiled.

All this

must be taken into con-

sideration in arranging a meal.
is

Where a

gas-stove

employed, the heat can, of course, be maintained

at a

more uniform temperature.

Steaming

is,

in

almost every case of meat and vegetables, superior
to boiling.
4.

Always go by weight and measure

:

it is

safer

than " rule of thumb."
ingredients,

especially as regards flavourings
is

seasonings,

one of
it

The accurate balance of and any the secrets of success
:

deviation from

upsets the recipe.

Lots of people

SOME PRELIMINARY REMARKS

xliii

win not take the trouble to follow out the exact
proportions defined, and then are astonished at the
failure of their attempts.

Occasionally,
;

however,

a recipe

may

be actually altered

as, for instance,

the next paragraph will show.
5.

In boiled suet puddings, the best rule (what-

ever the recipe

may

say)

is

to use flour

and breadall flour.

crumbs

in

equal quantities,

or even in a larger
:

proportion of crumbs than flour

never

This ensures lightness.

Suet should be grated rather
fine sieve,

than chopped
rinsed
floured.

:

bread passed through a

rather than grated.

The

cloth,

if

any, should be

and wrung out

in boiling
is

water and well
is

Where

a pudding

steamed, no cloth

required.
6.

Dried

fruits

should be quickly washed, and
It is surprising
grit.

dried in a clean cloth, before using.

how they accumulate
Valencia raisins should
well picked.

dust and

All whole be well stoned, and sultanas

raisins are never whole ones. Currants should so fresh and nice as be scalded and then dried as above. Many persons are too lazy to do this properly.
7.

Bought "stoned"

Never omit
salted

salt

from the making

of

any

sodis-

called

dish.
salt is

Pepper

is

a matter of

cretion—but

a matter of necessity.

This

applies especially to vegetables, sauces,

and

gravies,
also
re-

where

folks

too

often forget

it.

But

member to put

a small pinch of salt into the making

of every sweet dish

—puddings,

pies, cakes, custards,

xliv
etc.

SOME PRELIMINARY REMARKS
This
is

most important.

It enhances

and

brings out the flavour in a marvellous manner.
8.

It is better to

keep jams and

all

dry stores

against an inside wall.

They

will

gather mould or

nuldew much sooner against an outer one.
9.

Never,

decoration
appetising,

if possible, omit that trifling touch of which makes the simplest dish look

and the homeliest table

attractive.

A
:

few sprigs of parsley, with cold dishes, or with

fish

a Httle cut lemon, and so forth, are an immense
addition to the look of a dish.

upon the flowers and

— cheapest, the commonest leaves —makes aU the difference in the world. A meal then appears —^without one's knowing why —something more than merely eating to
table
^the

And

a jar of flowers

satisfy the

wants of the body.
affair,

It

becomes a plea-

sant and attractive

beneficial

and tonic to

the mind.

what you have, before proceeding to purchase fresh material. But do not be penny-wise in the utilising of any scraps or remainders when they are evidently on the down-grade. Never let mere motives of economy
10.

Use up and make the best

of

tempt you to
least sour,
fish, stock,

risk using

anything which

is

in the

stale,

or tainted, especially as regards

meat, or vegetables.

Health

is

the

first

consideration of aU.

Further practical hints
to the various sections.

will

be found appended

"

POSTSCRIPT
The terms " spoonful," " cupful," etc., have been very loosely used by the original transcribers of
these recipes.
best of
I

have cleared up any doubt, to the

by interpolating the (probable) As a general rule it will be found that " spoonful " means tablespoonftU, and " cupbut the reader must exercise ful," breakfastcupful her own discretion in two or three cases.
ability,

my

correct amount.

;

Several local, provincial, or obsolete words seem
to require interpretation.

Barm and yeast are identical. To Cree (North-country) is to expand by slow cooking in water. To Plim is the South-country
equivalent.

To

Coddle
is

is

to parboil.

Earning

curdling-liquid, such as rennet.

Farce is forcemeat or stuffing. Peeps are flower-petals. Pot may mean jar, pan, " crock," or "
(North-coimtry),
context.
or
gallipot
:

mug
the

according

to

Sack
wine,

may be

modernised as very sweet white
etc.

—Sherry, Marsala, Madeira,
is

French wine usually indicates
vnne, port.

claret,

and Lisbon

A

Tossing-pan

a frying-pan.
xlv

CHAPTER

I

BEEF AND MUTTON RECIPES
Note.
for

—To the

of her resources,

housewife pretty nearly at the end no less than to the hungry folk
all

whom

she caters, several of the following sug-

gestions will

come with

the force of novelty.

I

have divided them, for purposes of the cook's convenience, into methods of treating hot meat and cold. We are only too apt to become stale and monotonous in our repetition, month by month and year by year, of certain too-familiar joints and But anything which can obUterate the rechauffes. memory of the horrid word " hash," should be as
it is rare. Where stews are concerned (whether of fresh or cooked meat), I would like to remind the reader that anything baked iq earthen-

desirable as

ware is infinitely better cooked and better flavoured than it can ever be in a metal vessel. The earthenware retains and imparts heat and flavour in a most marvellous manner. And indeed, speaking generally, I would say, steer clear of metal whenever and wherever you can, making use of wood and earthenware alone. Also, it is to be observed, that careful basting (too frequently ignored) is an essential point, not only in the cooking, but in the appearance of any baked or roasted meat.
1

;

2

BEEF AND MUTTON RECIPES

FRESH MEAT
1.

BEEF COLLOP MINCED

(Kent,

1809)

of beef very fine, taking from every particle of fat and string put an onion shred small into a stewpan with pepper and salt and a piece of butter. Let them boil about a minute put in the meat and move it about with a spoon till it looks a little white then add a little
it
; ;

Chop two pounds

good gravy and spice to your taste. Let it come to a boil, when it will be quite done enough.
2.

GALANTINE OF BEEF

(Hertfordshire)

Mince a quarter of a pound of beef and half a of bacon. Put both in a basin with six ounces of breadcrumbs, and pepper and salt. Beat two eggs and a gill of stock together and add to the other ingredients, and mix all well. Shape this into a nice roU, tie in a buttered pudding cloth,

pound

and
glaze

boil for
it.

two hours

;

turn out, let

it set,

and

3.

ROLLED BEEF
half
of

(Hertfordshire)

A
of

pound and a

steak or

four ounces of breadcrumbs, an ounce
parsley,

gravy beef, and a haK

chopped suet, one egg, seasoning to taste of thyme, salt, and pepper. The meat should be in one piece, and about half an inch thick. Put the meat on a board and flatten it with a roUingpin. Mix all the dry ingredients after having chopped the parsley finely. Then add the beaten egg, or, if you wish to be very economical, a little milk. Spread the forcemeat over the beef, roll up.

BEEF AND MUTTON RECIPES
and

3

tie into shape with tape or string. Put into a deep pie-dish. Pour over it three-quarters of a pint

of boiling water, cover

and stew in a slow oven for one and a half or two hours. Take out the meat, and put it on a dish. Mix smooth a tablespoonful of flour with cold water, add this to the gravy, place in a saucepan, and stir over the fire till the gravy is thick. Colour it with a little browning, pour over the meat, and serve.
4.

BEEF KIDNEYS A LA RUSSE

(Hertfordshire)

Soak some beef kidney in cold water for an hour, change the water once or twice as it colours. Then set it in a saucepan, cover it with cold water and bring to the boil draia off the water and add more, then simmer the kidney gently for fifteen minutes. Pour off the liquor and cut out the sinew, etc., from the kidney. Slice the meat thinly, dredge with seasoned flour, and fry in hot butter until brown. Take out the meat, stir in a tablespoonful of flour in the butter and brown thoroughly add a tablespoonful of tomato juice, and a little lemon juice, pepper and salt, and sufficient gravy to make enough
;
;

sauce to cover the kidney. sauce and cook
all slowly for

Place the meat in the

gravy
bread,

if

necessary.
rolls

and tiny
5.

one hour, adding some Serve with fried croutons of of fried bacon.
(Cheshire)

BEEF OLIVES

Take one and a half pounds
preference)

of beef (steak for

and cut it into pieces four inches long, about the same in width, and half an inch thick. Mince up the trimmings and odds and ends of the beef, along with two ounces of suet, and one tea-

;

4

BEEF AND MUTTON RECIPES
three ounces of breadcrumbs, a grated lemonlittle

spoonful each of parsley, thyme, and marjoram.

Add

rind, a

grated nutmeg, one beaten egg, and
salt,

a pint of brown gravy, half a teaspoonful of

and a
flat

little

pepper.

When

these ingredients are

thoroughly united, beat out each piece of beef as as possible, and spread each piece with the above mixture roll it up and tie it tightly. Place the rolls in a stew-pan with one pint seasoned brown gravy, and stew gently for three-quarters of an hour. Dish with a border of mashed potato or rice, and pour gravy round the ohves.
:

6.

FOR SPICED BEEF
(This
is

(Lancashire)

a very good and old recipe)
of boiling

as will

To one gallon swim an
of

egg, half

an ounce
ditto

salt prunelle,

water add as much salt an ounce saltpetre, half half an ounce mustard seed,

cloves, cayenne pods, ciimamon, mace one ounce of ginger, haK a pound of sugar (DemeThe spices to be rara) all to be boiled together. boiled in the water, and then the salt and sugar to be added when cold. The meat to be put in this pickle
;

for several weeks.

Keep

turning.

Silver side of

beef or any part of round.
7.

STEWED RUMP OF BEEF

(Eighteenth Centiuy)

Half roast your beef, then put it in a large saucepan or cauldron, with two quarts of water, and one of red wine, two or three blades of mace, a shalot, a spoonful of lemon pickle, two of walnut ketchup, the same of browning, cayenne pepper and salt to

your taste let it stew over a gentle fire, close covered for two hours then take up your beef, and lay it on
; ;

BEEP AKD MUTTON RECIPES
a deep dish, skim

5

off the fat, and strain the gravy, and put in haM a pint of mushrooms t'Jcken your gravy, and pour it over your beef, lay round it forcemeat balls garnish with horse radish, and
; :

serve

it

up.

8.

BROILED BEEF STEAKS

(Eighteenth Century)

Cut your steaks off a rump of beef about half an inch thick, let your fire be clear, rub your gridiron well with beef suet, when it is hot lay them on let
;

them

brown, turn them, and, when the other side is brown, lay them on a hot dish, with a slice of butter betwixt every steak sprinkle a little pepper and salt over them, let them stand two or three minutes, then slice a shalot as lay thin as possible into a tablespoonful of water on your steaks again, keep turning them till they are done enough, put them on your dish, pour the shalot and water amongst them, and send them to the
broil until they begin to
;

;

table.

9.

TO DRESS BEEF STEAKS THE COMMON WAY
(Eighteenth Century)

Pry your steaks in butter a good brown, then put in half a pint of water, an onion sliced, a spoonful of walnut ketchup, a little caper liquor, pepper and salt, cover them close with a dish and let them when they are done enough, thicken stew gently the gravy with flour and butter, and serve them up.
;

10.

MADRAS STEAK

(Hertfordshire)

place

Procure a good beef steak, dip it in flour, and it in a baking tin, letting it lie flat, placing on

6

BEEF AND MUTTON RECIPES
;

put greased paper over. twenty minutes mix together a teaspoonful of curry powder, a tablespoonful of vinegar in a cup of hot water, and add replace the lid and let stew gently for an it to beef hour and a haK serve very hot with onion on top and gravy poured round.
the top slices of onions
in an

Put

oven and cook

for

;

;

;

11.

STEWED STEAK

(Sussex)

with one shalot, then put it into a pan, Fry with a little good gravy, a teaspoonful of made mustard, a very Httle cayenne pepper, and a little salt. Cover closely and let it cook gently for two and a half hours. Then add a httle browning, a little mushroom ketchup or any other sauce ladle the gravy over it and turn it once.
first

12.

BRAZILIAN STEW

(Sussex)

Take one pound

of shin of beef, cut it into dice,

dip the pieces into about two tablespoonfuls of vinegar. Stick one clove in an onion, take one
water.

one strip of celery, and add half a pint of Put the whole in a jar and cook slowly in a cool oven, or stand the jar in a saucepan of water.
carrot,
13.

FRENCH STEW

(Surrey)

Cut into pieces two or three pounds of the lean of fresh, tender beef, veal, or pork peel and shce a quarter of a peck of ripe tomatoes season the whole with a httle pepper and salt. Put all into a stewpot, and cover it close, opening it only occasionally to see how it is cooking. Put no water to the stew, the tomato-juice is enough liquid. When
;
:

BEEF AND MUTTON RECIPES
the tomatoes are
all

7

dissolved, stir in a piece of

and the stew remains about a quarter of an hour longer. When the meat is done through, have ready some bits of verydry toast, cut in three-corner shape, having the crust off. Dip the toast for a moment in some hot water, butter it, and stand it up round the inside of a deep dish. Fill in the stew and serve hot.
fresh butter dredged with flour,
14.

LANCASTER STEW
;

(Hertfordshire)
;

Fry two large onions light brown mix a tablespoon of flour and fry it add a quart of thin stock or water, and a tablespoonful of vinegar. Cut two pounds of gravy beef or skirting into pieces, add them, let simmer for three hours an hour before serving drop in some savoury balls, made with half a pound of flour, teaspoonful of baking powder, the same of salt, half of pepper, parsley, thyme, half an
;

onion chopped, three tablespoonfuls of suet, mixed Dish the meat in centre with balls with water. around.

15.

BOILED TONGUE
it it

(Eighteenth

Century)

If

your tongue be a dry one, steep
three hours
;

night, then boil

if

it in water aU you would have it it

to eat hot, stick

with cloves, rub

over with the

yolk of an egg, strew over it bread crumbs, baste it with butter, set it before the fire till it is a light

brown

;

when you
;

dish

it

up, pour a

little

brown

gravy, or red wine sauce, mixed the same way as lay shces of currant jeUy round it. for venison

N.B. out of

If it
it.

be a pickled one, only wash the water

8

BEEF AND MUTTON RECIPES
VARIOUS
16.

CORNISH PASTY

(West-country)

Into half a pound of flour rub three ounces of lard Slice up or dripping, and a salt-spoonful of salt.
finely

about half a pound of uncooked potatoes, about

half a

pieces about

pound of tender beefsteak cut into small two inches in length add about two
:

ounces of chopped onions.
flour

Make

a paste with the

and dripping, roll to about three-quarters of an inch thick, and cut it the size and shape of a Lay the potatoes and meat on one dinner-plate. half, and fold over the other half as for a jam
"turn-over," moistening the edges with a httle water, and pinch them in all round. Bake in a

moderate oven from half to three-quarters of an
hour.
17.

MOCK GAME
:

(Warwickshire)

Required
jelly,

beef steak, rashers of bacon, red currant

roll

lemon, vinegar, salt. Cut steak into strips, up each strip with a slice of bacon inside, tie

Fry these lightly, put rolls into a sauceroll. pan containing one tablespoonful of vinegar, one teaspoonful of grated lemon rind, two tablespoonfuls
each
of

red currant

jelly,

three or four pepper-corns,

and cloves and add some good
jelly

salt to taste.

Stew

until tender,

place the rolls on a hot dish, thicken the liquid,
stock,

pour

this over the steak

serve, garnished with toast sippets

and and red currant

and
18.

parsley.

STEWED OX TAILS
ox-tails

(Devonshire)

Cut two
butter.

into joints

and

fry

them

in

Place them in a quart of cold water, with

;

BEEF AND MUTTON RECIPES
a
little

9

onion, cloves, mace, lemon-peel, one table-

spoonful of lemon-juice, and three sprigs of parsley
let all
tails

simmer gently for three hours, then take the out and thicken the gravy with two or three
Strain
;

tablespoonfuls of flour.

it

through a

sieve,

season with pepper and salt

place the tails in the

gravy, and gently simmer for one hour more.

Dish

and serve with chopped parsley and
19.

toast.

TRIPE

(Stirrey)

Take two pounds of fresh tripe, well cleaned and Cut the coarse fat away, and boil it for about half an hour in equal parts of mUk and water. The water should have been on the fire for half an
dressed.

hour previously, with four
onions
in.

large,
is

sliced

(English)

When
tripe.

the tripe

cooked,

make
it

the

liquid into a rich onion sauce,

and serve

very

hot over the
20.

CURRIED TRIPE

(Hertfordshire)

Take two

or three large onions,

and fry them

in

dripping tUl tender. Chop them very fine, or, if preferred, pass through a sieve, and put them with

a dessertspoonful of curry powder and peaflour When quite smooth, add gradually one mixed. Now take pint of stock, and stir till it boUs.

one

and a

half

pounds

of

boiled

tripe,

cut

and put it it all stew together for one and Let into the sauce. a half hours. Have ready some well boUed rice, make a ball of it on the dish, pour the tripe into the centre and serve. Squeeze a little lemon juice over the whole. This dish is both economical and
into pieces about one inch square,
nutritious.

10
21.

BEEF AND MUTTON RECIPES
FRICASSEE OF TRIPE
I
(Yorkshire,

1769)

Take the whitest seam tripes you can get, and cut them in long pieces, put them into a steAvpan with a little good gravy, a few breadcrumbs, a lump of butter, a little vinegar to your taste, and a little mustard if you like it. Shake it up all together with
a little shredded parsley let it stew slowly Garnish your dish with sippets.
;

till

done.

22.

ANOTHER WAY
II thickest

seam tripe, cut the white part in thin slices, put it into a stewpan with a little white gravy, lemon-juice, shredded lemon-peel, and a tablespoonful of white wine. Take the yolks

Take the whitest and

two or three eggs and beat them very well put them a little thick cream, shredded parsley, and two or three (minced) chives if you have any. Shake
of
;

to

be as thick as cream, Garnish with but don't sippets, sHced lemon, or mushrooms. This will eat
it all

together over the
let it

fire till it

boil for fear it curdle.

like chicken.

MUTTON
23.

BASQUE OF MUTTON

(Eighteenth Century)

Take the caul

of a leg of veal, lay it in

a copper
of

dish the size of a small

punch bowl, take the lean

a leg of mutton that has been kept a week, chop it exceedingly small, take half its weight in beef
four eggs, half

marrow, the crumbs of a penny loaf, the yolks of a pint of red wine, the rind of

BEEF AND MUTTON RECIPES
;

11

haK a lemon grated mix it like sausage meat, and lay it in your caul in the inside of your dish, close up the caul, and bake it ia a quick oven; when it comes out, lay your dish upside down, and turn the whole out pour over it brown gravy and send it up with venison sauce in a boat. Garnish
;

with pickles.
24.

ROLLED BREAST OF MUTTON

(Hertfordshire)

Take a breast of mutton, lay it on a board, and remove the bones. Trim it neatly, and remove some
Cover the side from which the bones have been removed with slices of ham, and then with a layer of meat stuffing, which has a flavouring Quarter some pickled walnuts, of lemon grated. and place them here and there on the forcemeat. Now roll the meat neatly and tightly, screwing the flap over. Bind it round with tape and roast The meat should be wrapped in caul or greased it. paper for the first hour it is in the roaster, and afterwards basted in the ordinary way. Place the mutton on a hot dish, remove the tape, and make a little good gravy. Strain it well, and stir it into a tablespoonful of red currant jelly, and pour it over and round the meat. Then take two tablespoonfuls of hghtly browned breadcrumbs, a teaspoonful of mixed herbs, a quarter of a teaspoonful of pepper, half a teaspoonful of salt, and mix thoroughly. Sprinkle this over the meat and serve.
of the fat.
25.

THE BEST WAY TO COOK A CHOP

(Essex)

some

Place the chop in a colander and pour over it This seals up the tissues and boiling water.

does not allow any nutritious juices to be wasted.

12

BEEF AND MUTTON RECIPES
it

Now place

on a gridiron over a hot, clear fire, and Turn with a knife, and do not prick in any way. Serve with a small piece of butter and a dust of pepper and salt.
cook in the usual manner.

26.

Take
a dish
;

as

NAPLES CHOPS (Warwickshire) many nice loin chops as you require
away nearly
all

for

them lightly and place in a stewpan, dredging them quickly with browned flour. Cut in slices two or three large onions, season highly with black pepper, and fry to a golden brown scatter the onions over the chops, and pour in enough stock or water just to
trim
the
fat,

fry

;

cover the meat.

Have

a pint of chestnuts boiled

and peeled, lay them on the onions, place a cover on the stewpan, and cook the contents slowly for two hours. The onions and chestnuts will be cooked by the time the meat is tender.
27.

DEVILLED CUTLETS

(Essex)

One and a half pounds of nicely trimmed cutlets, two ounces of butter, quarter of a pint of cream,
one teaspoonful of cornflour, one small teaspoonful of mustard, a good pinch of cayenne, two dessertspoonfuls of Worcester sauce. Melt the butter in a frying pan, lay in the cutlets, which should be smartly trimmed, and fry hghtly till cooked. Take up the cutlets on a plate and keep hot. Put the cornflour, mustard, and cayenne into a basin, mix in the Worcester sauce gradually until smooth. Put the frying pan on the fire again, with the butter still in it in which the cutlets were fried. Add the cream and stir well together. Let it boil up now
;

BEEF AND MUTTON EECIPES

13

put in the Worcester sauce mixture. Stir well until it boils up and is quite smooth. Lay in the cutlets and let them stand at the side of the fire for two or three minutes until very hot through. Dish in two rows and pour the sauce over. If it be too thick before dishing, half a cup of milk with a small scrap of butter may be stirred in to thin it.

28.

HAGGIS

(Scotland)

Having washed a sheep's heart and hghts, parboil and mince them small, with a pound of suet and two large onions add rather less than two handfuls of oatmeal, and season thoroughly with pepper and salt mix all these articles well together, sew them up tightly in a bag, and boil for about three hours serve with some good gravy, seasoned and
:
:
:

thickened, or with sharp sauce.

This

is

a cheap,

but not a very dehcate
29.

dish.

A HARICOT OF MUTTON OR LAMB
(Eighteenth Century)

lets,

'

Cut a neck or loin of mutton or lamb in nice cutand fry them a hght brown have ready some very good gravy made of the scrag of the mutton and some veal, with a piece of lean bacon and a few capers season to your taste with pepper, salt, thyme, onions, which must be strained off, and added to the cutlets, just an hour before you send them to the table. Cook them on a slow fire, dish them up handsomely with turnips and carrots cut in small dice, with a good deal of gravy, thickened with a
;
;

piece of butter roUed in flour

;

if

they are not tender
hot.

they

will

not be good.

Send them up very

;

14

BEEF AND MUTTON EECIPES
30.

ANOTHER WAY

flour

Take a neck of mutton and cut it into chops, them and put them into a stewpan, set them over the fire, and keep turning them till brown, then take them out, and put a little water into the same pan, and keep it stirring until brown over the fire, with a bunch of sweet herbs, a bay leaf, an onion, and what other spice you please boil them weU together, and then strain the broth through a sieve into an earthen pot by itself, and skim the then add fat off, which done, it is good gravy onions, a little turnips and carrots, with two smaU celery and other roots, then put the gravy to them, and as much water as wDl cover them keep it
; ; ;

over a gentle
31.

fire till

ready to serve up.

HARICOT OF A LEG OF MUTTON
(Eighteenth Century)

Cut the best end

single ribs, flatten them,

put them in water, a large carrot cut in slices, cut at the edge like wheels when they have stewed for a quarter of an hour, put in two turnips cut in square shoes, the white part of a head of celery, two heads of cabbage lettuces fried, and cayenne to your taste boU them aU together till they are tender. The gravy is not to be thickened. Put into a tureen or soup dish.
;

mutton into chops ia and fry a light brown then a large saucepan, with two quarts of
of a leg of
;

32. HARICOT MUTTON (Yorkshire) Two pounds of best end neck of mutton, one pint of warm water or stock, one ounce of dripping,

one carrot, one turnip, one onion, half a table-

;

BEEF AND MUTTON RECIPES
spoonful flour,
salt,

15

Cut the meat into and most of the fat, make the dripping quite hot and fry the meat quickly in it, and then place in another pan. Fry the sliced onion, add to the meat also the carrot and turnip cut in small squares. Simmer gently one and a haK to two hours, skim off any fat. Mix
small joints, remove
all gristle

and pepper.

the flour with a
allow
it

little

cold water, stir into the gravy,

to

boU
33.

for a

few minutes

— then serve.
(Scotland)
;

POTTED HEAD

Take half a sheep's head, removing the brains wash the head thoroughly and soak it for an hour then break it up and lay it or two in warm water in a pan with just sufficient water to cover it well bring to the boil, skim well, and simmer steadily,
;

closely covered,
flesh.

till

the bones will slip from the
as
out, remove the bones, cut you do so with the follow-

Now lift the meat
it
:

into dice, seasoning

two teaspoonfuls of salt, one of mixture ground black pepper, one of powdered allspice, and if liked, a saltspoonful of cayenne. Return the meat to the pan, allow it to simmer uncovered for a few minutes, then pour it, with its liquor strained, into a wetted basin or mould, putting in with it the tongue, which should have been
ing
freshly

cooked separately, and leave till set. If liked, the liquor may be sharply boiled up to reduce it while
the meat
is

being cut up.

34

HODGE PODGE OF MUTTON
(Eighteenth Century)

Cut a neck or loin of mutton into steaks (i.e. chops or cutlets), take off all the fat, then put the

16

BEEF AND MUTTON EECIPES
two cucumbers cut ia quarters, four or five and pepper and salt you must not put any
; ;

steaks into a pitcher or jar, with lettuce, turnips,
carrots,

onions,

water to it; stop the pitcher very close, then set it in a pan of boiling water let it boil four hours. Keep the pan supplied with fresh boiling water
as
it

wastes.
36.

HODGE PODGE

(Kent,

1809)

Take a quantity of shelled green peas, with onions, carrots, and turnips, and a sprinkling of salt and pepper. Put them into a pot with a lid, with a
quantity of water corresponding to the quantity of soup wanted, containing a few mutton or lamb
chops.

Let the mess

boil

slowly, or

simmer

for

five or six hours.

HOT-POT (Essex) This should be made in a round deep
36.

pie-dish.

Take two pounds of mutton chops, four sheep's kidneys, and one pound or more of peeled potatoes.
Place alternate layers of the shced potatoes, chops,

and kidneys, with shced onions, pepper, and salt, till the dish is full. If hked, oysters and anchovies may be added, and are a great improvement to the
Cover the top of the dish with whole potatoes, and pour over it a little water Bake in a moderate oven for full three for gravy. hours, and let the potatoes on the top be nicely browned. Fasten a serviette round the dish and
flavour of the hot-pot.

serve very hot.
37.

KIDNEYS ON TOAST

(Cheshire)
;

with

Mince up some mutton kidneys very fine season salt, pepper, and grated lemon-peel. Place

•BEEF
in a saucepan

AND MUTTON RECIPES
and

17

toss the mixture in a little butter

until very hot, then beat

up an

egg, stir well into

the kidneys, and serve on thin
38.

slices of toast.

LAMBS' TAIL PIE
pie.

(Kent)

This

is

a very old Kentish

In spring, when

the lambs' tails are cut, these are collected.
half the tail, the thicker end,
:

About

is

used.

It is flayed

generally about two dozen tails are and jointed Of course used in making an ordinary-sized pie.
is made in the usual way. have been told that the soft bones in the when cooked are like gelatine.)

the crust
(I

tails

39.

FORCED LEG OF MUTTON

(Eighteenth Century)

Raise the skin and take out the lean part of the mutton, chop it exceedingly fine, shred a bundle of sweet herbs, grate a penny loaf, and half a lemon, take nutmeg, pepper and salt to taste, make them into a forcemeat, but leave the bone and shank in their lay it on places, and it wiU appear like a whole leg an earthen dish, with a pint of red wine under it, and it will take two hours and a send it to the oven
; ;

out, take off aU the fat, strain the gravy over the mutton, lay round it hard yolks Garnish with of eggs, and pickled mushrooms. half
;

when

it

comes

pickles
40.

and serve up.

NAVARINE OF MUTTON
of

(Hertfordshire)

Take three pounds
trim
it

neck or breast of mutton,

in neat pieces, sprinkle with flour,
;

and

fry
fat,

in three ounces of butter

pour

off

the liquid

and add a pint and a
2

half of water, eight button

onions previously fried, three sprigs of parsley, six

18

BEEF AND MUTTON RECIPES

small turnips cut into olive shapes, a tablespoonful
boiling point

gradually bring to tomato sauce, pepper, salt and take off the scum gently simmer an hour and a half. Pile on a dish with the vegetables
of
; ;

round.

41.

MUTTON OLIVES

(Hertfordshire)

Take as many

slices of cold

mutton as

required,

have ready some good veal forcemeat, put a piece on one end of the mutton, roll it up securely, and tie with cotton. Place the rolls in a baking dish, pour good gravy over, cover tin with greased paper, and serve with mashed potatoes cook for half an hour and red currant jelly.
;

42.

MUTTON PATTIES WITH FINE HERBS
(Eighteenth Century)

Take part of the fillet from a loin or neck of mutton, and cut it in dice, with half the quantity Put two of calves' udder, previously dressed.
ounces of butter in a stewpan, with a chopped

chopped mushrooms, salt, and fire a few minutes. Then mix the meat with it, and set the whole to cool. Line a dozen or more patty-pans with puff-paste fill them with the meat, and put on the cover, from the centre of which cut out a small piece the size Pinch the borders all round. Egg the of a wafer.
shalot,

parsley, six
let

pepper

:

that heat over the

;

patties, cut

out another cover, with a
:

still

smaller

hole

:

place this hghtly on the top

them.

When

egg and bake done, take them from the moulds,
Italian sauce.

them with an napkin and serve.
and
fill

Dish on a

BEEF AND MUTTON EECIPES
43.

19

TO MAKE FRENCH STEAKS OF NECK OF

MUTTON
off

(Eighteenth

Century)

Let your mutton be very good and large, and cut most part of the fat of the neck then cut the steaks two inches thick, make a large hole through the middle of the fleshy part of the steak with a penknife, and stuff it with a little nutmeg, pepper, and salt, mixed with the yolk of an egg when they are stuffed, wrap them in writing-paper, and put them in a Dutch oven set them before the fire to broil, they wiU take near an hour put a little brown gravy in your dish, and serve them up in the papers.
; : ; ;

44.

NECK OF MUTTON TO EAT LIKE VENISON
(Eighteenth Century)

Cut a large neck, before the shoulder is taken off, broader than usual, and the flap of the shoulder with
to make it look handsomer, stick your neck all over in little holes with a sharp penknife, and pour a bottle of red wine over it, and let it lie in the wine four or five days turn and rub it three or four times a day, then take it out, and hang it up for three days
it
;
;

in the

open

air,

out of the sun, and dry
it
;

it

often with

from musting when you roast it, baste it with the wine it was steeped in, if any left if not, fresh wine put white paper, three or four folds, to keep in the fat; roast it thoroughly, and take off the skin, and baste it nicely serve it up.
a cloth, to keep
;

;

;

45.

SHOULDER OF MUTTON SURPRISED
(Eighteenth Centtiry)

Half broil a shoulder, then put it in a tossing pan, with two quarts of veal gravy, four ounces of
rice,

a teaspoonful of mushroom powder, a

little

:

20

BEEF AND MUTTON RECIPES

beaten mace, and stew it an hour, or till the rice is cooked enough, then take up your mutton and keep it hot put to the rice half a pint of good cream, and a lump of butter rolled in flour, shake it well, and boU it a few minutes garnish with barberries or pickles, and send it up.
; :

46.

RAISED PIES
of flour

(Yorkshire)

Put two pounds

on the pasteboard, and

put on the fire in a saucepan three-quarters of a pint of water and half a pound of good lard. When the water boils, make a hole in the middle of the flour, pour in the water by degrees, gently mixing the flour with it with a spoon. When it is well mixed, knead it with your hands till it becomes stiff. Dredge a little flour to prevent it sticking to the board, or you cannot make it look smooth. Do not roll with the rolling-pin, but roll it with your hands, about the thickness of a quart-pot cut it into six pieces, leaving a little for the covers. Put one hand in the middle and keep the other close on the outside, till you have worked it either in an oval or a round shape. Have your meat ready cut and seasoned with pepper and salt if pork, cut it in small slices, the griskin is the best for pasties. If you use mutton, cut it in very neat cutlets, and put them in the pies as you make them. Roll out the cover with the roUing-pin, just the size of the pie, wet it round the edge, put it on the pie and press together with your thumb and finger, and then cut all round with a pair of scissors quite even, and pinch them inside and out, and bake them
:

an hour and a

half.

BEEF AND MUTTON EECIPES
47.

21

SQUAB PIE

(Devonshire)

put at the bottom a layer of sliced apples, strew over them a little sugar, then a layer of fresh mutton (well seasoned with salt and pepper). Then another layer of apples. Peel some onions and slice them, lay them on the apples, then a layer of mutton, then apples and onions. Pour in a pint of water, cover all over with a good
pie-dish,
crust,

Take a

and bake.
48.

SQUAB PIE
of the best

(Kent)

Take two pounds
mutton, cut
it

end

of the

neck

of

into small pieces, flavour with salt

and pepper, and put a layer of it at the bottom of a pie-dish, next add a layer of sliced apples and onions, with about a dessertspoonful of brown sugar,
pie-crust,
49.

then another layer of mutton. Cover with a good and bake as an ordinary meat pie.

OXFORD JOHN

(Eighteenth Century)

Take a stale leg of mutton, cut it in as thin coUops you possibly can, taking out all the fat sinews. Season them with mace, pepper, and salt, strew among them a little shred parsley, thyme, and two or three shalots. Put a good lump of butter in a stewwhen it is hot put in all the coUops, keep pan stirring them with a wooden spoon till they are three parts done, then add half a pint of gravy and
as
;

a

little

juice of lemon, thicken it with a little flour

and

butter, let

them simmer four

or five minutes

and

they will be quite done enough. If you let them boil, or have them ready before you want them, they Serve them up hot, with fried will grow hard. bread cut in slices over and around.

22

BEEF AND MUTTON RECIPES
BROILED MUTTON STEAKS
(Eighteenth Century)

60.

Cut your steaks half an inch thick. When your is hot, rub it with fresh suet, lay on your steaks, keep turning them as quickly as possible. If you do not take care, the fat that drops from the steaks will smoke them. When they are done enough, put them into a hot dish, rub them well with butter, shce a shalot very thin into a spoonful of water, pour it on them with a spoonful of mushroom ketchup and salt serve them up hot.
gridiron
;

51.

SHEEP'S

HEAD

(Cheshire)
;

Steep two or three hours. SpUt the head out the brains and tongue to boil separately.

take
Boil

the head gently for three hours with a carrot, onions, celery, sweet herbs, a few cloves, and pepper

egg and crumb and brown before the fire. lights, and serve the liver in sHces, well fried. Boil the brains in muslin, and arrange all together on one dish.

and

salt

;

Mince the

COLD MEAT
62.

BEEF-CAKES
or bacon.
salt,

(Cheshire)

of a

To each pound of pound of ham

cold roast beef,

season with pepper,

add a quarter Mince very finely, and sweet herbs add
:

one or two eggs well whisked. Make into small square cakes about half an inch thick fry them in boiling dripping, drain, and serve with good
;

gravy.

;

BEEF AND MUTTON RECIPES
63.

23

BUBBLE AND SQUEAK

(Essex)

Either
little fat,

slices of

cold boiled beef or cold roast beef

can be used.
fried greens

Fry the slices of meat gently in a and arrange them nicely round a centre of
:

these should be boiled

till

tender,

well drained, minced,

and then placed

in a frying

pan with a

little butter, a finely sliced onion, and seasoned with pepper and salt. When the onion is done, the greens are ready to serve.

64.

CURRY

(Kent)

Fry the meat in plenty of butter or fat, and plenty of onions but do not let it be fried hard,

then put it in a saucepan with a dessert-spoonful of curry-powder, some cayenne, a little vinegar, a little milk, some butter about the size of an egg, and thicken it with flour. Let it stew gently for several hours. This is very good.

55.

HUNTERS' PIE

(Kent)

Have a deep dish, and mince up very fine some underdone beef or mutton a little fat must be put with it, but no skin, nor anything not to be eaten Put some good stock fill the dish three-parts full. made from bones and also any gravy from the beef that is to be had season with pepper, salt, and a tablespoonful of ketchup. Put this into the oven

and then lay over a nice thick crust of moist mashed potatoes, or else finely grated breadcrumbs, and put little bits of butter on the top here and there. Bake slowly for an hour.
to get warm,

24

BEEF
56.

AJSTD

MUTTON RECIPES
(Essex)

SOUFFLE OF LAMB

Half a pound of cold cooked mutton or lamb, one ounce of butter, one ounce of flour, half a pint of stock, one teaspoonful of chopped parsley, one
tablespoonful of tomato
sauce,

away

all skin, fat,

and

gristle,

two eggs. Trim and pass the meat
it finely.

twice through a mincer to mince
butter in a saucepan.

Melt the
in the

Stir in the flour smoothly,

add the

stock,

and

stir until it boils.

Put

meat, parsley, tomato sauce, and season to taste. Take off the fire, and let it cool a little. Thoroughly
stir in

the yolks of eggs, and Kghtly
of egg

stir

the

stiffly

through the mixture. Put into a buttered pie dish, or else divide the mixture into buttered pattypans. Shake a few crumbs over

whipped white

the top, and bake in the oven for ten to fifteen
minutes.
67.

Serve at once.

MACARONI WITH MEAT

(Essex)

Throw the macaroni in boiling water, and when and put it into a pan with butter, turning it all the time, and not allowing it to get brown. Have ready some finely chopped onions and meat well seasoned and browned, then place a layer of macaroni and a layer of parmesan and a layer of minced meat till the tray or dish is full. Well beat up four eggs and add to the other ingredients. Make a sauce by placing a lump of butter on the fire and throwing a spoonful of flour over it, and then adding gradually a pint of milk. Pour this sauce over the macaroni, not forgetting to mix with it pepper and salt, nutmeg and cinnamon. Bake it in a dish that can come to table. It will
it is soft strain it

BEEF AND MUTTON RECIPES

25

take about forty minutes, and must not be too brown, or it will be hard. Before sending it to table, out the mixture into diamonds about two inches
long.

68.

MEAT CAKE

(Sussex)

Mince half a pound of cold underdone meat, add two ounces of breadcrumbs, and the same of cooked rice or macaroni cut small. Beat an egg into a cupful of gravy mixed with half an ounce of flour.

Add salt,
or

pepper, fried onions, a teaspoonful of celery

sauce, a few tinned

mushrooms, or anchovy sauce,
Grease a cake
tin,

mixed

pickles.

coat

it

well

with bread crumbs, pack in close, cover with bread crumbs, and bake about an hour.
69.

MEAT SALADS

(Essex)

Any small scraps of meat or poultry, etc., should be cut up neatly and mixed with some cold cooked vegetables or salad place this mixture in small shells or cases, cover with mayonnaise sauce, and garnish with strips of boned and filleted anchovies.
;

60.

SCALLOPED MEAT
of cold

(Hertfordshire)

Take any remains
all

meat or sausages, mince
it

together, butter a flat dish, sprinkle
;

thickly

with brown-bread crumbs lay the meat over them, and cover with crumbs put pieces of butter over
;

it,

and brown
61.

in the oven.

COLD MEAT STEW
of cold

(Sussex)

Two pounds

meat

ful of red currant jelly,

in slices, one teaspoonone mustard-spoonful of

;

26

BEEF AND MUTTON RECIPES
tablespoonful of ketchup, one

made mustard, one

dessertspoonful Worcester sauce, one small dessert-

spoonful Harvey's, one glass of claret, to be

all

stewed together with some good stock, the meat put in, and all mixed well, and served very hot.
62.

MUTTON OLIVES
:

(Devonshire)

mutton, veal stuffof mutton, trim neatly dust one side of each with pepper, salt, and a little allspice. Put a small piece of stuffing on each and roll up, tying firmly with cotton. Place the rolls in a baking tin, pour some good gravy over, cover with greased paper, bake for half an hour. Make a mound of mashed potatoes on a dish, arrange the olives round, thicken the gravy and pour round.
Slices of cold roast
ing,

Required

mashed

potatoes, gravy.

Take sUces

;

63.

PILATF

(Hertfordshire)

Take three ounces
half a pint of water

of Patna rice, and pour over it and a tablespoonful of tomato

puree
size

;

season to taste.

Melt a piece of butter the
in

of

an egg,
cold

stir

the rice

gradually,

and

place on the stove to simmer for fifteen minutes

cut
in.

up any

meat

in squares, fry

them

lightly

butter, put into a saucepan with a spoonful of

tomato puree, and simmer for three hours. Place the rice in the centre of the dish and the meat round it.
64.

POTATO PIE

(Derbyshire)

Put

layers of meat, either cooked or uncooked,

with alternate layers of potato and onion uncooked, season with plenty of pepper and in a deep bowl
;

BEEF AND MUTTON RECIPES
salt
;

27

and fill up with water. Cover the whole with a good short crust, and bake in a slow oven. This is a very nice winter dish, and is much improved by adding oysters between the meat and vegetables.
65.

FORCEMEAT FOR PATTIES

(Cheshire)

Shred, or very finely mince, a
veal, or fowl, beef-suet,

and lemon-peel. and breadcrumbs. (The respective quantities of all these will depend upon your requirements, your discretion, and the material in hand.) Pound all well together, add a little finely chopped thyme or marjoram, bind with a well-beaten egg, or two
eggs
66.
if

little ham, cold and a Kttle onion, parsley, Add salt, nutmeg, pepper, mace,

necessary.
(Eighteenth

FORCEMEAT FOR PIES

Century)

Take one and a half pounds of wild rabbits' flesh, and two pounds four ounces of fat bacon chop the whole, and pound it, with half an ounce herbaceous mixture, a Uttle salt, an egg, and two extra yolks.
;

67.

OBSERVATIONS ON MADE DISHES, ETC.
(Eighteenth Century)

Be
clean,

careful the tossing-pan is well tinned, quite

and not gritty, and put every ingredient into your white sauce, and have it of a proper thickness and well boiled before you put in eggs and cream, for they wiU not add much to the thickness. Do not stir them with a spoon after they are in, nor set your pan on the fire, for the stuff will gather at the bottom, and be in lumps, but hold your pan a good height from the fire, and keep shaking the pan round one way, it will keep the sauce from curdling,

28

BEEF AND MUTTON RECIPES

and be sure you do not let it boil. It is the best way up your meat, coUops, or hash, or any other kind of dish you are making, with a fish slice, and strain your sauce upon it for it is almost impossible to prevent little bits of meat from mixing with the By this method the sauce wiU look clear. sauce. In the brown made dishes, take special care no fat is on the top of the gravy, but skim it clean off, that it may be of a fine brown, and taste of no one thing in particular. If you use any wine, put it in some time
to take
;

before your dish

is

ready, to take off the rawness,

more disagreeable taste than raw wine or fresh anchovy. When you use fried forcemeat balls, put them on a sieve to drain the fat from them, and never let them boil iu your sauce, or it wiU give it a greasy look, and soften the balls the best way is to put them in after your meat is dished up.
for nothing can give a

made

dish a

;

CHAPTER n

PORK AND VEAL RECIPES
Note.

—These are mainly occupied with that most
meat cookery. Both pork and
be even
the second day of their appearance

useful subject, cold
less digestible

veal, unless carefully prepared, are apt to

than the first. By skilful treatment, however, and a little extra trouble, they may be rechauffes in most attractive and innocuous ways. Those who are fortunate enough to possess their own pigs are acquainted with that vast variety of dishes which
accrues upon the preparation of pork,
etc.,

and to
to the

those I hardly need offer any reminder.
pigless person,

As

he or she is 'prima facie debarred from the enjoyment of " lardy cake " and other such savoury foods. So I do not set down recipes in either case they would be needless. for these The German " Roast Pork in Vinegar " and the Lancashire " Veal Cake " should specially be singled out for trial, but all the recipes are good.
:

PORK
68.

BACON AND EGG PIE TO EAT COLD
(Eighteenth Century)

Steep a few thin slices of bacon in water to take out the salt, lay your bacon in the dish, beat eight
29

30

PORK AND VEAL RECIPES
it

eggs with a pint of thick cream, put in

a

little

pepper and salt, and pour it on the bacon, lay over it a good cold paste, bake it in a moderate oven a

day before you want
69.

it.

TO MAKE BRAWN (Surrey) Having divided the head down the middle, move the brains, and cut off the ears, then let
head
lie

re-

the
it

in cold water for twelve hours

:

boil

until the bones

can be readily taken out, and when
:

done, take off the skin as entire as possible

while

the meat and the tongue are hot, chop them rather
fine,

and season with pepper, salt, a httle nutmeg, and some cayenne then place part of the skin at the bottom of a pan, lay on it the chopped meat, and put the rest of the skin over the top, place it mider a heavy weight, and let it remain until quite cold part of the hquor in which the head has been dressed must be boiled up with vinegar and salt, and thrown over the head. It is eaten with vinegar and mustard. (A little brown sugar added to these is an improvement. Ed).

two

or three cloves,

:

;

70.

BRAWN

(Essex)

Procure a pig's head which has been in salt not more than three or four days, wash it and put it on
in sufficient water to cover
it

well.

Let

it

cook

gently for about three hours, until quite tender,

remove the bones (which should and cut up all the meat in small pieces, putting it into a basin, which should be kept hot over boiling water, or the brawn will set too soon. Season with pepper (no salt) and a little powdered mace and sage if liked put into a pressthen take
it

out,

come away

easily)

;

PORK AND VEAL EECIPES
ing tin

31

if one is at hand, and pour over the meat about half a pint of the liquor in which it has boiled. If a brawn tin is not to be had, use an ordinary large cake tiu, put a plate closely fitting on top, and set on that the heaviest weights you have either scale-weights or flat-irons.

71.

BRAWN

(Staffordshire)

Take
feet.

half a pig's head, with the tongue
it all

and two
it

with salt and pepper and let few days, rubbing well and turning every day. boil very gently until the meat comes easily
bones.

Rub

he a
the

Then
off

Take it out of the saucepan, put it on a board, and cut it all up into rather small pieces, then season with pepper and salt, and press it into a mould or proper brawn tin with holes at the bottom to let the gravy escape, and put a heavy weight on the top. Turn it out when cold, and
send to table cold.
72.

TO BOIL A HAM

(Eighteenth

Century)

Steep your ham all night in water, then boil it. If it be of a middle size it will take three hours when boiling, and a small one two hours and a half it all over you take it up, pull off the skin, and smear with beaten egg strew on bread crumbs, baste it with if butter, set it to the fire till it be a Kght brown it be to eat hot, garnish with carrots and serve it up.
;
;

;

73.

HAM CAKE

(Essex)

Mince

finely

one and a half pounds of cooked

ham

;

boil a sHce of bread in half a pint of milk,
this with the ham, beating them well and binding them with a well-beaten

and mix
together

;

32
egg.

PORK AND VEAL EECIPES
Have ready a wetted mould, pack
the mix-

ture into this, and bake for an hour in a very hot

oven, by which time it should be nicely coloured then turn out, and serve either hot or cold. Rabbit or veal may be used in the same way.

74.

MINCED HAM

(Isle

of

Wight)

pound of cracker crumbs with an equal quantity of finely minced lean boiled ham moisten this mixture with stock, or water, and butter, adding salt to taste. Put the mixture in a baking tin, make depressions in it the size of an egg, and break an egg into each hollow. Bake a delicate brown
half a
:

Mix

in a good oven.

75.

PEPPER HAMS
of

(Kent,

1809)

One pound
salt,

bay

salt, half

a pound of

common

of saltpetre and pepper pounded aU together very small rub the hams weU all over. Let them lie four days, rubbing them once a day then pour over them a pound of treacle, turn and rub them with the pickle three or four times a week for a month, then lay them in cold water twentyfour hours and hang them up to dry, after which they need not be steeped but put into cold water to boil. For hams from twelve to sixteen pounds each, three hours will be enough to boil them.
;

two ounces

76.

TO POT

HAM

(Ireland)

From the remains of a cold ham take a pound of the lean to half a pound of the fat, or a quarter of fat is enough. Mince it very fine, or run it through
a machine.

Add

a small teaspoonful of pounded

;

POEK AKD VEAL RECIPES

33

mace, a quarter of a nutmeg, and salt, and, if possible a little dry powdered bay leaf. Press this mixture down well in the pot or dish. Bake for about twenty-five minutes, taking care the top does not brown, and cover with melted lard, first pressing the ham.
77.

PIG'S

CHEEK COLLARED

(Surrey)

Lay two pig's cheeks, with the tongue, in a dish, and strew it well over with salt and saltpetre let them stand for six days, and then boil them till the bones can be readily separated from the meat. Have ready a long strip of strong linen cloth, on which place the cheek, with the skin outwards, and on it the tongue, seasoning the whole highly with cayenne pepper, cloves, a very Httle mace, and roll it up firmly and boU it for two hours salt when done, set it under a heavy weight until cold, when the cloth must be removed. A cow-heel may be boUed, boned, and rolled up with it.
;

;

78.

PIG'S

SHIN AND SAUSAGES
and
boil.

(Sussex)

Take a
meat,

pig's shin, spread it all over with sausage-

roll up, tie tight,

79.

PORK CHEESE
the

(French)
pig's
flesh,

Take out the bones from a
cutting the skin, remove
fat

head without
separate the
;

from the lean, and cut the whole in strips do the same with the ears, and season the whole with salt, pepper, powdered nutmeg, and other spices, thyme, bay leaves, sage, and parsley, all chopped Put fine, the grated rind of a lemon, and its juice. the skin of the head into a salad bowl, and arrange
3

: ;

U
in
it

PORK AND VEAL RECIPES
the lean and the fat of the meat in alternate two or three pigs' tongues cut up in
little of

layers, as also

the same way, with a
pig

the inner fat of the
:

and some sliced truffles, if you have any when all the meat is used, fold over the skin and sew it up, removing any superfluous part. Put this preparation into a stewpan of httle more than its own size, with carrots, sweet herbs, salt, and pepper, and moisten with a Httle white (French) wine simmer very gently for six or seven hours take it off the fire, and when merely warm put the head into a mould of the shape of a cheese, and so that a part of the head may be above the mould, and
;

put a board over it covered with weights. This cheese is always eaten cold with mustard and vinegar. Pork cheese is also made with the ears and tongues alone, one layer of the ears cut into strips, and one layer of the tongues, seasoned as above, and piled together into a mould, to be
pressed

down

mode
skin.

of

same way as the head. The proceeding is altogether the same as for
in the
it

the head, with the exception of enclosing

in a

80.

PORK CHEESE
pig's liver
;

(ItaUan)

Mince and pound a

do the same, but

separately, with a quantity of the inner fat of pork,

equal in weight to that of the hver.
together and season with
coriander,
salt,

Mix them

nutmeg, chopped parsley, thyme, and sage cover the bottom and line the sides of a tin saucepepper,
of larding,
:

pan or shape with thin slices mould and cover with larding

fill

the

bake

in

an oven.

PORK AND VEAL RECIPES
When
quite cold, dip the
cheese.

35

mould

in boiling water

and shake out the
81.

LEICESTERSHIRE PORK PIE
;

Cut the pork in square pieces, fat and lean, about the size of a cobnut season with pepper and salt, and a small quantity of sage and thyme chopped fine, and set it aside in a dish in a cool

Next make some hot paste, using for this purpose fresh-made, heated hog's lard instead of butter, in the proportion of eight ounces to the pound of flour. These pies must be raised by hand in the following manner First mould the paste into a round ball upon the slab, then roU it out to the thickness of half-an-inch, and with the back of the right hand indent the centre in a circle, reaching to within three inches of the edge of the paste next, gather up the edges all round, pressing it closely with the fingers and thumbs, so as to give it the form of a purse then continue to work upwards until the sides are raised sufficiently high the pie should now be placed on a baking sheet, with a round of buttered paper under it, and, after it has been filled with the pork previously prepared for the purpose, covered in with some of the paste in the usual manner. Trim the edges and pinch it round with the pincers, decorate it, egg it over, and bake till done, calculating the time it should remain in the oven according to the quantity of meat it
place.
:

;

;

;

contains.
82.

ROAST PORK IN VINEGAR
off

(German)

Take

the shin from your leg of pork, and do

not leave too

much

fat either.

Pour some vinegar,

;

36

PORK AND VEAL RECIPES

with cloves and onions, into a large earthen vessel rub your pork well with a handful of salt, and place it in the vinegar, where it naust remain three or four days and be frequently turned. If you like you can also stick a few cloves into it. Put your pork in the oven in the same vessel it has laia in, with all the vinegar about it. (This is extremely
tasty

and

delicious.

Ed.)

83.

BEOILED PORK STEAKS

(Eighteenth Century)

Observe the same directions as for mutton steaks No. 50), only pork requires more broiling when they are done enough, put in a little good gravy; a little sage rubbed very fine, strewed over them,
(see
;

gives

them a

fine taste.

84.

STUFFED PORK

(Isle

of

Wight)

Take two pounds of streaky green pork (the thinner the better), and one pound of sausage meat. Spread the sausage meat on the under side of the pork, covering one half now fold the other haK over, bind with strips of cahco, and boil. When cooked, press between two plates. This makes a good
;

breakfast dish.

85.

SAVOUBY GOOSE

(Sussex)

Take half a pound of pig's liver, two onions, one pound of potatoes. Take a spoonful of flour mixed in water with salt, pepper, and a teaspoonful of minced sage. Cut the liver in thin shces and lay in a pie Then put the potatoes partly cooked on top. dish.
Bake.

PORK AND VEAL RECIPES
86.

37

EPPING SAUSAGES

(Kent)

Six pounds of young pork, quite free from skin,
gristle,

mortar.

Cut it small, and beat it fine in a pounds beef suet very fine, with a handful of sage leaves. Spread the meat on a clean dresser, and shake the sage over it. Shred the rind of a lemon fine, and throw it with sweet herbs on the meat, two nutmegs grated, a spoonful of pepper, with a large spoonful of salt. Throw the suet over, and mix all well together. Put it down close in a pot, and when it is to be used, roll it up with
or fat.

Chop

six

as

much egg

as will

make

it

smooth.

87.

OXFORD SAUSAGES
pork, fat

One pound young

and
;

lean,

one pound

beef suet, chopped fine together

half a

pound

of

grated bread, half the peel of a lemon grated, a nutmeg grated, six sage leaves chopped fine, one teaspoonful of pepper, and two of salt, and a little

thyme, savory, and marjoram shred fine. Mix well together, and put it close down in a pan tUl used. Roll out the sausages, and fry in fresh butter, or broil over a clear fire, and serve up hot.

VEAL
-88.

BRAIN CAKES

(Essex)

into a

Well wash and clean the brains, then put them pan of boiling salted water shghtly acidulated with lemon juice, and let them cook over a lift them out, drain well, and slow fire for an hour then cut into rounds, egg and breadleave till cold crumb them, and fry in hot fat.
; ;

;

38

PORK AND VEAL RECIPES
89.

BOILED BREAST OP VEAL
(Eighteenth Century)

Skewer your breast of veal, so that it will lie flat in the dish, boil it an hour (if a large one an hour and a quarter), make white sauce, pour it over, and
garnish with pickles.

90

CALF'S

HEAD BOILED

(Middlesex)

SpUt the head, and carefully take out the brains and tongue wash it well, and let it he two hours in cold water boil it with the tongue and brains gently in plenty of water until it is quite tender pour over the head parsley -butter made very thick rub the brains through a sieve, add to them some chopped parsley, pepper, salt, and a bit of butter mix the whole well together, and put it round the
;

;

;

tongue.

91.

CALF'S
it

HEAD
head.

PIE

(Eighteenth

Century)

ParboU a
season

calf's

When

cold, cut it in pieces,

with pepper and salt, put it in a raised crust, with half a pint of strong gravy bake When it comes out of the it an hour and a half. oven, cut off the lid, chop the yolks of three hardboiled eggs small, strew them over the top of the pie, with three or four slices of lemon and pour on some good melted butter. Send it to the table without a lid.
well
;

92.

A GOOD WAY TO DRESS A CALF'S HEART
(Eighteenth Century)

Take a calf's heart, stuff it with good forcemeat, and send to the oven in an earthen dish, with a

;

PORK AND VEAL RECIPES
little

39 dredge
it

water under
flour.

it

;

lay butter over

it,

with

Boil half the liver and

all

the lights

together half an hour, then chop them small and put them in a tossing pan, with a pint of gravy, one spoonful of lemon pickle, and one of ketchup squeeze in half a lemon pepper and salt thicken it with a good piece of butter rolled in flour. When you dish it up, pour the minced meat at the bottom, and have ready, fried a fine brown, the other half of
; ;

the liver cut in thin shces, and

little bits of

bacon.

Set the heart in the middle, and lay the hver and
set them before them with butter, and let them be a fine brown, then turn them on their other side, and when they are baste and brown the same way thoroughly done, pour a good brown gravy with garnish the yolks of hard-boiled eggs, over them with crisp parsley and lemon.

bacon over the mincemeat, and
the
fire
;

baste

;

;

93.

VEAL CUTLETS
of veal, cut
it

(Yorkshire,

1769)

Take a neck

in joints, flatten

them

with a rolling-pin, and cut off the ends of the long bones. Season them with a little pepper, salt, and nutmeg, broil them on a gridiron over a slow fire. When they are done enough, serve them up with brown gravy and forcemeat balls. Garnish the dish with lemon.
94.

ANOTHER WAY
;

Take a neck of veal and proceed as above season the cutlets with pepper and salt, and dredge some Fry them in butter over a quick flour over them.
flre,

then put from them the fat they were fried

in.

40

PORK AND VEAL RECIPES

and put to them a little gravy, a tablespoonful of ketchup, the same of white wiue or lemon-juice, and grate in some nutmeg. Thicken them with flour and butter, and serve up. Garnish with
lemon.
95.

NECK-OF-VEAL CUTLETS
(Eighteenth Century)

Cut a neck of veal into cutlets, fry them a light brown, then put them in a tossing pan, and stew them till tender in a quart of good gravy, then add one spoonful of gravy, the same of ketchup, a few pickled mushrooms, a little salt, and cayenne pepper thicken your gravy with flour and butter, let it boU a few minutes, lay your cutlets in a dish, with the top of the ribs in the middle, pour your sauce over them, lay your mushrooms over the cutlets, and send them up.
;

96.

CALVES' FEET
feet,

(Cambridgeshire)

Two

calves'

the rind of a lemon, mace,

and pepper to taste. Boil till bones drop out, then place pieces of meat on the dish it is to be served in. Boil the hquor till it clarifies, and reduce to just sufficient to serve each piece. Last of all sprinkle with chopped parsley.
cloves, mignonette,

Sufficient for four persons.

97.

CALVES' TONGUES

(Seventeenth Century)

them tender and peel them, then lard them with lemon-peel and fat bacon. Then lay them to the fire and half roast them. Then put them into
Boil

a pipkin or earthen dish with claret, whole spice, and sHced lemon, a few caraway seeds, a httle

PORK AND VEAL RECIPES
rosemary, and a
little

41

salt.

and serve them upon
with sheep's tongues
98.

toast.

Heat up all together Thus you may do

also.

VEAL CAKE

(Lancashire)

Boil six or eight eggs hard, cut the yolks in two,

some of the pieces at the bottom of a mould, shake in a Httle chopped parsley, put some slices of veal and ham, add the eggs again, with white pepper and salt, and so on tUl the dish is full then put in enough water to cover the meat, lay on about one ounce of butter, tie it over with a double paper, and bake about one hour. Then press it down together with a spoon, and let it stand till
lay
;

cold.
99.

SCOTCH COLLOPS

(Kent,
it

1809)

Take part

of a leg of veal, cut

ia thin pieces,

take off all the skin from every piece, chop it with the back of a knife to make it tender. Fry it, not very brown, in sweet butter. As it comes out of the pan, season it with lemon peel, thyme, pepper,

nutmeg, and mace. Make rich gravy veal. Toss up the collops with gravy thickened with sweet butter and flour, and squeeze ia some juice of lemons, and mushrooms. If white, add cream garnish with forcemeat balls, bacon,
salt,

a

little

with beef and

;

and lemons.
100.

SCOTCH COLLOPS THE FRENCH
(Eighteenth Century)
leg of veal, cut

WAY

your collops pretty thick, five or six inches long, and three inches broad rub them over with the yolk of an egg, put pepper and

Take a

;

42
salt,

PORK AND VEAL RECIPES
and grate a
;

little

shred parsley
serve.

lay

nutmeg on them, and a little them on an earthen dish, and

101.

VEAL KIDNEY PIE

(Hertfordshire)

Mince two veal kidneys with some of the fat that surrounds them, season with herbs, cloves, nutmeg, pepper and salt, and a little chopped celery. Put in a pie-dish with four hard-boiled eggs in slices, haH a cupful of breadcrumbs, a wineglassful of white wine and a little stock. Cover with a good crust, and bake for two hours.
102.

VEAL LOAF
of veal,

(Surrey)

omit the fat, and mince as fine as possible. Mix with a quarter of a pound one teacupful grated bread of fat ham, chopped crumbs, one grated nutmeg, one saltspoonful of salt, two beaten eggs, half a saltspoonful of cayenne. Mix Glaze over well together in the form of a loaf. and strew pounded cracker over. with yolk of egg, Set the dish in an oven, and bake half an hour. Make a gravy of veal trimmings, or any gravy left over from the previous day, when the meat was served. Heat it up, thickened by the yolk of an egg dropped in just before taken up, and serve the loaf with the gravy poured round it.

Take a cold

fillet

:

103.

MINCED VEAL

(Eighteenth

Century)

bits,

Cut your veal in slices, then cut it in little square but do not chop it. Put it in a saucepan, with two or three spoonfuls of gravy, a slice of lemon, a little pepper and salt, a good lump of butter roUed

;

POEK AND VEAL RECIPES
in flour, a teaspoonful of

43

lemon pickle, and a large keep shaking it over the fire till it boils, but do not let it boil above a minute, if you do it will make your veal eat hard put sippets round your dish, and serve it up.
spoonful of cream
; ;

104.

VEAL OLIVE PIE

(Eighteenth

Century)

Cut a fillet of veal in thin slices, rub them over with the yolks of eggs, strew them over with a few crumbs of bread shred a little lemon peel very fine, and put on them, with a little grated nutmeg, pepper,
;

and salt roll them up very tight, tie or skewer them, and lay them in a pewter dish pour over them half a pint of good gravy made of bones, make a light paste, and lay it round the dish roll the lid half an inch thick and lay it on. Make a beef olive pie the same way.
;
;

105.

VEAL OLIVES

(Eighteenth

Century)

Cut the thick part
flatten

of a leg of veal in thin slices,

side of a cleaver, rub an egg, strew over every piece a very thin slice of bacon, with a few breadcrumbs, a little lemon peel and parsley chopped small, tie or skewer them, put them into a tin then take a dripping-pan to bake, or fry them pint of good gravy, add to it a spoonful of lemon pickle, the same of walnut ketchup, and one of browning, a little anchovy, and cayenne pepper, thicken it with flour and butter, serve them up with forcemeat balls, and strain the gravy hot upon them garnish with pickles, and strew over them You may dress veal a few pickled mushrooms. outlets the same way, but not roll them.

them with the broad
of

them over with the yolk

;

;

;

44
106.

PORK AND VEAL RECIPES
SCOTCH OYSTERS
(Yorkshire,

1769)

a leg of veal, from the skin, and put it in a marble mortar, then shred one pound of beefsuet and put to it, and beat them well together, till they be firm as paste. Put to this a handful of breadcrumbs and two or three eggs, season with mace, nutmeg, pepper, and salt, and work it well together. Take one part of this, about the size of a pigeon, and wrap it in pieces of the veal caul make the rest into little flat cakes and fry them. The roUs you may either broil in a dripping pan, or set them in the oven. There is enough for a goodsized dish lay them in the middle and set the cakes round. Take some strong gravy, shred in a few capers, and two or three mushrooms if you have any thicken it up with a lump of butter, and serve it up hot. Garnish your dish with pickles.
of the thick part of

Take two pounds
it

cut

in little bits clear

;

;

107.

COMMON VEAL PATTIES

(Eighteenth Century)

Take the kidney part of a very fat loin of veal, chop the kidney, veal, and fat very small aU together, season it with mace, pepper, and salt, to your
taste; raise little patties the size of a teacup,
fill

them with the meat, put thin lids on them, bake them very crisp five are enough for a side dish.
;

108.

SAVOURY VEAL PIE

(Eighteenth Century)

loin of veal into steaks, season it with beaten mace, nutmeg, pepper, and salt lay the meat in your dish, with sweetbreads seasoned with the meat, the yolks of six hard-boiled eggs, and half a pint of good gravy lay round your
;

Cut a

;

PORK AND VEAL RECIPES
dish

45

a good puff paste half an inch thick, and it with a lid the same thickness, bake it in a quick oven an hour and a quarter when you take it out of the oven, cut off the lid then cut the Hd
cover
; ;

in eight or ten pieces,
of

and stick it round the inside the rim, cover the meat with slices of lemon, and
it

serve

up.

109.

STUFFED SHOULDER OF VEAL
;

(Hertfordshire)

Take the bone out, and fill the cavity left by it with veal stuffing then roll up the veal neatly, and tie round firmly with string. Place in a stewpan, with just enough water to cover. Allow to simmer slowly for four hours. Prepare two carrots, two onions, and some herbs, and stew with the joint.

To

serve take out the veal, remove the string, strain

the gravy, thicken with flour and pour over the whole.

Chop the vegetables

finely for

a garnish.

VARIOUS
110.

COLD CURRY

(Surrey)

Four

to six ounces of cold veal, chicken, or rabbit,

one ounce butter, one sour apple, one large tablespoonful of curry powder, one good-sized onion, half a pint white stock (one that sets in a jelly), quarter

mUk, quarter of a pint of cream, a little Put the butter, salt, and pepper. apple and onions finely chopped, and curry powder, into a saucepan, and cook for twenty minutes then add the stock and milk. Simmer untU reduced
of a pint of

lemon

juice,

;

to about a quarter of a pint, with saucepan uncovered. Put in the meat, cut into dice, and simmer

46
for

PORK AND VEAL RECIPES
;

twenty minutes then put aside to cool. When cool, whip the cream and then stir in the mixture add salt, pepper, and a few drops of lemon juice, and put it in greased cases. Decorate with tomato,
;

hard-boiled eggs and parsley.
111.

DRY CURRY

(Hertfordshire)

Put into a stewpan a quarter of a pound of Fry butter, with two rather large onions cut small. till light brown, then add two tablespoonfuls curry powder and a little salt. Have ready two pounds
of veal,

chicken, or rabbit, cut into small pieces,

and add to the curry, and mix aU well together. Pour in one pint milk, and simmer slowly tiU the mixture is absorbed. It should take about an hour.
Serve with
rice.

112.

STUFFED LIVER
liver,

(Isle

of

Wight)

A
Make

calf's

and

stuffing

(sage

and

onions).

an incision through the centre of the liver to the
;

depth of half its thickness now put the knife into the opening and by holding it flat, cut round on each This will make a pocket to hold the stufiing. side. Bake in a hot oven, well basting with good dripping.
113.

MOCK SWEETBREADS

(Cheshire)

Take three-quarters of a poxmd of veal, pass it through a mincer two or three times till it is practically a pulp add a little suet or bacon very finely shredded or minced, the yolks of two eggs to bind, and a few fine breadcrumbs to give it consistency. Season with a little mace, pepper, and salt add a httle cream or milk to moisten. Make up into the
:

:

PORK AND VEAL RECIPES
fierce)

47

shape of sweetbreads, and brown in good (but not oven. Serve with gravy.

H4.

THATCHED-HOUSB PIE
(Eighteenth Century)

Take an earthenware dish that is pretty deep, rub the inside with two ounces of butter, then spread over it two ounces of vermicelli. Make a good puff paste, roll it pretty thick, and lay it on the dish take three or four pigeons, season them very well with pepper and salt, put a good lump of butter in them and lay them in the dish with the breasts down, put a thick lid over them, and bake it in a moderate oven. When done enough, take the dish you intend for it and turn the pie into it, upside down, and the vermicelli wUl appear like
;

thatch, which gives
pie.

it

the

name

of a thatched-house

It is a pretty side or corner dish, for a large

dinner, or

bottom dish

for supper.

;

CHAPTER

III

FOWL AND GAME
Note.

—The

manuscript-books
or, if

of

the

last

three

centuries

do not greatly trouble themselves over

fowl and

they do, the recipes involve of labour and material that they are out of place in these hard and hurried times. " Heron Pudding " is inserted as a culinary curiosity for herons, like roast swans, roast peacocks, and other popular viands of the past,
:

game

so lavish

an expenditure

:

usually figure no longer

upon our dinner- tables.

rabbits will be found extremely useful especially that entitled " Jugged Rabbit." As a more elaborate but very tasty dish, " Roman Pie " may be instanced.
recipes for cooking
:

The

115.

TO BOIL FOWLS

(Eighteenth Century)

plucked your fowls, draw them at the rump, cut off the head, neck, and legs, take the breast bone very carefully out, skewer them with the end of their legs in the body, tie them round with a string, singe and dust them well with flour put them into a kettle of cold water, cover it close, set it on the fire when the scum begins to rise, take it off, put on your cover, and let them cook very slowly for twenty minutes take them off, cover them
;
;

When you have

48

FOWL AND GAME
close,
;

49

and the heat of the water will stew them enough in half an hour it keeps the skin whole, and they will be both whiter and plumper than if they had boiled fast when you take them up, drain them, pour over them white sauce, or melted
;

butter.

116.

TO DRESS AN OLD FOWL
put
it

(Cheshire)

If for boiling,

into

lukewarm water with a

piece of soda (bi-carbonate) about the size of a nut,

and

cook for the usual time. pour boiling water on it, and leave it soaking for nearly two hours in a jar on the Then dry it well, and do not flour it, but stove. put a little lard over it before cooking.
let it

If for roasting,

117.

FOWL SPATCHCOCKED WITH TARTARS
SAUCE
(Hertfordshire)

Roast a
arrange
it,

fowl, take

it

up, split

it

down

the back,

well fastened
;

up with skewers, spread-

eagle fashion

dish with
;

griU over a good fire, place it on a hot mushrooms round and serve with tartare sauce or make some white sauce, stir in two yolks of eggs well beaten up beat in some salad oil, then add tarragon, chervil, and enough vinegar to
;

sharpen the sauce.

118.

STUFFED FOWLS
fowls

(Seventeenth

Century)

Bone your

and

fill

forcemeat, and roast them.

them with the following Take half a pound of

beef suet, some finely minced mushrooms, a few sweet herbs and parsley shred fine, some grated

lemon peel and nutmeg, pepper, and
4

salt

:

six

50

FOWL AND GAME

ounces fine bread-crumbs, an egg well beaten (two, the egg be small). Have ready for sauce some good gravy with mushrooms. You may lard the
if

fowls
119.

if

you

please.
(Surrey)

SALMI OF GROUSE WITH CLARET

Cut up two roast grouse into members. Skin them, and throw the trimmings and skin into a stewpan, with two shced shalots, a few mushroom
parings,
allspice,

a clove, half a blade of mace, a Httle

and a few peppercorns. Let the whole sweat in a Httle consomme, at the corner of the stove. Add a pint of brown sauce, having boiled and clarified this, and two or three glasses of claret. Let the whole boil down rather thick, and strain You may ornament the dish it over the grouse.
with a few pieces of toast. Blackcock or ptarmigan can be prepared the same way. These birds are better for keeping till the feathers come readily

from the
120.

skin.

JUGGED HARE

(Yorkshire,

1769)

Take a young hare, wash and wipe it well, cut the two or three pieces, and all the other parts the same bigness. Beat them aU flat with a pastepin, season with nutmeg and salt. Put them into a pitcher or any other closed jar, with half a poimd
egs into
of butter.

Set the jar in a pot of boiling water,

up close with a cloth or lid, and lay some weight upon it for fear it should fall to one side. It will take about two hours in stewing miad your pot be full of water and kept boiling all the time. When the hare is done, take the gravy from it, clear off the fat, and put the meat into the gravy
cover
it
;

FOWL AND GAME
in a stewpan, with a tablespoonful or

51

two

of

white

wine, or a

little

lemon-juice, shred lemon-peel, and

mace.

You must thicken it up as you would

fricassee.

a white Garnish your dish with sippets of toast

and lemon.
121.

JUGGED HARE

(Surrey)

Take a hare, skin it, draw it, cut it up, but do not wash it. Flour the pieces and fry them a good brown, in butter seasoned with salt and pepper. Have ready about one and a half pints of gravy, made from one and a haK pounds of gravy beef. Put the pieces of hare iato an earthenware jar, add one small onion stuck with five cloves, one lemon peeled and cut, and the gravy. Cover the jar closely, set it in a deep stewpan in cold water, and let the water
boil three to four hours, according to the age of the

hare.
fire iu

When it is done,

take

it

out and set

it

over the

a pan for a few minutes, and add one table-

spoonful

port, a piece of butter well floured,

mushroom ketchup, two wine glasses of and some force-

meat

balls.

122.

BOASTED HARE

(Eighteenth

Century)

Skewer your hare with the head upon one shoulder, the fore legs stuck into the ribs, the hind legs doubled. Make your pudding of the crumbs of a penny loaf, a quarter of a pound of beef marrow or suet, and a
shred the liver, a quarter of a pound of butter two of winter savoury, a little lemon-peel, a little cayenne pepper, half a nutmeg grated ; mix
:

sprig or

them up in a light forcemeat, with a glass of red put it into the belly of your wine and two eggs hare, sew it up. Put a quart of good milk in your
;

52

FOWL AND GAME
it till it is

dripping-pan, baste your hare with
to half a gUl, then dust and baste
If it
it

reduced
half

well with butter.

be a large one

it will

require an hour

and a

roasting.

123.

A HERON PUDDING

(Kent)

Before cooking it must be ascertained that no bones of the heron are broken. These bones are filled with a fishy fluid, which, if allowed to come in
contact with the
fish.

flesh,

makes the whole bird

taste of

however, should be always extracted from the bones, and kept ia the medicine cupboard,
This
fluid,

for it is excellent applied to all sorts of cuts

cracks.
slices are

The heron The

is first

picked and fiayed.

and Then
the

cut from the breast and legs to
crust
is

make

pudding.

made

exactly like that of a

meat pudding, and the slices of heron put in and seasoned exactly as meat would be. The pudding
is

boiled for several hours, according to its size.
fact, it tastes

have been told that, as a matter of very much like a nice meat pudding.)
(I

124.

ROAST PARTRIDGES
way
(Seventeenth Century)

The
Fill
little salt

Italian

the partridges with butter worked with a
:

buttered paper
of

cover them with slices of bacon fat and let them roast half or three-quarters
:

an hour. Let them drain, and serve them masked with an Italian sauce.
125.

ROLLED PARTRIDGES

(Eighteenth Century)

Having larded your partridges with ham or bacon, strew over them some pepper and salt,

;

FOWL AND GAME

53

powdered mace, shredded lemon peel, and sweet herbs cut small. Take some beefsteaks cut as thin as possible, but without holes in them, and strew some of the seasoning over them, then squeeze on some lemon juice. Lay a partridge on each steak, roll it up, and tie it round to keep it together. Set on a stewpan with some slices of bacon and an onion cut into pieces. Put the partridges carefully in, put to them some rich gravy, and let them stew
till they are done. Then take them out of the beef, lay them in a dish, and strain the gravy

gently

over them.

126.

PILLAU

(Cheshire)

Spread a small baking-dish all over with rashers stick an onion with a dozen cloves cut of bacon in pieces, and rub it well with pepper and a fowl put the onion in the middle of the dish, and salt
;
; ;

place the fowl over

it.

Have some
;

rice boiled

tender

Cover with a to fill the dish. bake about an hour take water and flour paste off the crust, and garnish with hard-boiled eggs
;

Fill up with gravy.

cut in quarters, and sliced onions.

127.

TO BOIL RABBITS

(1815)

have cased (or drawn) your rabbits, skewer them with their heads straight up, the fore legs brought down, and their hind legs straight boil them three-quarters of an hour at least, then smother them with onion-sauce, made the same as Put a sprig of myrtle or barfor boiled ducks. berries in their mouths, and serve them up.

When you

;

54

FOWL AND GAME
FIVE RECIPES FOR COOKING RABBITS
(Cheshire)
1.

128.

GiBELOTTE
bacon, cut
it

—Take a quarter of a pound of lean
and
fry
it

in small dice,

in a saucepan

with a little butter for a few minutes. Put the bacon aside on a plate. Put the pieces of rabbit in the saucepan with a little more butter, and toss it about till the pieces are well set and begin to Dredge in a Mttle flour, and stock, or wine colour. and water (white or red) enough to cover it add salt, pepper, powdered spice, and sweet herbs, and Meanlet it simmer about a quarter of an hour. while toss a dozen small pickhng onions in a saucepan with a httle butter and sugar, till they are well add them to the gibelotte with the coloured bacon and a few button mushrooms. Let aU take out the simmer twenty minutes or more bundle of herbs, and serve. Gibelotte 2. Toss the pieces of rabbit in butter sprinkle with shalot, parsley, thyme, till quite set and mushrooms, finely minced, pepper, and salt dredge a httle flour over, and moisten with stock (and white wine). Add the Uver, and let all simmer about twenty minutes or more. Take out the return it to the gibelotte, and liver and pound it
;

;

;

;

;

serve, garnished with sippets fried in butter.

Gibelotte
little olive oil

3.

—Toss

the pieces of rabbit with a
;
;

a httle
colour.

and a shalot pepper and salt add thyme, and fry till the pieces begin to Take them out one by one, and put them
saucepan,

into

another

with

five

or

six

table-

spoonfuls of tomato sauce.

Keep shaking the pan

FOWL AND GAME
till

55
little

the rabbit

is is

quite done, adding a

chopped

parsley.

This

a dry stew.

GiBELOTTE 4. Curried. Pry the pieces a light brown with shced onion and strips of bacon. When they begin to colour, add curry powder and flour, with stock and salt. Let all simmer gently. Serve with a wall of plain boiled rice round. Some add
slices of apple.
5.

Rabbit and Onion Sauce.
into a saucepan with

—Blanch the pieces

of rabbit for ten minutes in boiling water.

Put an onion stuck full of cloves, thyme, parsley, pepper, and salt. Cover with boiMng water. Let them simmer about threequarters of an hour. Serve on a dish, piled, with plenty of onion sauce poured over them.

them

129.

TO FRICASSEE RABBITS BROWN
(Eighteenth

Century

Cut up your rabbits, fry them in butter a Ught brown, put them in a tossing pan, with a pint of water, a teaspoonful of lemon pickle, a large

mushroom ketchup, the same of browning, a slice of lemon, cayenne pepper, and stew them over a slow fire salt to your taste thicken your gravy, done enough till they are up your rabbits, and pour the and strain it dish
teaspoonful of
; ; ;

gravy over them.

130.

TO FRICASSEE RABBITS WHITE
(Eighteenth Century)

Cut up your rabbits as

before, put

them

into a

tossing pan, with a pint of veal gravy, a teaspoonful of lemon pickle, a sUce of lemon, a little beaten

56

FOWL AND GAME
;

mace, cayenne pepper, and salt, stew them over a slow fire when they are done enough, thicken your gravy with flour and butter, strain it, then add the yolks of two eggs, mixed with a large teacupful of thick cream, and a httle nutmeg grated
in
it
;

do not
131.

let it boil,

and serve

it

up.

JUGGED RABBIT

(Cheshire)

Take a rabbit of two to three pounds, and out up into joints. (An Ostend rabbit will be larger, two wild rabbits will answer the same but fatter purpose, but will not have so much meat on.) Have an earthen stew-jar with a lid, and put the rabbit
it
:

in,

alternating each layer with a layer of thinly

Season, as you go, with salt, pepper, and mace, mixed together with discretion. When the jar is nearly full, cover the meat with some five or six slices of thinly-cut bacon, and then add enough water to come nearly up to the bacon. Cover close with hd, and cook slowly in a good oven for two to three hours. Serve in the jar with a napkin round it. N.B. This is extremely wellsliced onion.

flavoured, but a

trifle rich.

132.

ROASTED RABBITS

(Eighteenth

Century)

When you have cased (or drawn) your rabbits, skewer their heads with their mouths upon their backs, stick their fore legs into their ribs, skewer the hind legs double, then make a pudding for them of the crumbs of a hahpenny loaf, a little parsley, sweet marjoram, thyme, a lemon peel, all shred fine, nutmeg, pepper, and salt to your taste, mix these up into a light stuffing, with a quarter of a

;

FOWL AND GAME
pound
it

57

good cream, and two eggs beUy and sew up. Dredge and baste the rabbits well with butter, roast them nearly an hour, serve them up with parsley and butter for sauce chop the livers, and lay them in heaps round
put
iato the
;

of butter, a little

the edge of your dish.

133.

A MADE DISH OF RABBITS' LIVERS
(Eighteenth Century)

Take six livers and chop them fine, with sweet herbs and the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs. Season with beaten spice and salt, and put in some plumped
currants,

and a

little

melted butter.
into
little

Mix very
and

well

together and, having some paste ready roUed thin,

make
them.

the

mixture

patties,

fry

134.

ROMAN

PIE

(Sussex)

HaK a pound of puff paste, two ounces of macaroni, a small quantity of parmesan cheese,
according to taste, and a small chicken, boned. Bone chicken, stew bones with gravy, make

with salt and Cut white meat into smaU pieces, boil macaroni till quite tender and cut into two-inch Take a charlotte mould, first greasing lengths. same, and sprinkle with vermicelli. Line with puff paste, then add shces of white meat, then a sprinkling of cheese and salt, then macaroni, doing this Then bake in a crisp oven one hour, alternately. when it should be golden brown. Turn out and serve with rich gravy and cheese. Rabbit or veal may be used also.
rich white sauce, season to taste

mignonette.

58

FOWL AND GAME
135.

ROOK
;

PIE

(Eighteenth

Century)

Skin and draw six young rooks, and cut out the back bones season them well with pepper and salt, put them in a deep dish, with a quarter of a pint of water lay over them half a pound of butter, make a good puff paste, and cover the dish. Lay a paper over it, for it requires a good deal of baking.
;

CHAPTER IV

SOUP RECIPES
Note. We were never a soup-eating nation. The Englishman always desires to " get his teeth into " something solidly tangible and in nursery circles a damper is cast upon the dinner-table a sense of
;

being defrauded out of one's lawful dues when soup, be it never so tasty, is produced. Even very
thick soups

—pea,
rice,

and

lentil,

and those which are
or macaroni

dense with
to
restore

barley,

sago,

fail

equanimity.

The

common

soups

of

our French neighbours purely vegetable stock economy of cabbage-water, and so forth, carried to its uttermost limit, would never appease the yearnings of those taught to reverence the Roast Beef of

Old England. So I have not included very many soups and I have perforce omitted some which began with so prodigious a boiling down of beef and mutton, that they would have befitted a giant's cuisine. The ordinary cookery book will supply you with many but the hints which excellent suggestions for soup are useful and occasionally quite novel. follow It is advisable to keep a stock-pot in every house,
:

:

if

carefully straining oif all only for gravies vegetable matter after the boUing, and re-boiling (not merely heating) the stock every day should the
:

69

;

60

SOUP RECIPES
demand
it.

weather

It

is is

the

falsest

of

false

economy
tainted.

to use stock which

in the tiniest degree

All bones should be well broken
;

up before

being put in
136.

and

salt

should be invariably added.
(Eighteenth

ALMOND SOUP

Century)

of veal and the scrag end of a neck mutton, chop them in small pieces, put them in a large tossing-pan, cut in a turnip, with a blade or two of mace, and five quarts of water set it over the fire, and let it boU gently till it is reduced to two quarts. Strain it through a hair sieve into a clear pot, then put in six ounces of almonds, blanched and beaten fine, half a pint of thick cream, and cayenne pepper to your taste. Have ready three small French rolls, the size of a small teacup if they are larger they will not look well, and will drink up too much of the soup blanch a few Jordan almonds, and cut them lengthways, stick them round the edge of the rolls, slantways, then stick them all over the top of the rolls, and put them in the tureen. When dished up, pour the soup upon the rolls these rolls look like a hedgehog. Some French cooks give this soup the name of Hedgehog Soup. of
; ; ;

Take a neck

137.

A VERY GOOD WHITE ALMOND SOUP
(Yorkshire, 1769)

any other white meat, boiled (or other spice to your taste), let it boU to a mash, then strain off the gravy. Take some of the white fleshy part of the meat and rub it through a fine colander. Have ready two ounces

Take

veal, fowl, or

down with a little mace

of

almonds, beaten
all

fine,

colander, then put

into the gravy, set

rub these through the it on the

SOUP RECIPES
fire

61

to thicken a

little,

and

stir into it
little

two

or three

tablespoonfuls of cream, and a
into flour.

butter worked

Have ready a crisped French roll for the middle, and slips of bread cut long like Savoy
biscuits.

Serve up hot.
138.

BARLEY BROTH

(Kent,

1809)

if they can be got, carrots, and turnips), and a sprinkling of salt and pepper, into a pot having a lid, with a quantity of water equal to the quantity of broth required, sufficient to boU a neck of mutton, which should be put into it, and let the whole boil slowly

Put a quantity

of barley with onions (and,

Duriag part of the time the out, otherwise it will be over-boiled. In place of a neck, a flap of mutton may be used, and griUed after it is boiled.
for five or six hours.

mutton should be taken

139.

SHEEP'S

HEAD BROTH

(Kent,

1809)

the In Scotland an above is made of sheep's head, and sheep's feet. The head and feet are not skinned as in England, but the wool is singed off. It is a dish esteemed even at the tables of the rich, as barley broth and hodge-podge also are. The head, cold, eaten with vinegar and mustard, is exceUent eating, and is
excellent broth, similar to

used at breakfast in
140.

many

parts of that country.

SPINACH BROTH

(Seventeenth

Century)

Take strong stock, boU a piece of neck of mutton four poimds or so, and a marrow bone in it. Then put in half a pound of French barley, a bundle of sweet herbs, two or three blades of large mace, and

62
let

SOUP RECIPES
these boil well.

Mince very small two large onions and half a peck of spinach. Add it to the broth, season to taste with salt, and let aU boU an hour or more. Serve the mutton and marrow bone in a separate dish with pieces of toast or fried bread.
141.

VEGETABLE BROTH

(Kent,

1809)

Is

composed

of greens or cabbage, shorn or cut

into small pieces, onions, carrots,

and

turnips, or

one or more of them as can be got, also cut into small pieces, with barley boiled slowly in a portion of water corresponding to the quantity of broth wanted, to which a sprinMing of salt and pepper is added a small quantity of dripping is also added, when that can be procured and vegetable broth, is a nourishing and palatable if properly made,
;
;

food.
142.

CHESTNUT SOUP

(Sussex)

Throw them into a paste (moistening with a little milk when desirable). Put them through a fine sieve. Set them in an earthenware pan with an onion already cooking
the chestnuts tiU they burst open.

BoU

them

into cold water, peel them, crush

in a little butter.

Add

a teaspoonful of sugar, a
pepper, a light hint of

saltspoonful of salt, a
spice,

little

and as much mUk as will make up the required amount. Stir continually, and when it boils, add a spoonful of rice-flour, made smooth in cold milk, and a little cream if possible.
143.

EGG SOUP

(Seventeenth
of

Century)
in a bowl,

Having beaten the yolks

two eggs

along with a piece of butter the size of an egg.

SOUP RECIPES

63

take a pan or kettle of boiling stock in one hand and a spoon in the other, and pour in by degrees

about a quart of stock, and keep
all

stirring it well

the time.
till

When
it

the eggs are well mixed and
it

the butter melted, pour
stirring
fire

into a saucepan

and keep
it

begins to simmer.

Take

off

the

and pour it from one vessel into another till it is quite smooth and has a good froth. Then put it on the fire again, keep stirring it until it is quite hot, and then pour it into your soup-dish. (Salt and seasoning seem to have been forgotten
here.

Ed.)

144.

FARINE BRULEE

(Surrey)

Fry some onions a light brown bottom of a saucepan. Then put

in dripping at the in one small tablestir

spoonful of flour to each person, and

with a

wooden spoon over the fire until the flour is a pale brown colour, then add the hot stock (half a pint for each person) and stir until it is quite smooth and Cut up very thin slices of cheese, put them thick. into the bottom of the tureen, and pour on the soup.
145.

GRAVY SOUP THICKENED WITH YELLOW
PEAS
(Eighteenth Century)
of beef to six quarts of water,

Put a shin
and
let

with a
fire

pint of peas and six onions, set

them over the

them

boil gently

the meat, then straia it the strained liquor one quart of strong gravy to
;

the juice be out of through a sieve, and add to
till all

make

it brown put in pepper and salt to your taste, then put in a little celery and beet leaves, and boil tni they are tender.

64
146.

SOUP RECIPES HARE SOUP
(Eighteenth

Century)

Cut one large old hare

in small pieces,

in a jar, with three blades of mace, a little salt,

and put it two

and three quarts oven three hours, then strain it into a tossing-pan have ready boiled three ounces of French barley, or sago water scald the liver of the hare in boiling water two minutes run it through a hair sieve, with the back of a wooden spoon put it into the soup with the barley or sago and a quarter of a pound of butter set it over the fire, keep stirring it, but do not let it boil if you do not like liver, put in crisped bread steeped in red wine. This is a rich soup, and proper for a large entertainment and where two soups are required, almond or onion soup may be used for the top and the hare soup for the bottom.
large onions, half a pint of red wine,
of water
;

bake

it

in a quick
;

;

;

;

;

:

;

147.

LENTIL SOUP
of strong stock

(Hertfordshire)

To a quart
lentils,

and seasoning to

the lentils
boil-up.
148.

put about a cup of Let it simmer till are thoroughly mashed, then give it a
taste.

GERMAN LENTIL SOUP (VEGETARIAN)
(Kent)

Scald half a pound of lentils in boiling water, drain and put on with quantity of boiling water required. Fry some onions, celery and tomatoes in butter Simmer two hours. tiU brown, and add.
149.

MILK SOUP

(Essex)

Take four large potatoes and one onion, peel and cut them into quarters, and put them into two

SOUP RECIPES
quarts of boiling water or white stock.
Boil

65
till

done to a mash, strain through a colander, and rub the vegetables through with a wooden spoon, return the pulp and soup to the saucepan, with one pint of milk, and bring to the boU when it boUs, sprinkle
;

in

three

tablespoonfuls

of

crushed tapioca,

stir-

ring all the time.

Boil fifteen minutes, and serve.

160.

MULLIGATAWNY SOUP

(Hertfordshire)

Fry some onion and carrot in butter till they become a light brown, then add a small piece of apple, some
sultanas, coconut, chutney, Harvey's sauce, a pinch

and pepper, a tablespoonful of curry powder, curry paste, and about a quarter of a pint of strong stock, and let simmer for about an
of salt

a

little

hour.

151.

MULLIGATAWNY

(Kent,

1809)

Take four onions sliced small and a head of garlic, fry them a light brown, then put them into a stewpan
with the meat, which should befowl oranywhite meat. Three spoonfuls of curry powder and two of flour mixed together, likewise a spoonful of lemon juice and cayenne pepper to your taste. Pour over it a pint of boiling water and let it simmer slowly for a
short time, then add a sufficient quantity of broth made without vegetables to make a tureen of Mulligatawny. The ingredients must then stew together

an hour.
for curry.
well.

To be

served up with a dish of rice as
will dress this

Cold fowl

way extremely

5

66
152.

SOUP EECIPES
ONION SOUP
(Eighteenth

Century)

Boil eight or ten large Spanish onions in milk
;

and

water change it three times. When they are quite soft, rub them through a hair sieve. Cut an old cock in pieces and boil it for gravy, with one blade of mace strain it, and pour it upon the pulp of the onions, boil it gently with the crumb of an old penny loaf, grated into half a pint of cream add cayenne pepper and salt to your taste a few heads of asparagus or stewed spinach both make it eat well and look very pretty grate a crust of brown bread round the edge of the dish.
;

;

;

:

153.

ONION SOUP

(Kent,

1809)

Take haK a pound of butter, put it in a stewpan on the fire, let it all melt. Let it boil till it has done making any noise, then have ready ten or twelve middling-sized onions, peeled and cut small, throw them into the butter, and let them fry a quarter of an hour shake in a little flour and stir them round, and let them cook a few minutes longer, then pour in a quart or three pints of boiling water, and stir take a piece of upper crust of stale bread, well about as big as the top of a penny loaf, cut small, and throw it in. Season it with salt to your taste, let it
; ;

boil ten minutes, stirring it often, then tauke it off
of two eggs beaten with half a tablespoonful of vinegar mix some of your soup with them then stir the rest into your soup, and mix it weU and pour it into your tureen.

the

fire,

and have ready the yolks
;

very

fine

;

154.

BROWN ONION SOUP
them
in butter
till

(Eighteenth Century)

Skin and cut roundways in
onions, fry

slices six large

Spanish

they are a nice

brown

SOUP RECIPES

67

and very tender, then take them out, and lay them on a hair sieve to drain out the butter. When drained, put them in a pot, with five quarts of boiling water, boU them one hour and stir them often then add pepper and salt to your taste. Rub the crumbs of a penny loaf through a colander, put
;

it

to the soup, stir

it

lumps, and boil it before you send it up, beat the yolks of two eggs with two dessertspoonfuls of vinegar and a little of the soup, pour it in by degrees, and keep stirring it all the time one way. Put in a few cloves if you choose.

from being in two hours more. Ten minutes
it

well to keep

N.B.

—It

is

a

fine soup,

and

will

keep three or four

days.
155.

WHITE ONION SOUP
(Eighteenth Century)

Take

thirty large onions, boil

them

in five quarts

of water, with a knuckle of veal, a blade or

two

of

mace, and a

little

whole pepper.

When your

onions

are quite soft, take

them up, and rub them through

a hair sieve and work haH a pound of butter with a When the meat is boiled so as little flour into them.
to leave the bone, strain the liquor over the onions, boil them gently for half an hour, serve up with a

coffee-cup full of cream,

and a

little salt.

Be

sure

you

stir

the soup

when you put
its

in the flour

and

butter, for fear of
156.

burning.
(Ireland)

OX-CHEEK SOUP

Put an ox-cheek into cold water in a tub to soak for a couple of hours, then break the bones, and wash it well in warm water put it into a soup;

pot,

and cover

it

with cold water.

When

it boils,

68

SOUP RECIPES
it

skim

very clean, and put in herbs, a head of
a turnip, carrots, two
large onions,

celery,

some

pepper, allspice, and lemon, thyme, marjoram, and

Cover the pot close, and let it boU slowly skim well simmer about three hours take out the head and let it boil slowly for about an hour. If you wish to thicken it, put two ounces of butter to melt in a pan, and then stir in as much flour as will dry it up brown it when well mixed together, and add it to the soup, stirring it well. Give it half an hour longer to boU. Strain it, if you wish, through a hair sieve.
parsley.
;

;

;

;

167.

OX-CHEEK SOUP
;

(Eighteenth Century)

an ox-cheek, and wash it in many waters then lay it in warm water, and throw in a little salt to fetch out the slime wash it out very weU. Then take a large stewpan, put two ounces of butter at the bottom of the pan, and lay the flesh side of the cheek down add to it half a pound of shank of ham, cut in slices, and four heads of celery pull off the leaves, wash the heads clean, and cut them in with three large onions, two carrots, and one parsnip sliced, a few beets cut small, and three blades of mace set it over a moderate fire a this draws the virtue from the quarter of an hour roots, which gives a pleasant strength to the gravy. I have made a good gravy by this method with roots and butter only, adding a little browning to give it a pretty colour. When the head has simmered a quarter of an hour, put to it six quarts of water, and let it stew till it is reduced to two quarts. If you would have it like soup, strain and take out the meat and other ingredients, and put in the white
First break the bones of
; ; ; ;

;

SOUP RECIPES
little

69

part of a head of celery cut in small pieces, with a

browning to make it a fine colour take two ounces of vermicelli, give it a scald in the soup, and put the top of a French roll in the middle of a tureen,
;

and serve it up. If you would have
pieces,

it like

stew, take

up the cheek

as whole as possible, and have ready, cut in square

a boiled turnip and carrot, a slice of bread toasted and out in dice put in a little cayenne pepper, and strain the soup through a hair sieve upon the meat, carrot, turnip, and bread.
;

158.

PASSOVER BALLS FOR SOUP

(Jewish)

Chop an onion and half a pound of suet very finely, stew them together until the suet is melted, then pour it hot upon eight spoonfuls of biscuit add a little salt, a flour mix it well together httle grated nutmeg, lemon-peel, and ginger add six beaten eggs put the balls into the soup when it boils, and boil them for a quarter of an hour. The quantity of eggs and flour may appear disproportioned, but the flour employed is of a pecuKar kind, used
: : : :

purpose in Jewish families. Nothing can exceed the excellence of the balls made after this they are applicable to any kind of soups. recipe
for the
;

139.

PEA SOUP
two

(Essex)

Four pints
onions,

of water,
carrots,

one pint of dried peas, three
turnips,

bunch of from Soak the peas in two or three boiling salt beef). waters for twelve hours, wash the bones, put them in a clean saucepan with the water and peas, add
three

a

herbs, sixpennyworth of beef bones

(or stock

70
salt

SOUP RECIPES
and pepper, skim well while
all in dice,

boiling.

Scrape

the carrots, peel the turnips, skin the onions, cut

them

add to the bones and

peas,

simmer

very gently for four hours. Remove the bones, season with dried mint if liked, rub through a hair The water in which a sieve if a puree is required. joint of salt beef has been boiled, or one pint of

bone or vegetable stock can be used instead
bones.
160.

of the

COMMON PEAS SOUP
split
little

(Eighteenth Century)

To one quart of
water, a
turnip,

peas put four quarts of soft

lean bacon, or roast-beef bones, with
;

one head of celery
boil
it
till

work it mix a little flour and water, and boil it weU in the soup, and slice in another head of celery, with cayenne pepper and salt to your taste. Cut a sUce of bread in small pieces, fry them a light brown, and put them then pour the soup upon it. in your dish
;

cut it and put it in with a then reduced to two quarts through a colander with a wooden spoon;
;

161.

GREEN PEA SOUP

(Essex)

Half a pint of shelled peas, one quart of the green shells, one and a half pints of water, two ounces of butter, one onion, two sprigs of mint, two lumps of sugar, half a pint of mUk, one teaspoonf ul of
cornflour.

Shell the peas, rinse the

empty
strings.

shells,

and

with a sharp knife

remove the

Melt

the butter in a very clean saucepan, put in the peas,
shells, the onion sliced, and toss (to absorb the flavour of the butter) over a slow fire Then add the for a few minutes, hut do not brown.

the prepared

water, mint, sugar, and boil until tender.

Rub

all

;

SOUP RECIPES
through a hair with the milk.
sieve.

71

Blend the cornflour smoothly

Put the soup back into the saucepan, add the milk and cornflour, and stir until it boils. Season and serve. Pried croutons of bread should be handed with this soup.
162.

GREEN PEA SOUP

(Hertfordshire)

Get some nice peas
till

in their shells.

Boil

them

they are quite tender, and pass through a fine wire sieve then add a little strong white stock and boil for an hour, colouring if required then thicken and serve with some fried sippets.
;
;

163.

GREEN PEAS SOUP

(Eighteenth

Century)
in spring

Shell a peck of

peas and boil

them

water tiU they are soft, then work them through a hair sieve take the water that your peas are boiled in, and put in a knuckle of veal, three slices of ham, and two carrots, a turnip, and a few beet leaves shred small, and add a little more water to the meat set it over the fire, and let it boil one hour and a then strain the gravy into a bowl, and mix half it with the pulp, and put in it a little juice of spinach, which must be beaten and squeezed through a cloth
;

;

;

put in as much as will make it look a pretty colour, then give it a gentle boil, which wiU take off the
taste of the spinach
of celery,
;

slice in

the whitest part of a

put in a lump of sugar the size of a head Take a slice of bread, and cut it in little walnut. pieces, cut a little bacon the same way, fry them a light brown in fresh butter cut a large cabbagelettuce in slices, fry it after the other, put it in the tureen with the fried bread and bacon. Have ready
;

72

SOUP RECIPES
in the soup,

boiled, as for eating, a pint of

them
like

it,

and pour

it

with a little into your tureen.

young peas, and put chopped mint if you

164.

GREEN PEAS SOUP WITHOUT MEAT
(Eighteenth Century)

In shelling your peas, separate the old ones from
the young, and boil the old ones soft enough to
strain through a colander
;

then put the liquor and

what you strained through to the young peas, which must be whole add some whole pepper, mint, a large onion shred small, put them in a large saucepan, with near a pound of butter as they boil up, shake in some flour, then put in a French roU, fried in butter, to the soup. You must season it to your when you have done so, taste with salt and herbs add the young peas to it, which must be half boiled first. You may leave out the flour if you do not like it, and instead of it put in a little spinach and cabbage-lettuce, cut small, which must be first fried in butter and well mixed with the broth.
; ; ;

165.

POTATO SOUP

(Essex)

Two

heads of celery, one carrot, one onion, one
Boil together in some

parsley root, and some leeks.

stock with

a

little

butter.

Take

some

floury

potatoes, cook, and rub through a hair sieve.

Boil

with the other ingredients.
166.

POTATO SOUP
pepper, and

(Ireland)

Two
water.

onions, three potatoes,

two ounces
salt.

of bacon,

all sliced thin,

Two

quarts of

Boil two hours.

;

SOUP RECIPES
167.

73
(Sussex)

RICE AND BONE SOUP

Well cover the bones with water. Take four two turnips, and two onions. Cut small. A small tablespoonful of salt and a teaspoonful of sugar. Boil the bones well and take off the fat. Then add the vegetables, and boil for another half hour. Then take away the bones and season the soup to taste.
carrots,
168.

SAGO SOUP
of

(Hertfordshire)

good strong chicken broth in a and celery bring to the boil and reduce it to one and a haK pints strain and put back into the pan. Bring to the Then add four dessertspoonfuls of fine boil again. sago, simmer until the sago is quite cooked, season with salt and pepper, and just before serving put into the soup some chicken cut up in small dice, and
pan, with a
little

Put two pints

parsley, onion,

;

;

haK a teaspoonful
169.

of thick cream.

CREAM SAGO SOUP

(Hertfordshire)

Take one quart of good veal stock nicely seasoned to it by degrees add two ounces of medium sago,
first

washed
is

in boiling water.

Simmer gently

till
;

and forms a sort of jelly add one gill of good cream, and just before serving, put in the yolks of two eggs well beaten. Care must
the sago
quite dissolved

be taken that the soup is not boiling when the eggs are added. Serve with fried sippets.
170.

TASTY SOUP

(Essex)

Take the liquor in which codfish has been boiled, and add to each quart half a teacupful of tapioca,

74

SOUP RECIPES

a carrot, half a head of celery, and a little parsley. Cut the vegetables up very small and boil until

they are cooked. Then thicken with flour. Add pepper and salt to taste, and serve with dry toast cut into small fancy shapes. This is very tasty and costs very little.

171.

TOMATO SOUP

(Hertfordshire)

Fry some onions and tomatoes
strong stock
;

tiU they are quite

tender, then pulp through a sieve

and add some

when

ready, thicken very slightly

and serve with some

fried sippets.

172.

TRANSPARENT SOUP
;

(Eighteenth Century)

Take a leg of veal, and cut off all the meat as thin when you have cut off all the meat you can clean from the bone, break the bone in small pieces, put the meat in a large jar, and the bones at top, with a bunch of sweet herbs, a quarter of an ounce of mace, haff a pound of Jordan almonds, blanched and beaten fine; pour on it four quarts of boiling water, let it stand all night by the fire, covered close. The next day put it into a well-tinned saucepan, and let it boil slowly till it is reduced to two quarts. Be sure you take the scum and fat off as it rises all
as

the time
clear

it

is

boiling

;

strain
it

it

into a bowl, let

it settle for

two hours, pour

into a clean saucepan,
;

from the sediment, if any, at the bottom have ready three ounces of rice boiled in water. If you like vermicelli better, boil two ounces when done enough, put it in and serve it up.
;

SOUP EECIPES
173.

76

AN EXCELLENT WHITE SOUP
(Eighteenth Century)

To

six quarts of water

put in a knuckle of
of lean bacon,

veal,

a

and half a pound of rice, a few pepper-corns, two or three onions, a bundle of sweet herbs, and three or four heads of celery in slices. Stew all together till your soup is as strong as you choose it, then
large old fowl, a
strain it through a hair sieve into a clean earthen

pound

pot

;

let it

stand

all

night, then take off the scum,
;

and pour the soup clear off into a tossing-pan put in half a pound of Jordan almonds beaten fine, boil it a little, and run it through a sieve, then put in a pint Make it hot (but of cream and the yolk of an egg. not boiling) and send it to table.
174.

WHITE SOUP WITH POACHED EGGS
(Eighteenth

Century)
:

beat half a Take veal stock or chicken broth pound of almonds, and the breast of a fowl, very add these to the white stock, fine in a mortar Let it gently simmer on boil well, and strain off. lay these the stove, while you poach eight eggs
:
:

in your soup, with a
filled

French

roll

in the middle,

with minced chicken or veal.

Serve very hot.

175.

A GOOD VEGETABLE SOUP

(Essex)

liquor

Boil bones for six or eight hours, then strain the off. When cold, take all the fat completely off.

Mince somewhat small a couple of turnips, a very little onion, a piece of shalot, and some outside pieces of Let the stock boil for twenty minutes before celery. it is required for dinner, then throw in the minced

;

76

SOUP RECIPES
boil rapidly for half

vegetables and a tiny bit of butter.

and vegetables
the soup
is

Let the stock an hour, and if

not sufficiently thick with the vegetables,

mix a teaspoonful of flour smoothly with cold water and strain it in, and let it simmer at once. Then strain it into the soup-tureen, in which you can put the toast that was left from breakfast, cut
into tiny squares.

176.

RICH VERMICELLI SOUP
(Eighteenth Century)

Into a large tossing-pan put four ounces of butter
cut a knuckle of veal and a scrag of mutton into

small pieces, about the size of walnuts

;

shoe in

the meat of a shank of ham, with three or four
blades of mace, two or three carrots, two parsnips,

two

large onions, with a clove stuck in at each

end

cut in four or five heads of celery washed clean, and

a bunch of sweet herbs, cover the pan close up, and
set it over

a slow

fire,

gravy

is

drawn out

of the

without any water, tUl the meat, then pour the gravy
it
;

out into a pot or basin.

same pan, and take care
in four quarts of

Let the meat brown in the does not burn, then pour

water let it boil gently till it is wasted to three pints, then strain it, and put the other gravy to it, set it on the fire, add to it two ounces of vermicelli, the nicest part of a head of celery, cayenne pepper and salt to your taste, and let it boil for four minutes. If not a good colour, browning lay a small French roU put in a little in the soup-dish, pour the soup upon it, and lay
;

some

of the vermicelli over

it.

CHAPTER V

FISH RECIPES
Note.
days
;

largely consumed in former was, as a rule, so highly spiced and seasoned as almost (from our point of view) to swamp

—Fish
and

was very

it

and destroy its flavour. Spices and condiments were indispensable to our forefathers and they would consider our modem treatment of fish insipid in the extreme. The days when herrings, dried or fresh, were the staple diet of the peasantry
;

—when

apprentices petitioned for special clauses

commore than twice a week are now so far beyond our ken as to be almost inconceivable. The following hints have been selected as those most feasible under present conditions, and largely deal with the utilisation of cold
in their indentures, that they should not be

pelled to eat fresh salmon

cooked

fish

—always

a problem for the kitchen.

Attention

is

especially directed to the easy

and

valuable recipe for preparing a " Finnan-Haddock," which, as usually cooked, is often a source of

made

to the excellent method for " Homedyspepsia Bloater Paste " ; and to " Sardine Sand:

wiches."
177.

HOME MADE BLOATER PASTE
six large herrings into boiling
off their

(Yorkshire)

Put

water for ten

minutes, then cut

heads, skin them, and

77

78

FISH RECIPES

draw out all the bones. Beat them in a mortar, ten ounces of butter, three and add as follows dessert-spoonfuls of anchovy sauce, cayenne and
:

white pepper to taste.
178.

TO BAKE COD

(Middlesex)

The

thickest part of the cod should be chosen for

which is to be filled with a stuffing of bread crumbs, a bit of butter, the yolks of grated three hard-boiled eggs, pepper, salt, grated lemon peel and nutmeg, and an anchovy finely cut up, binding the whole with the white of egg beaten up put the whole in a dish that will stand fire, with bits of butter over the top of it, and bake it in the oven for an hour. A Dutch oven is the best suited for this dish, as it requires to be frequently basted and turned melted butter or oyster sauce may be served with it.
this dish,
: :

179.

TO DRESS A SALT COD
(Eighteenth Century)
fish

Steep your salt
glass of vinegar
it
;

in water all night, with a

it will

fetch out the salt
boil it

and make
;

eat like fresh

fish.

The next day

when

it

is

done enough, puU it in flakes into your dish, then pour egg sauce over it, or parsnips boiled and beaten fine with butter and cream. Send it to the table on a hot-water plate, for it will soon grow cold.
180.

TO DRESS CODS' SOUNDS
(Eighteenth Century)

Steep your sounds as you do the salt cod, and boil them in a large quantity of milk and water when they are very tender and white, take them
;

FISH RECIPES
up and drain the water
boiling hot over them,
181.

79

out, then

pour the egg sauce

and serve them up.
(Middlesex)

FISH CAKES
fine

any remains of cold fish, having carefully boned and skinned it. Pass through a sieve any cold potatoes, and mix an equal quantity of them with the fish. Moisten with any
melted butter
left over, or

Break up very

with a well-beaten egg,

add a few bread crumbs to make the mixture firm. Season with pepper and salt. Make the mixture into balls or small round cakes. Roll in egg and bread crumbs, as for frying fish, and fry a hght brown. Garnish with parsley and lemon.
182.

TO CAVEACH FISH
it

(Eighteenth

Century)

your with pepper and salt, let it lie an hour, dry it well with a cloth, flour it, and then fry BoU a sufficient quantity of it a fine brown in oU. vinegar, with a little garlic, mace, and pepper, to cover the fish add the same quantity of oU, and mix well the oil and vinegar, salt to your taste and when the fish and liquor is quite cold, sHce some onions to lay in the bottom of the pot, then a layer of fish, then onions, and so on tiU the whole fish is put up. The liquor must not be put in till it is

Cut your

fish into pieces the thickness of

hand, season

;

;

quite cold.
183.

FISH CUSTARD
fish,

(Surrey)

remove all bones and skin, bottom of a pie-dish, with a little salt and pepper. Mix a dessertspoonful of flour smooth in a teacupful of milk, add one

Take any cold
it

lay

in small pieces in the

80

FISH EECIPES

beaten egg, and a piece of butter about as big as a walnut, creamed but not oiled. Pour it over the fish, and bake half an hour or so in a moderate
oven.
184.

FISH PIE

(Cape Colony)

Remove
(cooked)
;

all skin and bone from any kind of fish break into small pieces, mixed with miaced
;

add pepper, salt, and mustard, tomato sauce, half a well-beaten egg, and pack into a pie-dish. Cover with mashed Bake for threepotatoes, brush over with an egg. quarters of an hour.
onion previously fried in butter
185.

FISH PIE

(Hertfordshire)

Put three-quarters
strips

of a pint of

mUk

into a sauce-

pan, with half a small onion, two cloves, a few thin

two or three pieces of and pepper, and let the milk simmer gently for twenty minutes. Make a paste in a saucepan with an ounce and a quarter of butter, and an ounce and a quarter of flour. Strain the milk and mix it gradually with the paste, thus making a thick sauce ascertain whether more pepper and salt is required, and add a teaspoonful Butter a pie dish, and place a of anchovy essence.
of

parsley,

lemon and some

peel,

salt

;

layer of cooked fish which has been divided into
it, and cover it with some of the prepared sauce, a few shrimps, and a little chopped parsley then put more fish and the remainder of the sauce and some shrimps and parsley as before. Have in readiaess some smoothly mashed potato, which has been well seasoned with salt, pepper, and nutmeg, and mix with some milk, butter, and the yolk

flakes, in

;

FISH RECIPES
of
;

81

an egg then beat it until it is light and creamy. Cover the fish with this, mark the top with a fork, and after pouring a small quantity of warm butter over the surface of the potato, bake the pie in a quick oven until it is evenly browned.
186.

FISH PIE

(Ireland)

Line the bottom and sides of a deep fireproof
china dish evenly with vermicelli, which has been
previously boiled in salt and water, well drained, and

then tossed in a

little

melted butter.

Have ready

some fillets of sole or whiting. Brush each fillet on both sides with melted butter, then dip them in
fine

bread crumbs,
fillets

nicely

seasoned with finelysalt.

chopped
with the
of thick

parsley, pepper,

and

Pill

up the dish
gill

in layers,
:

pour over them a

tomato sauce

spread vermicelli over the

crumbs and chopped parput some small pieces of butter here and sley, and Bake in a steady oven half an hour, and there. serve in the dish in which it is cooked, garnished
top, sprinkle with bread

with parsley.
187.

FISH PIE

(Sussex)

Ingredients.

or eel

;

Fresh- water fish either roach, jack, one pound of onions, half a pound of rice,

three eggs,, quarter of a pound of butter, puff paste. Method. Boil rice. Lightly fry onions, cut into

small pieces.

Boil eggs hard, then slice them, and

bone fish. Fill pie-dish, first with layers of rice, then onions, butter, fish, and eggs. So on. Cover Very good, hot or in with puff paste, and bake.
cold.

6

82
188.

FISH RECIPES
FISH PUDDING
half of
(Surrey)

Take one pound and a

cooked

fish, half

a

teacupful of bread crumbs, two well-beaten eggs,
half a teacupful of milk, one

a

little

anchovy

essence, a teaspoonful of
salt.

parsley,

pepper, and

ounce melted butter, chopped Break up the fish as

finely as possible in

a bowl, and add the rest the eggs and mUk last. When all is well mixed put it in a buttered mould, and let it steam for threequarters of an hour. For a baked fish pudding, use an equal amount of well-mashed potatoes, and about twice as much milk and butter as is mentioned above.

189.

FISH

AND POTATO PUDDING

(Kent,

1809)

them like mashed potatoes. Mix with them a smaU portion of dried fish cut or grated very small, and a small quantity of dripping or butter. Put them into a tin dish, which may be put into a Dutch oven placed
Boil a quantity of potatoes, and bruise
before the
If
fire,

until sufiiciently browned, or in a

common oven where

a cottager's family bakes bread.
is

a few boiled eggs cut into small pieces be mixed

with the mashed potatoes, the dish
proved.

much

im-

190.

FISH SALAD
of
cold,

(Devonshire)
fish,

One pound

cooked

one

potato
oil,

(mashed), one lettuce, two tablespoonfuls olive

one tablespoonful vinegar, one hard-boiled egg, one teaspoonful made mustard, one tablespoonful milk, one piece cooked beetroot, two pickled gherkins, parsley, salt, pepper, castor sugar. Break up the fish

FISH RECIPES
into small pieces, removing the skin

83

and bones. Wash
;

the lettuce, or endive, tear into small pieces, dry in

Mix the mashed potato with miLk stir and vinegar season with mustard, pepper, salt, and sugar. Mix well to produce a smooth dressing. Blend the salad with the fish, season with the dressing. Pile up on a dish or salad bowl. Garnish with shoes of beetroot, and serve.
a cloth.
into
it oil
;

191.

SCALLOPED FISH

(Hampshire)

Take any cold fish remaining from the previous day, carefully remove all skin and bones, and break it as small as possible with two silver forks (steel ones will injure the flavour). Mix into it any cold
melted butter left over, or use half a pint of milk and two ounces of butter add bread crumbs to
;

and mace to taste. some scallop-shells, or saucers, butter them well, and put in the mixture. Scoop a little hollow in the centre at the top, and put in a very small quantity of anchovy sauce Dust over with very fine bread crumbs, and drop some tiny bits of butter over. Bake in a moderate oven, and serve very hot. These will be found most savoury and appetising. A little chopped parsley may be added at discretion, and grated cheese
thicken
it,

and

salt,

pepper,

When

all

is

well mixed, take

may be

dusted over along with the crumbs.

192.

A GOOD WAY TO STEW FISH
(Eighteenth Century)

Mix half a tumbler of wine with as much water as wiU cover the fish in the stewpan, and put in a little
pepper and salt, three or four onions, a crust of bread toasted very brown, one anchovy, a good

; ;

84

PISH RECIPES
of butter,

and set them over a gentle fire shake the stewpan now and then, that it may not burn. Just before you serve it up, pour your gravy into a saucepan, and thicken it with a little butter rolled in flour, a little ketchup, and walnut pickle beat well together till smooth, then pour it on your fish, and set it over the fire to heat, and serve it up hot.

lump

193.

TO STEW FLOUNDERS, PLAICE, OR SOLES
(Eighteenth Century)

Half fry your fish a fine brown in three ounces of then take up your fish, and put to your butter a quart of water, and boil it slowly a quarter of an hour with two anchovies, and an onion sliced then put on your fish again, and stew them gently then take out your fish and twenty minutes thicken the sauce with butter and flour, and give then strain it through a hair sieve, over it a boil
butter
; ; ;

the

fish,

and send them up

hot.

N.B.

If

you

choose cockle or oyster liquor, put it in just before you thicken the sauce, or you may send oysters, cockles, or shrimps in a sauce-boat to table.

194.

FLOUNDERS WITH SORREL
(Eighteenth Century)

Gut and cleanse the flounders well, then

slash

crossways, three cuts only on one side,

them and lay

them
one

will just cover

your saucepan. Put in as much water as them, with a Httle vinegar, salt, and Then boil onion. Let them boil quickly.
in

four handfuls of sorrel,

pick off the stalks, and
to this about

chop

it

very small.

Add

haK a pound

FISH RECIPES
of

85

tity of fish.

melted butter, or more, according to the quanPut it over your flounders, and serve
quick.

away

195.

TO BAKE HADDOCKS
into a stewpan, with

(Middlesex)

Cut
docks,

off

the heads and fins of two or three had-

and put

an onion,
a Httle

salt,

pepper, and two anchovies cut up

fine,

flour,

French white wine, and a Uttle ketchup. Boil this all well up together, and when the fish has been skinned and cut into pieces, lay them in a deep pie-dish pour the above sauce over them, and bake in an oven. Strew the bottom of the dish with bread crumbs, and strew some more over the fish, having seasoned them well with pepper and salt and a httle grated nutmeg.
of
;

two tablespoonfuls

196.

FINNAN HADDOCKS STEAMED

(Surrey)

Instead of boiling a finnan haddock the usual way, lay it in a deep basin or dish, and pour boiling
it to cover it completely. Cover it up close with a dish, lid, or thick cloth, and leave it for ten minutes. At the end of that time it will be better done, tenderer, and infinitely more digestible than if cooked the old way. Put on some butter, and a dash of pepper, and serve on a very hot dish.

water upon

BAKED HERRINGS (Eighteenth Century) When you have cleaned your herrings, lay them
197.

take a on a board cloves, and a good deal
;

little

black pepper, a few
;

of salt

mix them

together,

then rub it all over the fish, lay them straight in a pot, cover them with alegar, tie a strong paper

86

PISH EECIPES

over the pot, and bake them in a moderate oven. If your alegar be good, they will keep two or three

months.

You may eat them

either hot or cold.

198.

TO BOIL HERBINGS

(Eighteenth Century)

and wash your herrings, dry them and rub them over with a little vinegar and clean, salt, skewer them with their tails in their mouths, lay them on your fish-plate. When your water boils put them in they will take ten or twelve minutes boUing. WTien you take them up, drain them over
Scale, gut,
;

the water, then turn the heads into the middle of

your

dish,

lay round

them scraped

horse-radish.

Parsley and butter for sauce.

199.

FRIED HERRINGS

(Eighteenth

Century)
;

and dry your herrings weU lay them and set them to the fire two or three minutes before you want them, it wiU keep the fish from sticking to the pan dust them with
Scale, wash,

separately on a board,

;

flour.

When your
fish,
;

dripping or butter
;

is

boiling hot,

put in your
brisk fire
tails

a few at a time

when you have fried up one against another in the middle
then fry a large handful of parsley

them over a them all, set the
fry
of the
crisp,

take out before it loses its colour, lay it round them, and parsley sauce in a boat or, if you like onions better, fry them, lay some round your dish, and
dish,
it
;

sauce for them or you may cut off the they are fried, chop them, and put them heads after into a saucepan, with ale, pepper, salt, and an anchovy, thicken it with flour and butter, strain

make onion

:

it,

and put

it

in a sauce-boat.

PISH RECIPES
200.

87
(Middlesex)

TO MARINATE HERRINGS

fish well without washing. Open them remove the backbone, and season them well with salt, pepper, and onion chopped very fine. Roll them up tight, and place them in a jar, and pour over them some vinegar and water in equal quantities tie over the jar with paper, and bake in a rather slow oven for an hour. When they are cold, pour over them a little cold vinegar. They may be pickled in the same way as mackerel. See

Clean the

so as to

:

Mackerel (No. 212).
201.

HERRINGS AND POTATOES
boil

(Essex)

Wash, and
Drain them,

some potatoes

in

their

skins,
soft.

carefully, so that

they do not break or get too

and slice them rather thickly. Keep them hot. Fry lightly a chopped onion in one ounce of butter. Dust in some flour, and three tablespoonfuls of vinegar, salt and pepper, and a Put the bay-leaf, and not quite a pint of water. pan to simmer at the side of the stove. Take two red herrings, wash them well, cut them lengthways, and remove the bones. Cut up the flesh smaU, and let it simmer in the sauce for a few minutes. Put in the potatoes next, stirring carefuUy so as not to break them. Then add two ounces of butter and one gill of milk, and stir all well over the fire
peel,
till it

reaches boiling point.
202.

POTTED HERRINGS

(Lancashire)

Take
with

six fresh herrings, wash, dry,

open, removing heads and backbones.
flour,

pepper and

salt,

and split them Dust them chopped parsley, or

;

88

FISH EECIPES
Roll

powdered mace.

them up

tightly with a small

piece of butter ia the centre of each.
in a pie dish, pour over

Place them
quantities of

them equal

vinegar and water, but not to cover them.

Cover bake in a slow oven, then rethe pie dish and move cover and let them brown a little. Two bay leaves may be put in the pie dish instead of mace.
203.

KEDGEREE
till

(Essex)

Boil two ounces of rice

tender and

let it re-

main till cold. Mix with it a teaspoonful of curry powder and some pepper and salt. Melt two ounces of butter in an enamelled saucepan, break two eggs into it and add the rice and stir until it is
which wUl be in a few minutes. Have a large square of buttered toast ready on a hot dish, and pile the kedgeree on it. Sprinkle chopped parsley
stiff,

and serve very hot. The remains of a cold finnan haddock, removed from the bones and mixed with the kedgeree, makes a very palatable
on the
top,

supper-dish.
204.

KEDGEREE

(Kent)

Boil two tablespoonfuls of

rice,

add any
is

fish preit

viously cooked (salmon or turbot

best

);
;

should

be well picked from the bone in shreds beat up an egg and stir it in just before serving, but don't let it boil after the egg is added. Serve with egg
sauce.
205.

KEDGEREE

(Sussex)

Take half a pound of cold fish, break it into and remove all the bones. Then take three ounces of cold boiled rice, and two hard-boiled eggs
flakes,

FISH RECIPES
and
rice into a saucepan,

89

cut the whites into dice and put them with the fish

with one and a half ounces and nutmeg. When well heated, put the kedgeree into a dish, and squeeze the yolks of eggs through a sieve over the top. Then put it into the oven to brown.
of butter,

pepper,

salt,

206.

BASHAWED LOBSTER

(Cheshire)

Take any remains of lobster and cut them up. Chop up a piece of onion about the size of a nut, and a little parsley. Mix all together with a little anchovy sauce and cayenne pepper. Cut up in small pieces a bit of butter and mix, and then put
Cover over the top all into the shell of the lobster. with fine breadcrumbs, and butter and shake a few raspings on the top. Bake for about ten minutes, or a little more, and serve hot.
207.

LOBSTER FRITTERS

(French)

Chop up the meat, with the red part and the spawn, of two large lobsters, very fine, with finely
grated crumbs of bread, add a little butter, and season with pepper and salt, and a very small quanmake this into a kind tity of chopped sweet herbs of paste with yolk of egg, and having formed it
:

into pieces about
thick, dip

them

into a good thick batter,

two inches in length and an inch and fry.
(Cheshire)

208.

SCALLOPED LOBSTER

Line your dish well with lobster (tinned or fresh) put some bread crumbs next, then lobster, and so on, alternately with little bits of butter, Cover well with bread crumbs, salt, and red pepper.

90

FISH RECIPES
little bits of

all over, and pour about half an hour or more, or brown nicely before the fire. You can heat it up a second time, pouring in milk or gravy or anything to moisten. One tin of lobster makes two small dishes. Serve very hot. Excellent.

and then put

butter

vinegar over

all.

Bake

for

209.

BOILED MACKEREL

(Eighteenth

Century)

Gut your mackerel and dry them
little

carefully with

a clean cloth, then rub them slightly over with a

and lay them straight on your fishthem round often breaks them) into your fish-pan, and boU them gently fifteen minutes. Put a little salt in the water when it boils, then take them up and drain them well, and put the water that runs from them into a saucepan, with two teaspoonfuls of lemon pickle, one meatspoonful of walnut ketchup, the same of browning, a blade or two of mace, one anchovy, a slice of lemon boil them all together a quarter of an hour, then strain it through a hair sieve, and thicken it with flour and butter send it in a sauce-boat, and parsley sauce in another. Dish up your fish with the tails in
vinegar,
plate (for turning
;
;

the middle

;

garnish

it

with scraped horse-radish

and

barberries.

210.

MACKEREL FARCED

(Eighteenth

Century)

Take the roes out of four or six mackerel, fill them with a farce of whiting, confine the farce in them, and then marinate the fish in sweet oil, with a sUced onion, parsley, sweet herbs, pepper, and salt. Let them remain for two hours, then drain and broil them carefully over a slow fire, that they

FISH RECIPES

91

may be done

carefully without scorching.

Serve

with a rich sauce over them.
211.

PICKLED MACKEREL
mackerel, four

(Essex)

Six
cloves,

smallish

bay

leaves,

four

one level teaspoonful of peppercorns, one pint vinegar, thyme, parsley, fennel (if possible),
salt,

and pepper.

Fillet the mackerel,

wash and

dry them, strew over them the herbs finely minced, and a little pepper and salt. Put in a dish with a httle butter, and bake till cooked. Try with a skewer and see if they are done. Boil the vinegar, bay leaves, cloves, and peppercorns together for ten
minutes.
Stir in a teaspoonful of extract of meat,
cold, strain the liquor over the fish.

and when
it

Let

stand for several hours before serving, then drain, put on a clean dish, and garnish with parsley.
212.

TO PICKLE MACKEREL

(Middlesex)

Having cut and split the mackerel, cover them with a little thyme, parsley, and shalots, chopped when done, pour then fry the fish carefully fine over them some vinegar boiled with black pepper,
: :

a few cloves, and three or four bay leaves
liquor is not to be poured

:

this

upon them

until it is cold.

Another mode is to cut the fish into pieces, and to cover them well with a mixture of black pepper nutmeg, mace, and salt, reduced to a fine powder
:

then fry them brown in oil, and when cold put them into a jar, and fill it up with strong vinegar previously boiled. If it is intended to keep them for some months before using, the top of the jar
should have a depth of at least an inch of good

92

FISH RECIPES
oil,

sweet
JThis

and be

carefully tied over with parchment.

is

a rich preparation.

The

quantities of spices

required for six common-sized mackerel are three
pepper.

nutmegs, six blades of mace, and an ounce of black A good handful of salt should be used.
213.

RED MULLET
is

(Eighteenth

Century)

The red mullet
grey

the only one worth using, the

mullet being somewhat poor and coarse. Butter sheets of white paper, sprinkle them with a little salt. Clean the mullet, wipe them dry, and roll each in a separate paper. Broil (or bake) them, and send them to table in the papers, and serve with them a tureen of good melted butter
or Italian sauce.

214

FRIED PERCH OR TROUT

(Eighteenth Century)

have scaled, gutted, and washed your perch or trout, dry them well, then lay them separately on a board before the fire for two miautes before you fry them. Dust them well with flour, and fry them a fine brown in roast dripping or rendered suet. Serve them up with melted butter and crisped
parsley.

When you

215.

PERCH IN WATER SOKEY
:

(Eighteenth Century)
salt in

Scale, gut,

and wash your perch, put
it boils,

your

with an onion cut in slices, a handful of parsley picked and washed clean and as much milk as will turn the water white when your fish are done enough, put them in a soup dish and pour a little of the water over them with
fish,
;

water

when

put in the

the parsley and the onions, then serve

them up with

FISH EECIPES
butter and parsley in a boat. Onions
if

93

may be omitted
same way.
Century)
till

you

please.

You may

boil trout the

216.

SALMON IN BROTH
it

(Seventeenth

Boil

in

wine,

water,

and vinegar

it

be

tender, then

put

it

into a piece of butter, which will

soak into the fish. Take it out and lay it on a napkin, and eat it with vinegar you may also
:

make an
anchovies.

excellent

sauce to

it

with butter and

217.

SALMON CUTLETS

(American)

Half a can of salmon mashed with a fork, one cup of hot mashed potatoes with salt and pepper to taste form into cutlets, dip in egg and bread crumb, and fry in deep lard, or in cooking oil.
;

218.

PICKLED SALMON

(Essex)

Boil the salmon in salted water, with two lumps

and one gill of vinegar in it. Let it simmer Then take it out and put into vinegar that has been well spiced with mixed pickling spice and a small piece of ginger. The vinegar must
of sugar

until done.

cover the
219.

fish.

You can keep

it

thus until required.
Century)

ROLLED SALMON
;

(Eighteenth

Take a side of salmon when it is split, the bone taken out, and scalded, strew over the inside some pepper, salt, nutmeg, mace, a few chopped oysters, minced parsley, and bread crumbs. Roll it up tight, put it into a deep jar, and bake it in a quick oven. Pour a good Italian sauce over it before
serving.

94
220.

FISH EECIPES SALMON STEAK WITH CUCUMBER
some
slices

(Yorkshire)

Scale the fish and cut

about one and

a half inches thick, and wipe them perfectly dry.

ounces of good butter, the strained a lemon, and a teaspoonful of white wine, to juice of each pound of fish. Rub the bottom of a stewpan well with butter and lay in the fish, straining the Lay over lemon juice over it add a little salt. the fish a buttered paper, then put on the lid and allow twenty minutes for each pound of fish. When the fish is cooked, dish on a hot, dry dish. round it Garnish with little heaps of cucumber strain the gravy from the stewpan, through a tammy mix with it a tea-spoonful of finely chopped tarragon and chervil, and pour over fish.
; ;
;

AUow two

221.

SALMON TIMBALES

(American)
half a

Mash

half a tin of salmon.

Heat

cup

of

cream, add three or four tablespoonfuls of butter.

When

the butter is melted, add salmon, salt, and pepper to taste. When taken from the fire add two eggs, then put it into buttered cups covered with buttered paper. Stand them in hot water in the oven for twenty minutes.

222.

TO CAVEACH SOLES
little

(Eighteenth
;

Century)

boil some two or three blades of mace, a very few cloves, some black pepper, and a little salt let it stand till cold, and when cold beat up some oU with it lay your fish in a deep jar, and slice a good deal of shalots or onions between each throw your liquor over it, and pour some oU fish
soles either in oil or butter

Fry your

vinegar with a

water,

;

;

;

FISH EECIPES
made

95

on the top. It will keep three or four months, thus rich and fried in oil it must be stoppered well and kept in a dry place. Take out a little at a time when you use it.
;

223.

SOLOMON GUNDY TO EAT IN LENT
(Yorkshire, 1769)

Take
all

five or six

white herrings, lay them in water
soft as

night, boil

eating,

them as and shift them

you would do

for

in the boiling to take out
fish

the saltness.

When

they are boiled, take the

from the bone, leaving on the head and taU, and mind you don't break the bones in pieces. Take
the white part of the herrings, a quarter of a pound
of anchovies, a large apple, a little onion or shalot

and a little lemon-peel. Shred them aU and mix them well, and lay them over the bones on both sides, in the shape of a herring. Then take off the peel of a lemon very thin, and
shred
fine,

together,

herrings.

cut in long bits, just so as it will reach over the You must lay this peel over every herring

pretty thick.
capers,

Garnish with a few pickled oysters,
if

and mushrooms,

you have any.

224.

BAKED SPRATS

(Eighteenth

Century)

Rub your sprats with salt and pepper, and to every
two pints of vinegar put one pint of red wine solve a pennyworth of cochineal, lay your sprats
;

dis-

in a

deep earthen dish, pour in as much red wine, vinegar, and cochineal as will cover them, tie a paper over them set them in an oven aU night. They wUl eat
;

well

and keep

for

some time.

96
'

FISH RECIPES
225.

SARDINE SANDWICHES

(Isle

of

Wight)

Take a dozen good-sized sardines, carefully reskin and backbone, and mash them up very fine with a fork. Add salt, pepper, and vinegar to taste, and mix it well in. Have thin

move the

white bread-and-butter cut, spread the mixture thinly over a slice, and cover it with another slice. When sufficient has been prepared, cut off the crust, cut the sandwiches diagonally into little threecornered pieces not more than two and a half inches

by one and a half wide, and arrange them upon a folded napkin with sprigs of parsley between. This is an enormous improvement upon the ordinary sardine sandwich, and excellent for
long
prettily

afternoon tea,

etc.

Its only fault is that the sand-

wiches, which take a good while to prepare, are

eaten up so rapidly
226.

I

CURRIED SARDINES
of sardines
; ;

(Kent)

One box

strain off the oil into a
this a dessertspoonful of

small frying-pan

add to

curry powder previously mixed with cold water.

Thicken the oil with a little arrowroot, previously mixed with water. As soon as the curry and oil are about as thick as good melted butter, the sauce is ready. Pour this over the sardines, and place them in the oven long enough to get heated through. When quite hot, serve with pieces of
toast.

227.

SARDINES ON TOAST
the
sardines
;

(Cheshire)
;

Divide
bones,
tail,

lengthwise

remove the

and skin

put them in the oven between

PISH EECIPES
two hot
quite
plates,

97

with a Httle of the oil let them be Cut some thin strips of bread the length of the sardines, fry them in butter, and serve with half a sardine on each. Add a little cayenne and salt and a squeeze of lemon. Serve hot.
hot.
228.

SARDINE TOAST

(Essex)

Six sardines, two eggs, cayeime, buttered toast. Scale and bone the sardines, boil the eggs hard

Lay first the chopped egg on some hot buttered toast, then the sardines seasoned with cayenne, and put in the oven to get hot.
and chop them.
229.

TWICE LAID

(Kent)

Take remains of cold salt fish. Tear it into flakes mix it with double its quantity of mashed
;

potatoes.

Moisten with milk
balls
;

;

season with pepper
;

them in egg roU and salt, roll into them in bread crumbs, and fry them brown. Drain and serve on a folded napkin.
dip

CHAPTER VI

VEGETABLES AND VEGETARIAN
DISHES
Our great-grandmothers had probably never heard of vegetarian diet our grandmothers and mothers encountered it in a much less acute form than what prevails to-day. Cooked vegetables, up to about the end of the seventeenth century, were
Note.
:

held in small esteem, although the peasantry employed them under the compulsion of Hobson's choice. Salad vegetables, uncooked, were largely used in preference. Both are now such staple

that one can hardly conceive an adequate meal without them. Meanwhile, vegetarianism, whether as a matter of medical order,
articles of diet,

fad, or conviction, is continually

on the

increase.

The
from

strict

vegetarian of the twentieth century

only from fish, flesh, and fowl, and animal fats, however derived, but, I beheve, in extreme cases, even from eggs and from milk. This renders his feeding very difficult to deal with, if he take his meals at home. For average vegetarianism, however, undertaken as a matter of expediency rather than conviction, there is a
abstains, not
all

perfect wealth of choice.
98

The main

constituents of

VEGETABLES AND VEGETARIAN DISHES
this embarras de richesse are vegetables
(fresh, dried, or preserved), cereals

99

and fruits and farinaceous

foods of every kind, nut-foods, eggs, milk, butter, and cheese ad lib. The last article supplies that touch
of tastiness (not to

trated nutriment)
dishes

mention that amount of concenin which so many vegetarian
lacking.

are

conspicuously

Among

those

be found many excellent plata, tried and tested, which will serve to vary the monotony of plainer dishes for it should always be remembered that the vegetarian must make up in bulk for the absence of meat, and monotony ought above all things to be avoided. Nut-foods, which are quite modern, find practically no place here but the vegetarian cook is referred to the respective which
follow, will
: ;

sections

upon Egg-Dishes, Cheese Recipes,
from which she

Salads,

Savouries, Puddings, Sweet Dishes, Jams, Pickles,

and

Sauces,

may

increase

her

repertory.
230.
,

ARTICHOKES WITH CHEESE

(Surrey)

Boil two pounds of Jerusalem artichokes, drain, and mash them up with one giU of milk. (Mashed cooked onions are an improvement and yesterday's onion sauce is an admirable substitute for mUk.) Turn the mixture into a well-buttered baking dish, dust the top well with grated cheese, and bake till the top becomes coloured.
:

231.

BROAD WINDSOR BEANS PUDDING
(Middlesex)

Broad beans may be made into a pudding by pounding them in a mortar after boiling them and taking off the skins, then seasoning with salt and

100

VEGETABLES AND VEGETAEIAN DISHES
little

pepper, and a
cloth

butter,

and tying them up

in a

that has been floured and buttered.

The

pudding must be put into boiling water, and boiled for half an hour. When done, squeeze the water
to which you can give
of eggs beaten up, in cream,

out by pressing the cloth, and take out the pudding, any shape you please. Yolks

and the crumb of a roll soaked be pounded with the beans to make This may be either a richer sort of pudding. boiled in a basin, or baked in an oven.

may

232.

CABBILOW

(Kent, 1809)

boiled potatoes and boiled cabbages tomixing with them slices of onions, and sprinkling the mess with pepper and salt, to which should be added a little butter or dripping. The dish is improved by being put into a Dutch oven to be browned, like mashed potatoes. (See the Irish dish, Kailcannon, No. 241.)
gether,

Mash

233.

STUFFED CABBAGES

(Middlesex)

Take two good-sized cabbages, soak them for twenty minutes in scalding water and salt, then dip them in cold water, take out a portion of the centre, fill it with chopped veal and fat bacon seasoned with salt, pepper, and other spices, and

made
tie

into a stuffing with eight yolks of eggs
in the stuffing.

:

then

up the cabbage to keep

Put at

the bottom of a saucepan some shoes of bacon,
carrots, onions,

the cabbages, moistening

and sweet herbs over which place them from time to time
:

with good stock.
fire for

Let the whole stew over a slow

at least an hour and a half, after which drain

;;

VEGETABLES AND VEGETARIAN DISHES
the cabbages, press

1

1

them a

little,

and serve them

up, without the herbs with which they have been

cooked, with Espagnole, or any other such sauce.

Remove
234.

the strings before serving.

CHESTNUTS AND BRUSSELS SPROUTS
(Devonshire)

Boil some chestnuts in water for two hours remove the peel. Boil an equal amount of Brussels be caresprouts for half an hour, strain them weU
;

not to break them. Have ready a frying-pan with hot beef dripping or butter, put in both chestnuts and sprouts, and keep them moving until the fat is absorbed (do not brown them) then serve.
ful
;

235.

CHESTNUT TEA CAKES

(Surrey)

Take some chestnuts, boil them tUl they burst, throw them into cold water and peel them. Pound them to a dry powder add an equal quantity of self-raising flour, butter, eggs, and sugar according mix into a dough with milk, to taste and quantity roll out and cut into small round cakes about half an inch thick, and bake in a brisk oven to a light
;

;

golden-brown.
236.

CUCUMBERS WITH EGGS
(Eighteenth Century)

Take five large young cucumbers, pare, quarter, and cut them into slices, about the size of dice; put them into boiling water, let them boil up then take them out of the water, put them into a stewpan, with an onion stuck with cloves, a good slice of ham, a quarter-pound of butter, and a little salt
;

102

VEGETABLES AND VEGETAEIAN DISHES
a

fire for a quarter of an hour, keep it skim it well, and shake it often, as it then dredge in a little flour, and is apt to bum put in as much gravy as will just cover the cucumbers stir it well together, and keep a gentle then take out fire under it tiU no scum wUl rise the ham and onion, put in the yolks of two eggs stir it well beaten with a teacupful of good cream for a minute, then take it off the fire, and just before you put it in the dish, squeeze in a little lemon juice. Have ready five or six poached eggs to lay on the top.

Bet this over

close covered,

;

;

;

;

237.

FRIED CUCUMBERS

(Eighteenth Century)

You must brown some butter in a pan, and pare and sUce (but not too thin) six middling cucumbers. Drain them from the water, then put them into the pan. When they are fried brown, put to them a httle pepper and salt, a lump of butter, a spoonful of vinegar, a little shredded onion, and a little gravy (not to make it too thin), and shake them well together with a
side-dish.
little fiour.

You may

lay these round

your mutton as a sauce, or they are proper for a

238.

DRIED HARICOT BEANS
away
all

(Surrey)

Wash
water.

the beans (quantity according to requirethat
float

ments), and throw

upon the

Soak them

for twelve hours at least (over-

Put them into cold water boil, and let them simmer very gently until quite tender. To improve the flavour, for one pint of beans add twelve ounces
night for preference).

shghtly salted, bring slowly to the

VEGETABLES AND VEGETAEIAN DISHES
of onions,

103

and a muslin bag

of dried herbs

:

allow-

ing three pints of water to boil
239.

them

in.

A HERB PIE FOR LENT

(Eighteenth Century)

Take
small.

lettuce, leeks, spinach, beets,

of each a handful, give

and parsley, them a boU, then chop them
in

Have ready

boiled

a cloth one quart
;

two or three onions in them put them in a frying-pan with the herbs and a good deal of salt, half a pound of butter, and a few apples cut thin stew them a few minutes over the fire, fill your dish or raised crust with it one hour will bake it.
of groats, with
;

;

240.

HOT POT

(Vegetable) (Ireland)

One pound of potatoes, one pound of onions, half a pound of good cheese. Slice potatoes, ditto onions, ditto cheese, and fry them separately. Then
line

a dish with potato and

fill

in with
sage.

onions

mixed with
very hot.

cheese, pepper, salt,

and

Cover
eaten

with the potato to form crust.

Bake.

To be

If left, the cheese will get hard.

241.

KAILCANNON
well-boiled
salt,

(Ireland)

Take

some

potatoes,

thoroughly, addiag pepper,
of butter.

mash them and a small piece

boiled

Then take a rather less quantity of and chopped greens, or green cabbage, with a little fine chopped onion, mix well, and serve very
It

hot.

can be served in a shape.

242.

BOILED LETTUCES
them

(Middlesex)

Wash and put them
little salt, let

into boiling water, with a
;

boil until tender

strain

them

104

VEGETABLES AND VEGETAKIAN DISHES
;

and chop them up then put them some fresh butter, a spoonful of flour, a little nutmeg, salt, and the juice of a lemon let the whole boil for a quarter of an hour. This may be varied by omitting the lemon juice, adding some good cream, and thickening with the (This is an excellent plan where yolks of two eggs. lettuces are " bolted " and unsuitable for serving
in a colander,

into a saucepan with

;

cold.

Ed.)

243.

STUFFED LETTUCES

(Middlesex)

Choose some large cabbage lettuces, and having them a quarter of an hour, dip them into cold then open the leaves water and let them drain without breaking them, and fill the centre part with stew them for a good forcemeat, and tie them up a short time, then drain them on a cloth, dip them in a batter, and fry to a good colour. When done, cover them with bread crumbs, and serve with some
boiled
; ;

white sauce.

244

MACARONI RISSOLES

(Kent)

Take one teacupful of butter beans, which have been boiled till they are quite soft, half a teacupful of boiled macaroni, half a teacupful of cold mashed potatoes, the yolks of two eggs, pepper and salt, half a teacupful of brown bread crumbs that is to say, the crumbs of bread which has been browned and dried in the oven. Cut the macaroni up into mash the beans and potatoes mix small pieces all together with half the quantity of breadcrumbs, bind them with the yolk of the egg, and shape them Roll the balls in bread crumbs, into small balls.

;

;

;

VEGETABLES AND VEGETAEIAN DISHES

105

fry them a deep golden brown, and serve very hot. They are very nice with bacon at breakfast, or they
will take the place of a vegetable at lunch-time.

245.

MACARONI WITH TOMATOES
pound
it

(Kent)

Boil a quarter of a

of pipe

macaroni in

water

till

tender

;

turn

out on to a dish, add pepper

and salt, garnish with fresh tomatoes that have been baked in the oven with a little butter. Shake over the whole some grated Parmesan cheese, and serve very hot. It should have a light, cobwebby appearance, which is obtained by the cheese being dredged in while the macaroni is very hot, and therefore
melting quickly.

246.

MAIZE

(American)

Strip the grain from the

peas

:

drain

it,

toss in

young cob, boil it like some melted butter, salt,

and pepper, and serve very hot, sprinkled with chopped parsley. When green maize is not procurable (though it can easily be grown as a garden vegetable) the tinned preparations called Wyndham Corn, though not so Succotash, and cheap, make useful dishes, and supply a change from the more hackneyed vegetables.
247.

BAKED MUSHROOMS

(Surrey)

Carefully peel the mushrooms,

and put them,

hoUow-side uppermost, on a buttered baking-sheet fill the cavities with butter, and set in a moderately hot oven. They should be ready in about twelve minutes. It will be seen that they must be fairly whole mushrooms, not stale or broken ones.

106
248.

VEGETABLE SAND VEGETARIAN DISHES
FRICASSEED MUSHROOMS
(Eighteenth Century)

Peel and scrape the inside of the mushrooms, throw them into salt and water if buttons, rub them with flannel take them and boil them with fresh salt and water. When they are tender, put in a little shredded parsley, and an onion stuck with cloves, and toss them up with a good lump of butter rolled in flour. You may put in three spoonfuls of thick cream, and a little nutmeg cut in pieces, but take care to take out the nutmeg and onion before you serve it at the table. You may leave out the parsley, and add a glass of wine if you like.
; ;

249.

MUSHROOMS AU GRATIN

(Ireland)

all

Take eight or ten large cup mushrooms. Cut off the stalks and peel them, and also peel very carefully the cup-hke part of the mushroom, so as not to hurt the rim. Next scoop out the inside of these cups, and chop it up with the stalk of the mushrooms. Take a piece of shalot about as big as a large nut, and a teaspoonful of chopped parsley, and a very little chopped thyme, with a little cayenne
pepper.
fat

Add about
lean.

three ounces of scraped bacon,
all

over the flre, and fry for a Put time. If the mass is too dry, it shows there is not enough bacon-fat if it be too moist, add breadcrumbs. Fill the cups of the mushrooms with this mixture, and shake over some fine bread-raspings.

and

;

Place the cups so prepared in a covered stewpan, with some butter or oil, and let them cook very
gently
tender.

the cup part of the mushroom is quite Serve hot, with toast, either plain, or with some rich brown gravy poured round them.
till

VEGETABLES AND VEGETARIAN DISHES
260.

107

SCALLOPED MUSHROOMS

(Middlesex)

Put the mushrooms mto a saucepan with fresh chopped parsley, shalots, and a few mushmoisten them from time rooms, also chopped up to time, with a little butter and water, mixed with flour, and stew them gently for about half an hour, then put them into scallop-shells or a dish, covered with crumbs of bread. Put them over a charcoal fire for a short time, and brown with a salamander.
butter,
;

25L

MUSHROOM POWDER

(Eighteenth

Century)

Take about half a peck of large buttons or flaps, them (but you must not wash them), and set them one by one in an earthen dish or dripping pan. Let them stand in a slow oven to dry until they will beat to a powder, and when they are powdered, sift them through a sieve. Take half a quarter of an ounce of mace and a nutmeg, beat and grate them very flne, and mix them with your mushroom powder. Bottle it, and it will be fit for
clean
use.

252.

BAKED ONIONS

(Surrey)

five Spanish onions, with their skins saucepan of salted water let them boil on, in a quickly for one hour. Then take them out, dry them thoroughly, wrap each one separately in a piece of buttered paper (or a paper bag) and bake them in a moderate oven for two hours or longer. Remove the paper and serve the onions in their

Put four or

;

skins.

;

108

VEGETABLES AND VEGETARIAN DISHES
253.

RISOTTO

(Lancashire)
rice,

A

quarter of a pound of

a small onion, some
in butter.

Parmesan cheese. Put the rice in a saucepan with the stock and fried onion, and boil gently until the rice is tender and has absorbed all the stock. Stir in the cheese, salt, and pepper, and serve very hot.
stock, salt, pepper, butter, grated

Chop up the onion and

fry

it

254.

RISOTTO FOR

TWO PERSONS
of rice,
sieve,

(Hertfordshire)

One onion, two ounces two tomatoes put through a grated cheese. Cut the onion
butter,
till

boiled in stock,

one ounce of

in rings
all,

pale yellow.

Strain

and fry in and add the

cheese just before serving.

255.

TO BOIL PARSNIPS
take off the skin, beat

(Eighteenth Century)

them till they are soft, then them in a bowl with a a httle salt, put to them a httle cream and a lump of butter put them in a tossiag-pan, and let them boil till they are like a custard pudding put them on a plate, and serve them up.
parsnips well, boil
; ;

Wash your

256.

PARSNIPS FRIED TO LOOK LIKE TROUT
(Yorkshire,

1769)

Take a middling sort of parsnips, not over thick, and boil them as soft as you would do for eating You must peel, and cut them in two the long way. only fry the small ends, not the thick ones. Beat two or three eggs, put to them a tablespoonful of flour, dip in your parsnips, and fry them a hght brown in

VEGETABLES AND VEGETARIAN DISHES
butter.

109

Have

for

your sauce a

little

vinegar and

butter.

257.

JUGGED PEAS
of

(Surrey)

This

is

one
fresh,

the best

ways to cook

peas,

whether
bottle or

tinned, or bottled.
into a clean

Shell a pint

of peas, put

them

two-pound pickle

any

jar with a closely-fitting top, adding

a tablespoonful of butter, a teaspoonful of powdered
sugar, a saltspoonful of salt, a dozen
(and,

mint
it,

leaves,

at discretion,

a very

little

black pepper).
to the

Cover the vessel
extent of half
its

tightly,

and immerse

depth, in a pan of boihng water.

Set the latter on the fire and boil briskly. Examine the peas, if very young, should be in half an hour
:

done by then
258.

;

if

old,

they will of course take longer.

PEAS PUDDING

(Ireland)

Put a quart of dried peas rather loosely into a cloth, put them down in cold water slowly to boil good peas will take about two hours till tender and a half. Rub through a sieve, adding an egg, an ounce of butter, some pepper and salt, and beat them well for about ten minutes. Flour the cloth, and tie the pudding tight as possible, and boil an

hour longer.

(Dried peas should always be soaked

over-night for at least twelve hours.)

259.

PEAS PUDDING HOT

(Ireland)

an old recjpe for peas pudding, to accompany cold pork. Put a breakfastcupful of split peas tie loosely to allow for swelling, and in a cloth
This
is
:

110

VEGETABLES AND VEGETARIAN DISHES
hours in salted water.

boil fast for three

Turn out

and serve with melted butter.
260.

STEWED PEAS

(Eighteenth

Century)

Take a quart of young peas, wash them, and put them into a stewpan, with a quarter of a pound of
butter, three

cabbage lettuces cut small,

five or six

young onions, with a little thyme, parsley, pepper, and salt, and let them stew all together for a quarter then put to them a pint of gravy, with of an hour two or three shoes of bacon or ham, and let them stew aU together tiU the peas are done enough then thicken them with a quarter of a pound of butter
;
;

rolled in flour.

261.

BROWNED POTATOES WITH CHEESE
(Surrey)

some potatoes in their " jackets," but do not Remove peel, and pare let them fall to pieces. them tiU all are the same size. Have a Uttle butter melted in a bowl, dip them in this, then roll them in grated cheese, seasoned with pepper and salt. Put them in a buttered tin in a good oven, and when the cheese has coloured, serve " hot and hot."
Boil
262.

CREAMED POTATOES

(Kent)

Take six large potatoes, one ounce of butter, a quarter of a pint of milk, the juice of half a lemon, pepper, and salt. Peel the potatoes and boil them for about five minutes, in order to make them a little tender, but not at all breakable. Cut them up into slices about a quarter of an inch thick. Melt the butter in a small saucepan, throw in the

VEGETABLES AND VEGETARIAN DISHES HI
potatoes and
stir

them

till

they are well buttered,
salt.

but not brown. Add Let the whole simmer tender, and the sauce is a Uttle thickened.
fire,

the milk, pepper, and
tiU the slices of potato

grow in which they are simmering Then take the pan off the

add the lemon-juice, take out the slices of potato and range them on a dish. Boil up the
sauce again with a pinch of flour to thicken
it
it,

pour

over the potato and serve at once.
263.

CURRIED POTATOES

(Hertfordshire)

Fry in dripping an onion, cut into thin slices. Cut up some boiled potatoes, and fry with the onion, dredge them with curry-powder, and add a little gravy, salt, and some lemon juice, if you have it. Allow this to stew for a quarter of an hour, and
serve.

264.

SEETHED POTATOES

(Kent,

1809)

number of small potatoes, or large potatoes cut in sUces, are put into a cast-iron pot without a
with a sprinkling of salt, to which is sometimes added a small piece of butter. The pot without a lid is hung upon the crane which is found in the chimney of every cottage in Scotland, so as to be considerably above the fire, and to heat very slowly.
lid,

A

No
this

person

who has not eaten potatoes prepared in manner can conceive how deUcious they are.
265.

POTATO SANDERS
boiled potatoes,

(Surrey)

Mix with cold

mashed up

or

passed through a sieve, enough flour to make a paste [i.e. nearly half their weight in flour). Dripping

112

VEGETABLES AND VEGETARIAN DISHES
in,

rubbed

—about

four ounces to the
:

pound

will

greatly improve the paste

be debarred from the strict vegetarian. Roll out the paste about half an inch thick, and cut it in small squares. Soak some bread crumbs in a very little water, just enough to moisten them well mix in with them some minced parsley, herbs, a little minced onion, salt (see " Vegetable Goose," No. 273). Put a little of this mixture into each square of paste, roU up, and bake as a sausage roll.
will
:

but

266.

STEWED POTATOES
pipkin, having a lid

(Kent,

1809)

made to fit close. Lay two or more rows of potatoes, with the skins scraped off, and cut into slices. Sprinlde a little pepper and salt over them. Then lay a row of onions, then, i£ it can be afforded, a mutton chop. Then let there be layers of potatoes, onions, with pepper and salt and mutton, until the pipkin is filled. If mutton cannot be afforded, use a very add a small portion of dripping or mutton suet teacupful of water. Put the pipkin, with the lid on, covered with a piece of linen cloth, into a pan Let the water boU very of water, without a lid.
in it one or
;

Take a

simmer, for five or six hours. Potatoes, when thus prepared, afford a most savoury
slowly,

or rather

and nourishing meal.

267.

POTATOES WITH WHITE SAUCE
diluted with a
little

(Middlesex)

Put into a saucepan a small
a
little flour,

slice of butter,

with

stock

:

to which

add some

salt

and pepper, and thicken

it

over the

VEGETABLES AND VEGETARIAN DISHES
fire
;

113

cut

having boiled the potatoes, peeled them, and into shoes, pour this sauce over them, and serve hot. To vary the flavour, some minced capers or a little chopped parsley may be added to

them

the sauce.

268.

TO STEW SPINACH

(Eighteenth Century)
it

Wash your

spinach well in several waters, put

have ready a large pan of boiling water, with a handful of salt, put it in, let it boil two minutes, it wiU take off the strong earthy taste then put it into a sieve, squeeze it well. Put a quarter of a pound of butter in a tossing-pan, put in your spinach, keep turning and chopping it with a knife until it is quite dry and green lay it upon a plate, press it with another, cut it in the shape of sippets or diamonds, pour round it very rich melted butter. It will eat exceedingly mild, and with quite a different taste from the common way.
in a colander,
;

;

269.

SPINACH WITH POACHED EGGS
(Yorkshire,

1769)

Take two or three handfuls of young spinach, pick it from the stalks, wash and drain it very clean, put it into a pan with a lump of butter and a little salt, and keep stirring it aU the time till it be done enough, then take it out and squeeze out the water. Chop it and add a little more butter, lay it in your dish in quarters, and betwixt every quarter Fry (sic) a poached egg, and one in the middle. some sippets of white bread and put them into your
spinach, so serve
it

up.

8

114

VEGETABLES AND VEGETARIAN DISHES
270.

SUCCOTASH

(American)

Have

green maize freshly cut, and take the cobs

cleanly out of the outer leaves, etc.

Add an

equal

quantity of soaked butter beans or haricot beans.

Put them

into a saucepan with only just enough water to cover them let them simmer tOl perfectly tender, then pour off the water and pour in the same amount of milk. Let the vegetables stew a little more, then add pepper and salt and a teaspoonful of cornflour mixed smooth in a little cold milk, and a lump of butter about as big as a large walnut. Mix well, let all boU up once, and serve very hot.
;

271.

SCALLOPED TOMATOES
layers of tomatoes

(Sussex)

Put alternate
in a pie-dish.

Sprinkle bits of

and bread crumb Let the top layer be of tomato. butter over. Season well and baie.
(Kent)

272.

VEGETABLE CURRY

Cut onions into thin slices, and fry a good brown add a breakfast cup of milk in which a teaspoonful of curry has been mixed. Let all boil together for twenty minutes, stirring the whole time. Then add the vegetables, previously parboiled and let all simmer for an hour. Potatoes, peas, beans, carrots, and turnips may be used. Broad beans alone make a delicious curry.
in butter
;

273.

VEGETABLE GOOSE
pound
of bread

(Surrey)

Soak

half a

crumbs

in cold water,

squeeze them nearly dry and

mash them.

Mix

in

one onion chopped small, one teaspoonful chopped

VEGETABLES AND VEGETARIAN DISHES
salt to taste.

115

parsley and herbs, one ounce of butter, pepper and

good oven

for

Put in a buttered dish and bake in about one hour.

274.

VEGETABLE HOT POT

(Kent)

Take two
salt.

large potatoes, one stick of celery, one

and put them in layers in a pie-dish, with a layer of potatoes at the top. Pour in sufficient boiling water to cover them. Set the dish in a cool oven and let it simmer for one and a half hours. Lay little pieces of butter on the top, and serve very hot. This method of cooking the vegetables preserves the flavour far better than boiling would do.
Slice the vegetables,

large carrot, one large onion, butter, pepper,

275.

VEGETABLE PIE

(Surrey

Required, one onion, one carrot, one turnip, one stick of celery, one handful of green peas (if in season), half an ounce of sago, one ounce of butter, pepper and salt, pie-crust. Gut all the vegetables small, and stew them with the sago and butter in a
very
little

water until nearly cooked.

them
half

in a pie-dish, cover with crust,

Then put and bake about

an hour.

Any

other vegetables
are always

may

be used

at pleasure.

Mushrooms

an improve-

ment.

276.

VEGETABLE-MARROW AU GRATIN

(Sussex)

Take some very small marrows, slice them in rounds about half an inch thick, and lay them in a

116

VEGETABLES AND VEGETARIAN DISHES

Pour tomato sauce over tUl they are hidden, then cover with bread crumbs and grated Bake cheese, and sprinkle httle bits of butter over. in a good oven until you find the marrow tender on
pie-dish.

trying

it

with a fork.

"

CHAPTER Vn

SALADS
Note.
Although our ancestors were exceedingly fond of salads, and mcluded much more under this head than we ever dream of using they

rarely troubled to write

down any formal

recipe.

Their gardens were full of " salletings," not only lettuce, cucumber, radish, mustard, cress, watercress,

beet,

celery,

onions,

—but a great many salad-plants of which we in England now hardly know the names. A sorrel-bed was a common thing— for as
(tomatoes)
sorrel,

and

" love-apples

Evelyn observed, " imparts so grateful a quickness
it should never be left out." bumet, lambs' lettuce, " smallmustard," tarragon, dandelion, and various other plants, were welcome ingredients in the salad-bowl.

to the salad that
Chervil, purslane,

And
cold

I conjecture that these wise folk also included

cooked potatoes, old or new, cold cooked and any such left-over vegetable odds and Their salad dressings would seem to have ends. been quite simple oil, pepper, and vinegar, salt and mustard, plus an occasional hard-boiled yolk and a spoonful of cream. For the most part, I imagine, they did not bother about dressings at all. They preferred uncooked to cooked vegetables, as has already been said, and the mere plain green
onions,

117

118

SALADS
The Mayonnaise Sauce
will

foodstuffs sufficed them.

recipe given

on page 120

be found particularly

good.

277.

APPLE SALAD

(Sussex)

Two

cupfuls of sour apple, half a cupful of celery,

half a cupful of English walnuts,
of salad dressing, one cupful of

two tablespoonfuls whipped cream, one

teaspoonful of sugar.

Salt

and pepper.
(Sussex)

278.

CHEESE SALAD

Rub

the yolk of a hard-boiled egg with a dessert-

spoonful of butter, add

salt, sugar, pepper, mustard, about half a pound of grated cheese, and a dessert-

spoonful of vinegar.

279.

ENDIVE SALAD
fine

(Middlesex)

Take some
some
shalots,

drain them, and lay

white endives, carefully wash and them in a salad-bowl. Chop
several waters,

wash them in

and

squeeze out the water in a cloth. Add them to the endive, together with some chopped tarragon,
chervil,

sauce,

and burnet. Season with thin mayonnaise and add two finely chopped Chili capsicums.
280.

GERMAN SALAD
light
claret,

(Hertfordshire)

oil, one and a half one ounce chopped onion, one teaspoonful French mustard, one tablespoonful of white wine, the yolk of one boiled egg, passed through sieve. Take boiled potatoes, sliced

One

tablespoonful of salad

tablespoonfuls

beetroot in dice, sliced cucumber

;

mix

all

together.

SALADS
281.

119
(Kent)

HARICOT SALAD

One pint of white haricots, well boiled. Sprinkle over them one teaspoonful of salt, and half a teaspoonful of pepper add a very finely-chopped onion,
;

or a few drops of shalot vinegar, one tablespooniul

two of chopped parsley.
of vinegar,
282.

oil,

and sprinkling

of very finely

WINTER SALAD

(Surrey)

Take some white haricot beans, French beans, beetroot, and onions. Blanch all the vegetables separately, cool, and drain them. Chop the onions, and put them in the corner of a cloth dip this in cold water, and press the water out of the onion. Do this two or three times, which will render the onion more digestible. Cut the potatoes and beetroots in half-inch discs. Put all into a salad-bowl, adding some chopped chervil season with salt, pepper, oil, and vinegar, and mix the
potatoes,
;
;

whole

well.

283.

WINTER SALAD

(Middlesex)
celery,

Cut up small some endive and
well

add two
Stir

tablespoonfuls of russet apples cut into dice.

and cover these with half a pound of grated nuts, and mix mayonnaise sauce with the whole.
284.

SALAD DRESSING

(Kent)
;

Take the yolks of two hard-boiled eggs bruise them very carefully until they are in a fine powder, Then add gradually a entirely free from lumps.
tablespooniul (or a
of the best salad
little
oil,

more, according to taste) and stir it well until it is the

; :

120

SALADS
;

consistence of a smooth paste

then add a table-

spoonful of freshly mixed mustard. After this is well mixed, stir in very gradually two tablespoonfuls
of white vinegar and a teaspoonful of Chili vinegar then add a little salt, a few grains of cayenne pepper and a few drops of anchovy sauce. When these are all weU mixed, stir in gradually a large teacupful or more of good sweet cream. Add a small lump of sugar. This mixture wiU keep a week if well corked. It is thicker and better if used the day after it is made.
;

285.

CHEAP SALAD DRESSING

(Ireland)

Take
flour,

one hard-boiled egg, one tablespoonful of
of

lib), one one dessertspoonful of butter, one teaspoonful of mustard, a pinch of salt, a little sugar. Blend the flour and milk. Blend to a paste, in separate bowl, a hot yolk of egg, with butter, mustard, and salt. Then add blended milk and flour. Boil the mixture, keeping it stirred

the same of vinegar (or more ad
milk,

breakfastcupful

until

it
if

thickens.

When

cold,

add vinegar
cold milk.

to

it

and

still

too thick, put a

little

The

white of an egg can be chopped up and added, or used for decoration.

286.

MAYONNAISE SAUCE
of six eggs,

(Isle

of

Wight)

Whisk the yolks
dessertspoonful of
of salt,

add to them one
saltspoonful

made mustard, one

and a pinch of cayenne, stirring all the time. Put them into an enamelled saucepan, then add a
quarter of a pint of salad
oil,

whisking

all

the time

next, a quarter of a pint of milk or cream, one table-

SALADS
spoonful of vinegar,
sauce.

121

Last,
stir

tinue to

and the same of Worcester add a quarter of a pint of vinegar. Congently all the time you are mixing, or

the sauce will curdle. Now put the saucepan over a slow fire and whisk until it becomes thick. It

Take it off the fire, continue stirring Then put it into wide-mouthed bottles, cork closely, and it will keep two or three months. (This is a yacht steward's recipe, and most excellent.)
must not
boil.

gently

till it

cools.

CHAPTER

VIII

CHEESE DISHES
Note.

—The

vast majority of cheese-made

dishes

are quite modern.
ness,
it

Either cheese, in former days,
rind, careless of its hard:

was eaten to the very
staleness,
little

or " blue-vinny " appearance

or

esteemed as a combined flavouring and nutriment when used in small quantities along with vegetables, eggs, etc. Nowadays it is not only, in grated form, a chief ingredient of many vegetarian dishes, but a most valuable adjunct to all sorts of

was

home-made savouries. And as these recipes afford the means of utihsing odd bits of hard, dry cheese,
the careful cook will gladly avail herself of them.

have included one form of serving cheese, which be found exceedingly palatable, simple, and digestible the " Creamed Cheese," No. 288. No one
I
will
:

who has
(or she)

is likely to revert to the toasted cheeses and " Welsh Rabbits " which he

ever tried this

has so frequently relished

—and regretted.
(Sussex)

287.

CHEESE BISCUITS

Take nine ounces

of flour, six ounces of grated

cheese, three ounces of butter, one or

two
salt.

table-

spoonfuls of milk, two eggs, pepper, and
122

Roll

out very thin and bake fifteen or twenty minutes.

CHEESE DISHES
288.

123

CREAMED CHEESE

(Cheshire)

This is the simplest, easiest, most digestible, and economical, way of serving " Welsh Rabbit," and one very little known at all. Scrape or thinly flake some cheese iato a breakfa/St-cup or small bowl, until it is three-parts full. FiU it up with boiling water, cover it with a saucer, stand it on a hob, or stove, or in the fender before an open fire, for about ten minutes. At the end of that time,

pour off the water (with which will go all the oily matter of the cheese) and you will find the cheese like a thick cream at the bottom. Pour this upon a piece of hot toast upon a hot plate, pepper and The above quantity is salt it to taste, and serve. Canadian Cheddar will enough for one person. serve, though English Cheddar is better. As a lunch or supper dish it is most excellent.
289.

COTTAGE CREAM CHEESE

(Rutlandshire)

Take some milk which has gone sour suddenly, and reduce it to curds and whey by boiling. Place the curd on a cloth to drain thoroughly, and when it is dry as you can get it, press it down tightly in a wooden box, with clean fresh hazel leaves laid here and there in layers. Keep a good weight upon the top of the curd, and turn it when thoroughly
dry.
It will be
fit

to eat in a couple of days.
(Stissex)

290.

CHEESE FRITTERS

of flour, a little made cayenne pepper, salt, one egg, and one mustard, ounce of Parmesan cheese. Add as much milk as Heat some lard will make it into a stifE batter.

Take two tablespoonfuls

124

CHEESE DISHES

very hot, and drop the batter into it a spoonful at a time. The fritters should be a golden brown

when done.
291.

MACARONI CHEESE

(Boiled) (Isle of Wight)

Half a pound of tomatoes, one tablespoonful curry powder, a quarter of a pound of macaroni, two ounces butter, salt and pepper, two ounces grated cheese. Put the macaroni into salted boiling water, boil it
peel

and drain it. Scald the tomatoes, Put the butter in a saucepan to melt, add sliced tomatoes, and macaroni, stir well together, add pinch of salt and curry powder. Lastly, with two forks, stir in the grated cheese for
thirty minutes,

and

slice

them.

five minutes,

then serve.

292.

MACARONI CHEESE AND TOMATOES
(Devonshire)

Half a pound of macaroni, one pound of tomatoes, two ounces cheese (Parmesan), two ounces Gruyere, half an ounce of butter, one shalot, pepper, salt, browned bread crumbs. Wash the macaroni, cut it up into small pieces and boil it in salted water tiU tender. Scald the tomatoes, and then they will slice them, chop the shalot finely, easily peel
;

place the various ingredients respectively in layers
in a greased pie-dish.

macaroni.
cheese,

The last layer must be the Then on the top put a little grated the brown bread crumbs, and the butter.
an hour in a brisk oven.

Bake

half
293.

CHEESE PUDDING

(Isle

of

Wight)

Two

ounces of grated cheese, two ounces of bread-

crumbs, one ounce of butter, one teaspoonful made

CHEESE DISHES

125

mustard, half a gill of milk, one egg, cayenne pepper, salt. Put butter and milk into saucepan, make
quite hot, pour over crumbs and cheese, then add yolk of egg and mustard mixed. Whip white of egg

and add
pudding
just set.

lastly, or it
is

may

be pUed on the top (when
little

cooked) with a

grated cheese, and

Bake pudding twenty minutes.

294.

CHEESE PUDDING

(Kent)

cream or good milk, and pepper. Two large tablespoonfuls of grated cheese. Mix all together, and bake for twenty minutes in quick oven.
eggs, half a teacupful of

Two

and a

Uttle salt

295.

CHEESE PUDDINGS

(Surrey)

(1) Grate three ounces of cheese, mix with two ounces of bread crumbs, two weU-beaten eggs, one and a half pints of milk, pepper and salt to taste, and a squeeze of lemon juice. Bake in a wellbuttered dish from a half to three-quarters of

an hour. (2) Three ounces

of grated cheese, three ounces

of bread crumbs, a Mttle

made mustard,

salt to taste.

Pour over as much boiling milk as it will absorb, and two well-beaten eggs. Bake in a buttered piedish about twenty minutes, and serve immediately and very hot.
flour,

teacupful of milk, one teaspoonful of one well-beaten egg, one ounce creamed Mix well, and butter, four ounces of grated cheese. bake ten to fifteen minutes. To be served and eaten
(3)

One

at once.

126

CHEESE DISHES
296.

GLOUCESTER RABBIT
it

Make some
squares, put

buttered toast, cut

into rounds or

Put half an ounce of butter in a small saucepan to melt, stir in two tablespoonfuls of grated cheese, half a small teacupful of milk and two tablespoonfuls of fresh bread crumbs enough to make it as thick as cream. Add salt and pepper, pour the mixture on to the toast, and serve it immediately.
it

to keep hot in the oven.

297.

RAMAKINS

(Surrey)

Beat up two eggs thoroughly, add in two ounces two tablespoonfuls of cream or mUk, one teaspoonful of flour (mixed smooth first iu a drop of milk). Pepper and salt to taste. While you are doing this, cream two ounces of butter in a cup, on the stove or in the oven, and add that last mix all well together, pour into buttered patty-pans, and bake a quarter of an hour or twenty minutes in a good hot oven. The ramakins should be a golden brown. These never faU to please.
of grated cheese,
:

298.

CHEESE STRAWS

(Essex)

Rub one and a half ounces of butter into three ounces of flour, with the finger-tips. Add one and a half ounces of American Cheddar, grated, quarter of a teaspoonful of baking powder, a little cayenne, a small pinch of salt, and a little water, enough to mix it into a very dry dough. Roll it out an eighth
of

an inch

thick,

half inches long.
let it colour.

and cut it into sticks two and a Bake it like pastry, but don't

;

CHEESE DISHES
299.

127

CHEESE STRAWS

(Isle

of

Wight)

ounces of butter, two ounces of flour, one yolk of egg, three ounces of cheese (two ounces of Parmesan and one ounce of Cheddar), one tablespoonful of cold water, cayenne pepper, salt. Rub the butter into the flour, add the grated cheese, pepper, and salt, mix to the consistency of pastry with the yolk and water roll out, and cut into rings
;

Two

and straws, allowing

six straws to

one

ring.

When

served, the straws are placed through the rings.

Bake a

short while in a quick oven.

300.

CHEESE STRAWS

(Kent)

Two ounces of butter, two ounces of flour, two ounces of breadcrumbs, two ounces of grated cheese,
half small saltspoonful of

mixed

salt

and cayenne

mix

all

to a paste, roll
;

it

out quarter of an inch ia

cut it into narrow strips, lay them on a sheet of paper, and bake for a few minutes. Arrange the straws on a napkin and serve hot.
thickness

301.

CHEESE STRAWS
flour,

(Staffordshire)

Half pound of dried
tard,

quarter poiind of butter,

quarter pound of grated cheese, teaspoonful musinto the flour,
gether.
of cold water,

cayenne, saltspoonful of salt. Rub butter and then mix the whole well to-

Beat the whites of two eggs with half a pint and stir in enough to form a firm paste. Knead it well. Roll it out the eighth of an inch thick, and cut it into straw-like strips, about five inches long. Bake in a quick oven a pale brown

128
colour

CHEESE DISHES

—about
302.

five minutes.

Pile
cold.

prettily,

and serve hot or

them on a dish Must be kept in

a dry place.

CHEESE STRAWS

(Siirrey)

Three ounces of flour, two ounces of butter, the yolk of one egg, three ounces of grated cheese, cayenne, and salt. Rub the butter into the flour,

add the cheese and seasoning.
paste with the yolk of egg.

Mix iato a stiff Roll out and cut into

narrow strips about two inches long. Bake a pale fawn colour on a greased tin or baking sheet. To be served hot.
303.

CHEESE STRAWS

(Yorkshire)

Grate two ounces of Parmesan cheese into a bowl. Mix with it a pinch of salt, a little cayeime, and two ounces of flour, and rub in two ounces of butter. Make the ingredients into a stiff paste with the yolk of one egg, cut them about five inches long, and bake them. When they are a pale brown colour they are done. They will take about ten minutes.
304.

CROUSTADES

(Yorkshire)

Make a good paste, roll it out very thin, line small patty pans or moulds with it. Grate two ounces Parmesan cheese into a basin, and mix with it one ounce warmed (but not oiled) butter, the yolks of two eggs and white of one, a saltspoonful of salt, and a pinch of cayenne. If the eggs are small,
three yolks will be required instead of two.

Put a

small spoonful of the mixture into the pans, and

CHEESE DISHES
bake in a moderate oven.
the pastry
is

129

When

lightly coloured, they are

they are set and done enough.

305.

STEWED CHEESE

(Surrey)

Take four ounces

of grated cheese,

butter, one tablespoonful of

cream

;

two ounces of stir them to-

Add the yolk of an egg, stir well, and pour the beaten-up mixture upon a very hot dish. Serve with dry hot
gether in a saucepan until nearly boihng.
toast.

CHAPTER IX

EGG DISHES
Note.
of

—Countless
pointed

as

are the various methods

serving eggs, there yet seems
is

room

for more.

As

out in

the
v/ith

Cakes

section,

our

grandmothers used eggs
in

what we should conto

sider reckless extravagance, merely as ingredients

made

dishes.

They do not appear

have

considered eggs seriously as articles of food.
ever,

How-

a few interesting egg-disKes are here set forth, which will help towards the (always too monotonous) breakfast and luncheon table, or towards the enlargement of the vegetarian menu. Eggs have been divided by a humorist into seven
classes
:

viz.

New-laid Eggs. Breakfast Eggs. Fresh Eggs. Cooking Eggs. Shop Eggs. Election Eggs. Eggs.

And nowadays, when
necessary edibles
it
is

the origin of those harmless so frequently " wrop in mystery,"
careful.

behoves one to be exceedingly
all

You

should break

eggs,

of
130

whose antecedents you

EGG DISHES
are not absolutely certain, one

131
into separate
all.

by one

cups, lest a single tainted specimen should ruin

And

it is

usually cheaper, in the long run, to procure
;

for those coming under the the best eggs only category of cooking eggs are hardly ever to be depended on. We are not of the same mind as

those Tartar tribes who bury their eggs in the earth till they shall be " high " enough to suit the tribal tastes and even the notorious " curate's egg," which was " good in parts," displeases our fastidious
;

fancy.
of eggs

It is therefore advisable to lay in a stock

when they are cheap and plentiful, and to preserve them against the dear days, first testing each by any of the different recognized methods.

306.

BAKED EGGS
new milk and
;

(Kent)

Beat up

four eggs well.

To each egg

allow two

tablespoonfuls of
salt to taste.

half a teaspoonful

season with pepper and Melt some butter (or dripping) in an pour in mixture, and bake enamelled pie-dish quickly in a quick oven.
of fine-chopped parsley
;

307.

BIRDS' NESTS

(Essex)

Boil four eggs eleven minutes, let them get quite cold, then shell the eggs and coat them over with

Drop them in a pan and brown them well. Lift with plenty of lard, them up and drain them, nut them in halves, and serve on buttered toast. These are very nice eaten cold, served up on a dish with watercress.
egg,

and

roll in

sausage meat.

132

EGG DISHES
308.

CHEESED EGGS
in slices,

(Surrey) cold,

Boil six eggs hard, and

when they are

remove

the

shells.

Gut them

arrange these in

layers in a well-buttered baking-dish, with pepper

and salt. Dust grated cheese over each layer, and moisten with white sauce. On the top, put a layer of cheese, and over that a little (melted) butter. (Sliced tomatoes may at pleasure be included in this
dish.)

Bake

until lightly coloured.

309.

CURRIED EGGS

(Essex)

eggs, one sour apple, one large ounce of butter, one ounce of flour, one onion, one dessertspoonful of curry powder, one tablespoonful of cream, one small teaspoonful of salt, half a pint of milk, or milk and water, quarter of a pound of

Four hard-boiled

Boil the eggs for ten minutes, shell Patna rice. and lay them in cold water, to keep white. Peel and chop finely the apple and onion, fry them in the

butter for five minutes, using a saucepan

;

stir in

curry powder, then the flour and salt
milk,

;

lastly,

the

and simmer gently for a quarter of an hour. Add the cream and the eggs, which should be cut
in quarters.

When

quite hot, serve in a border of

boiled rice.

310.

CURRIED EGGS

(Yorkshire)

a couple of onions, and fry them a rub toin two ounces of butter gether till smooth, two ounces of curry powder, two spoonfuls of good vinegar, and a teaspoonful Stir into it, over the fire, about of castor sugar.
Slice finely

delicate

brown

;

; ;

EGG DISHES
a breakfastcupful of good stock, and bring
boil.
it

133
to the
it

When

nicely
let

blended,

break into

five

or six eggs,

and

them cook gently

one or two minutes.
rice.

in this about Serve at once, with curried

311.

EGGS A LA DUCHESSE

(Kent)
;

BoU
off

several new-laid eggs for ten minutes
shells,

take

and cut them in half (long-ways) take out the yolks have ready some bread crumbs soaked in milk, and mix (together with the yolks) a little pepper, salt, and a little lemon peel and parsley chopped fine. Put a layer of this mixture at the bottom of a pie-dish then fiU the whites force-meat, and build them up in a pyramid with the with some pieces of butter put on them and a few bread crumbs, and then let them be in the oven to get brown not long enough for the white of egg
the
;

;

to get hard.

312.

A PRETTY DISH OF EGGS

(Yorkshire)

Break some eggs into a small pie-dish without injuring the yolks, drop lightly some warm butter on them, and strew bread crumbs lightly over them put into the oven till the whites of the eggs are set, and serve with a wreath of parsley. Of course, you can put any quantity of eggs, but I should say about one ounce of bread crumbs to four eggs.
313.

BROWN

FRICASSEE OF EGGS
:

(Yorkshire, 1769)

Take eight or ten eggs, according to the bigness you design your dish boil them hard. Put them then in a stewpan of cold water, take off the shell
;

134

EGG DISHES

fry them in butter till they be of a deep brown. Have a little brown gravy and a lump of butter, thicken it up with flour. Lay two or three eggs in

the middle of the dish, then cut the others in two, and set them with the small ends upward round the
dish.

Fry some sippets and lay round them.

Garnish with crisp parsley.

314.

WHITE FRICASSEE OF EGGS

(Yorkshire, 1769)

Take ten or twelve eggs, boil them hard and peel them, put them in a stewpan with a little white gravy. Take the yolks of two or three eggs, beat them very well, and put to them two or three tablespoonfuls of cream, a tablespoonful of white wine, a little lemon juice, shred parsley, and salt to taste. Shake all together over the stove tUl it be as thick as cream, but don't let it boU. Lay some of the eggs whole in the dish, lay the rest round, cut in halves and quarters but you must not cut them Garnish with sippets. till you lay them in the dish.
;

315.

OMELETTE
of

(Kent)
six eggs

The yolks and whites
suffice for three

(these will

or four persons), well beaten for

minutes with three tablespoonfuls onion, half a teaspoonful of salt, a little pepper. When this is ready, put a piece of butter as large as a walnut into the frying-pan over a brisk fire, and when the butter is hot, throw in the mixture of eggs, stirring it, or rather, putting it together with a spoon or ladle, to give it the shape, which can be finished doing when it is thrown ofi the frying-pan on the
at
of
least three

mUk, some chopped parsley and

EGG DISHES
dish,

135

for it

must not be kept more than two
fire.

minutes on the

316.

OMELETTES

(Surrey)

To prepare
pan
is

a plain omelette, see that the fryingthoroughly clean. Place ia it about one

Break three eggs separately to them up with a little chopped parsley, and a piach of pepper and salt. The eggs should not be beaten too much, or the white of them separates, and you produce a watery mixture which destroys the flavour and appearance
ounce of butter.
see that they are fresh, beat
of the omelette.

When

the butter

is

melted, pour
stir it till it

the mixture into the frying-pan, and
begins to set or thicken.
ally,

Shake the pan occasionand fold over the omelette neatly in an oval

shape.

When

it

is

of

a golden colour, turn

it

quickly into a hot
plain omelette
If

dish.

To be

able to prepare a

is to be able to prepare any kind. you require a cheese omelette, introduce into the

mixture about a dessertspoonful of grated cheese, with a little pepper and salt, and sometimes a few grains of cayenne. In a sweet omelette, no pepper and salt, but a httle grated sugar, and just before
is folded in the pan, distribute evenly over it a little jam. If a bacon omelette, a few pieces of previously cooked bacon cut into small dice, and so on. In preparing an omelette, remember five a clean pan ; mixture not to be too much things

the omelette

:

omelette must not be too large (three eggs it should not be too much are better than six) must be eaten immediately, or it becooked; it

beaten

;

;

comes tough and flabby.

136
317.

EGG DISHES
PALESTINE EGGS
(Surrey)

Trim and boil twelve good-sized Jerusalem artiand set them to cool. Boil six eggs hard and let them get cold (they can be plunged into a bowl Slice the artiof cold water), then cut them up. chokes, lay them in a buttered baking-dish strew next, put a layer of the chopped eggs over them
chokes,
; ;

shced tomatoes

;

last,

Bake

until lightly coloured,

a layer of grated cheese. and serve very hot.

318.

SCALLOPED EGGS

(Devonshire)

Four new-laid eggs, half a teaspoonful made mustard, four tablespoonfuls white crumbs, half an
ounce of butter, four tablespoonfuls chopped cooked ham, bacon, game, or chicken, two tablespoonfuls hot milk or stock salt and pepper. Mix crumbs, ham, and seasoning put half aside. Mix the other half with mustard, a little oiled butter, Butter and enough milk to form a stiff paste. four saucers or scaHop-sheUs, spread them thickly with the above paste, leaving a hoUow for the raw Shake over each egg some of the dry mixture egg.
; ;

laid aside.

there.

Put a few pieces of butter here and Bake untU set about ten minutes.
;

319.

SCOTCH EGGS

(Middlesex)

Boil them hard, and when the sheU has been removed, cover them thickly with a forcemeat made Take some veal or calves' kidney, with as follows a slice of ham, a bit of butter, shalot, cayenne, and a green onion, all finely minced together, and mixed
:

to a proper consistency with the yolks of eggs

;

EGG DISHES
dredge them with
beef dripping
320.
:

137

flour,

serve

and fry in boiling lard, or up with a rich gravy.
(Scotland)

SCOTCH EGGS

Take as many eggs as required, allowing a half egg for each person and boil until hard. Then put into cold water and take off the shells when quite cold. Cover each egg with sausage meat, or wellseasoned rissole mixture, being careful to cover
the egg completely, keeping them an oval shape. Flatten them at both ends, dip each into beaten
egg, then into bread crumbs.

Do

this twice, so as

to have a firm cover.

Fry

in boiling fat until
knife,

brown.

Cut them open with a sharp dish with good thick gravy.
321.

and serve on a

SCRAMBLED EGGS
eggs,

(Cheshire)

add salt and pepper, put them two ounces of butter, keep stirring constantly with a wooden spoon tiU the eggs then (1) serve as they are on a very are nearly set hot dish, or (2) add two tablespoonfuls of tomato sauce, and stir for two minutes off the fire.
Beat up four
into a stewpan with
;

322.

EGGS STEWED IN GRAVY
little

(Yorkshire,

1769)

gravy into a little pewter (or earthenware) dish, and set it on a stove. When it is hot, break in as many eggs as will cover the dish bottom, keep pouring the gravy over them with a spoon till they are white at the top. When they are set

Pour a

fry some enough, strew over them a little salt square sippets of bread m. butter, arrange the eggs
:

on them, and serve up.

138
323.

EGG DISHES
EGG AND TOMATO MOULD
of tomatoes, four eggs,

(Yorkshire)

One pound

half a tea-

cupful thin cream or milk, one clove garlic or onion.

Scald and peel the tomatoes, cut into small pieces, simmer with the butter and seasoning. Remove

the garlic as soon as

it

has flavoured the tomato.

Mash the tomato

as

it

cooks, with a

wooden spoon.

Let it boil ten minutes, then add the cream or milk, and four hard-boiled eggs (chopped), thicken the whole with a cornflour liaison. Pour into a wetted mould to stiffen. When cold, turn out and garnish with parsley and rubbed egg yolk.
324.

EGGS AND TOMATO SAUCE
slice of

(Yorkshire)

Place one pound of stewed and pulped tomatoes

onion into a stewpan, with two ounces rubbed into one teaspoonful of flour add pepper and salt, and a little water if necessary. Stir well. Poach as many eggs as are required, and lay them on hot buttered toast. Pour the tomato sauce round, and scatter chopped parsley over the
of butter
;

and a

eggs to serve.
325.

EGGS IN THE TURKISH

WAY

(Surrey)

Put an onion cut into slices, with some fine herbs and butter, into a saucepan, adding a little flour, salt, and pepper when these have been on the fire a few minutes, add a glass of white French wine and the whites of a dozen hard-boiled eggs cut into slices when these ingredients are well united, add the yolks, which had been previously set aside, and serve up very hot.
:

:

CHAPTER X

SAVOURIES
Note.
ing

—Under this heading

I include several pleas-

little

recipes which were received too late for
:

insertion

under other groupings they are genuine country concoctions, and will be found to afford a
light variety to the usual staple articles

of

diet.

Although they have about them a somewhat more modem feeling than the majority of recipes in this book, I have the donors' words for it that these savouries have long been used with much success. In any case, they carry their own commendation to the " knowledgeable " cook.
326.

ANCHOVY CREAMS
pint of

(Hertfordshire)
;

put into it a Take a quarter of a enough to give it a delicate little anchovy sauce, pink colour and flavour whip stiffly, and place on
;

cream

croutes of fried bread.

327.

ANCHOVY FILLETS AND GREEN BUTTER
(Hertfordshire)
is

Green butter
stalks,

made
finely,

thus
all

:

Take some good
the leaves

fresh watercress and pick

chop them

off the a cloth, and then dry in

139

140

SAVOURIES

add them to some fresh butter
bright green colour.

till it becomes a Season with cayenne pepper and salt, and mould it with an ordinary butter spoon. Dish these in a pile, and on each lay two

small anchovy
328.

fillets

crossways.
(Kent)

BREAD AND CHEESE CUSTARD

Take half a pound of grated Cheddar cheese, pound of bread crumbs, one pint of milk, one pepper, and salt. Mix the cheese, crumbs, egg, pepper, and salt together. Boil the mUk and pour it over them. Leave the mixture to grow cold, and then beat the egg and stir it in. Put all in a deep dish, and bake to a good brown in a hot oven. Lay little pieces of butter on the top, and serve
half a

hot.
329.

BOUCHES A L'INDIEN

(Hertfordshire)

Pieces of puff paste

white
sauce
rolls,

filled with any sort of minced savoury meat and moistened with curry whether made as tartlets, turnovers, sausage-

or fried rolls

—are excellent.
(Hertfordshire)

330.

BEEF AND HAM ROLL

of beef steak or veal, one pound raw ounces of white crumbs, one egg, mace, pepper, salt, and cayenne to taste, one ounce parsley scalded and chopped. Mince the raw meat, including fat, but not gristle add the other ingredients, and beaten egg, and mix well. Form firmly into the shape of a pillow, wrap in a greased

One pound
five

ham,

;

paper, tie lightly in a cloth, and boil for two hours.

Always serve it cold but sprinkle, whilst browned bread crumbs on the top.
;

hot,

SAVOURIES
331.

141

FRICATELLES
highly, chop
it,

(Hertfordshire)

Take any remains
pie,

of the cold

season

it

meat from a veal and mix with a raw
slice of

egg.

Lay

the mixture on a square
little

bread,

and fry in a
with parsley.

butter, or clarified fat.

Garnish

332.

JAMAICA FRITTERS
slice of cold

(Devonshire)

A small

egg, half a slice of bread.

meat (about one oimce), one Mince the meat finely,
;

pour boiling water on the bread when soaked, pour off superfiuous water. Beat the egg, add to the bread parsley or any other flavouring. Have ready boiling fat in frying pan. Drop the mixture in by
tablespoonfuls, turn

when
it

sufficiently set, so as to

brown both

sides

—or

may

be

made

in one large

fritter, filling

the bottom of the pan.

Any
is

sort of

meat or fish may be used. two persons.
333.

The above

enough

for

HADDOCK SOUFFLE
butter,

(Hertfordshire)

Boil a dried haddock, remove

pound it with a lump of
;

all skin and bones, and a dash of cayenne

pepper pass it through a sieve, mix it with three yolks of eggs, then add their whites whisked to a very stiff froth half fill some little cases with the mixture,
;

and bake

at once.

(Filleted dried

haddock

may

be treated as above.)
334

KEBOBS

(Hertfordshire)

Cut a few pieces the size of an egg from a leg or loin of mutton chop a small onion, with seasoning to
;

142
taste,

SAVOURIES
and lay
it

leave

this on the meat before rolling it up ; covered for an hour, and then thread the pieces on a skewer, leaving a little space between grill or broil slowly, turning often, and as soon as it begins to brown, baste it with a little tomato juice
;

diluted with

mutton

stock.

335.

ONION AND KIDNEY SAVOURY

(Isle of

Wight)

Take a Spanish onion, cut out the
insert a kidney

centre, and which has been carefully washed

and skinned.

Bake

in rather a hot oven, basting
;

frequently with cooking butter

serve with thick

brown gravy.
336.

POTTED LIVER

(Hampshire)

Cook the liver, and mince it with a good-sized piece of fat bacon. Mix with it salt, cayenne pepper, nutmeg, and a little clove. Pound in a mortar, put into pots, and cover with melted butter.
337.

LIVER AND POTATO TURNOVERS
(Hertfordshire)

Boil

some potatoes dry and

floury

;

mash them

smoothly,
little

make

into a paste with an egg, adding a

salt

and pepper.
five

Roll out,

and cut into

rounds about
thus.

inches across, prepare a stuffing

Carefully chop or mince some boiled liver, add a few breadcrumbs, season with a little chopped onion and powdered sage, lay a little mixture on each round, fold over and wet the edges of one half

make it adhere to the other milk and bake in a quick oven.
to

;

brush over with


SAVOURIES
338.

143
(Kent)

DRESSED OYSTERS

Mix in a sherry glass one eggspoonful of tomato ketchup and an equal amount of lemon juice. Add one teaspoonful of French vinegar, a little pepper and salt, and a suggestion of cayenne. For each glass take four oysters beard them carefully and previous to placing them in the glass put in the juice from their shells. Serve at once in sherry

glasses.

339.

FINE PATTIES

(Eighteenth

Century)

lamb, or chicken, with lamb, or of loin of veal, or the inside fat of a sirloin of beef; add a little parsley, thyme, and shredded lemon peel, put it all in a marble mortar, and pound it very fine, season it with white pepper and salt then make a fine puff paste, roll it out in thin square sheets, put the forcemeat in the middle, cover it over, and close Just before the patties go into it evenly all round. the oven, wash them over with the yolk of an egg. Bake them twenty minutes in a quick oven have ready a little white gravy, seasoned with pepper, salt, and a little shalot, thickened with a little cream and butter as soon as the patties come out of the oven, make a hole in the top, and pour in some gravy you must take care not to put too much gravy in for fear of its running out at the
Slice either cold turkey,

an equal quantity

of the fat of

;

;

;

;

sides,

and

spoiling the patties.
(Yorkshire, 1769)
it
is

340.

SAVOURY PATTIES
of
it

Take the kidney
roasted, cut

a loin of veal before

in thin slices, season it with mace.

;

144
pepper, and
either
salt,

SAVOURIES
and make your
patties with good

shell (puff) paste.

Lay a

slice in

every patty, and

bake or fry them.

341.

SAVOURY MUTTON ROLLS
;

(Hertfordshire)

Cut some mutton into slices, trim o£E all fat and chop some capers with a little lemon peel and lay them on the mutton roll up and put on a skewer. Place it in the oven with just enough gravy to cover, and bake for about a quarter of an hour slip the rolls off the skewer, and serve with
season nicely
; ;

thick gravy.

342.

BAKED

PIG'S

FRY

(Hertfordshire)

Cut up a pound of pig's fry, lay it in a pie-dish chop finely two onions and a few sage leaves, season to taste mix these ingredients and sprinkle over the meat. Cut up a pound and a half of part boiled potatoes, and cover over the meat with them fill the dish with water or stock, bake for two hours and a half in moderate oven.
;

;

343.

SAVOURY PUDDING

(Sussex)

Half a pound of stale bread, three eggs, three ounces of flour, three ounces of suet, one ounce of fine oatmeal, one pint of mUk, a small shalot chopped very fine, a little salt, a pinch of sweet marjoram,

and enough lemon to give a fiavour. Mix all thoroughly well together, not too moist turn into a basin or (better) a floured cloth, and boil or steam for
:

three hours.

SAVOURIES
344.

145

ITALIAN RICE

(Middlesex)

Melt one ounce of butter in a stewpan, take one onion about the size of a golf ball, mince it very
finely,

and fry
it

it

in the butter.

When

it is

a golden

yellow, stir in four ounces of hot, well-boiled rice.

Work
in

well with a fork, at the

same time shaking
of

two heaped tablespoonfuls
it

grated cheese.

Serve

piled on a flat dish, garnished with sliced

hard-boiled eggs.
345.

SAVOURY RICE

(Isle

of

Wight)

Wash
pie-dish,

three ounces of rice, and boil

until tender,

rice

ounce of and

of butter

it in milk adding pepper and salt. Butter a spread half the rice on it, sprinkle an grated cheese on it, add the rest of the another ounce of cheese, put little pieces on the top, and brown in the oven.

346.

SAVOURY RICE MOULD
is

(Hampshire)

This

a very tempting and nutritious dish.

To

add two ounces of minced cold mutton, one ounce of ham, one hard-boUed egg minced, one tablespoonful of chopped parsley, one raw egg, pepper and salt to This If not moist enough, add a little milk. taste. baked in a pie-dish or steamed in a mould. may be
half a teacupful of rice boiled in milk,
347.

FRIED SANDWICH

(Hertfordshire)

slice of cold meat or ham, spread a mashed potato over each side, trimming it neatly into shape, spread with beaten raw egg, make the fat very hot and cover with crumbs

Well season a

layer of

;

before frying the sandwich.

10

146
348.

SAVOUEIES
SARDINE PUFFS HOT
(Hertfordshire)

Take some pastry

(the remains of

any

puff paste

will do) or a nice short crust,

have a

tin of sardines

which have been skinned and freed from bone, mash up on a plate with a little pepper and salt, and when well mashed put about a dessertspoonful of the mixture into the paste, which has been cut with a round cutter, and form into a puff. Egg and breadcrumb the puffs, fry a delicate hue in some clean lard, and serve up on a dish paper. Garnish
with fried parsley.
349.

SAVOURY TOAST
(or

(Hertfordshire)

One ounce

of butter, three hard-boiled eggs

put

chopped very fine), one teaspoonful of anchovy sauce, one teaspoonful of chopped capers, a little pepper and salt (and cayenne pepper if liked) mix well together, make very hot, and serve on squares of hot buttered toast.
through a sieve
;

350.

MOCK CRAB TOAST

(Derbyshire)

Pound two ounces
ful of

of cheese with a dessertspoon-

anchovy sauce, the same of made mustard, the same of vinegar, a pinch of Nepaul pepper, and a little salt, the yolk of an egg, and a tablespoonful Mix thoroughly in a basin and then of butter. buttered toast put it in the oven and spread on bake for about ten minutes. Serve piping hot.
;

361.

FRENCH TOAST

(Lancashire)

half a

One pound of beef, half a pint white bread-crumbs, pound of tomatoes. Mince the beef, mix with the bread crumbs and tomatoes chopped up

SAVOURIES
;

147

(previously scalded to remove skins) bind with one beaten egg. Press into pUlow form, place in a baking tia, cover, and bake one hour. Remove cover, put a little butter on the top, and let it bake until brown. Make a nice gravy.

352.

EXCELLENT HAM TOAST

(Hertfordshire)

Take a quarter of a pound of lean ham, mince it very finely or pass through a mincing machine. Put this in a shallow saucepan, with the beaten yolks of two eggs, half an ounce of butter, two tablespoonfuls of cream, and a soupQon of cayenne to taste. Stir over the fire till it thickens. Have ready some nicely trimmed pieces of toast, spread the mixture on this and serve hot. Set all on a nice d'oyley, and garnish with sprigs of parsley.
353.

TOMATO AND MUSHROOM SAVOURY
(Isle of

Wight)

Cut as

many

rounds of bread as you require,

butter them, and place a

mushroom upon
and
salt,

each.

On

the

mushroom

place a tomato which has been

peeled, season with pepper

and bake.

354.

SAVOURY TOMATOES

(Hertfordshire)

slice of bacon, or take out the pulp of the tomatoes, mix it ham with a few white bread crumbs, a little grated cheese, cayenne, salt, and sugar a little cream or part of an egg may also be used if convenient, but it is not' refill the tomatoes, fold the bacon necessary round, and fry or, if frying is not liked, put a little fat or butter in a saucepan with the balls. Cover tke
; ;

For each small tomato allow a

;

;

148

SAVOURIES

pan closely, and let it cook gently for twenty minutes to half an hour, shaking the pan to prevent burning. Serve each ball on toast or bread.
355.

SAVOURY TONGUE

(Hertfordshire)

Take some cold cooked tongue, and cut it into and for every half-teacupful allow a teacupful of good stock. Chop a little onion finely and put it in with the stock add pepper and salt to taste. Make it thoroughly hot, mix the meat with the well-beaten
dice,
;

eggs, in the proportion of one egg to each cupful of
Stir well, and then put into small patty pans, sprinkle thickly with breadcrumbs, and scatter small bits of butter over the top. Bake for a quarter of an hour in a quick

tongue, and add to the stock.

oven.
356.

A NICE WHET BEFORE DINNER
(Eighteenth Century)
slices of

bread half an inch thick, fry then split some anchovies, take out the bones, lay half an anchovy on each piece of bread have ready some Cheshire cheese grated and some chopped parsley mixed together, lay it pretty thickly over the bread and anchovy, baste it with butter, and brown it with a salamander it must be done on the dish on which

Cut some

them

in butter, but not too hard

;

;

;

you send
357.

it

to the table.

SCOTCH WOODCOCK

(Hertfordshire)

Take two slices of toasted bread, rather thick, butter them on both sides, spread them with anchovy paste and place one piece on top of the other, and

SAVOURIES
cut
of

149

them into fingers or squares. Take the yolks two eggs well beaten, and a quarter of a pint of cream or if cream is not at hand, the yolks of three eggs, and a little milk will do set over the fire to thicken (but do not let it boil, else it will curdle) it should be a nice thick custard. Pour this over the toast, and send to table as hot as
; ;

;

possible.

:

CHAPTER XI

SAUCES
Note. Voltaire's celebrated sneer " fifty religions and only one sauce "
butter) of the English,

{i.e.

about the melted

was in reality undeserved. Our forefathers were particularly keen on sauces and some of these sauces were frequently so elaborate, so expensive, and so tedious in preparing, that I have refrained from setting them down. Life went more leisurely in those days, and the twentiethcentury housewife finds it easier to purchase a bottle of some well-known condiment, such as Worcester or Wiltshire sauce, to expenditure of much time

and trouble in the concoction of appetising reUshes. After aU, " hunger," as the proverb says, " is the best sauce." Amongst those here contained, however, will

be found some very meritorious

recipes,

calculated to mitigate the

monotony

of cold mutton,
fish.

or to add a pleasing asperity to unexhilarating
I

have included two or three ketchups and bottling An excellent Mayonnaise Sauce will be sauces. found in the salad section of this book.

358.

SAUCES FOR MEAT SAUCE FOR ANY KIND OF COLD MEAT
(Kent)
in a basin

Mix

one tablespoonful
160

of grated horse-

radish, the

same amount

of red-ourrant jelly, the

SAUCES
grated rind of one orange (or lemon) and and a little raw mustard.

151
its juice,

359.

SIMPLE SAUCE FOR COLD MEAT

(Kent)

Three teaspoonfuls of pale brown sugar, one teaspoonful of
of vinegar.

made mustard, four Mix thoroughly.

dessertspoonfuls

360.

SHARP SAUCE FOR COLD MEATS
(Middlesex)

Into a quart of white wine vinegar, put eight
cloves of garlic, twelve shalots, a small clove of
ginger, a little salt,

and the peel
;

of a

them together
bottle for use.

for a short time

lemon: boU then strain and

36L

SAUCE FOR ROAST MEAT IN GENERAL
(Eighteenth Century)
clean,

Wash an anchovy

put to
little

it

a glass of red

and some gravy. Stew them together, strain off, and mix into the sauce the gravy that runs from the
wine, a shalot cut small, a
lemon-juice,

meat.

362.

CUMBERLAND SAUCE

(Hertfordshire)

Half a pound of red currant jelly, half a pint of Madeira, juice of a lemon; mix together with the juice of four to six oranges, one dessertspoonful of French mustard, the rind of one orange cut in Julienne Mix well, and stir all together in a lined shreds.

pan over the

fire till

hot, but not boiling.

152
363.

SAUCES
DEVIL SAUCE
(Ireland)

Cut up some young onions very fine, and moisten them with a little French viaegar, and boil for five or six minutes. Add some cayenne pepper, good strong gravy, wine, and anchovy butter, which last consists of filleted anchovies pounded very well in a mortar with butter and cayenne.

364.

GHERKIN SAUCE

(Hertfordshire)
flour,

Half an ounce of butter, half an ounce of
of water,

one

dessertspoonful of gherkin, three-quarters of a pint

pepper and

salt,

the yolk of one egg, one

dessertspoonful of lemon juice.

Mix

well in a lined

pan and

stir till it is hot,

but not boiling.

365.

GOOSEBERRY SAUCE
a
little

(Eighteenth Century)

Put some scalded gooseberries (passed through a
sieve),

juice of sorrel,

and a

little

ginger,

into

some melted

butter.

366.

"GUBBINS" SAUCE

(Middlesex)

Fill

a basin with boiling water and put a soup-

plate on the top.

When

the plate

is

quite hot,

melt in
walnut.

it

a piece of good butter, the size of a
the butter
is

When

melted, stir in two

teaspoonfuls of

made mustard, one dessertspoonful of

good wine vinegar, one teaspoonful of good DevonAdd salt and black pepper. This is shire cream. the best possible sauce for grilled meat or " devilled " bones.

SAUCES
367.

153
(Middlesex)

HORSERADISH SAUCE

of mustard, one tablespoonful of vinegar, three ditto of cream, one teaspoonful of

One teaspoonful

radish, stirring

one saltspoonful of pepper. Add grated horseit in very smoothly till the whole be of the consistency of thick clotted cream.
salt,

368.

INDIA SAUCE

(Kent,

1809)

To a
pickle,

pint of the best vinegar, slice in

two heads
walnut Put it into

of garlic, three tablespoonfuls of soy, five of

and an ounce of cayenne pepper. bottle and shake it well. a
369.

ITALIAN SAUCE

(Essex)

Put into a stewpan over a slow fire one tablespoonful of salad oil, and a handful of finely chopped onions. Add half a teacupful of broth and eight
tablespoonfuls of glaze.
If too thick
little

when

it

has

but it is chopped parsley, cayenne, and one teaspoonful of lemon juice.

done

boiling,

add a very

water;

better fairly thick.

Seasoning

:

370.

PIQUANT SAUCE

(Hertfordshire)

Half a pint of brown gravy, one teaspoonful of tarragon vinegar, one tablespoonful malt vinegar,

pepper and

salt, half

an ounce

of butter,

one tea-

spoonful of chopped onion, one teaspoonful of French mustard. Mix well and stir till hot (but not boiling)
in a lined pan.
371.

SAVOURY SAUCE

(Hertfordshire)

Half an ounce of butter, half an ounce of bacon, one carrot, one onion, one turnip, one sprig of

;

164
parsley, one

SAUCES

of thyme, pepper and salt, haH a pint of stock, six pepper-corns, three-quarters of

an ounce of flour. The flour to be mixed smooth with a little stock, and added last of all, when the other ingredients have been boiled and strained ofi.
372.

TOMATO SAUCE

(Sussex)

(To eat with Mutton)

Pare half a dozen ripe tomatoes put them! into a saucepan with a little piece of butter, two chilhes, and salt. Shake some flour in, add half a teacupful Boil all together ten minutes, keeping of gravy. it stirred, and send to table hot.
;

373.

WHITE SAUCE

(Kent,

1809)

To
soy,

a pint of cream put a tablespoonful of anchovy ketchup, a tablespoonful of
as for melted butter.
flour

juice, a tablespoonful of

and a little

and butter

374.

WHITE SAUCE FOR FOWLS
of veal,

(Eighteenth Century)

you have put them in a saucepan, with a blade or two of mace, a few black pepper-corns, a head of celery, a bunch
bits of

Take a scrag mutton

the neck of a fowl, or any
;

or veal

of sweet herbs, a slice of the end of a lemon put in a quart of water, cover it close, let it boil strain it, and thicken till it is reduced to half a pint it with a quarter of a pound of butter, mixed with flour boil it five or six minutes, put in two spoonmix the yolks of two fuls of pickled mushrooms eggs with a teacupful of good cream and a little nutmeg, and put this in your sauce keep shaking it over the fire, but do not let it boU.
; ;

;

;

SAUCES
375.

155
(Eighteenth Century)

SAUCE FOR WILD FOWL

Take a proper quantity of veal gravy, add some pepper and salt, squeeze in the juice of two Seville
and a time together.
oranges,
teal, etc.
little

red wine, and
is

let it all

boU some

This

a good sauce for wild duck,

376.

GRAVY WITHOUT MEAT
large onions sliced into

(Kent,

1809)

Four

two quarts

of water,

a bundle of sweet herbs, a burnt crust of bread, two

ounces of butter, some pepper and salt. When boiling, strain it, and add to it a tablespoonful of
ketchup.

377.

SAUCE FOR A GOOSE

(Yorkshire, 1769)

Take the

juice of sorrel, a little butter,

and a few

Mix all together, and sweeten to your taste. You must not let it boil after you put in the sorrel, if you do it will take off the green.
scalded gooseberries.

This

is

to be served separately.

SAUCES FOR FISH
378.

DUTCH SAUCE

(Middlesex)

Mix well together half a pound of butter, two tablespoonfuls of flour, and the yolks of five or six eggs then put this paste into a saucepan with some
;

whole pepper, the juice of three lemons, and put it on a red fire, half a tumbler of water stirring until it has become sufificiently and keep thick to lay on the vegetables or fish, over which you may throw it.
salt,
;

;

156
379.

SAUCES
CUCUMBER GARNISH FOR FISH
(Devonshire)

haK inch Quarter these and remove the seeds, cut the pieces into fancy olive shapes. Lay them in cold water with a pinch of salt, and bring it to the boil skim, and let the cucumber cook until tender, then
lengths.

Peel and cut a cucumber into one and a

serve round the salmon.
380.

GENEVA SAUCE FOR PISH
onions,
carrots sliced,

Take a few mushrooms,
parsley, a sprig of

thyme, a bay-leaf, two ounces of ham, two cloves, a blade of mace, and some peppercorns set the whole over the fire with a little butter. When it becomes clear, add a tablespoonful of flour, stir it well over the fire a few moments, and add enough good consomme to bring it to the consistency of cream. With this put half a bottle of sherry or Madeira. Let the whole simmer until the roots are done, then skim it well and strain it over whatever fish you have occasion to dress. When the fish is done, take it up carefully with a slice, drain it and put the sauce into a stewpan. Boil it and skim o& the fat. The moisture from the fish will thin your sauce, therefore reduce it by boiling. Add a little flour and butter kneaded together; finish with a little anchovy, butter, lemon juice, and cayenne, and mask the fish with it.
;

381.

SAUCE FOR FISH

(Scotch)

Brown four ounces of butter sUghtly, add to it an EngHsh pint of water, a little flour and pepper, three tablespoonfuls of ketchup. The fish must be
well drained

from the cold water before they are put

SAUCES
into

157

the sauce. After they have boiled a few minutes, put in three or four pickled walnuts cut in small pieces. This sauce will be sufficient for four good haddocks, and may do to serve cod's head in.
382.

A VERY NICE SAUCE FOR MOST SORTS OF
FISH
(Eighteenth

Century)

gravy made of either veal or mutton, the water that drains from your fish when it is boiled enough, put it in a saucepan, and put in a whole onion, one anchovy, a spoonful of ketchup, and a glass of white wine thicken it with a good lump of butter roUed in flour and a spoonful of cream if you have oysters, cockles, or shrimps, put them in after you take it off the fire, (but it is very good without). You may use red wine

Take a
it
;

little

put to

a

little of

;

;

instead of white, by leaving out the cream.
383.

WHITE FISH SAUCE (Eighteenth Wash two anchovies, put them into a
;

Century)

saucepan

with one glass of white wine and two

of water, half

when it a nutmeg grated, and a little lemon peel has boiled five or six minutes strain it through a sieve, add to it a spoonful of white wine vinegar, thicken it a little, then add a quarter of a pound of butter rolled in flour boil it well, and pour it hot
;

upon your

dish.

384.

OYSTER SAUpE

(Ireland)

them Simmer the liquor with a little mace and lemon-peel add a httle flour, and some butter when this is boiled, put in the rubbed in flour oysters and give one boil more.
Strain the liquor from the oysters, and wash
in cold water.
; ;

158
385.

SAUCES
EGG-SAUCE FOR A SALT COD
(Eighteenth Century)

first half chop the whites, and chop them both together, but not very small put them into half a pound of good creamed butter, and let it boil up then put it on the fish.

Boil your eggs hard,

then put in the yolks,
;

;

386.

LOBSTER SAUCE

(Eighteenth

Century)

Boil half a pint of water with a little mace and whole pepper, long enough to take out the strong taste of the spice then strain it off, melt three
;

quarters of a

pound

of butter

smooth

in the water,
it it

cut your lobster in very small pieces, stew
together tenderly, with an anchovy, and send
hot.

all

up

(The butter in above two recipes can be reduced

ad

lib.)

387.

LOBSTER SAUCE—ANOTHER WAY
(Eighteenth Century)

butter,
all

Bruise the body of a lobster into thick melted and cut the flesh into it in small pieces, stew
together and give
salt,
it

a boil

;

pepper,

and a very small quantity

season with a little of mace.

388.

SAUCE FOR SALMON

(Eighteenth Century)

Boil a
small,

bunch of fennel and parsley, chop them and put them into some good melted butter,
;

send it to the table in a sauce-boat have another with gravy sauce. To make the gravy sauce, put a little brown gravy into a saucepan, with one anchovy, a teaspoonful of lemon pickle, a tablespoonful of liquor from walnut pickle, one or two tablespoonfuls of the water that the fish was boiled in (it gives a

SAUCES
pleasant flavour), a stick of horseradish, a

159
little

browning and
thicken

salt

;

boil this three or four minutes,

it with flour and a good lump of butter, and strain it through a hair sieve. N.B. This is a good sauce for most kinds of boiled fish.

BOTTLING SAUCES
389.

BLACK BUTTER
it

(Middlesex)

Put any quantity
pan, and heat

of butter required into a saucefire until the colour has taken off, add a little vineThis is the common mode of But where a fine flavour is

over the
is

turned

;

just before it

and pepper. making black butter.
gar, salt,

more of the vinegar must be used, according to the quantity of butter. Take a pint of white wine vinegar, put into it a
required, a tablespoonful or
salt,

small quantity of the usual sweet herbs, a few cloves, pepper, and a sliced shalot. Let these stand
fire.

in the sun for a fortnight, or infuse near the

Then

strain clear

off,

and put into another

bottle.

This vinegar
390.

may

be used with a variety

of sauces.

BROWNING FOR MADE DISHES
(Eighteenth Century)
of fine

Beat small four ounces
it

lump

sugar, put

in a clear iron frying-pan, with one ounce of butter,
fire, it

set it over a clear

mix

it

very well together

all

the time
is

;

when

begins to be frothy, the sugar

dissolving, hold it higher over the fire, have ready a pint of red wine when the sugar and butter are of a deep brown, pour in a little of the wine, and keep stirring it all the time put in half an ounce of
;

;

160

SAUCES
cloves,
of

mace, three spoonfuls of mushroom ketchup, a little salt, the rind of one lemon boil it slowly for ten minutes, pour it into a basin when cold, take off the scum very clean, and
; ;

Jamaica pepper, six two or three blades

four shalots peeled,

bottle the sauce for use.

391.

EXCELLENT BOTTLING SAUCE
bottle of porter or ale,

(Kent,

1809)

One quart

two pounds

of

anchovies, one bottle of port wine, one quart of
vinegar, a quarter of an ounce of mace, half an ounce
of allspice, of five or sis

two or three Jamaica peppers, the rind lemons pared thin all put together and
;

boiled

down

to half, strained through a cloth bag,

boiled again with white pepper.
cold.

Bottle

it

when

It will

keep very long.

392.

BOTTLED FISH SAUCE

(Kent)

Half a pint of walnut pickle, six anchovies pounded,
three cloves of garlic pounded, three not pounded,

one spoonful of cayenne pepper, all mixed well, and bottled for use. A tablespoonful in a boat of melted butter is sufficient.
393.

riSH SAUCE FOR BOTTLING

(Kent,

1809)

Take walnuts fit for pickling, beat them well in mortar till they are pulped, squeeze the juice from a them and let it stand a day. Pour it off clear, and to every pint of liquor put one pound of anchovies with an ounce of shalots set it on the fire till the anchovies are quite dissolved, strain it clear, and to every quart put a quarter of an ounce of cloves, mace
;

SAUCES
and

161

allspice, and half a pint of white wine vinegar. Let them boil all together for a quarter of an hour, then put in glass bottles for use.

394.

KING'S

OWN SAUCE
;

(Hampshire)

a quart bottle with nasturtium flowers, and half an ounce of shalots cover them with vinegar and let it stand two months. Then strain, and add to the liquor one ounce of salt, one teaspoonful of cayenne pepper, and four ounces of soy. To be eaten with either hot or cold meat.
Fill
396.

LIVER KETCHUP

(Lancashire)

Take a bullock's liver, wash it extremely well, then put it with some salt in four quarts of water. Let it simmer away one-half, carefully skimming it all the time. Strain it through a hair-sieve, and let it stand till next day, then pour it gently into a saucepan with spice, a clove of garlic, a few bay When boiled leaves, and a bit of horseradish. enough to season it, let it stand till cold and bottle
it

for use.

396.

MUSHROOM KETCHUP

(Surrey)

Having skinned and peeled some large field mushrooms, crush them into a pulp, adding a tablelet them spoonful of salt to every quart of pulp a day and a night, then pour off the clear stand for liquor, and add to every quart about twenty cloves, thirty peppercorns, and the same quantity of allboil very gently for about half an hour, spice
:

:

then put into bottles with the spices. Some persons add port wine, but this rather injures than improves
11

162
the flavour, and
is

SAUCES
objectionable for
it is

many
not

sauces.

A

little

mace may be added, but

essential.

397.

TOMATO SAUCE FOR BOTTLING
of ripe tomatoes,

(Essex)

Take ten pounds

and to

this

quantity allow one pint of best brown vinegar, half a pound of white sugar, two ounces of salt, one ounce of garlic, one ounce of allspice, half an ounce
of black pepper,
half

an ounce

of

cloves,

and a

quarter of an ounce of cayenne pepper.

Wipe the

tomatoes clean, and bake them in an oven till they are soft enough to be rubbed through a fine sieve which will retain the seeds and skins. Boil the juice All for one hour, then add the other ingredients. the spices must be ground, and the garlic peeled and pounded to a pulp. Now boil the whole mixture together, stirring constantly to prevent burning, and continue the boihng till you get a thick smooth mass free from it will take about five hours watery particles
;

boiling.

If

you

desire a bright colour,

add a

Uttle

prepared cochineal. keeping tomato sauces you can make.
is

This

one of the very best

It

is

to

be bottled without further straining.

The bottles must be absolutely dry inside before you put the sauce in them. When cold, cork securely and seal or resin over the corks.

SWEET SAUCES
398.

BRANDY SAUCE
of

(Hertfordshire)

Take a quarter
it

to a cream, add

loaf

a pound of fresh butter, beat two and a half ounces of crushed sugar, and a glassful of brandy, mix all well

SAUCES
together.
at a time.
399.

163
little

The

spirits

must be added but a

CARAMEL SAUCE

(Hertfordshire)

Make

a caramel with twelve lumps of sugar, a
little
it

tablespoonful of water, and a
boil until

gets a nice brown, then

lemon juice add a quarter of

;

well.

a pint of milk, add this to two yolks of eggs beaten Strain through muslin. This makes a nice

sauce to any plain pudding.
400.

GINGER SAUCE

(Hertfordshire)

Two

ounces crystallised ginger, two ounces loaf

sugar, half a pint of water, a few drops of caramel.
Boil, stirring constantly, in lined pan.
401.

ORANGE SAUCE

(Sussex)

The unexpected

virtues of orange sauce were first

appreciated by a Patagonian explorer, who, left stranded with his only remaining stores, a West-

phaUan ham and a few oranges, concocted a sauce with the fruit which proved a most ideal accompaniment to the ham. It improves the flavour of wild and duck, of goose, turkey, and saddle of mutton
;

is

a

first-rate

sauce with plum-pudding, while in

America they use it as a wholesome adjunct to stewed raisins, prunes, and stewed grapes, both as a breakfast and a luncheon dish.

To make orange

sauce,

mix one

level tablespoonful

of flour with half a cupful of sugar.

Add

at once

half a pint of quite boiling water, and the grated rind of half an orange. Stir and boil four minutes,

and add the

juice of

spoonful of butter,

an orange, and a large dessertand pour while hot over a well-

164

SAUCES
The

This will be only sufficient for four sauce, poured over apple pudding, apple pie, or stewed apples, gives a pineapple flavour to the whole.
persons.

beaten egg.

402.

RASPBERRY SAUCE
sugar,
gill

(Hertfordshire)

Two
of
loaf

tablespoonfuls of raspberry jam, one ounce
of water,

one tablespoonful

of

lemon

juice.

Boil quickly in lined pan.

403.

SARACEN SAUCE
rose-hips,

(Fourteenth modernised)

century,

Take

and clean them (by pulping

through a sieve). Take the same amount of blanched almonds, fry them in oil, and bray them with the hips in a mortar. Boil them up with red wine, and put in sufficient sugar, and powdered hot spices (such as ginger, pepper, etc.). Mix all stiff with rice-flour, colour with alkanet or cochineal, and
serve.

404.

SAUCE FOR HOT PUDDING
sugar
;

(Hertfordshire)

Glass of wine, two yolks of eggs, lemon juice,

a

little

whisk

till

thick.

CHAPTER

XII

PICKLES
Note.—The
love of pickles
is

sometimes con:

sidered the sign of a depraved taste

certainly

it is

a very widespread depravity.
thing at once hot, sour,
salt,

The

desire for some-

and pungent, would seem

to be an inherent principle of

human
:

nature.

We

do not go to such lengths as the Germans in their affection for vinegary compounds but (among our working classes in particular) we undoubtedly give way to an omnivorous appetite for pickles. That the home-made pickle is superior from every possible point of view to the " boughten " one, as
they say in the West Country, is a foregone conAlthough all pickly concoctions tend clusion. towards obscure dyspeptic ailments, yet the homemade article, partaken of in moderation, is at least
containing no artificial not actively deleterious colourings, no illicitly procured greens of vivid hue, no doubtful ingredients of any sort just good plain vegetables in a good clean pickling mixture. Any reader who makes proof of the praiseworthy pickle prescriptions herewith, will unquestionably reap
: :

the reward of her labours.
405.

PICKLED BEET ROOT

(Middlesex)

Boil the root until the skin can be removed
easily
:

having removed the skin, cut the root into
16S

166
slices,

PICKLES
and put them into
salt

and water
into a jar,

for twelve

and pour over them (cold) white wine vinegar, previously boiled with whole pepper and ginger. For a quart of
hours, drain them, put
vinegar, use half

them

an ounce
: :

of pepper,
if

and a good-

sized piece of white ginger

use black pepper

but

if

the beet root be red, white, the contrary. Any
etc.,

other root, such as carrot, parsnip, turnip,

may

be pickled in the same manner.
406.

PICKLED CABBAGES

(Middlesex)

Shred the inner leaves pf good firm red cabbage, them plentifully with salt, and let them lie put them into the jar, and cover on a sieve for a day with vinegar which has been boiled with whole black
sprinkle
:

pepper, ginger, and cloves.
half

The proportions

are

an ounce of pepper, a drachm of ginger, and a drachm of cloves, to a quart of vinegar. The quantity of cloves may be increased for those who
like

the flavour.

The vinegar should be poured
any other
:

over cold.

Do

not, either in this or in

recipe for pickling, strain off the spices

they are

to be put into the jar with the vinegar.

407.

PICKLED RED CABBAGE

(Essex)

vinegar.

The ingredients are red cabbages, To each quart of vinegar,

salt,

half

water, and an ounce of
outside

ginger well bruised, one ounce of whole black pepper,

and,
ters,

when liked, a little cayenne. Take off the
remove
its stalks,

decayed leaves
slices.

of a nice red cabbage, cut it into quar-

Lay
with

these on a dish

fully

salt,

and cut it across in very thin and strew them plenticovering them with another dish.

PICKLES

167

Let them remain for twenty-four hours, turn into a colander to drain, and if necessary wipe them lightly •with a clean soft cloth put them in a jar. Boil up the vinegar with spices in the above proportions, and when cold pour it over the cabbage. It will be fit for use in a week or two. If kept for a very long time, the cabbage is liable to get soft and to discolour. To be really nice and crisp and of a good red colour, it should be eaten almost immediately after it is made. A little bruised cochineal boiled with the vinegar adds much to its appearance. Tie down with bladder and keep in a dry place.
;

408.

PICKLED CAULLFLOWER
:

(Middlesex)

Having trimmed the cauliflower, put it into salt then put it either and water for twelve hours
whole, or in detached parts, according to the
into a jar,
size,

white wine vinegar, previously boiled with whole white pepper. In this, as in all other cases, tie over with wet bladder and and whenever the bladder is removed to leather take out any of the pickle, wet the bladder again

and pour over

(cold)

:

so that

it

may

adhere firmly.
is

The

cauliflower
salt

is

sometimes about half

boiled in strong

and

water, before the vinegar

put upon

it.

409.

CHUTNEY

(Kent)

Five pounds of apples (green), five pounds of tomatoes, two and a half pounds of sugar, two and a half pounds of sultanas, four ounces of garlic, or ten ounces of onions, ten ounces of salt, two ounces of
cayenne, two ounces of ginger, three pints of vinegar.

;

168

PICKLES
410.

BENGAL CHUTNEY

(Surrey)

One pound of brown sugar, half a pound of salt, pound of mustard-seed, washed and pounded half a garlic, or quarter of a pound of onions chopped finely, quarter of a pound of powdered ginger, half a pound of raisins, stoned and chopped, one
half a
:

ounce of cayenne pepper, three pints of vinegir
thirteen large sour apples, peeled, cored,

and cut

up,

then boiled

till

tender in the vinegar, and, when

tender, bruised with a spoon to a

smooth

pulp.

When

cold,

mix

all the ingredients together, and

Then put cover them lightly for a day or two. It is best to into jars and cover down tightly.

make

may

Mustard flour half this quantity at a time. be used instead of mustard seed, and onions

instead of garlic.

411.

BENGAL CHUTNEY

(Devonshire)

Three quarters of a pound of Demerara sugar, six ounces of mustard seed, two ounces of dried chillies, four ounces of onions, six oimces of stoned raisins, fifteen large unripe sour apples, six ounces of ground ginger, one bottle best vinegar. The sugar must be made into syrup the onion and ginger must be finely pounded in a mortar the mustard-seed must be
;
;

washed
half

in cold vinegar

and dried

in the sun

;

the

apples to be peeled, cored, and sliced, and boiled in
cold,

a bottle of vinegar. When the apples are put them into a large pan and gradually mix in all the ingredients, including the half bottle of vinegar. It must be well stirred until all is thoroughly blended. Then bottle for uge. One pound

PICKLES
of

169

tomatoes added to the apples and raisins (after they are cooked), put through a sieve, then gradually mixed all together, is a great improvement.
412.

TOMATO CHUTNEY

(Sussex)

Three and a half pounds of green one teaspoonful of mustard-seed, one teaspoonful of ground ginger, one teaspoonful of allspice, one onion, one quart of vinegar, ten cloves,
Ingredients.

tomatoes,

brown sugar. Method. Peel and cut the tomatoes, put into the preserving pan with vinegar and spices. When nearly boihng, add sugar, and the onion whole. Boil gently for about two hours. Remove the onion before it breaks. Put into small pots and tie down.
of

and a pound

If ripe

tomatoes are used,

less

vinegar

is

required.

413.

TO PICKLE GHERKINS

(Surrey)

Put a quantity of spring water into a large earthen pan. To every gallon put two pounds of salt mix
:

and throw in five hundred gherkins. When they have lain two hours in the When they are salt and water, put them to drain. quite dry, put them into a jar. Take one gallon of white wine vinegar, put it into a saucepan with haK an ounce of cloves, half an ounce of mace, one ounce

them

well together,

of allspice,

one ounce of mustard-seed, one stick
leaves, one

two or three races of nutmeg cut in pieces, and a handful of salt. Boil up all together, and pour Cover them close down and it over the gherkins. Then put them let them stand twenty-four hours. in your saucepan, and do not let them boU (for that
of horseradish cut in slices,

ginger, six

bay

170

PICKLES
spoil them),

would
green.
plates.

Put them hot

When
414.

they are of a fine which put cold, cover them with bladder.
till

but simmer

in the jars, over

INDIAN PICKLE
summer
;

(Middlesex)

Boil in salt and water, for a quarter of an hour,

a cauliflower, two
celery, a quart of

cabbages, six heads of

French beans, and two sticks of drain and dry in the sun, or by sKced horseradish the fire, until very crisp, having first divided the half a pound of vegetables into small neat pieces garlic is to be put into salt for three days, and dried have ready in a jar half a pound in the same way bruised and washed whole ginger, two ounces of of bruised mustard-seed, two ounces of turmeric, two ounces of black pepper, a quarter of an ounce of cayenne pepper, and an ounce of allspice sprinkle these with salt, and let them stand for a day before the vegetables are added then put in the vegetables, and pour over them, boiling hot, two quarts of the strongest white wine vinegar.
: : : :

416.

LEMON PICKLE

(Eighteenth
off

Century)

Take two dozen lemons, grate
;

the outer rind

very thin, cut them in four quarters, and leave the bottoms whole rub on them equally half a pound Put of bay salt, and spread them on a large dish. or let them dry gradually by the them in a cool oven, fire till all the juice is dried into the peels then put them into a well-glazed pitcher (or jar), with one ounce of mace, half an ounce of cloves beat fine, one ounce of nutmeg cut in thin slices, four ounces of garlic peeled, half a pint of mustard-seed, bruised a little
;

;

PICKLES
and
;

171

tied in a muslin bag pour four quarts of boiling white wine vinegar upon them, close the pitcher

and let it stand five or six days by the fire shake it well up every day then tie it up, and let it stand for three months to take off the bitter taste. When you bottle it, put the pickle and lemon in a hair sieve, press them well, to take out the liquor, and let it stand till another day, then pour off the clear part, and bottle it let the rest stand three or four days and it will refine itself, then pour it off and bottle it let it stand again, and bottle it, till the whole is refined it may be put in any white sauce, and will not hurt the colour. It is very good for
well up,
; ; ; ;
:

fish

sauce and

made

dishes

for white,

and two

for

most useful pickle, be sure you put it in put any cream in, lest the sharpness make

a teaspoonful is enough brown sauce for fowl. It is a and gives a pleasant flavour before you thicken the sauce, or
; ;

it

curdle.

416.

LYONS PICKLE

(French)

(Generally called Yellow Pickle)

Take a large cauliflower, two heads of cabbages, and five or six carrots cut into neat pieces, a quart of French beans sliced, a pint of green peas (if in cover season) and three or four ounces of garlic a sieve with a layer of salt, and put them upon it then sprinkle them with salt plentifully. After they have lain in this way for two days, divide them into two or three sieves, and place them in the sun to dry put them into a jar with a for ten or twelve days white mustard-seed or three quarter of a pound of ounces of the seed, and one of ginger, two ounces of turmeric, and two teaspoonfuls of cayenne pepper
:

:

;

172

PICKLES

be added.

a quart of young onions prepared as for pickling may Pour over sufficient boiling vinegar to cover them completely, and leave about an inch or two of liquid above the vegetables.
417.

TO PICKLE MUSHROOMS

(Sussex)

you can get into a pan of spring Put water, and rub them with a piece of flannel dipped in salt, and when well washed, set them on the fire in a pan of boiling water, with a little salt in it. When they have boiled five or six minutes, lay them on a colander to drain. Then lay them between two cloths till they are cold. Put them in widemouthed bottles with a few blades of mace and some sliced nutmeg fill the bottles with vinegar, and cork them down.
the smallest
;

418.

TO PICKLE MUSHROOMS BROWN
little salt

(Surrey)

Shake a day then
; ;

over,

and leave them
full of cloves,

stick

an onion

with them into a skillet, and let well then add some vinegar, and let that also stew
for

till next which put them stew very

some time.

419.

NASTURTIUM BUDS (SEEDS) PICKLED
(Yorkshire, 1769)

Gather your little knobs quickly after the blossoms are off, put them in cold water and salt for three days, shifting them once a day. Then make a pickle for

them

(but don't boil

them

at

all),

of

some white

wine and some white wine vinegar, shalot, horseradish, whole pepper, salt, and a blade or two of mace. Then put in your seeds, and stopper them close up. They are to be eaten as capers.

PICKLES
420.

173

PICKLED YOUNG ONIONS

(Middlesex)

Peel them, and steep them in strong salt and water for four days, changing the water two or three times wipe them perfectly dry and put them into milk which is scalding hot, until the milk becomes cold now drain them, and dry each separately in a cloth after which put them into jars, pour as much white wine vinegar (which has been boiled with white pepper), as wiU cover them completely tie over first with wet bladder, and then with leather, and keep the jars in a dry place for use a little ginger may be added. Some persons put the onions, without peeling, into cold water, and keep them on the fire till the water boils then they take off the outer skins, and steep them in salt and water before adding the vinegar.
;
:

;

;

:

:

421.

PICKLED PRUNES
of prunes,

(Ireland)

One pound
little

haK a pound

of sugar, a

cinnamon, a few cloves. Wash the primes, prick them with a needle. One pint of vinegar to four pounds of prunes. Boil all together without throw it boiling over them. Let it the prunes night, then boil all together very slowly stand a
;

till

the skin

is

a Uttle broken.

When

done, cover

it well.

422.

TO PICKLE SAMPHIRE
it

(Eighteenth

Century)

Wash your samphire
then put
little

well in sour small beer,

into a large preserving pan, dissolve a

bay

salt

and twice the quantity

of

common

174
salt in sour beer,
it close,

PICKLES
then
fill

up your pan with
till it is

it,

cover

and

set it over a slow fire
it

of a fine

through a sieve, and put it into white wine vinegar as will be sufficient to cover it, with a race or two of ginger, and a few peppercorns. Pour this hot upon your samphires in the jars, and tie them down.
green.
jars.

Drain

Boil as

much

423.

PICKLED GREEN WALNUTS

(Surrey)

Gather green walnuts before the inner shell is may be known by pricking them with if it goes through easily, they are young a pin enough to pickle. Prick them in several places with a needle or pin, to allow them to imbibe the salt, and put them in strong brine for a fortnight, making fresh salt and water every three days drain them, and put them in a jar, sprinkle them with salt, and pour over (hot) vinegar boiled as for some shalots, garlic, or onion may be cabbage boiled in the vinegar, if the flavour is not disliked. Some persons dry the walnuts in the sun for three or four days, after having left the brine, and before the vinegar is added.
formed, which
; : ;

424.

RIPE WALNUT PICKLE

(Middlesex)

rinds of ripe walnuts in a mortar with a then add water by degrees, and continue to pound the whole together pass the whole through a sieve, so as to get out a strong liquor boil this with ginger, horseradish and sweet herbs, white pepper, a few cloves, and salt, for half an hour very slowly strain and put it into bottle, adding the
little salt
;

Pound the

;

;

;

PICKLES

175

spice ; the trouble of pounding may be avoided by putting the rinds bruised into a tub with a little
salt,

and

sufficient

water to cover them, and straining

the liquor at the end of a few days. (This is so far as the recipe goes but I presume the kernels are separately pickled as above (see " Green Waloff
:

nuts

"),

and

this liquor

is

subsequently added.

Ed.)

425.

VEGETABLE MARROW PICKLE

(Sussex)

Take a good-sized marrow and cut it up into small cubes, none more than two and a half inches
Put it into a preserving pan, with a layer Demerara sugar upon each layer of marrow, and enough vinegar to cover it. Let it cook thus until completely tender then add some stoned raisins, mixed spices, ginger, salt, and pepper, and let it go on boiling until it is quite thick and stiff. Take it off and let it cool down a little before bottling.
long.
of
;

426.

PICKLING MIXTURES
I

(Surrey)

Twenty quarts of spring brown sugar, quarter two pounds of bay salt.
coarse
II

water, three pounds of
of a

poimd

of saltpetre,

One

stone of

common

salt,

quarter of a stone of
of

bay salt, four ounces of saltpetre, half a pound brown sugar, to four gallons of water.

176

PICKLES
III

Half a pound of salt, two ounces of ginger, two ounces of shalots, two ounces of mustard-seed, one ounce of white pepper, one tablespoonful of cayenne pepper, boiled together in two quarts of vinegar. All the vegetables except onions may be put in it, merely first wiping them dry. Put the pickle before the fire for nine days to give it a good colour. It
will

keep for years.

:

CHAPTER

XIII

PUDDINGS
Note. The pudding, from time immemorial, has been an English dish par excellence and our forefathers simply ran riot in puddings. I have declined the insertion of puddings which would make the boldest stand aghast, from their daring novelty in
;

the
far

way of ill-matched
afield

into

ingredients, or their excursion realms of indefensible costliness.
of recipes

which are offered to the and comprehensive range, it will be seen the Poles of the pudding world how many counties have contributed their quota I should like to this remarkably extensive list.
reader, represent a wide
;

The vast number

to underline the respective merits of very many but here, as in all else, " the proof of the pudding
is

in

the eating."

As

sheer

curiosities,

I

have

included two rice puddings one boiled, one baked, dating from about the year 1820,' in Dublin. These
are, I fancy, quite unparalleled,

and I

am

loth that

the recipes should be

lost.

427.

ALBERT PUDDING
six apples, six

(Yorkshire)

Take

six eggs,

ounces of bread
?),

finely grated, six ounces stoned currants (raisins

four ounces of sugar, a

little

salt

and nutmeg.

12

177

178

PUDDINGS
boiled slowly for three hours.

To be

Eaten with

melted butter.
428.

APPLE AMBER

(Hertfordshire)

Strip of rough puff pastry, one pound of apples, two ounces of butter, two ounces of sugar, two eggs, two ounces of bread crumbs, a little grated lemon
rind.

Line the sides of a pie-dish with the strip
Peel, core,

of

and cut up the apples. Stew these until quite tender, add the sugar, butter, bread crumbs, and yolks of eggs. Place this mixture in the pie-dish and bake for half an hour. Beat up the whites stiffly, and two tablespoonfuls of sugar. Pile this meringue on top of the apple mixture, and set slowly in a cool oven. Decorate with cherries, and angehca. N.B. This pudding is excellent hot or cold.
pastry, decorating the edge.

429.

BUTTERED APPLES
apples,

(French)

Take some middle-sized

peel

and core

them, and put them on little round sHces of bread which have had all the crust taken off. Put in each apple as much butter and sugar as it will hold. Cook them in a good oven on a buttered tin, and before serving put a teaspoonful of red currant jelly in each apple.

430.

APPLE

DOWDY

(Essex)

Take about one and a half pounds of apples, bread and butter, a little nutmeg, one gill of water, one gill of golden syrup, two ounces Well butter a deep baking of Demerara sugar.
slices of stale

PUDDINGS
tin or pie-dish.

179

Line the bottom with the thin
butter.
fill

shoes of bread
apples,

and

Peel, core,

and

slice

the

and nearly

the dish with them.

Grate

little nutmeg. Now mix the syrup and water, pour it in over the apples. Put the sugar in a layer on the top, and cover all with more bread and butter. Cover the top over with a tin plate or lid, and bake in a moderate oven about two hours. Then loosen the edges with a knife, put on a hot dish, and serve with sugar and cream ; or it can be served in the dish it is cooked in.

over a

431.

EGG AND APPLE PUDDING

(Yorkshire)

Beat an egg well, add one gill of milk or water, seven tablespoonfuls of flour, one saltspoonful of Pare and cut into pieces salt, mix well together.
three middle-sized apples, stir

them

into the batter.
;

Boil in a cloth for one and a quarter hours

if

in

a basin,
butter

ten minutes longer. flavoured with lemon. Ed.)

Eat with melted
(Sugar

seems to

have been omitted.

432.

GRANDMOTHER'S APPLE PUDDING
(Somerset)

Take
minced
a
little

half a
suet,
salt
;

pound

of plain flour, three ounces of

three ounces of cold boiled potato,
apples.
Peel, core,

and cut up the

apples, rub the potato in the flour (as you would Wet with butter), add the chopped suet and salt. on to a floured board. Grease a little water, roll out a pudding basin, line it with the crust, put the apples in with a little sugar, wet the edges and put

180

PUDDINGS

on the top crust. Flour a thick pudding-cloth, tie down, put into boihng water and boil for three hours. This can be made the day before it is wanted, and not boiled till the next day, when it will turn out a nice biscuit colour. Can be made two days before boiling, but not longer, as the potato turns sour. Same crust can be used for all
boiled suet-puddings.

433.

ROYAL APPLE PUDDING

(American)

Line a pie-dish with a good paste and bake it a Make a good custard with three yolks of eggs and half a pint of milk, with sugar to taste. Have ready half a pound of good thick apple sauce. When the paste is baked, put a layer of apple sauce, then a layer of red currant jelly, and over this pour the custard. Have ready baked straws of pastry cut the length and width of the tart. Put them latticefashion over the custard, then set in oven for five
golden brown.
minutes.

434.

AUNTIE'S PUDDING

(Hertfordshire)

Well butter a plain mould, stick alternate rows and sliced candied peel round it. Pour a breakf astcupf ul of fresh milk, which has been warmed and mixed with a piece of butter the size of a walnut, over a teacupful of white breadcrumbs, let it soak for a time, then add two beaten eggs, any flavouring that is liked crushed ratafia biscuits are very nice beat all well together, pour it into a mould, cover it closely and allow it to steam for two hours. Serve orange sauce round.
of split raisins

:

PUDDmOS
435.

181
(Essex)

AUSTRALIAN PUDDING

Line a pudding basin with good suet paste, then set a lemon, end up, in the bottom, with a little peel cut ofi to flatten it, so that it will keep steady. Put a deep layer of well-picked sultanas around it, up to about the top of the lemon then a layer of paste, then a thinner layer of sultanas, and so on till the basin be full (it should not be too large a basin). Cover with paste, like any other boiled pudding, and steam or boil for two and a half to three hours. When cooked, turn it out upon a hot dish, and let it be cut at table with a very sharp knife, so that a little slice of the lemon goes with each helping. This is particularly good.
436.

AUSTRIAN PUDDING

(Hertfordshire)

Mix together one pound of dried and sifted flour, two teaspoonfuls of baking powder, six ounces of suet, two teaspoonfuls of chopped candied peel (lemon) and a tablespoonful of moist sugar. Mix
a teacupful of treacle with a breakfastcupful of

warm milk, stir it smoothly into the other ingredients,
pour into a well-greased mould, cover with a cloth,

and

boil for three hours.
437.

BAKEWELL PUDDING

(Derbyshire)

A quarter of a pound of flour, two ounces of butter,
Rub the butter into salt, a little water. the flour, add the water and mix from the centre. Do not make it too moist. Flour a board, and work
a pinch of
the paste
till

quite smooth.

Roll

it

out,

and

line

the edge of a pie-dish with a broad band of paste. Cut the remainder into rounds with a cutter, and

.

182

PUDDINGS
all

round edge edge is comMark each round of paste with top of pasteplete. brush handle, and make a line with a skewer as ornamentation Put about two tablcspoonfuls of jam into bottom of For filling mixture, take two ounces of pie-dish. butter, two ounces of castor sugar, two ounces of flour, one egg, one teaspoonful baking powder, eight drops essence of lemon. Cream the butter and
of pie-dish, lifting the first so that the

put them overlapping one another

Add the egg whole and beat well. baking powder, and essence of lemon together, and add to the above and mix well. Put this mixture on the top of the jam in the pie-dish, and spread it with a knife, evenly covering all the jam. Bake in a good oven for half an hour. This is a a very old recipe.
sugar together.

Mix the

flour,

438.

BETSY SOUFFLE

(Hertfordshire)

Take three ounces of sponge-cake crumbs, and on them pour one pint of hot milk cover and set to cool. Beat up two eggs, leaving out the white of one, with one teaspoonful of brandy, and add to the cake and milk. Line the bottom of a pie-dish with apricot jam, and pour the above mixture on the top. Bake in a steady oven for hah an hour. Beat up the second white of egg to a stiff froth, pUe it on pudding, and just brown in oven. Serve hot
;

or cold.
439.

CREAM BLANC MANGE
it

(Somerset)

of

To one ounce of new milk. Let

Nelson's gelatine add half a pint

soak for thirty minutes.

Boil

;

PUDDINGS
two or three
laurel leaves in a pint of

183

cream and

half a pint of milk.

When

boiling pour over the
;

soaked gelatine. Stir it till it dissolves add four ounces of lump sugar and a tablespoonful of brandy. Strain it through muslin. Stir occasionally until thickens, then pour into wet moulds. it

440.

BOLTON PUDDING
of flour, of sugar,

(Isle

of

Wight)

Three ounces
a

haK ounces

one ounce of butter, one and one egg, one small teaspoonful

baking powder, three tablespoonfuls of milk, a jam. Butter a basin and place the jam at the bottom. Rub the butter in the flour, add the sugar and baking powder, mix up with the beaten egg and milk, pour into the buttered basin. Steam for one and a half hours serve with sweet sauce.
of
little
;

441.

BONITA PUDDING

(Ireland)

half a

Take two eggs, juice of two lemons, rind of one, pound of castor sugar, quarter of an ounce of
than half a tumbler
of

gelatine, melted in less

water

(small teacupful).

lemon
till

juice, rind,

Cream the yolks and sugar, add and gelatine. Mix well, leave
stir in

beginning to thicken, then

whites beaten
is

stiff.

Pour into glass dish, and leave to set.
This

with whipped cream when cold. but be careful that the whites are not added till the mixture is getting thick, or it will set in two layers, instead of being of one consistency throughout.

Serve very good

184

PUDDINGS
442.

BRADFORD PUDDING
;

(Hertfordshire)

Take three eggs and their weight in butter, sugar, and flour cream the butter and sugar well together, add the grated rind of a lemon, a good tablespoonful of cream, and one of brandy sprinkle in the flour, fill some small buttered moulds with the mixture, stand them on sand on a baking tin to prevent the puddings getting too brown, and bake about Pour some sherry over them, or fifteen minutes. some wine sauce round them.
;

443.

BREAD-PUDDINGS (SMALL)

(Cheshire)

Pour one pint of boiling water over half a pint of bread crumbs add three eggs well-beaten, the rind of half a lemon, and sugar to taste. Butter some small moulds, or " castle-pudding " tins, fill them with the mixture, and bake it a light brown. Turn the puddings out on a hot dish, and sprinkle sifted sugar over, or put a little warmed jam on
fine
;

the tops.

II

Butter well some small plain moulds, and put in each a layer of fine bread crumbs half an inch thick and so on till the moulds are then a layer of jam nearly full. Beat up an egg, and add to it half a pint of milk, with sugar and flavouring to taste. Pour this very slowly into the moulds, and bake about
;

;

twenty minutes.
with sweet sauce.

Turn out the puddings and serve

PUDDINGS
444.

188
(Yorkshire)

BROWN BETTY

Take two dozen
a loaf of stale
sprinkle over

into thin slices, pare

and cut them them if preferred crumb up bread. Take a deep pudding-dish,
fine large apples,
;

put in a layer of bread crumbs, then one of apples, them some brown sugar, put in a piece of butter and any spice that may be preferred, then sprinkle in a very little cold water. Put in another layer of crumbs, apples, sugar, butter, spice, and water again go on until the dish is full, making the top layer of apples. Bake in a quick oven. Eat hot with sugar and wine sauce.
;

445.

CABINET PUDDING

(Kent,

1809)

Line a mould with stoned raisins, first buttering then put thin slices of bread, some chopped lemon peel, and pour in a glass of brandy. Beat six eggs, yolks and whites, and milk enough to fill the mould sweeten it to taste, set it in a basin half filled with boiling water, put it in the oven to bake.
the mould well;
;

446.

CANTERBURY PUDDING

(Kent)

Take half a pound of suet, chopped fine, half a pound of grated bread, half a pound of sugar, the juice and rind of one lemon grated fine, three eggs, and a large wineglassful of brandy to be boiled an hour and three-quarters, and served with sweet sauce.
;

447.

CARROT PUDDING

(Yorkshire, 1769)

peel them.

Take three or four clean red carrots, boil and Take the red part of the carrots, beat

186
it

PUDDINGS
fine,

very

put

it

to the

crumb

of a

six eggs, half a

pound

of clarified butter,
little

penny loaf, two or
shredded
well toall

three tablespoonfuls of rosewater, a

lemon-peel, a
gether,

little

grated nutmeg.

Mix

bake the pudding with a pufl-paste round your dish, and have a little white wine, butter, and sugar for the sauce.

448.

CARROT PUDDING

(1815)

Wash and

scrape your carrots, and boil
;

them
take

till

quite soft, in a good quantity of water

off

the outsides, and grate a quarter of a pound of the middle part of the carrots add to it a quarter of
;

a pound of clarified butter, four eggs well beaten, and candied orange and lemon peel finely cut sugar and brandy to your taste bake it in a dish with a puff paste at the bottom.
; ;

449.

CASTLE PUDDING

(Lancashire)

One and a half ounces of flour, one and a half ounces of castor sugar, one ounce of butter, one teaspoonful of baking powder, one egg, a little milk, Cream the butter and sugar, add the flavouring. egg and part of flour, then the rest of the flour and
baking powder. Pour into cup-shaped tins. Bake about twelve or fifteen minutes. Serve with clear arrowroot sauce or jam sauce.
for

460.

CAROLINA SNOWBALLS

(American)
;

Boil some rice in milk until quite soft prepare some large apples as for apple dumplings, and having placed as much of the rice on a small cloth

PUDDINGS
up

187

as will entirely cover the apple like a crust, tie each
closely, and boil for two hours serve with melted butter and sugar, or with wine sauce.
;

451.

CAULIFLOWER PUDDING
Century)

(Seventeenth

Boil the cauliflowers in milk, then lay them (without leaves or staUis) in a pie dish. Take three gills of cream, the yolks of eight eggs, and the

whites of two.

Season with nutmeg, sugar, mace,
(sherry),

cinnamon, sack

or orange-flower water.

Put it in the oven, bake it as you would do a custard, and grate sugar over it when it comes out of the
oven.

Serve with a sweet rich wine sauce.

452.

CITRON PUDDINGS

(Kent,

1809)

The yolks of three eggs, beat ia half a pint of cream, one spoonful of flour, two ounces of citron, cut thin, sugar to the taste put them into large cups, buttered bake them in a pretty quick oven, turn them out and grate some sugar over them. For sauce, melted butter, wine, and sugar.
; ;

453.

CHOCOLATE MOULD

(Devonshire)

One pint of milk, two tablespoonfuls of cocoa, two tablespoonfuls of cornflour, two tablespoonfuls Mix the cocoa and cornflour to a smooth of sugar.
paste with a
little

cold milk, bring the remainder

to boiling point, and add the sugar, then pour slowly on the paste, stirring all the time return to
;

the saucepan and cook very slowly
time, as
it

;

stir all

the

easily sticks.

Pour into a wet mould.

188
454.

PUDDINGS
CHOCOLATE PUDDING
half a
(Hertfordshire)

Take about
it

into small pieces.

milk,
fork.

and

let it

pound of stale bread, and break Pour over it a pint of boiling stand to cool. Then beat with a
of sugar,

Add two ounces
fire,

an ounce

of

oUed

butter,

and a dessertspoonful

of cocoa.

Stir it all

together over the

until the cocoa tastes cooked.

Remove it from the fire, and when thoroughly cooled add two well-beaten eggs. Pour the mixture in a buttered pie-dish, and bake in a moderate oven for half or three-quarters of an hour. Serve hot.
456.

CORNISH PUDDING

(Cornwall)

Work

four ounces of dripping or lard with one

pound of pastry flour, then add one pinch of salt, two ounces of sugar, and a teaspoonful of bakingpowder. Beat up one egg with a little milk grease a pudding basin and put an inch layer of preserve or marmalade at the bottom. Flavour the pudding mixture with lemon, and arrange on the jam so as to
;

half

fill

the mould.

boiling water

and

floured,

Cover with a cloth, dipped into and steam for three hours.

The pudding will quite fill the basin when cooked, and should turn out well with jam on the top. Serve with any sweet sauce.
456.

COLCHESTER PUDDING
pint of milk,

(Essex)

two ounces of tapioca, the two tablespoonfuls of castor sugar, stewed fruit, custard, whites of two Put a layer of any stewed fruit in a glass dish. eggs. Put the milk in a clean pan on the fire, pare the

Take one

rind of one lemon, vanilla,

;

PUDDINGS
lemon rind very thinly and put

189

it in. Bring the milk slowly to the boil, strain out the rind, and sprinkle in the tapioca. Simmer this very slowly in the milk
till it is

soft

it

frequently.
it

and creamy. Keep the lid on, but stir Then add sugar and vanilla to taste.
fruit
;

Pour
nulk.

on to the
it

it

should be just thick enough

to flow over

add a little more then pour over a good boiled custard. Lastly, beat up the whites of the eggs to a very stiff froth sweeten with the castor sugar, and add a few drops of vanilla. Colour the froth a pale pink with a few drops of cochineal. Heap it over the top of the custard.
nicely.
If too thick,

Let

this get cold,

;

457.

CUMBERLAND PUDDING

(Hertfordshire)

Mix together in a basin six ounces of bread crumbs, four ounces of beef suet, four ounces of sugar, six ounces of sour apple, chopped, a tablespoonful of treacle, the grated rind of a lemon, a little mixed spice, and a teaspoonful of baking powder. Bind together with two eggs beaten up with half a teacupful of milk. Turn into a greased mould, cover with a greased paper, and steam in a saucepan, for not less than two hours. Serve with
some
liquefied apple jelly as sauce.

458.

DAME BLANC PUDDING

(Hertfordshire)

it three ounces one ounce of bitter almonds then pour the milk on to three yolks of eggs, add some gelatine, let cool, then add three whites whipped stiff, and a little cream. When the mould is turned out, cover with red currant jelly and sherry.

Boil a pint of milk, having put into

of sweet almonds,

;

190
459.

PUDDINGS
AN EXCELLENT DATE PUDDING (Hertfordshire)

Procure one pound of dates at about 2d. per pound, them in boiling water for a moment, and set near the fire to dry remove the stones, and chop the fruit small. Put six ounces of flour in a basin, add a pinch of salt to it, and a little baking
scald
;

powder, mix in four ounces of finely chopped suet, add the chopped dates, about a quarter of a grated nutmeg, and two ounces of brown sugar. Moisten the pudding Avith as little water as possible or, better still, one egg, and boil the whole in a buttered basin Serve with a little scalded cream, for four hours.
or a nicely flavoured cornflour sauce.

460.

DEVIL'S
of

FOOD

(American)

Take a cupful
fuls of

brown

sugar, three eggs, one

cupful of butter, two cupfuls of flour,

two teaspoon-

baking powder, half a cupful of milk. Stir this into a batter, and let it cool. Next take a quarter of a cake of chocolate, half a cup of milk, one cupful Melt this, but do not let it boil of brown sugar. then mix all together and bake. (Breakfastcups are probably meant. Ed.)

461.

DEVON "STIR-UP" PUDDING

(Devonshire)

One breakfastcupful of flour, one apple cut up, one tablespoonful of currants, one tablespoonful of suet chopped, half a teaspoonful of baking powder, and a pinch of salt. Mix all together to a stiff paste with a little water, and steam in a basin for one and a half hours. Serve with a sauce of treacle and milk in equal parts heated, but not boiled. This

PUDDINGS
pudding
ties
is

191

also excellent

when made with rhubarb,

gooseberries, or

any sort of fruit. The above quantimake a small pudding sufficient for two or three

persons.

462.

DEVONSHIRE WHITE-POT
(Eighteenth Century)
;

Take a penny white loaf sliced very thin make two quarts of new milk scaldiag hot, then put it to the bread, and break it up and put it through a colander. Then put in four eggs, a little spice, sugar, raisins and currants, and a little salt, and bake
it,

but not too long, or

it will

whey

(i.e.,

curdle).

463.

ELIZABETH'S PUDDING

(Hertfordshire)

of stale bread, one pound of stewed two ounces of sugar, two ounces of suet, rhubarb, one egg. Soak the bread in just enough milk to cover. When quite soft, squeeze dry and break up with a fork add the chopped suet, sugar, and
;

One pound

beaten egg. Line a greased pie-dish with the mixture. Pour in the stewed rhubarb, or any other stewed fruit sweetened. Cover with another layer Bake in a moderately hot oven for one of bread. hour and a half. Serve hot.

464.

EXETER PUDDING
of

(Hertfordshire)

Take three tablespoonfuls
three of sago, three of finely
of white sugar.

minced

white bread crumbs, suet, and four

Mix

these ingredients with two

well-beaten eggs, a cupful of milk, adding a

few

drops of

almond essence, and a pinch

of salt.

Butter

192

PUDDINGS
ratafias,

a mould, put in a layer of sponge rusks and

spread a layer of raspberry jam over, then a layer of the above mixture at the top. Cover with a buttered
it stand a few hours, or over night, then moderate oven for forty minutes. For a sauce, boil a pound of red currants and raspberry jam with an equal quantity of water and some lumps of sugar strain and pour round the pudding.

paper, let

bake

in a

;

465.

FAVOURITE PUDDING

(Hertfordshire)

egg, one third an oiuice of gelatine, and one ounce of castor sugar. Soak the gelatine in a small quantity of the milk, beat the yolk of an egg, and add it to the milk with the ounce of sugar. Bring the rest of the milk to the boU, and pour it over the gelatine, etc. stir well and let the mixture boil again. Directly it reaches boiling point, pour
of a pint of milk, a quarter of
;

The necessary ingredients are one

over the well-beaten white of egg, mix the whole thoroughly, and pour into a mould. The pudding must not be stirred or shaken till cold, when it should be turned out, and it will look like a thick cream, surmounted by a clear jelly.
it

466.

FIG PUDDING
of a

(Ireland)

Take a quarter

pound

of

bread crumbs, a

quarter of a pound of

figs,

three ounces of suet, three

ounces of brown sugar, salt, two eggs, juice of one lemon, peel of half a lemon. Mince suet and figs. Pass all the dry ingredients through mincer, mix well,

add eggs well beaten.

Beat

all

well.

Steam

in

buttered mould three or four hours.

PUDDINGS
467.

193
(Essex)

FRIAR'S OMELETTE
moderate-sized

Make

six

apples

iato

sauce,

sweeten with powdered loaf sugar, stir in two ounces of butter, and, when cold, mix with two well-beaten eggs. Butter a tart-dish, and strew the bottom and sides' thickly with bread crumbs to the depth of a quarter of an inch; put a little dissolved butter on the top, and bake for an hour in a good oven. When done, turn out and sift sugar over it.
468.

FRUIT PUDDING
it

(Hertfordshire)

Dip a pudding basin or plain mould into cold
water.

Line

with

slices of

bread,

fill

half full of

hot, stewed fruit,

add a thin layer

of thin bread,

then more stewed fruit nearly to fill the basin. Cover with slices of bread and press it down with a Turn out next day, and serve with plate and weight. a custard or whipped cream round it.
469.

GERMAN PUFFS

(Hertfordshire)

Cream two ounces by
degrees,

of butter, adding three table;

spoonfuls of sugar, and the yolks of three eggs
of flour,

then,

add three teacupfuls of milk, the same a saltspoonful of salt, and when they are all
of

well beaten together, the stifily-beaten whites

Half fill some for about twenty well-greased teacups, and bake minutes. Serve immediately with sweet sauce.
three eggs, flavoured with vanilla.
470.

GERMAN TREACLE PUFFS

(Hertfordshire)

Half a pound of flour, half a pound of treacle, a quarter of a pound of suet, a quarter of a pound of steam three peel, one teaspoonful baking powder
;

hours

;

lemon sauce.

13

194

PUDDINGS
471.

GERMAN PUDDING
of rice in
is all

(Hertfordshire)

one and a half pints Let it cool a little, turn into a basin and add a quarter of a pound of beef suet, finely chopped, six ounces of sultanas, one ounce of finely chopped candied peel, half an ounce of ground sweet almonds, three ounces
of milk, until the

Cook four ounces

milk

absorbed.

of castor sugar,

of four fresh eggs.

and the well-beaten yolks and whites Pour into a weU-buttered mould,

being careful not to

top

;

fill within half an inch of the cover with a buttered paper and steam for three

hours.

472.

PRESERVED GINGER PUDDING

(Essex)

Take two eggs and their weight in butter, sugar, and flour, one teaspoonful of baking powder, and Beat the butter three ounces of preserved ginger. to a cream, add the sugar and flour, with which the baking-powder should be mixed, then the preserved ginger cut into small dice. Beat the eggs, yolks and whites separately, and add the yolks first to the pudding, then the whites. Pour into a buttered mould and steam for one and a half hours. Turn it out to serve, and pour round a nice cream sauce.

473.

A GOOD PUDDING

(Devonshire)

Two ounces of butter, four ounces of flour, three ounces of castor sugar, two eggs, one tablespoonful of raspberry jam. Cream the butter and sugar,
and
flour
let it

stand for fifteen minutes, then add the
lastly

and eggs alternately, and jam. Steam for two hours.

mix

in the

PUDDINGS
474.

195
(Yorkshire)

HELSTON PUDDING
rice, currants,

Two

tablespoonfuls each of

flour, sugar,

bread

crumbs, ground

and

sultanas, three

tablespoonfuls of chopped suet, one tablespoonful cut

candied peel, pinch of salt. Mix up with milk in which one teaspoonful of carbonate of soda has been dissolved. Boil or steam in a greased basin for

two or three hours.
475.

HOMINY SNOWBALLS

(Sussex)

Take one pint of milk, two tablespoonfuls of hominy, and sweeten with white sugar. Put it into a jug, or jar, which must stand in a saucepan of boiling water. Let it simmer for two and a half hours, then turn it out into teacups. These are subsequently turned out, when the hominy is set, and a little jam should be put on the top of each " snowball."
476.

KENTISH PUDDING-PIES

Thinly pare half a lemon, boil the rind in a pint and strain it out. Add to the milk three ounces of ground rice and a pinch of salt, and boil it
of milk,

an hour, stirring continually. Then add (with care not to curdle the eggs) one ounce of butter, two ounces of sugar, two well-beaten eggs. When the mixture is cold, line some patty-pans with good paste, fill them with the mixture, and
for a quarter of

bake in a moderate oven
477.

for

about twenty minutes.
(1815)

LEMON PUDDING

Put haK a pound of fresh butter and half a pound of lump sugar into a saucepan, and keep it stirred

;

196

PUDDINGS
fire till it boils
;

it into an earthen jar, lemon into it, and let beat eight eggs and squeeze it stand till it is cold the juice of a lemon on them, mix the sugar and butter with them, put them in a dish with a good pufE paste at the bottom, put bits of candied lemon peel in the dish upon the paste. To be baked in the usual manner.

over the

put

and grate the rind

of a large
;

478.

BAKED LEMON PUDDING
pint of milk,

(Hampshire)

One

two

eggs, one lemon, bread,

sugar to taste. Boil the milk and put into it about two ounces of bread cut in dice, and the grated rind Add the beaten yolks of the eggs, of one lemon. pour the mixture into a buttered pie-dish, and bake

Now whip the white with the lemon juice, tiU stiff replace in the oven till lightly browned, and serve either hot or cold. This is equally good made with orange instead of lemon.
gently in a slow oven until set.
of the eggs,
;

479.

COLD LEMON PUDDING

(Hertfordshire)

Put the rind of three lemons in a pint of milk, and strain it on the yolks of six eggs, well beaten sweeten to taste. Dissolve an omice of gelatine Beat in a little milk, and add it to the custard. six whites and mix all together in a basin. the
Stir it frequently
till

nearly cold,

when put

it

in a

mould

till

wanted.
480.

LIGHT PUDDING

(Kent)
eggs, one

Break into a basin the yolks of two spoonful of flour, the same of sifted sugar.

Mix the

PUDDINGS
;

197

whole beat the whites to a firm froth, add them to the other, put some jam in a pie-dish, put the mixture on it, and bake for ten minutea.

481.

LIGHT PUDDING

(Sussex)

Take four ounces
two
eggs.

of grated apples,

bread, four ounces of sugar.

two ounces of Beat together and add

Bake

in a buttered dish.

482.

LISTER PUDDING

(Westmorland)

A quarter of a pound of flour, two ounces of castor
two ounces of butter, one teaspoonful baking powder, one egg, three tablespoonfuls
sugar,
of of

jam. Rub the butter into the flour, add the rest of the ingredients. Take a buttered basia and line with jam or split raisins. Put in the mixture and steam one and a quarter hours.
milk, a
little

Serve with white sweet sauce or jam sauce.

483.

MARGUERITE PUDDING
;

(Surrey)

Take a quarter of a pound of flour, rub in two add two ounces of castor sugar, ounces of butter and one small teaspoonful of baking powder lastly add a well-beaten-up egg, with enough milk to moisten the whole. Pour into a buttered mould, steam half -filling it only, as the pudding will rise warm about a small teacupful of jam for one hour or marmalade in the oven, turn out the pudding on a hot dish, and pour the jam over it. This is very
; : ;

light

and good.

198
484.

PUDDINGS
MARMALADE PUDDING
flour,

(Devonshire)

Eight ounces

four ounces of bread crumbs,

four ounces of suet, two large tablespoonfuls of mar-

malade, two tablespoonfuls of Demerara sugar, one egg, a teacupful of milk, one teaspoonful of carbonate Mix flour, bread crumbs, suet, and sugar of soda. together. Beat the egg, add the marmalade, stir well and mix in. Then warm the milk, put ia the soda, stir into the mixture to a soft dough, place ia a greased basin (not quite to fill it), cover with greased paper, and steam two and a half hours.
485.

MARMALADE PUDDING

(Isle

of

Wight)

Three tablespoonfuls of marmalade, two ounces moist sugar, one ounce of candied peel, three ounces of bread crumbs, three ounces of flour, a quarter of a pound of suet, one lemon, pinch of salt, and one egg. Time to boil or steam, three and a half hours. Chop the suet finely, rub the bread through a sieve, put the flour, salt, and suet crumbs into a basin and rub together with the fingers. Add the bread crumbs, moist sugar, candied peel, and marmalade, and cut the lemons in halves and squeeze the juice also into the basin add the egg, and mix all well together. Butter a pint basin and turn the mixture into it. The basin must be quite full When for boiling, but need not be full for steaming. done, turn out carefully on to a hot dish, and serve with sweet sauce or marmalade sauce.
of
;

486.

MATTRESS

(Durham)

Two

teacupfuls flour, two ounces dripping or

butter, one teacupful castor sugar, one teaspoonful

PUDDINGS

199

of baking-powder, one egg, and enough milk with egg to fill a teacup. Rub the dripping into the flour, add the baking powder and sugar, and mix. Beat the egg, add the milk, and mix together. Bake on

a shallow tin from twenty to thirty minutes
thickly with jam.
If

:

spread

served hot,

warm
of

the jam

before spreading.
487.

MOUNTAIN PUDDING

(Isle

Wight)
;

Butter a pie-dish and line it with ratafias grate the rind of a lemon over them. Mix two ounces of flour with a little cold milk to a smooth paste, and add cold milk gradually to make a pint boil this for ten minutes, stirring all the time. Pour the mixture gently over the ratafias and leave them to soak for ten minutes. Beat the whites of two eggs (the yolks are added to the flour mixture after it is cooked) to a stiff froth, stir two ounces of castor sugar to this, and add a little cornflour or arrowroot to make the icing stiff. Arrange it on the pudding
;

in four or five little moulds,

and put the pudding

in the oven till these are sHghtly browned. Serve This icing will take no harm if made two or cold. three hours before it is wanted.
488.

MUFFIN PUDDING

(Kent,

1809)

cover

Spread some butter entirely over a basin, and it with raisins stoned, then fill the basin with

Pour over it a pint of milk, with four well-beaten eggs, nutmeg, and sugar. Cover with a cloth and boil.
thin slices of bread.
489.

MYSTERIOUS PUDDING

(Surrey)

Two
sugar
;

eggs, their weight in flour, butter,

and castor

a tablespoonful of marmalade and a tea-

200

PUDDINGS

spoonful of baking powder.

Beat the butter and (in which has been mixed the baking powder) and the marmalade. Beat the eggs well, yolks and whites separately, adding whites lastly when the pudding is weU mixed. Pour into a buttered basin, and steam for one and a half hours. Turn out, spread a little marmalade over the top, and pour sweet sauce round (this sauce is not essential).
sugar to a cream, add the flour
490.

NEWARK PUDDING

(Hertfordshire)

One cupful of fine bread crumbs soaked in a pint two well-whisked eggs, a tablespoonful of rice flour, a quarter of a pound of raisins, stoned and
of milk,

vanilla or almond and a pinch of carbonate of soda. Mix all to a smooth batter, pour into a buttered piedish, and bake gently for upwards of an hour.
essence,
491.

cut in pieces, a few drops of

NORFOLK DUMPLINGS

Take baker's dough and form dumplings the size Then put plenty of sugar, butter, and spices into a pan of hot milk, baste the dumplings well with the milk, and bake a golden brown. The dumplings, when cooked, should be
of a large egg.

double the

size

they were when put into the oven.

492.

NOTTINGHAM PUDDING
;

Peel six good apples, take out the cores and leave
fill up with sugar where the core was taken out place them in a pie-dish, and pour over them a light batter, prepared as for a batter pudding, and bake an hour in a moderate oven.

the apples whole
;

PUDDINGS
493.

201

OXFORDSHIRE PUDDING
rice well in several waters,

Wash some

and
: ;

tie it

up, but not too tightly, in a pudding cloth

put

it

on in cold water, and let it boU for two hours mix some well-washed currants with the rice, and eat with sweet sauce, or cold butter and sugar.

494.

PATRIOTIC PUDDING
two ounces

(Yorkshire)

Two

oiuices of flour,

of butter,

one and

a half ounces of castor sugar, one egg, half a teaspoonful baking powder, half a teaspoonful of lemon a little milk. Cream the butter and add the beaten egg and milk alternately with the flour, lastly add the baking powder. Put some jam into the bottom of a greased basin. Pour the mixture in and steam for one hour.
juice,
salt,

sugar,

495.

PINEAPPLE PUDDING

(Hertfordshire)

Take two ounces of butter, the same of flour, half a pint of mUk, and four ounces of pineapple cut up into dice. Take slices of pineapple, the yolks and whites of three eggs, and a tablespoonful of castor sugar. Take flour and butter together in a stewpan and mix well, and let it boil. Stir it well and add the eggs one by one, and beat them well in then stir well in the juice of pineapples and sugar. Put the mixture into a mould and put paper on top, and steam it for three-quarters of an hour. Serve sauce with it, composed of half a pint of liquor of the pineapple, two ounces of sugar, and some lemon
;

juice, all boiled

together

till

clear.

A ginger pudding,

with preserved ginger, can be made the same way.

202

PUDDINGS
CHRISTMAS PLUM PUDDINGS
(Hertfordshire)

496.

Five pounds of suet, three pounds of bread crumbs, one and a half pounds of cornflour, one and a haK pounds of flour, three pounds of raisins, three pounds of sultanas, three pounds of currants, two pounds of candied peel, four pounds of Demerara sugar, one pound of sweet almonds, two pounds of apples, eight lemons, two nutmegs, one pint of milk, twenty-four eggs, half a pound of baking powder, one pint of brandy. This makes eight good-sized puddings.

497.

CHRISTMAS PLUM PUDDING

(Ireland)

of three household loaves, three pounds of two pounds of Valentia raisins, one pound Demerara sugar, one and a haK pounds of butter, twelve eggs, half a pound of mixed candied peel, allspice to taste. Mix all dry ingredients first, melt butter and mix in, then add the eggs, and flavour with whisky or sherry. (It will be seen that the above contains no flour or suet, and is

Crumb

sultanas,

therefore exceptionally light.)

498.

VEGETABLE PLUM PUDDING

(Kent)

One pound of mashed potatoes, half a pound of mashed carrots, half a pound of flour, half a pound of bread crumbs, half a pound of suet, one pound of sugar, one pound of currants, one pound of raisins, half a pound of mixed peel, one nutmeg (grated), a quarter of a pound of almonds (grated), three
eggs.

Boil in basins ten hours.

PUDDINGS
499.

203
(Kent)

POLKA PUDDING
six eggs well
;

Put a tablespoonful
cold milk.

of arrowroot into a pint of

Beat

add to them three

ounces of fresh butter cut into small bits, a dessertspoonful of rosewater, a few drops of lemon or ratafia, a teacupful of sugar. Boil two pints of milk, when boiling stir in the other ingredients without taking it from the fire, boil till thick, then put it in a mould. Freeze it, if you have ice.

600.

POMMES AU RIZ

(Hertfordshire)

Take three tablespoonfuls of groimd rice, a pint and half of milk, a dozen fair-sized apples, and yolks of three eggs. Cook the rice in the milk. Peel eight of the apples and cook them in a little water and sugar to taste, and, as these will be too juicy, crush and add the other four apples, having previously peeled and cored them. Mix the rice and the apples, and the yolks of the eggs, and cook for
five

minutes, stirring

all

the time, then place in a

pie-dish,

and brown in the oven. Just before spread some jam over the top. serving
501.

POUDING A LA MONSIEUR PLARCH
(Hertfordshire)

ounces of chopped apples, two ounces of of breadcrumbs, tablespoonful marmalade, two eggs, a little baking powder. of Steam.

Two

sugar, four ounces

502.

POTATO PUDDING
of potatoes boiled

(Ireland)
fine,'

A

pound

and beaten

six

ounces of butter melted in one prat of milk, twelve

204

PUDDINGS
and
Sugar to
taste.

eggs, half the whites, the peel of three lemons,

the juice of one.
603.

Boil or steam.

BOILED PUDDING TO BE EATEN COLD
eggs,

(Kent)

one pint of milk, one ounce of sugar, a grated lemon peel, two ounces of raisins, four little large spoonfuls of marmalade, six ladies' fingers (Savoy sponge cakes). Sweeten the milk with sugar, add the lemon peel, stir in the eggs, having well beaten them line a buttered mould with the raisius spread the slices of sponge stoned and cut in half biscuits with the marmalade, and place in the mould; pour in the custard tie the pudding down with paper and a cloth, and boil gently for one hour. When cold, turn out carefully.
; ; ;

Four

504.

PUDDING TO BE EATEN COLD

(Shropshire)

Rice and milk boiled together with a laurel leaf, stiff. Add a good bit of butter, white sugar powdered, six yolks and three whites of eggs. Put all in a flat dish alternately with jam. Put it for a few minutes before the fire to dry the top beat up the remaining three whites, pour them over and bake. To be eaten cold.
pretty
;

505.

QUAKING PUDDING

(Eighteenth

Century)

Boil one quart of cream,

and

let

it

stand

till

almost cold. Beat four eggs for half an hour, with one and a half teaspoonfuls of flour, and then mix them up with your cream. Add sugar and nutmeg
to taste
:

tie
it

the pudding close up in a well-buttered
boil

cloth, let

one hour and then turn

it

out

carefully.

;

PUDDINGS
606.

205
(Surrey)

QUEEN OF PUDDINGS

pint of bread crumbs, one quart of milk, one teacupful of white sugar, yolks of four eggs, grated rind of one lemon. Beat the yolks, sugar, and lemon
together,

One

and

stir in

brown

colour.

the crumbs. Bake to a Then beat the whites of the

light

four

with four tablespoonfuls of sugar. Spread currant jelly over the top of the pudding spread over this the beaten whites, and set it back in the oven long enough to brown slightly. Serve
stiff froth,

eggs to a

cold.

A

little

vanilla

may

be used in place of

lemon.
607.

QUEEN'S PUDDING

(Kent)

Half a pint of cream, one pint of mUk, sugar, to Add the boil together for a quarter of an hour. yolks of three eggs well beaten, then place in a shape, covered with a piece of thin paper. Boil for one hour, serve it with sauce made of red currant
jelly

and
608.

sherry.

RASPBERRY PUDDING

(Hampshire)

Two

eggs, their weight in butter

the weight of three eggs in fuls raspberry jam, half a teaspoonful carbonate Put the soda in the flour dry, rub in the of soda. Mix, put in butter, add the sugar, jam, and eggs.

and castor sugar, flour, two tablespoon-

buttered basin, steam or boil for two hours.

509.

RASPBERRY PUDDING

(Hertfordshire)

pound
sugar,

Half a pound of bread crumbs, a quarter of a of butter (creamed), a quarter of a poimd of

one tablespoonful

flour,

four

tablespoon-

206
fuls

PUDDINGS

raspberry jam, half a teaspoonful baking powder, two eggs. Mix all thoroughly and put into a mould, and steam for two hours.
510.

RAILWAY PUDDING
;

(Ireland)

teacupful of flour

Required, two ounces of butter beaten with a add a teacupful of castor sugar,

a small tablespoonful of baking powder, half a teacupful of milk, and one egg. Bake fifteen to twenty minutes on two flat tins. Spread with jam and fold
over.

611.

REFORM PUDDINGS

(Yorkshire)

of two eggs in ground rice, the same same in butter. First work the butter to a cream, then put in the sugar and ground rice, and lastly the two eggs well beaten. Put in buttered cups and bake twenty minutes.

The weight

in sugar, the

612.

REGENCY PUDDING
pound

(Kent,

1809)

A quarter of a pound of flour,
of suet, a quarter of a of a

a quarter of a pound
fine,

of currants, a quarter

pound
eggs.

of

apples chopped
it

a

little

sugar,

two

Boil

two hours.
(Hertfordshire)

613.

RICE CAKE MOULD
I
rice
stiff

Stew enough

in milk to

fill

a quart mould.

When
whites

middling

and

cool,

add

six yolks

and four
of

whipped

stiff.

Flavour

with

essence

lemon. Butter the mould well, strew; it with breadcrumbs, turn the rice into it. Bake about threequarters of an hour. Serve with hot apricot sauce.

PUDDINGS
II

207

Three eggs and their weight of ground rice, also the same weight of sugar beat all well together
;

and bake

in a mould.

514.

RICE CHEESE PUDDING

(1816)

Steep a quarter of a pound of ground rice in milk over the fire tiU it is quite soft put it into an earthen pot, and add a quarter of a pound of butter, keep stirring it till the butter is melted, cover it
;

close

and

let it

stand

till

the next day

;

then add a

quarter of a pound of currants, washed and dried thoroughly, three eggs well beaten,two tablespoonfuls

brandy, and sugar and nutmeg to your bake it in patty pans with puff paste at the bottom. N.B. Be careful not to have more milk than the rice requires if it is too thin, the
of ratafia or
;

taste

;

currants will sink to the bottom.

515.

BAKED RICE PUDDING
; ;

(Ireland)

Wash
fire in
off.

a quarter of a pound of rice put it on the a quart of water when hot, pour the water

bitter

Let put

and and and round the edge.
bake.

quarts of milk, some laurel leaf or almonds, some lemon peel, and cumamon. it boil till the rice is quite soft. While hot, in a quarter of a pound of butter, sweeten it, when cold add the beaten yolks of twelve eggs half the whites, a glass of whisky or brandy some saffron. Butter the dish and put paste

Add two

To take an hour and a

half to

[See note at head of this chapter.)

208
616.

PUDDINGS
BOILED RICE PUDDING
of rice steeped a
(Ireland)

few hours in soft then carefully strain ofE the water water and take three pints of good milk, a stick of cinnamon, some laurel leaves, and boil well. Have ready beaten up ten or twelve eggs add currants, raisins, sugar, nutmeg. Have ready your pudding cloth dipped in boiling water, well squeezed, and then flour it and pour in your pudding. An hour's constant boiling will be sufficient. Tie your cloth well, Whisky, melted butter. Saiice. sugar, and To make this pudding dark as rich plum pudding, take a little dark sugar, put it in a saucepan to bum on the fire add a glass of whisky keep stirring till very brown. Throw it into your pudding while
;

One pound

;

;

;

;

boiling hot.

(See note as above.)

517.

SMALL BICE PUDDINGS

(Kent,

1809)

A

or five eggs, one pint of milk and a

quarter of a pound of butter, the yolks of four little cream, one
of

ounce
leaf.

almonds, pounded or chopped
in small tins.

fine,

a

quarter of a pound of rice boiled up with a laurel

Bake them

618.

PUDDING A LA ROYALE

(Hertfordshire)

Make some custard, add a little gelatine and whipped cream, and some fine brown breadcrumbs. Set in a mould and serve with some sauce
round.
519.

SANDOWN PUDDING

(Isle

of

Wight)

Butter a cake-tin and line
or boudoir biscuits,

it with sponge fingers put in two ounces of glac^

;

PUDDINGS
cherries
of custard

209

and two ounces of ratafias. Make a pint and add to it three ounces of gelatine pour into the mould or tin, leave it to cool, and serve as a cold pudding with whipped cream.
620.

SNOWBALLS

(Surrey)

Take a pint of milk, boil it and sweeten to taste. Mix three tablespoonfuls of ground rice with a little cold milk. Pound a dozen and a half sweet, and half
a dozen
rice,

bitter,

almonds in a mortar, add these to the
rice, stir

together with a dessertspoonful of orange-flower
all

water, then pour the boiling milk over the

and return
it

to the saucepan

;

keep

stirring until

Allow it to boil for two or three seconds. wet teacups with the mixture, and when quite cold turn out the snowballs and ornament the top of each with almonds, garnish them with strawberry jam, and pour cream round them.
thickens.
Fill

52L

SNOWDON PUDDING

(Devonshire)

A

sugar, half a

quarter of a pound of raisins, half a pound of poxmd of suet chopped finely, half a
of

bread crumbs, the rind and juice of a lemon, half a wine-glass of brandy (this is not Mix with two eggs well beaten, pour essential). into a buttered basin lined with the raisins (split), boil two hours, and serve with lemon sauce.

pound

522.

SPONGE PUDDING

(Devonshire)

Half a pound of flour, three ounces of sugar, three ounces of butter, one teaspoonful of ground ginger, one teaspoonful of bicarbonate of soda, one teacup14

210
ful of milk.

PUDDINGS
Mix dry ingredients together, then rub and add the soda (ready dissolved in
Beat
it

in the butter,

warm

milk).

to a soft batter, steam

it

in a

buttered basin for two or three hours.

Serve with

sweet sauce.

523.

SPOONFUL PUDDING

(Seventeentl^

Century)

To one spoonful of flour and one spoonful of cream or milk, add an egg, a little nutmeg, ginger, and salt. Mix all together, with a few currants if you choose, and boil it in a basin half an hour. (A tablespoon is presumably indicated. Ed.)

624.

SUFFOLK DUMPLINGS

Take one pound of dough, divide it into six equal parts, mould these into dumplings and drop them
into fast-boihng water.
fifteen

Boil quickly for ten to

minutes, and serve them the instant they are

dished.

They should each be slightly torn apart with two forks, to let the steam out, directly they are taken out of the saucepan, or they will be sad (heavy) in the middle.

525.

SUNDAY PUDDING OR FRITTERS
(Isle of

Wight)

A quarter of a pound of flour,
of sugar,

a quarter of a pound

milk.

one pint of Beat the butter and sugar to a cream, add
of butter, four eggs,

two ounces

the flour and eggs singly. haK full, for fifteen minutes.
or cream.

Bake

in saucer tins,

Eat them with jam

PUDDINGS
526.

211

SWEETMEAT PUDDING

(Hertfordshire)

Melt half a pound of butter in a jam-pot in a pan add a quarter of a pound of sugar, beat well the yolks of eight eggs without the whites, add to the butter and sugar a quarter of a pound of candied lemon-peel, a quarter of a pound of candied orange peel, and a quarter of a pound of candied citron very finely chopped or shredded. Bake one and a
of hot water,

half hours.

527.

TAPIOCA SOUFFLE

(Hertfordshire)

when

Soak a tablespoonful of tapioca in cold water; soft set it to boil, and when of the consistency
sweeten to taste.

of porridge,

or lemon peel.

When

it is

cold,

Flavour with vanilla whisk four eggs,
beat up the eggs,
souffle

whites

and yolks separately,

adding the whites last. Bake in a for twenty minutes. Serve at once.
628.

mould

TREACLE PUDDING

(Lancashu'e)

Two

tablespoonfuls of golden syrup or treacle,

two tablespoonfuls of chopped suet, six tablespoonfuls of flour, one and a haK teaspoonfuls of baking powder, one egg. Mix flour, suet, and bakingpowder, and a pinch of salt. Stir in treacle, beaten Place in a greased basin, egg, and a little milk. cover with paper, and steam about two hours.
629.

TOWN PUDDING

(Kent)

Six ounces of suet, half a pound of grated bread

crumbs, six ounces of moist sugar, half a pound of apples after being pared and cored ; one teaspoonful

212
finely cut

PUDDINGS
lemon rind
;

small pinch of

salt.

Mix
and

ingredients thoroughly,

and press them

tightly into

a mould (well buttered),
boil for four hours.

tie floured cloth over,

Turn out

carefully.

No

other

moisture required.

530.

WELSH PUDDING

(Shropshire)

Half a pound of chopped suet, three quarters of a pound of bread crumbs, half a pot of orange marmalade, a little moist sugar, three eggs. Beat well
together and boil three hours in a mould.

531.

WHITE POT

(Yorkshire,

1769)

A layer of white bread cut thin at the bottom of the dish, a layer of apples cut thin, a layer of suet, currants, raisins, sugar, and nutmeg then the bread, and so on, as above, till the dish is filled up. Beat four eggs, and mix them with a pint of good milk, a little sugar and nutmeg, and pour it over the top.
;

This should be baked.
632.

made

three or feur hours before

it is

DR. WILSON'S

PUDDING

(Hertfordshire)

hot fruit juice, cut rounds of bread the size mould, soak them in juice, fill the mould, put then put it on the ice or in a a weight on the top very cold place, turn out, serve with whipped cream or custard over it.
of the
;

Make

533.

YEAST PUDDING
as for rolls,
it

(Ireland)

Mix dough
the baker
for
;

or procure

make

up

into dumplings,

some from and boil

about twenty minutes.

CHAPTER XIV

PASTRY AND SWEET DISHES
Under
not
of
fall

this

heading are a few recipes which do
;

exactly under the head of puddings

some

found a most welcome change from the ordinary round of things, especially the fruit dishes and the " Treacle-George," which is immensely popular iq those families favoured by
its

these wiU be

acquaintance.
crust,

For making short

good beef-dripping
;

is

much

superior to lard

or butter

a mixture of

beef and mutton dripping, plus bacon-fat or lard, run down and clarified, is the best thing possible
for meat-pies.

For

puff pastry the best lard or butter
:

only should be used it is cheapest in the end. Flour should be slightly warmed before using, as directed But the baking is quite as important as for cakes. and if an oven door be left ajar, or the making open too long, or if articles are taken out of the
:

oven, and carelessly set in a draughty place, the best batch of pastry may be ruined.

PASTRY
534.

OBSERVATIONS ON PIES

(Eighteenth Century)

Raised pies should have a quick oven, kept well
closed up, or your pie will
213
fall in at

the sides

;

it

214

PASTRY AND SWEET DISHES

should have no water put in till the minute it goes to the oven, or else it makes the crust sad, and it is
requires a moderate oven

Light paste but not too slow, or it will make it sad, and a quick oven will catch and burn it, and not give it time to rise. Tarts that are iced, require a slow oven, or the icing will brown, and the paste not be nearly baked. This sort of tarts ought to be made of sugar paste, rolled very thin.
;

a great hazard of the pie running.

535.

APPLE TART
:

(French Method)

Scald eight or ten large apples, and

when

cold

then add to them the yolks of four and the whites of two eggs, and the whole well together, adding grated nutmeg and sugar to taste cover the inside and edges of a tart-dish with puff-paste, filling the dish with the

mash them with a spoon

mW

:

mixture bake for an hour, and before serving cover with powdered sugar.
;

636.

ALMOND CHEESECAKES
of

(Yorkshire)

almonds blanched and beaten in a add four mortar along with four ounces of sugar ounces of butter, the grated rind of a lemon, and
;

Four ounces

three eggs,

all

beaten well together in a mortar.
of tins,

Put a thin puff paste at the bottom
insert the mixture.

and

537.

APPLE CHEESECAKE MIXTURE
(Gloucestershire)

sugar,

Four ounces of apple pulp, two ounces of castor two eggs, two ounces of butter. The grated

PASTRY AND SWEET DISHES
rind and juice of a lemon.
soft.

215

Pare, core, and slice half
little

a pound of apples and stew with

water

till

pan
till

Weigh four ounces, put back the apples in add sugar and butter and stir (one way only)
is

butter

melted.

Put mixture

in basin,

add

grated riad and juice of lemon and beaten eggs. Stir with a wooden spoon till well mixed. Line tart tins with short pastry, place a little mixture
in each,

and bake

in quick oven.

638.

LEMON CHEESECAKES

(Hertfordshire)

Half a pound of sugar, two ounces of butter, rind of two lemons, half a dozen grated almonds, juice of three lemons, three eggs, one cracker biscuit. Grate lemons, almonds, and biscuits, then mix
together and
539.
stir

over the

fire

until

it

thickens,

LEMON CHEESE

(Isle

of

Wight)

Put into a saucepan half a poimd of castor sugar, two beaten eggs, three ounces of butter, and the Bring it to the juice and rind (grated) of a lemon. Then boil slowly, until it looks thick (like honey). put into jars, and cover down. This is used for filling open tarts and cheese cakes.
640.

LEMON CURD

(Essex)

Take two ounces
half a

of fresh butter, three beaten

yolks of eggs, the juice and grated rind of two lemons,

pound

of castor sugar.

the mixture into a jar,
is like

Mix well, and put and stand it in a saucepan
fire,
till

of boihng water over a slow

the mixture

a thick cream.

Put

it

into pots

and cover

closely.

216
541.

PASTRY AND SWEET DISHES
POTATO CHEESECAKES
(Hertfordshire)

pound of mealy potatoes, mash them well, then add to them two tablespoonfuls of brandy, a quarter of a pound of sugar, a quarter of a pound of butter, four eggs and the rind of haK an orange. Mix these ingredients well together, and
Boil a quarter of a

bake
542.

in hollow patty

pans with puff paste.

GROUND RICE CHEESECAKE MIXTURE
(Glouoesterahire)

Four ounces of ground rice, four ounces of butter, two eggs, four ounces of sugar (castor), small teaspoonful of baking powder. Mix well together and use as above.
643.

CODLING PIE

(Eighteenth

Century)

Gather small codlings, put them in a small prepan with cold water, lay vine leaves on them, and cover them with a cloth wrapped roimd the cover when they grow of the pan to keep in the steam softish, peel off the skin, and put them in the same water as the vine leaves, hang them up a great height over the fire to green. When you see them a fine green, take them out of the water, and put them in a deep dish, with as much powder or loaf sugar, as will sweeten them. Make the lid of rich puff paste, and bake it when it comes from the oven, take off the lid, and cut it in pieces like sippets, and stick them round the inside of the pie, with the points upward. Pour over your codlings, a good custard made thus Boil a pint of cream, with a stick of cinnamon, and sugar enough to make it a little let it stand till cold, then put in the yolks sweet
serving
; ;
:

;

PASTRY AND SWEET DISHES
of four eggs well beaten, set
it

217

it on the fire, and keep grows tMck, but do not let it boil, lest it curdle then pour it into your pie. Pare a little lemon-peel thin, cut the peel like straws, and lay it over the top of your codlings.

stirring

tUl
;

it

644.

EGG PIES

(Yorkshire,

1769)

Boil half a dozen eggs, half a dozen apples, one

and a haK pounds of beef-suet, a pound of currants, and shred (finely mince) them. Season with mace, nutmeg, and sugar to your taste, a tablespoonful or two of brandy, and sweetmeats, if you please.

Make

into pies (like mince-pies).

646.

LEMON

PIE

(Surrey)

Take two lemons, grate off the outer peel, chop the rest very fine. Put two tablespoonfuls of cornstarch to a teacupful of hot water, and boil when cool, add two teacupfuls of white sugar, and the beaten yolks of four eggs. Then add the chopped peel and the juice. Stir well together, bake till the
;

crust froth
;

is

done.

Beat the whites of eggs to a
;

stiff

stir

well in five tablespoonfuls of sugar

pour

this over the pie while hot,

and

set it

back

in the

oven to brown.
546.

LEMON TARTLETS

(Lancashire)

Take the juice and grated rinds of two lemons. Clean the grater with bread, only using sufficient crumbs to take off all the lemon peel. Beat all together with two eggs, half a pound of loaf sugar, and
quarter of a pound of butter.

This

is sufficient

to

make

twelve

tarts.

218

PASTE Y AND SWEET DISHES
647.

MINCEMEAT PIE WITHOUT MEAT
(Eighteenth Century)
fine three

pounds of suet, and three pounds and cored apples. Wash and dry three pounds of currants, stone and chop one pound of raisins, beat and sift one pound and a half of loaf
of pared

Chop

sugar, cut small twelve ounces of candied orange
six ounces of citron mix all well towith a quarter of an ounce of nutmeg, half an ounce of cinnamon, six or eight cloves, and half a pint of French brandy; put it into closed jar, and keep it for use.

peel

and

;

gether,

648.

MINCEMEAT

(Hertfordshire)

Five pounds of suet, two pounds of raisins, two pounds of sultanas, two pounds of currants, three pounds of apples, three pounds of Demerara, two povmds of pears, two pounds of candied peel, one and a half poimds of almonds, half an ounce of mixed spice, four pounds of lemons, four poimds of oranges, two pints of brandy, one pint of sherry, four wineglassfuls of maraschino or noyeau.

549.

NEW ENGLAND MOLASSES

PIE (American)

Line a deep pie-dish with an undercrust, mix half a pint of treacle with a tablespoonful of flour, add the juice of a lemon, and the rind and juicy pulp chopped fine, (do not use any of the white pith).

Moisten the edges, and cover with a crust

;

bake,

and eat while

hot.

PASTRY AND SWEET DISHES
650.

219

ORANGE PIE
and grated rind

(Surrey)

Take the

juioe

of

one orange, one
a

small cup of sugar, yolks of three eggs, one table-

spoonful of corn-starch,
of milk.

made smooth with milk

;

piece of butter as large as a chestnut,

and one cupful

Beat the whites of the three eggs with four
baked, leaving
it

tablespoonfuls of sugar, and place on the top after

the pie

is

in the

oven until browned.

651.

SWISS

RHUBARB TART
with some

(Hertfordshire)

Make a tart in
and flavour
it

the usual way, sweeten the rhubarb
slices of

When
a

cold, cut off the top crust,

quite neat.
gill of

Beat up the
if

juice

lemon rind. and leave the edge with a fork. Take

the tart be large, slightly sweeten it, and whip till stiff. Pile this roughly garnish with strips of angelica and over the sweet preserved cherries, and serve.
;

cream, or more

562.

TART OF ROSE-HIPS
hips, cut

(Seventeenth Century)

Take some

them and take out the

seeds

very clean. Wash them, season with sugar, cinnamon, and ginger. Cover the tart and bake it, ice (Water has been it, sprinkle sugar on, and serve it. omitted. I should advise giving the hips a preliminary cooking and pulping through a sieve. Hose-hips need very careful removal of the irritating but this hair in which the seeds are enveloped should come out as a whole if they are ripe. Ed.)
;

220

PASTRY AND SWEET DISHES
553.

SULTANA PUETS

(Surrey)

Excellent and wholesome puffs can be made, to
use up any short crust left over from a pie,
in rounds,

by rolling
it

out the paste a quarter of an inch thick, cutting

and placing about one heaped

table-

spoonful of picked sultanas in the centre of each. Moisten the edges and turn over in three flaps, to make a three-cornered puff. Bake in moderate oven.

654.

SUSSEX PANCAKES

(Seventeenth

Century)

Take some very good pie paste made with hot and roll it thin fry it in butter, and serve it with beaten spice and sugar as hot as you can.
lard
;

555.

TREACLE-GEORGE
it.

(Devonshire)

Take a shallow
pie-dish
;

cake-tin, or a deep plate, or a

butter

Place at the bottom a layer of

pastry (short-crust) about a quarter of an inch thick.
this put a layer of treacle over this a layer of bread crumbs, sufficient to hide the treacle over this squeeze a little lemon-juice then put a layer pastry, and go on in the same rotation till the of tin is filled up to the height of three or four inches or so. Bake in a fairly quick oven, and remove from This is a wholetin, and serve either hot or cold.

Over

;

fine

;

;

some and
656.

attractive dish for children.

TO MAKE CRISP PASTE FOR TARTS
(Eighteenth Century)

Take one pound of fine flour, mixed with one ounce of sifted sugar, make it into a stiff paste, with a gill of boiling cream and three ounces of

PASTEY AND SWEET DISHES
butter
;

221

work it well, and roll it very thin. When you have made your tarts, beat the white of an egg a little, rub it over them with a feather, sift a little sugar over them, and bake in a moderate
oven.
froth,

icing Beat the white of an egg to a strong put in by decrees four ounces of sifted sugar, with as much powdered gum as will lie on sixpence, beat it half an hour, then lay it over your tarts the thickness of a straw.
:

For

557.

VEGETABLE-MARROW TART

(Sussex)

it

Take a small marrow, stew it quite tender, mash up with butter and sugar to taste, add a little flavouring of lemon, spice, and ginger, and beat an
in.

egg-yolk well

Make

tartlets of puff paste in

patty pans, or line a dish with puff-paste, and when the pastry is baked and has gone cool, fill it with above mixture, and put it back for a minute in the oven. The whipped white of egg can be laid on
top,
if

liked.

FRUIT DISHES
558.

SCRAPED APPLES

(Surrey)

Take one pound of good eating apples, peel them, and scrape or shred them finely with a sharp knife

Have ready, not too hot, a nice into a glass dish. two-egg custard, flavoured with sugar and vanilla, and pour this at once over the apples, as they disLet them be colour while exposed to the air. This is a most with the custard. welt covered
delicious

and wholesome

dish,

and

will suit invaUds.

222

PASTRY AND SWEET DISHES
SIMPLE RECIPES FOR COOKING JAMAICA

559.

BANANAS
By
1.

a Black Lady

As a

Vegetable,

wholesome, and

filling.

Peel

green bananas, boil them in salt and water until soft
like potatoes.

Are good mashed with butter and

peppernut.

Bananas. These are what children Ripe bananas, sliced lengthways, and fried in lard. Eaten either with meat, or served with sugar sprinkled on them. A squeeze of lemon is an improvement. 3. Baked Bananas. Fit for the gods Peel ripe bananas and place in a pie-dish. Sprinkle a little lemon juice over them (also sugar), half cover with water, bake for twenty minutes. When cool,
2.

Fried

like.

!

serve with custard, cream, or milk.
If well made are tip-top. 4. Banana Fritters. Dip them whole or sliced in batter. Ery until crisp and light brown.

560.

DATE CAKE

(Somerset)

One pound of cheap dates, 3d. per pound, two ounces (sweet) almonds, blanched. Grease a small pudding basin with cooldng butter (basin should be

Make a cross larger than a breakfastcup). with spUt blanched almonds, thus, +. Take out the stones of the dates, and in place of each Then pack the insert half a blanched almond. dates in the basin (one at a time) as closely as possible pressing them in tightly. When full, put
a
little
it

in

a heavy weight on the dates

— the size of

the top of

;

PASTRY AND SWEET DISHES
the basin

223

and let it stand for twenty-four hours then turn out of the basin (by sUpping a thin knife round the sides of the basin) on to a plate (a green plate looks best), and when wanted, cut
it

To be

(as you would a round cake). eaten for breakfast, tea, or supper, with a knife and fork and bj'ead and butter a perfect meal.

in thin

slices

561.

DATES IN CUSTARD

(Hampshire)

dish,

Stone enough dates to cover the bottom of a glass and put half a blanched almond in each pour over them one pint of custard and serve cold.
;

662.

DATE MOULD

(Middlesex)

Remove

the stones from one pound of dates;

fruit and put it into a lined pan, with the grated rind and the juice of a good-sized lemon.

chop up the

Just cover it with water, and set it to simmer. If the water simmers away, you must put a little more. Stir gently now and then, as it may stick and bum.

When

becomes a thick paste, turn it into a wet mould, and when quite cold, turn it out and serve with custard or whipped cream. Prunes may be treated in the same way, using
it

half a pint of water to one

you will want seven or pound of prunes, and
previously melted in
to the rest.
563.

pound of prunes, but lumps of sugar to one half an ounce of gelatine, half a pint of water and added
eight

GREEN
of

FIGS

(Hertfordshire)

Stew in a pint
cream.

a dozen small green

compote syrup for three minutes figs, and serve with whipped

224

PASTRY AND SWEET DISHES
664.

FIG JELLY

(Surrey)

Take one pound of small cooking figs, remove the them over some very hot water, but it should not be boiling. Leave them for a minute or two, then drain off the water. Then cut each fig in pieces, and to each pound of figs put one pound of sugar, a little grated lemon-peel, and the Put them into a pan and let juice of one lemon. them cook very slowly, until the syrup thickens and stir carefully, and if it gets the figs become clear too thick add a little water. When cold, pour off into jars and cover tightly.
stems, and pour
:

566.

STEWED FIGS
little

(Surrey)

They should be water as possible, taste, and a thin lemonin the proportion of one lemon to the pound. rind, They should not swell out so as to assume a bloated appearance, which shows that they have boiled instead of stewing. Test with a silver fork when they are soft enough, and add about two teaspoonPulled
figs are

the best for this.

cooked very slowly, in as with a very little sugar, to

fuls of lemon-juice before

taking them out of the

stewpan.

666.

PEAR COMPOTE

(Sussex)

Pare and core your pears, slice them into quarters, put them in a lined pan to a little sugar, and just cover them with claret. Let them cook very gently till they are quite tender. No cochineal will be required. The amount of sugar depends upon the kind of pears.

PASTRY AND SWEET DISHES
667.

225

TO STEW PEARS

(Eighteenth

Century)

Pare the largest stewing pears, and stick a clove in blossom end then put them in a weU-lined saucepan, fill it with hard water, and set it over a slow fire for three or four hours till the pears are soft, and the water reduced to a small quantity. Then put in as much loaf sugar as will make a thick syrup, and give the pears a boil ia it. Cut some lemon peel in straws and hang them about your pears, and serve them up with the syrup in a deep
tlie
;

dish.

668.

TO STEW PIPPINS WHOLE

(Eighteenth Century)

Pare and core your pippins, and throw them into cold water as you pare them. Take the weight of
the fruit in fine sugar, and dissolve it in a quart of water then boil it up, skim it clear, and put in the
;

they are tender and squeeze into the syrup the juice of a large lemon. Let it boil, skim it, and run it through a jeUy-bag upon the fruit. You may stick the pippins with strips of
fruit.
till

Let them steam gently
clear.

and look

Then take them

out,

candied fruits

if

you

please.

569.

RASPBERRY SPONGE

(Essex)

Take the whites of four eggs and beat them to a Take about one pound of good fresh ripe raspberries, stalk them, mash them thoroughly, and sweeten them to taste with sifted sugar. Then gradually beat them into the whisked whites, a
firm froth.
little
it

at a time, so that the sponge keeps
in a glass dish.

stiff.

Pile

up

15

226

PASTRY AND SWEET DISHES
570.

SAGO FRUIT

(Kent,

1809)

Put five tablepoonsfuls of sago into cold water and let it stand all night, then strain it and mix it with one quart of currants and raspberries. Stew it tiU quite a jelly, and stir into it some white sugar
to sweeten
it,

then put

it

into a mould.

VARIOUS
571.

FRENCH BANCES

(Eighteenth

Century)

lemon peel, a a walnut, a little orangeflower water let these boil three or four minutes then take out the lemon peel, and add to it a pint of flour; keep the water boiling and stirring all the while till it is stiff, then take it off the fire, and put in six eggs, leaving out the whites of three beat these well for about half an hour, tUl they come to a stiff paste. Drop small pieces of this into a pan of boiling lard, with a teaspoon if they are of a right lightness they will be very nice keep shaking the pan all the time till they are a light brown. A large dish will take six or seven minutes to cook when done enough, put them into a dish that will drain them, set them by the fire, and strew fine sugar over them.

Take

half a pint of water, a bit of

bit of butter the bigness of
;

;

;

;

;

;

572.

BENITA SHAPE

(Devonshire)

Two

eggs, juice of

two lemons,

half a

pound

of

castor sugar, grated rind of one lemon, five sheets
of gelatine.

water

;

slightly

Melt the gelatine in a tumbler of warm whip the yolks of the eggs and

PASTEY AKD SWEET DISHES
and
juice

227

castor sugar gradually together, add the lemon rind

and

gelatine whilst

warm.

When

almost

cold, stir in lightly the whites of eggs well whipped.

Pour into a wet mould and put into a cool place to
This can be made with oranges instead of lemons, and the rind can be left out if not liked.
set.

573.

BROWN BREAD-CRUMB TRIFLE

(Surrey)

Put through a fine sieve any stale brown bread, till you have two breakfastcupfuls of fine crumbs, which pile on a dish. Put over about a breakfastcupful of some moist juicy jam, such as strawberry, which will soak into the crumbs. When it has fairly soaked in, mask the whole iu whipped cream. This is exceedingly good if the crumbs are weU saturated.
674.

COLDHARBOUR BALLS

(Surrey)

Dissolve an ounce of butter in a quart of
milk,

warm

and use as much fine flour as wiU make a stiff add, ia making the paste, about half a teapaste spoonful of salt, and two eggs beaten up with a tablecover with a cloth and keep it spoonful of yeast before the fire for half an hour, then roll into balls or in pieces of the size and length of the little finger, and bake in a quick oven.
; ;

576.

APPLE FRITTERS
large

(Cheshire)

Take some
thick.

apples,

peel,

and

slice

them

through in rounds
with

a

quarter

to

half

an inch

Lay some sUces for two hours in a basin brandy and powdered white sugar. Then make a stiff batter, and stir into it just before using

;

228

PASTRY AND SWEET DISHES

the whites of two eggs beaten to a stiff froth. Drain the apples, cover well with the batter, and fry in

hot lard or butter.
the
fire.

Pile high

Drain on blotting paper before on a dish, and sprinkle with

sifted sugar.

576.

COMMON FRITTERS
of ale

(Eighteenth

Century)

Take haK a pint

and two

eggs, beat in as

much flour as will make it rather thicker than a common pudding, with nutmeg and sugar to your
stand three or four minutes to rise, then drop it in tablespoonfuls into a pan of boiling lard fry them a light brown, drain them on a sieve serve them up with sugar grated over them, and wine sauce in a boat.
taste, let it
;

577.

PLAIN FRITTERS WITH RICE
(Eighteenth Century)
loaf,

Grate the crumb of a penny
or five hours, then beat
it it

pour over
it

pint of boiling cream, or good milk, let

it a stand four

exceedingly

fine.

Put to

the yolks of five eggs, four oimces of sugar, and

a nutmeg grated, beat them well together, and fry drain them on a sieve, and them in hog's lard serve them up with wine sauce under them. N.B. You may put currants in if you please.
;

578.

WATER FRITTERS

(Eighteenth

Century)

Take a quart
salt,

of water, five or six tablespoonfuls

of flour (the batter

must be very
little

thick)

and a

httle

mix

all

these together and beat the yolks and

whites of eight eggs with a

brandy, then strain

PASTRY AND SWEET DISHES
them, through a hair
other things
;

229

sieve,

and put them to the

the longer they stand before you fry

them the better. Just before you fry them, melt about haK a pound of butter very thick, and beat it well in you must not turn them, and take care not to bum them. The best thing to fry them in is
;

fine lard.

579.

FRENCH PANCAKES

(Cumberland)

Two

eggs, a gill of milk, the weight of the

two

eggs in butter, flour and castor sugar, jam.

Beat the butter to a cream, then beat in the sugar and flour. Beat up the eggs with the mUk, add them to the other ingredients beat all very well. Butter some saucers, put in the mixture, and bake in a quick oven for twenty minutes. Warm some jam, put a little on each pancake, double them over, sprinkle with sugar and serve.
;

580.

FRENCH PANCAKES

(Ireland)

Beat two ounces of butter to a cream, add two beaten eggs, stir in two ounces of flour and two ounces of sifted sugar. When well mixed, add half a pint of new milk. Beat mixture. Put on two buttered plates. Bake twenty minutes and serve with jam. Very light and nice when well made
with fresh eggs.
581.

MADRAS PANCAKES
add two tablespoonfuls of a little pounded cinnamon,
;

To

six eggs, well beaten,

boiled rice, sugar to taste,

and a

little

orange-flower water

mix

all

well to-

230
gether,

PASTRY AND SWEET DISHES
and fry
divide
it

in butter to a

served,

it

into quarters,

good colour. When and strew with

powdered sugar.

582.

PINK PANCAKES

(Eighteenth

Century)

Boil a large beetroot tender, and beat it fine in a marble mortar, then add the yolks of four eggs,

two spoonfuls of flour, and three spoonfuls of good cream sweeten it to your taste, grate in half a nutmeg, and put in a glass of brandy beat all together half an hour. Fry the pancakes in butter, and garnish them with green sweetmeats, preserved
; ;

apricots, or green sprigs of myrtle.

It is a pretty

corner dish for either dinner or supper.

683.

RUSSIAN PANCAKES

(Hertfordshire)

Make some very small thin pancakes, fill them with thick jam, or (if desired as a savoury) with queneUe forcemeat, fish, or fowl roll up the pancakes, trim them evenly, dip in egg and bread crumbs, and fry. Serve quickly.
;

684.

A DELICIOUS COLD SWEET
when

(Kent)

Take twelve almond cakes (soak
the other six in the custard
milk, sugar,

six in sherry

and

it is hot).

Make a

custard of four eggs, and one and a half pints of the mould a few dried cherries.

Put in Pour a little custard into the mould, then the cakes, and then the
half
of gelatine.

and

an ounce

remainder

of the custard.

PASTRY AND SWEET DISHES
685.

231

AN EXCELLENT SWEET

(Staffordshire)

Take twelve yolks of eggs, a gill of sherry place them over a slow fire with sugar to your taste. Whisk the mixture until it becomes thick. Pour it into a glass dish, and when cold ornament with ratafia cakes, or anything else you may fancy. Half the quantity makes a nice small dish.
;

586.

TAPIOCA CREAM

(Essex)

Three ounces of tapioca, one pint of milk, half a
pint of cream, sugar, lemon juice or sherry, essence
of almond, four penny sponge cakes, one ounce of Wash the tapioca and put it to sweet almonds. soak in the milk the evening before it is required. Cook slowly till tender. Add sugar to taste, and Put the sponge cakes iato a glass dish let cool. and pour over enough lemon juice or sherry to soak them. Pile the tapioca roughly over, whip the cream, heap it on top, and decorate with the almonds

blanched and cut into spikes.

587.

TAPIOCA SNOW

(Lancashire)

Three tablespoonfuls

of tapioca,

one pint

of

new

milk, essence of vanilla, two tablespoonfuls of sugar,

two eggs. Boil tapioca in milk till quite soft, sweeten with sugar, stir in the yolks of both eggs, and cook
fire for about six minutes. When with fifteen drops of essence of vanilla, cool, flavour and turn into a glass dish. When quite cold, place the whites of the eggs (beaten to a stiff froth with a little sugar and five drops of vanilla) on the top.

gently over slow

CHAPTER XV

CREAMS, CUSTARDS, JUNKETS, SYLLABUBS, ETC.
Note. In the making of creams and custards, and of all those fluffy, frothy, delightful festival dishes which are much " too bright and good for

human

nature's daily food," our grandmothers undoubtedly excelled. The very recipes make one's mouth water, and although we cannot usually command the warm and foamy milk fresh from the cow, or the unlimited quarts of rich cream, in which they seem to have rejoiced yet we can at any rate adapt to our narrower conditions some of the admirable concoctions here collected and presented. She is no good cook who cannot make the best of what she

already has.

The junkets and custards
;

are in

particular worthy of attention for all the multiplicity
of custard powders, egg powders,

pudding powders,

of to-day, shall never equal the hand-made, homemade dehcacy. The " Everlasting Syllabub " on

page 241

is

a singularly admirable dish,

CREAMS
688.

BURNT CREAM

(Middlesex)

Beat and mix well together the yolks of six eggs, two tablespoonfuls of flour, the peel of a lemon
232

CREAMS, CUSTARDS, JUNKETS, ETC.
grated,
;

233

and four or five bitter almonds sweeten with lump sugar, and stir over the fire till it comes to a good thickness, and pour it iato the dish in which it is to be served boil some pounded loaf sugar in water until it turns brown, and then pour
;

it

over the cream in fantastic figures.
689.

COFFEE CREAM

(Middlesex)

Having dissolved one ounce of isinglass, boil it with two quarts of cream, and mix it with one and a half pints of very strong coffee sweeten well, whisk it for ten minutes, put it into custard cups, and let them stand in a pan of boiling water till they become firm.
;

590.

COFFEE CREAM

(Berkshire)

milk and cream mixed, half a cup of Dissolve one ounce of gelatine (previously soaked). Beat all together and turn into a wet mould.

One pint

of

strong coffee added, sweeten to taste.

591.

CREAM FOR FRUIT
is

PIES

(Middlesex)

This

made by

boiling

new milk with grated

nut-

two or three peach leaves, or a few bitter almonds, and a sufficient quantity of sugar to sweeten it then straining the cream and, when cold, beating up with it the yolks of eggs in the proportion of four to a quart, and warming the
or cinnamon,
;

meg

whole over the cold with fruit
dessert.
If

fire until it

thickens.

This

is

eaten

tarts,

or with

any

fresh fruits at

one-quarter of the quantity be rich
it will

cream, instead of the whole being milk,

be

improved.

; : :

234
592.

CREAMS, CUSTARDS, JUNKETS, ETC.
TO MAKE DEVONSHIRE CREAM
new milk
in a clean jug or can,
(Sussex)

Place
it

in a saucepan of

warm

water.

and stand Bring the water

and let it boil for half an hour. Then pour the milk into a shallow basin or dish, and let it stand until quite cold. The cream will be found quite thick and clotted, like Devonshire cream and if it is required still thicker, it can be whipped in the same manner as unscalded cream.
to the boil,
;

693.

FROTHED CREAM

(Kent)
;

Rub
put
it

a lump of loaf sugar on the rind of a lemon
iato a pint of cream,

and sweeten

it

to your

then put in a glass of Madeira wine, or French Mill it to a froth in a chocolate mill take it ofl as it rises, and lay it on your dish.
taste,

brandy.

694.

ITALIAN CREAM

(Middlesex)
it

Having sweetened a pint

of cream, boil

with a
;

lemon, cut very thin, and a small stick of cinnamon strain and mix with it a little dissolved isinglass
while hot, add to
beaten,
it

the yolks of eight eggs well
quite cold.

and

stir it till

595.

KING WILLIAM'S CREAM

(Eighteenth Century)

Beat the whites of three eggs very well. Squeeze out the juice of two large, or three small lemons
take two ounces more than the weight of the juices in sifted sugar, and mix it with two or three drops
of orange-flower water,
of cold water.

and

five or six spoonfuls
all

Melt this in a pan, and when

the sugar

is

melted, put in the whites of eggs, and

CREAMS, CUSTAEDS, JUNKETS, ETC.
the juice.
till

235

Set

it

over a slow
:

fire,

and keep
it

stirring

you

find it thicken

then strain

through a

coarse cloth quick into a dish.

696.

LEMON CREAM

(Ireland)

Take a pint of thick cream, and put to it the yolk two eggs well beaten, four ounces of white sugar, and the rind of a lemon. Boil it up stir it till almost cold. Put the juice of a lemon into a bowl, and pour the cream upon it, stirring it till cold.
of
;

597.

MiyDEIRA CREAMS

(Hertfordshire)

Cut some bananas and rub them through a coarse sieve add as much cream as you have fruit, and a pinch of salt. To every pint of this mixture add two ounces of sugar, and a dessertspoonful of brandy or liquor. Beat this very stiff and light, and, just
;

before serving, place in custard glasses.

598.

LEMON CREAM
:

(Middlesex)

Required
water.
flour

two lemons, two

eggs,

two ounces

of

cornflour, six ounces of castor sugar, one pint of

Pare the lemons thinly, and boil the rind

well in the water for five minutes,

mix the

corn-

with the strained juice

liquid

from the

rinds,

add the return to the saucepan and
of lemons,

Add boil for three minutes, stirring all the time. the sugar and cook slightly, mix in the yolks of eggs well-beaten, and stir over a gentle heat, until
they thicken.

Whip

the whites into a

stiff

froth,

and stir lightly into the mixture. mould when cold, turn out.
;

Pour into a wet

236

CREAMS, CUSTARDS, JUNKETS, ETC.
699.

RATAFIA CREAM

(Hampshire)

Take one lemon, half a pint of fresh cream, two penny sponge cakes, one wineglassful of sherry, fifteen lumps of sugar, a few ratafias. Peel the lemon very thinly, and allow the rind to soak some hours in the juice and wine, to which also add the sugar. Cut your sponge cakes in slices, and place them in a glass dish. Now whip the cream as stiff as possible, and put it on the cake. Decorate with the ratafias, and the dish is ready. This cream is very nice used without the sponge cakes, and served in custard
glasses
;

it is

then called Everlasting Syllabub.

600.

SNOW CREAM

(Kent)

Put to a quart of cream the whites of three eggs beaten, four dessertspoonfuls of white wine, sugar to your taste, add a piece of lemon peel, and whip
to a froth.

Remove

the peel, and serve in a dish,

601.

SPANISH CREAM

(Seventeenth

Century)

Take three dessertspoonfuls
very
fine,

of rice flour sifted
eggs,

the yolk of three

three dessfert-

spoonfuls of water and two of orange-flower water.

Set the mixture Put to them one pint of cream. over a good fire and stir till it be of a proper thickness, then pour it into cups.

602.

SPANISH CREAM
it

(Surrey)
till

Boil

quite dissolved,

two ounces of isinglass and mix with
stir it

in a pint of water

two quarts

of

good

milk

;

over the

fire till it

begins to boU, then

CREAMS, CUSTARDS, JUNKETS, ETC.
let it cool

237

a little, and add gradually the yolks of twelve eggs well beaten, a large glass of white wine, and a little ratafia pour it into a dish, sweeten to
;

taste,

and when cold put
603.

it

into shapes.

STONE CREAM

(Middlesex)

This

is

made by

boiling a quarter of

an ounce

of

isinglass in a little water,

with a pint of sweetened cream, stirring it well pour this into a dish in which have been placed preserved fruit, such as apricots, cherries, etc., with some lemon juice (say two or three tablespoonfuls) and some grated lemon
it
;

and boihng

peel.

604.

STRAWBERRY CREAM

(Middlesex)

some good cream with a sufficient quantity of sugar to sweeten it, and reduce it to one half its bulk then add a little rennet, and the juice of strawberries, and bake in a sufficient to give a good flavour
Boil
: ;

slow oven.

605.

SWISS

CREAM

(Surrey)

Boil the grated peel of a good-sized lemon, and more than half a pound of white loaf sugar in a pint of cream, thickening with a spoonful of flour
rather

previously mixed up with a tablespoonful of lemon this is to be added very gradually as the juice
;

cream warms, and the whole is to be carefully when it is taken from the flre, stir tiU stirred nearly cold, and serve in a glass dish garnished with preserved fruits, or candied orange and lemon peel. There is another dish called Swiss Cream which is
;

238

CREAMS, CUSTARDS, JUNKETS, ETC.
;

eaten hot

it is

deep

dish, previously

made by whisking up made very hot,

in a basin or

the yolks of

eight eggs with half a

the grated rind of

pound of pounded loaf sugar, a lemon, and half a pint of white

French wine.

CUSTARDS
606.

CUSTARD

(Kent)

To one
eggs.

quart of good milk add the yolks of ten
cold add
it

First boil the milk with
;

sugar

when nearly

some cinnamon and to the eggs, and

Put it into a large jug, keep constantly stirring. and put the jug into a pot of boiling water. Do not allow the custard to boil and before taking it out of the jug, add some bitter and some sweet almonds then put into glasses.
;

;

607.

BAKED CUSTARD
of

(Berkshire)

To one quart

new mUk

allow four or five eggs,

a quarter of a pound loaf sugar, one lemon peel grated, eight to ten bitter ahnonds pounded, or a

few drops
allow
it

of essence of bitter

almonds, and a table-

spoonful of brandy.
curdle.

Bake

in a slow oven, but don't

to boil, or the custard will " break " and

608.

CHEAP CUSTARD

(Yorkshire)
it

Boil one pint of milk, sweeten

with any spice

you

like.

Rub smooth two

tablepoonfuls of ground

rice in a little cold milk,

of eggs well beaten.

then put into it two yolks Afterwards add the boiled

CEEAMS, CUSTARDS, JUNKETS, ETC.
milk,

239

and

stir

them

well together.
thickens, but
it

over a slow

fire till it

Then stir it must not boil.
(Surrey)

609.

CHOCOLATE CUSTARDS

Take one and a half ounces of best chocolate, dissolve it gently by the side of the fire in rather
over one wineglassful of water, then let it boil tUl quite smooth. Add one pint of new milk, (flavoured with lemon peel or vanilla) and two ounces of fine
into five well-beaten

come to the boil. Then stir it and strained eggs. Put the custard into a jar and set this in a pan of boihng water stir continually Tmtil it thickens, and then
sugar,

and

let all

;

take
This

it off. is

When nearly cold, pour it much richer when made with

into glasses.

yolks only;

but in that case you must use the following proportions two ounces of chocolate, one pint of milk, half a pint of cream, two to three ounces of sugar,
:

and

eight yolks.

610.

COUNTESS CUSTARD

(Sussex)

Cut five sponge-cakes in half. Place on a dish with alternate layers of fruit, the last layer being Make a nice thick custard and flavour with fruit. orange-flower water, sweeten to taste, and when nearly cold, pour it over the fruit.
611.

WASSAIL CUSTARD
slices

(Hertfordshire)

Line a dish with
ratafia biscuits,

of stale

sponge cakes,
juice of

and macaroons.

Mix the

a lemon with a little raisin wine and pour it over the cakes. When these have quite absorbed the

240

CREAMS, CUSTARDS, JUNKETS, ETC.

pour a pint of good custard over, and decorate the top with angelica, chopped cherries, and a little
liquor,

chopped pistachio nut.

JUNKETS
612.

JUNKET

(Somerset)

Take one quart of new milk. Warm some of it with five knobs of loaf sugar, then pour the hot and cold milk together into a deep bowl. Add one good tablespoonful of brandy and one of rennet. Stir it well round together. Let it stand in a warm place to set, say on a dish on a cool part of the stove. Then remove it, and cover the top with Devonshire Throw over it a tablespoonful of clotted cream.
brandy, then grate a Httle nutmeg on
sifted sugar.
it and scatter Walnuts are a welcome addition. Send

to table with plain biscuits or bread.

613.

JUNKET

(Surrey)

One quart
hot)
;

of milk, lukewarm (not scalded or even two tablespoonfuls of soft white sugar two
;

one dessertspoonful of essence of rennet. Put the milk to stand on the stove for five or ten minutes to get shghtly warm, then stir in the sugar and rum and mix them well, then add the rennet; stir it well, and then stir again Leave the junket in a corner of in a few minutes. the stove, not too hot, until it is solid, then grate a Uttle nutmeg over it and put it to cool. (N.B. Sherry may be advantageously substituted
tablespoonfuls
of
;

rum

for the rum.)

CREAMS, CUSTARDS, JUNKETS, ETC.
614.

241

COFFEE JUNKET
new milk add

(Surrey)

To one

pint of

half a teacupful of

strong coffee, and one dessertspoonful of castor sugar.

Make

this as

you would ordinary junket, using one

teaspoonful of essence of rennet or one rennet tablet.

Pour into the bowl

it wUl be served in, and let it stand in a moderately cool place tiU set. Whip two-pennyworth of cream, add a httle sugar, and arrange little dobs of cream on the top of the junket,

just before

it is

sent to table.

SYLLABUBS
615.

SYLLABUB

(Kent,

1809)
;

The whites of four eggs beaten to a froth add half a pound of fine sugar, a little at a time, beating till the sugar is melted. Put in the juice of a good lemon and half a pint of sweet white wine. Keep beating it with a whisk that, it may be well mixed. Put to it a pint of very sweet thick cream, beat it well together. Then fill your glasses. They should stand six or seven hours.
616.

SYLLABUB

(Surrey)

Half a pint of scalded cream, half a pint of raw cream, one dessertspoonful of white sifted sugar,

two wineglassfuls
brandy, a little a half lemons.
617.

two tablepoonfuls of grated nutmeg, the juice of one and Whip it to a froth and fill the glasses.
of sherry,
(Isle

EVERLASTING SYLLABUB

of

Wight)

Steep the peel and juice of one lemon overnight in a wineglassful of white wine. Next morning, pour 16

;

242

CREAMS, CUSTARDS, JUNKETS, ETC.
a deep pan, and
stir in

this into

gradually half a pint
:

of thick cream, with sugar to taste

whip

for

a
is

quarter of an hour, and put into glasses.
better

This

made

the day before using, and wiU keep for

several days.

618.

SYLLABUB WITH CAKES

(Middlesex)

Steep sponge biscuits, or any other cakes, in equal

and brandy mash them up with a spoon, and add grated nutmeg, and lemon peel, lemon juice, sweet almonds, blanched and pounded to paste, and sufficient sugar to make the whole sweet the quantity of the above will depend on the size of the syllabub required. Put all these ingredients into a bowl, and let the milk of a cow. be milked upon them, adding a little good cream and sifted loaf sugar. A very good syllabub may be made by mixing half a pint of sherry, half a pint of Burgundy, a wineglass of any ratafia, half a pound of pounded white sugar, some grated nutmeg, the grated peel of a lemon, and the juice of a lemon when these have been well stirred together, and the sugar is dissolved, add one quart of rich cream, and whisk it up until it froths well put some macaroons, or sponge biscuits, into a dish, and pile the froth upon them or the syUabub may be served in glasses. If the whites of six eggs be whipped up with the syllabub, it may be served up difierently, but the whipping must be continued for a long time as the froth rises, put it on a sieve to dry, and having half filled wineglasses with wine, fill them up with the froth. The common syllabub is generally served without cream or whipping wine, nutmeg, sugar,
quantities of port, claret,
; ; ; ;

;

;

CREAMS, CUSTARDS, JUNKETS, ETC.
or Uqueur, are

243

grated lemon peel, with or without a httle brandy

mixed

in a basin,

and the milk

of the
is

cow

is

milked upon them.

The quantity

of milk

generally in the proportion of three pints to one

pint of wine

;

but this

may

be reduced, or iacreased,

according to taste.

619.

WHIPPED SYLLABUB
of

(Yorkshire,

1769)

cream and one of white Take the whites of three eggs, sweeten to your taste, then whip it with a whisk. Take off the froth as it rises, and put it into your syllabub glasses.

Take two porringers

wine, grate in the rind of a lemon.

620.

LEMON POSSET

(Yorkshire, 1769)

Take one pint of good thick cream, grate into it the outer rind of two lemons, and squeeze the juice into half a gill of white wine, and sweeten it to your Take the whites of two eggs and beat them taste. to a froth, then beat all together in a bowl, then put
it

into the glasses for use.

TRIFLES
621.

TRIFLE

(Isle

of

Wight)

Take three penny sponge
fuls of raspberry or apricot

cakes, three tablespoon-

jam, two eggs with whites and yolks separated, a quarter of a pint of mUk, one tablespoonful of castor sugar, three drops ratafia Cut the sponge cakes into slices and essence. lay them in a glass dish. spread with the jam
;

Make a

custard of the yolk, milk, and essence, and the sugar. Pour it over the sponge cakes and half

244

CREAMS, CUSTARDS, JUNKETS, ETC.

allow them to soak for a quarter of an hour. Mix the rest of the sugar with the whites, which must be whipped to a stiff froth and then piled lightly on

the top.

Cost Id.

622.

TRIFLE

(Kent)

Cover the bottom of a dish with Naples biscuits, macaroons, and ratafia cakes. Wet them with
sweet wine put over them a thick custard, then a small quantity of raspberry jam, and cover the whole with a frothed cream.
;

623.

TRIFLE

(Middlesex)

To prepare this, take two ounces of blanched sweet almonds, and one ounce of blanched bitter almonds,
and pound them to a smooth paste, adding as you pound them, a httle rose-water take two lemons, and grate the peels, and squeeze the juice into a
;

saucer

;

four small sponge cakes, or Naples biscuits,

macaroons must next be broken and mixed with the almonds, and the mixture be laid at the bottom of a glass bowl grate a nutmeg over this, and throw in the peel and the juice of the lemons to the whole add half a pint of white wine mixed with half a gill of brandy, and let the mixture remain until the cakes To a are dissolved, when it may be stirred a httle. quart of cream, add a quarter of a pound of powdered loaf sugar, and a glass of noyeau, and beat with a whisk till it stands alone as the froth rises, take it off with a spoon, and lay on a sieve, with a large dish under it, to drain then take the cream that has been drained into the dish, and pour it back into

and

eight, or more,

into

small

pieces,

;

;

;

;

CREAMS, CUSTARDS, JUNKETS, ETC.
the pan with the
rest,

245

the whole being beaten over

again

;

this being done, set the
of rich

cream in a cool place.
of the

Have now a pint

baked custard, made
is

yolks of eggs, cold, and pour into the bowl upon the

pour a layer of fruit, jelly, or of well-preserved fruit, may be put in between the custard and the frothed cream, if that be preferred.
cold,
;

dissolved cakes, and

when the cream
it

that in also, heaping

high in the centre

624.

TINNED APRICOTS AND TRIFLE

(Surrey)

Warm the syrup, add sugar if necessary, then put in the apricots and cook a few minutes. Cut stale sponge cakes into slices, place in glass dish pour a little warm apricot syrup over them, leave quite an hour. Put apricots (or peaches, or pears, half a tin) on the sponge cakes, then a custard. Finish the top with whipped cream, sweetened and flavoured (a whipped white of egg may be added to make more of it), decorate with pistachio nuts, For one pint of custard it will cherries, or angelica. be necessary to take half a pint of milk, one egg (a yolk of another egg may be added), one ounce of loaf sugar, and one teaspoonful of cornflour.
;

CHAPTER XVI
JAMS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, FRUIT PASTES, ETC.
Note.

—The

great pre-eminence of the
article, is

home jam
words of
it."

over the factory

that, in the

Sam
One

Weller, one "

knows the lady wot made
put in
alien

also is assured that she did not

carrots,

seeds, glucose, or

any

matter in the way of

coloratives,

preservatives,

or sweeteners

unknown
;

Of home-made jam one may partake freely with pleasant and beneficial results shop jam frequently leaves an acid taste in the mouth and a most undesirable effect upon the whole of the mucous membrane. Jams and preserves, moreover, can be so easily achieved, and in most cases so cheaply, that one is hardly justified in denying one's family these inexpensive and invaluable commodities.
It
is

to the " home-farm."

especially

advisable
cannot,

to

those

concoctions

which

as

a rule,

attempt be

bought—apple jam, vegetable marrow

for instance,

and rhubarb, and

—preparations
Not

grape-jelly (a charming affair),

of quince, mulberry, cucumber, etc.

so many recipes as you might expect are to be found in the ensuing selection the reason being, I imagine, that people were so accustomed to jammaliing as a matter of ordinary annual occurrence,
;

246

;

JAMS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, ETC.
they never thought of writing

247

down any formulas what everybody knew quite well. Be that as it may, the everyday jams are to be found in any cookery-book you can hardly go wrong in them. Those here presented are of a somewhat more unwonted character.
for
;

JAMS, JELLIES,
625.

MARMALADES
(Yorkshire)

APPLE GINGER

of apples, four pounds of sugar, one quart of water, two ounces of essence of ginger. Pare the fruit, take out the core, and cut in shapes as like ginger-root as possible. Boil the sugar and water for twenty-five minutes, till it is a nice syrup, then put in the apples, the syrup boiling quickly all the time, stirring it as little as possible; add the ginger it will take about an hour to clear and
;

Four pounds

become
apples

yellow.

Skim it

well.
all

Be sure to have your
all

all

one kind, either

green or

yellow ones.

626.

APPLE JAM

(Cheshire)

Four pounds of apples peeled and cut as for a pie an equal quantity of lump sugar the rind and juice of two lemons, or rather more, and rather better than three-quarters of an ounce of beaten grotmd ginger Boil slowly for an hour and a also a few cloves. half, or nearer two hours, without adding water. About five minutes before taking off the fire add a
; ;

large wineglassful of spirits.

This

is

to ensure the

keeping well.

248

JAMS, JELLIES, PRESEEVES, ETC.
627.

APPLE JELLY

(Essex)

To every

of cold water.

three pounds of apples add about a quart Simmer gently till tender and just on

the point of mashing.

Strain, without squeezing, through a jelly bag or hair sieve. Measure the juice which comes through, and boil it for fifteen minutes alone, then add a pound of preserving sugar to every pint, and boU sugar and juice together (The sugar should be for twenty-five minutes. made hot in the oven before using.) Pour into jars

or jelly glasses,

and cover over when

cold,

628.

APPLE JELLY

(Ireland)

(For dessert use, not for keeping)

Take the amount you wish of codlings, or other pare, core, and cut good English cooking apples them into thin slices into a deep earthenware pan, with as much water as will just cover them. When soft, strain them through a jeUy-bag. To every pound of liquor, add one pound of crushed or (better) Boil it very fsist for ten minutes. powdered sugar. sliced lemon peel in your moulds, Put some thinly and pour in the jelly. Do not boil much at a time.
;

629.

APPLE JELLY

(Kent)
of

Three pounds of white sugar, four pounds
pepper, two lemons, rind and juice.

apples (peeled and cored), a teaspoonful of cayenne

630.

APPLE JELLY
it

(Lancashire)
it

Pare, core, and quarter the fruit, and weigh

quickly that

may

not lose

its colour.

To each

JAMS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, ETC.
pound pour a pint
pulp, as
it

249
it is

of cold water,

and

boil it until

well broken without being reduced to a white thick

would then be
it

difficult to

render the juice

ought to be. Drain the juice well from the apples, either through a fine sieve, or a folded muslin strainer, and pass it afterwards through a jelly-bag, or turn the fruit at once into the last of these, and pour the liquid through a second time if needed. When it appears quite transparent, weigh, and reduce it by quick boiling for twenty
minutes.
juice,

perfectly clear, which

Add two pounds

of sugar for three of

then boil it for ten minutes. Put in the strained juice of a small lemon for every two pounds of jelly, a couple of minutes before it is taken from the fire.

631.

APPLE MARMALADE

(Middlesex)

Take six pounds of good cooking apples, peel and them and cut them into small pieces, as for a Put them into a basin pie, as evenly as possible.
core
of cold

water that they

while you do the rest.

may keep their colour white, When ready, take them out

and weigh them, put them into a deep bowl, and
lay over them an equal amount of sugar, and to every three pounds of apples add one tablespoonful of ground ginger (this is better freshly grated, not

bought powder). Leave all to stand for three days. The cores and peels should now be put in a lined preserving pan, with enough water to cover them, and boiled for half an hour, then strained off. At the end of the three days, strain off the syrup from the apples, add the juice from the peels, and boU for ten minutes. Then put in the slices of apple, and let them boil for half or three-quarters of an hour,
in the

250
till

JAMS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, ETC.
they are quite
clear,

taking care that they do

not break.
632.

APPLE MARMALADE

(Surrey)

Take two pounds of good sound cooking apples, and put them in a lined saucepan with one pound of castor sugar and one pint of sweet cider. Let them
cook quietly for three hours or so, until the fruit If it is not is so soft it can be put through a sieve. castor sugar can be now added. sweet enough, more Put it into jars or pots, like ordinary jam.
633.

BARBERRY JAM

(1816)

Pick your barberries from the stalks, and put them into an earthen pan, then into the oven to bake when baked, pass them through a sieve with a large wooden spoon, taking care there are no skins of the barberries left in weigh the barberries and to every two pounds allow two poimds and a half of powdered
; ;

mix the sugar and the fruit together, put your pots and cover it up set it in a dry place when you have filled your pots with it, sift a little powdered sugar over the tops of them.
sugar
it
;

in

;

;

634.

BLACKBERRY JAM

(Yorkshire)

Half a pound of good brown sugar to every pound boil the whole together gently for one hour, of fruit or till the blackberries are soft, stirring and mashing
;

them
635.

well.

CELERY IN IMITATION OF PRESERVED GINGER (Middlesex)

Cut the blanched part of the celery in pieces, and boU it in water with a large quantity of ginger until


JAMS, JELLIES, PEESERVES, ETC.
it is

251

quite tender, then throw
it
it

allow

put

it into cold water and to remain an hour. At the end of this time over a slow fire in good syrup, with some pieces

and let it remain simmering for an hour. Cool it again, and in the meantime, thicken the syrup by further evaporation. Put the celery in again, and repeat the same process. After a third simmering in this way, taking care to keep the syrup thick, put the celery into pots, and cover with syrup. The stalks of lettuce, taking off the
of ginger,

outside, prepared in the

same way, make a very

nice dessert sweet.

636.

TO DRY CHERRIES WITHOUT SUGAR
(Seventeenth Century)

Stone the cherries and set them in a pan over the fire, with only what liquor comes out of them. Shake them as they boil, then put them in an earthen pot. The next day scald them, and when they are cold, lay them on sieves to dry in an oven not too Twice heating in an oven will dry any sort of hot.
cherries.

637.

PRESERVED CITRONS
into water overnight
;

(Kent)

boil them till them in halves, and to every pound Put about a tableof citrons add a pound of sugar. spoonful of water to every pound of sugar when all

Put them

quite tender, cut

;

on the citrons, then put all on the fire and let them boil about half an hour. Soak a few races of ginger in water three or four days boil them first with a thin syrup, and afterwards
is

dissolved, pour it

with the citrons.

; :

252
638.

JAMS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, ETC.

TO PRESERVE SIBERIAN CRABS
clear.

(Cheshire)

pound Simmer till
to keep

A

of loaf sugar to half a pint of water.

Then

boil the crabs in this,
first

gently tiU done, having

pricked them

them from bursting. A little and cochineal to be added before
stalks are to be left on.

very over ginger, lemon,
all

boiling.

The

639.

CRAB-APPLE JELLY

(Kent)

Cut the crab-apples in halves, and put them in
a preserving pan with enough water to cover them. Let them come to the boil but not to a pulp then strain, and to every pint of juice add three-quarters
;

of a

pound

of white sugar.

Boil three-quarters of

an hour.
640.

PRESERVED CRANBERRIES
:

(Middlesex)

For every pound of the fruit use two pounds of pour a little water into the preserving pan, then a layer of sugar, and then a layer of fruit boil gently for twenty minutes, and skim.
sugar
641.

PRESERVED CUCUMBER

(Ireland)
;

Take large and small cucumbers free from seeds put them into salt and water, with cabbage leaves on the top to keep them down. Tie a paper over, and put them in a warm place till they are yeUow then wash them out and put them into fresh salt water. Continue to change the water till they are a then take them out, and cut out aU good green the pulp, and put them into cold water to take out the salt. Let them so remain two or three days,
;

JAMS, JELLIES, PEESERVES, ETC.

253

changing the water twice a day. Take one pound and half a pint of water, put on the fire and skim it clear. Add the rind of a lemon, cut very thin, and one ounce of ginger. When the syrup is cold, wipe the cucumbers, and put them in. Boil up the preserve three times a week for three weeks.
of fine sugar,
642.

QUIDDANY OF RED CURRANTS
(Yorkshire,

1769)

Put your red currant
stand
it

berries into a jar, with a
it close,

spoonful or two of water, and cover
in boiling water.

and

When you

think they are

done enough, strain them, and put to every pint of juice a pound of loaf sugar. Boil it up jelly height, and put it into glasses for use.
643.

DAMSONS FOR WINTER USE
of fruit allow half a
;

(Kent)
of preripe.

To every pound
serving sugar

pound

fruit to

be sound and not too
;

Put the
over the

fruit into large jars
fruit.

sprinkle the sugar

Lay

saucers over the jars

them

in a moderately cool oven for

and place an hom: or two,

until the fruit is tender.

When

cold, cover the top

of the jars with white paper cut to the size of the
jar.

Pour over
;

this

melted mutton

fat,

about two

inches thick

cover over with brown paper, and
till

keep in dry place. As a rule they keep but the fruit must not be too ripe.
644.

February

;

GOOSEBERRY JELLY
fire,

(Lincolnshire)

Make gooseberry jelly the
it is

ordinary way, and

when

ready to take off the

of elder-flowers tied

up

in

have ready a bunch a piece of muslin, which

a54

JAMS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, ETC.
jelly imtil it

turn round and round in the
desired flavour
;

has the

it is

really

Uke a most dehcious

grape.

645.

GRAPE CONSERVE

(American)

One basket of grapes, one and a half pints of sugar, one and a half pounds of seeded raisins, half a pound of walnut kernels. Remove pulp from grapes, boil five minutes, put through a colander, to remove seeds. Add raisins, sugar, and nuts chopped fine, and boil thirty minutes till thick.
646.

GRAPE JELLY

(American)

Free the grapes from stems and leaves.
preserving kettle, mash, and heat slowly.

Put

in

After

for half an hour. Put them in a jelly-bag I let mine drip aU night. Measure juice, put in kettle, boil for twenty minutes. Measure equal quantity of sugar, add to juice, and stir till dissolved. Put into jelly glasses.

reaching boiKng-point, simmer

647.

GRAPE MARMALADE
;

(American)

Pulp the grapes cook pulps till tender. Press through sieve and add skins, allowing three-quarters of a pound of sugar to half a pound of fruit. Cook
slowly.

_

648.

LEMON MARMALADE

(Surrey)

For this you want twelve lemons, and an equal weight in preserving sugar. Wash and wipe the lemons, then halve them, strain out the juice, and put the pips by themselves into a bowl with a

JAMS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, ETC.
tumblerful of cold water.

255

peels must be put and boiled till thoroughly tender. Then take them out, and having removed all the white pith you can, cut the rinds

The

into cold water in a lined pan,

into the thinnest possible shreds or strips, about

an iach long. Next put the lemon juice, the water from the pips, and the sugar into a preserving pan, and let it boil to a syrup. Add the rinds, and boil till the marmalade will " set."
half
649.

MOUNTAIN ASH JELLY

(Surrey)

Pick the mountain-ash berries clean from the and stew them down to as near a pulp as you can, with enough water to cover them and a very little " race " ginger. Crush and strain the pulp, and boil it up again for half an hour, with two-thirds of its weight in sugar. (Mountain ash is known in Ireland as " quicken " and in Scotland It is credited with wonderfully reas " rowan." storative properties, and is, I believe, largely used in the jeUy form upon the Continent, especially in
stalks,

Switzerland.

Ed.)

650.

ANOTHER WAY
and
slice

(Middlesex)

Pare, core,

apples of the juiciest
well to pieces.

two pounds of good preserving kind, and boil them for twenty
till

minutes or more in one quart of water,
Strain off the water,

they are

and add to the apples in the preserving pan three pounds of mountain ash berries. Let all simmer gently tmtil quite pulped then strain off the juice, and to every pint measure one pound of sugar. Let the juice boil fast for twenty minutes, then put in the sugar, which
:

256

JAMS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, ETC.

should be warmed and crushed. Boil for fifteen minutes more, skimming well, and then pour off the jelly into heated pots. Some people put a leaf of scented geranium, such as oakleaf, into every pot,
651.

PRESERVED MELONS OR CUCUMBERS
;

(Kent)
;

rub Gather the melons when fresh and green them smooth with a coarse cloth put them in strong salt and water tie them down close and set them by the fire change them from top to bottom till quite yellow, then put them in a skillet with layers of vine leaves and strong salt and water, a small piece of soda and the same of alum. Put it over the fire at some distance till quite scalding hot, but not
; ;

not green in a few hours, change the when water and leaves, and put them on again green, drain them on a sieve, and throw them in fresh water for three days, changing it every day. Make a thin syrup with one pound of sugar and a gallon of water boiled an hour and cleared with the
boiling.
If
;

white of an egg. When nearly cold, pour it over them, repeating the same for a week, each day a little warmer the last day let them boil five minutes.
;

652.

TO PRESERVE MULBERRIES IN SUGAR
(Middlesex)
;

Choose large and very ripe mulberries
gently into some strong syrup, and let

put them

them

boil,

covering over the pan, and shaking

it

gently from

time to time

;

then take

off

the

fire,

skim the syrup,

them stand for two hours. They are then to be put on again, and boiled until the syrup is exceedingly thick. Pour into glasses and pots, and keep by for use.
and
let

JAMS, JELLIES, PEESERVES, ETC.
653.

257

TO PRESERVE MULBERRIES IN A DRY STATE (Middlesex)

Gather them when not quite ripe, and give them then let them stand for twenty-four hours near the fire, so as just to keep warm. At the end of this time, take them out, drain them, and put them upon tins, powdering them well with dry sugar, and exposing them to the sun. When they are dry on one side, turn them, powder them in the same way, and finish the drying.
a boil in syrup
;

654.

ORANGE JELLY
on the rinds

(Kent)

One ounce

of isinglass, one pint of hot water.
of six oranges

Rub some

loaf sugar

four lemons until they appear white.
into the water,
is
it

and Put the sugar

dissolved, then

and let it remain until the isinglass add the juice of the fruit and let

just boil, then strain into moulds.

655.

ORANGE MARMALADE CONSERVE
(Devonshire)

lemon,

Take three Seville oranges, one sweet orange, one Cut five pounds of sugar, five pints of water.

put straight in Cut up the peel as finely as possible with very sharp knives, put into the pan also and Leave to soak for twenty-four five pints of water. Put the pips to soak in a little water separhours. ately boil them for some time and strain off into the other pan. Boil all for one hour without sugar, and then, without letting it cool, for two hours with sugar. When the juice begins to jellify on a cold
fruit in half, squeeze all the juice out,

preserving pan.

;

saucer,

it is

done.

17

258
656.

JAMS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, ETC.

SMOOTH ORANGE MARMALADE
oranges, take the

(Kent,

1809)

Weigh the
and grate the

as of fruit, wipe all the oranges with a
strip off the skin

same weight of sugar wet cloth

rind, cut the fruit in quarters longways,

with a knife and pick out the seeds

clean from them, then put on the skins to boil until

they are so tender that they will beat to a mash. When you take the skins ofE the fire, squeeze the water out of them, and take away all the strings. Pound them in a marble mortar, clarify the sugar, then take the pounded skins and mix them by When it is well mixed degrees with the syrup. put it into the pan and let it boil until the sugar is incorporated with it, then put in the pulp, which

must be carefuUy scraped with a
before they are put on to boil.
boil
till it

knife off the skins Let the marmalade

of an equal thickness, you will know done enough by its turning heavier in Whenever it begkis stirring, and of a finer colour. Pound the grated spajkle it is done enough. to mortar, take off the marmalade and stir rind in a
is

when

it is

in the grated rind carefully

;

when
it

it

is all in,

put
is

on the pan
rind, unless

again,

and

let

boil

imtil

it

thoroughly mixed.

You may keep

out some of the

If you like it very bitter and thick. you keep it out, use it for seasoning. In making Chip Marmalade only a small part of the skins are

to be pounded, the remainder cut in strips.

657.

TO PRESERVE PEARS

(Devonshire)

largest stewing pears when they are on Pare them nicely, cut them in halves, leaving the stem on. To every pound of pears add

Take the

the turn.

JAMS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, ETC.
three-quarters of

259

a pound of loaf sugar, and to pears put a pint of water, the juice and peel of four lemons (the peel to be pared thin and cut in long strips), a small cup of cloves, and a little

about

fifty

Let them stew very turning them constantly until you can pass a straw through them, then add a teacupful of brandy and let them boU two or thiee
cochineal to colour them.

gently over a slow

fire,

minutes longer.
as other preserves

Put them
;

in jars

and

tie

down

they

will

keep good for twelve

months.
658.

PEAR MARMALADE

(Yorkshire)

You
pounds

require six pounds of small pears,
of sugar.
;

with cold water
the fruit
is soft
;

and four Put the pears into a saucepan cover it and set it over the fire tUl
;

then put the pears into cold water

and core them, put to them three teacups of water, set them over the fire. Roll the sugar fine, mash the fruit fine and smooth, put the sugar
pare, quarter

to

it,

stir it
it

well together
in the

till it is

thick, like jelly.
it is

Then put

into tumblers or jars,
it

quite cold serve
659.

and when same way as jelly.

TO PRESERVE JARGONEL PEARS

(Ireland)

Pare very thin, and simmer for ten minutes in a syrup of one pint of water and one pound of sugar. Let them lie a day or two. Make the syrup richer, and simmer again. Repeat this till they are clear, and the syrup the thickness of honey.
660.

PRESERVED PEACHES

(Kent)
;

fruit in

Take an equal weight of fruit and sugar lay the a large dish, and sprinkle half the sugar over.

;

260

JAMS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, ETC.
;
;

powder give them a gentle shaking the next day make a thin syrup with the remainder of the sugar, and instead of water, if you have it, allow one pint of red currant juice to every pound
in fine of peaches
clear.
;

simmer them

ia this

till

sufficiently

N.B.

—Pick them when not dead
661.

ripe.

QUINCE JAM

(Kent)

Half a pound of sugar to one pound of fruit about a large teacupful of water to five or six pounds of fruit. Cover the stewpan close during the last ten miuutes to improve the colour. The hard, dry quinces are better if peeled and put into a jar with the peelings can be put a small quantity of sugar on the top and covered with paper and put iuto the oven after the bread is out, and then preserved in the usual way.
;

662.

QUINCE MARMALADE
them

(Kent)

Peel the quinces and cut
to every

into quarters,

and

pound

of fruit allow three-quarters of a

pound

of loaf sugar with a little water.
it

Boil
;

them

gently for three hours and put

the seeds in water to a
while boiling.

jelly,

simmer and add to the above
into jars

663.

UNBOILED RASPBERRY JAM

(Gloucestershire)

One and a quarter pounds of best lump sugar to each pound of raspberries. Put on the fruit, bring it to boihng point, but do not let it boil more than two or three nlinutes. Add the sugar stir till

JAMS, JELLIES, PEESERVES, ETC.
quite
dissolved.
it

261

Again bring

to

boiling

point.

Dish
hot.

at once into
well.

warm jam
fruit.

pots and cover while

Keeps

Is of splendid colour

and

retains

the flavour of fresh

664

RHUBARB JAM
pounds

(Essex)

Required

:

eight

of rhubarb, eight

pounds

of sugar, four level teaspoonfuls of ginger, one of candied peel.

pound

Wipe the rhubarb and cut into pieces
Put
in a pan, slightly crush
it.

about one inch long. the sugar and spread
day.
ginger,

this over

Then cut the lemon
and
boil the

peel

Leave it till next up thinly, add the

whole till it turns a nice red and a half hours. Pour into dry scalded jars and cover down at once. It wiU not need any brandied paper. The easiest way to cover jam is to cut pieces of tissue paper to the desired size, dip in cold milk, and use, pressing carefully against the jar so that the covering shall be all tight. Unless carefully done, the paper wiU tear.
colour, probably one

665.

PRESERVED RHUBARB

(Lincolnshire)

Weight for weight of fruit and sugar. Pare the rhubarb and cut in three-inch pieces pound one third of sugar, and put it over rhubarb. Let it stand all night. Pour off the juice in the morning, and boil it with the remainder of sugar. Then pour Then put it over the fruit and let it stand tUI cold. it through a hair sieve, and boil the juice again for
;

fifteen

tender.

minutes. Add the fruit and let it boil till Some essence of ginger to be put in a little

before

it is

taken

off

the

fire.

262

JAMS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, ETC.
666.

CONSERVE OF RED ROSES
(Seventeenth Century)
of red rose-water,

and a quart of pound of red roseleaves, the whites cut off. The leaves must be boiled very tender then take three pounds of sugar, and put it to the roses, a pound at a time, and let it boil a little between every pound and so put it up
fair (fresh) water,

Take a quart

and

boil in it a

;

:

in your pots.

667.

ROSE-PETAL JAM

(Stirrey)

Make
little

a syrup of one pound of loaf sugar and as

rose-water as you can do with.

of rose-petals (cabbage roses are best)

Take a pound and dry them

in a

shady

place.

Scald

boiling water, then drain

them for a moment in and dry them, and add

them, with a spoonful of orange-flower water, to the syrup. Boil in a preserving-pan until the jam will " set " or " jell " when dropped upon a plate. When it has cooled off a little, pour it into pots, and cover up well, the usual way.

668.

COMPETE OP WILD ROSE-BERRIES

(Surrey)

Collect wild rose-berries, cut off the tops, cut

them

open and carefully remove all seeds and hairs (it is well to wear gloves while doing this, as the hairs get under the nails and are curiously irritating). Then
the berries in a preserving-pan, with as water as possible and when they are quite tender, pulp them through a sieve. Add sugar, the proportion being at least three-quarters of a pound to each pound of pulped berries, and let the mixture
boil
little
;

down

;

JAMS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, ETC.
boil

263

up quickly till the sugar is dissolved, then remove it from the fire and bottle it as soon as ooolish. (This coiopote, under the name of Hagenmarken, is largely made and sold in Germany. The difference
between a compote and a jam is stated variously by various authors but I take it that the latter term apphes to " wet " fruits, such as strawberries, raspberries, etc., and that the sugar is put in along with the fruit to boil. In a compote, the material, being harder and drier, needs long preliminary cooking the sugar really requires none at all, so can be added at the last moment it is not essential that it should be either syrupped or candied. Ed.)
; ;
;

669.

PRESERVED STEWED FRUIT

(Somerset)

Take equal weight of fruit and sugar, put the sugar in the oven and let it get so hot that it will burn the hand, but be careful it does not brown. Bring the fruit to boiling point and allow it to boil for add the melted sugar and let it boU five minutes
;

for three minutes

:

it

done

in this

way

will
;

taste like ripe fruit

is then done. Raspberries be a bright red colour, and they wUl keep as well as a

preserve done thus.

670.

TO SUGAR ANY SORT OP SMALL FRUIT
(Seventeenth Century)

Beat the white of an egg, and dip the fruit in it on a dry cloth take some fine sifted sugar and gently roU the fruit in it till it is quite covered and coated with sugar. Lay it in a sieve on the it will keep stove, or before a fire, to dry it weU
let it lie
: :

well for a week.

264

JAMS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, ETC.
671.

PRESERVED TOMATOES
in

(Essex)
jars,

Put the tomatoes

wide-mouthed open

cover them entirely with cold water, on the top of

which pour half an inch of salad oil. Cover them closely and securely. (The correct placing of this
recipe, as regards chapter, is hardly possible
!

Ed.)

672.

VEGETABLE MARROW JAM

(Middlesex)

Procure a good sound well-ripened marrow, of twelve pounds weight. Peel it and cut it into
thinly cut rind of four lemons

cubes two inches square, add the juice and very mix in one pound of
;

sugar to every pound of marrow, and place in an enamelled preserving-pan or in a deep earthenware
jar, for

of bruised race ginger,

Then add three ounces and a quarter of an ounce of chillies (this is optional) in a muslin bag. Let the mixture boU for one and a half hours in the preserving-pan (counting from the time that it comes to the boU) and, just before it is done, add half a pound of candied peel cut into very thin strips.
twenty-four hours.
673.

PRESERVED VEGETABLE MARROW
; ;

(belaud)

Cut the marrow in long narrow strips peel and weigh equal quantities of loaf sugar sprinkle a httle sugar on the fruit, and leave it for a night. Next day, boil it with its own syrup, and the rest of the Put sugar, and one lemon to every pound of fruit. about thirty pepper pods to every four pounds two wine-glasses of spirits to be added before taking
;

it off

the

fire.

Before adding the

spirits, it is well

to take out the fruit and boil the syrup with some

JAMS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, ETC. 265
more
sugar, then

pour over the

fruit.

It should

be
;

quite clear.

The lemons should be

cut in circles

only half the rinds.

Tie the pepper in muslin.

674.

DUTCH RECIPE FOR PRESERVING FRUIT
(Cape Colony)

Make a syrup to the proportion of two cups of sugar to four of water. Let it boil for a few minutes in a preserving pan. If it is not clear, strain through
butter muslin.
fruit in it at a

Then put two or three pounds of time while the syrup is boiling, and simmer from ten to twenty minutes, according to the kind of fruit the latter should be soft and
;

clear

when done, and unbroken.
fill

Take the

bottles,

and Screw them down tightly. Then add more fruit to the boiling syrup until it is used. Do not forget to screw the covers more tightly the following day. If you have no screw bottles, pour boiling mutton suet on the top of each bottle when Any syrup cold, about a quarter of an inch thick. over can be bottled and used as a fruit drink. Add vinegar and water to it at the table. Must be kept Will keep for months. in a dry place.
previously warmed,
to the top with fruit

a

little

syrup.

FRUIT CHEESES AND PASTES
675.

ALMACKS

(Kent,

1809)

in slices,

Equal quantities of plums, pears, and apples, cut put into an earthen jar and baked. When

thoroughly done, squeeze them through a colander. To three pounds of fruit, add one poimd of moist sugar, and let it simmer gently for some time till it

266

JAMS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, ETC.

becomes a thick jam, then put it into saucers or shallow pans, and let it stand on the kitchen rack for a day to stiffen and dry. When dried so, it will keep in paper.
676.

APPLE CHEESE

(1815)

Pare and quarter your apples and take out the put them into a deep pot or jar, and put the paring and cores at the top let them bake in a moderate oven till quite soft take off the parings, cores, and bits of apple which are at the top, i£ they are dry or hard then put your apples into a stewpan, with fine powdered sugar to your taste, and boil them four hours till it is quite stiff. Put the cheese in moulds or cups, and lay paper over it moistened with brandy set it in a dry place, and N.B. in three weeks it wiU cut quite smooth.
cores,
;

;

;

;

You may add
it

a

little of

the rind of a lemon grated,

or a few drops of essence of lemon, before you put
into the moulds; also a few blanched almonds
it.

cut into small pieces and mixed with

677.

APPLE PASTE

(Middlesex)

Peel and core some fine apples and boU them in

When quite soft, take them out and put them in cold water having drained them, press them through a coarse cloth put this marmalade into a pan on the fire, stir it frequently with a wooden spoon, and when it is nearly dry, take it out and add an equal weight of sugar, mixing them well
water.
;

;

together.
of

Press the mixture
;

flat,

of the thickness

an ordinary piecrust to dry in a slack oven.

put

it

upon

tins

and place

JAMS, JELLIES, PEESERVES, ETC.
678.

267

APRICOT PASTE

(Middlesex)

Set any quantity of the fruit you

may

require

a stewpan, and cook till they are quite soft then take out the stones, pass the fruit through a sieve, and dry. Then take clarified sugar equal in weight to the fruit, mix, and let them press well together. Turn out into shapes, and dry in a slow oven or in the sun.
over the
fire in
;

679.

BULLACE CHEESE
bullaces

(Eighteenth

Century)

Take your
loaf sugar

when they

are full ripe,

to every quart of fruit put a quarter of a

and pound of

beaten small. Put them in a jar in moderate oven to bake till they are soft, then rub them through a hair sieve, and to every pound of pulp, add half a pound of loaf sugar crushed fine.
fire,

Then boil it four and a half hours over a slow and keep stirring it all the time. Put it into pots, and tie brandy papers over them, and keep them in a dry place. When it has stood a few months, it will cut out very bright and fine. You may make sloe cheese the same way.

680.

CHERRY CHEESE
cherries,

(1815)

Stone some Kentish
of the stones as

crack

as

many

you choose, blanch the kernels in boiling water, and mix them with the fruit to every twelve poxmds of fruit add three pounds of Lisbon sugar boil it to a thick jam, and when the fruit no
;

;

longer cleaves to the pan,

it is

done enough.

268

JAMS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, ETC.
681.

BLACK CURRANT PASTE
way
of

(Middlesex)
is

The

best

making black currant paste

to

dissolve

an ounce

of isinglass in about half a pint of
;

the filtered juice, and equal weight of sugar

put

them in a stewpan, and let them simmer for at least an hour, then pour out the juice into a very shallow tin mould, and when it is cold and quite
hard, cut
it

into pieces.

682.

DAMSON CHEESE

(1816)

Pick the damsons free from stalks, leaves, etc., put them into a jar and tie white paper over them bake them in a slow oven till quite soft, rub them put the pulp and through a colander while hot juice which has passed through the colander into a stewpan, with fine powdered sugar to your taste boil it over a moderate fire tUl it is as stiff as you can possibly stir it, which will take three hours keep stirring it to prevent it burning to the pan and a few minutes before you take it off the fire, put the kernels of the damsons into the pan, and mix with it put it into cups or moulds, let it stand a day, and cut some pieces of writing paper the size of the tops of the cups or moulds, dip them in brandy and put close over them put them in a dry place, and they will keep for several years. You may make plum or buUace cheese the same
;
; ; ; ;
; :

way.
before

It is necessary to take the skins off the kernels

you put them into the pan.
683.

DAMSON CHEESE

(Cheshire)

it

Put your damsons in a large stone jar, and tie over tight, and put it in the oven tiE the fruit

JAMS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, ETC.
is

269

soft

and the

juice running out.
till

Rub

the fruit

you have got the pulp out. Add three-quarters of a pound of sugar to every pound of pulp. Boil it well. Try a little in a saucer, and if it sets, it will be boiled enough. Break the stones and put in the kernels or some blanched bitter almonds while boiling. Stir all the time, as it soon bums.
684 GOOSEBERRY PASTE (Surrey) Take some gooseberries from which you have extracted the juice for jelly, without drawing them very closely. Pass them through a sieve, weigh them, and boU the pulp for about one and a quartei
hours, until
it o£E
it

through the sieve

and stir in sugar to each pound of
the
fire

forms a dry paste in the pan. Lift six ounces of good pounded
fruit.

When

this is nearly

dissolved, boil the mixture for twenty to twentyfive

minutes
it

;

stir it incessantly, or it will

be likely to

burn.
use

Put it into moulds or shallow as wanted for table.

dishes,

and

685.

CONSERVE OR PASTE OF PEACHES
(Middlesex)

Make a marmalade of ripe peaches in an iron pot, with three-quarters of a pound of sugar to every pound of fruit stir frequently, taking care they do dry the marmalade carefully on a hot not burn and when nearly dry, plate, or in a slack oven a quarter of a pound of the marmalade with a mix
;

;

;

pound

of very finely

pounded sugar

;

press

it

into

the form of a cake, drying thoroughly, and it will keep for almost any length of time. It carmot be dried too slowly.

270

JAMS, JELLIES, PRESERVES, ETC.
686.

LOZENGES OF RED ROSES
(Seventeenth Century)

(Proportions not given.)
;

Boil your sugar to sugar

again {i.e. till it candies) then put in your red roses, being finely beaten and made moist with the juice
of a lemon. Let it not boil after the roses are in, but pour it upon a pie plate and cut it into what form you please.

CHAPTER XVII

SWEETMEATS AND CANDIES
The home-made sweetmeat is so pure, so wholesome, and so attractive, as compared with the manufactured article, that one need hardly utter a
Note.

The old It is its own praise. MS. books to which I have had access, did not deal with any great variety of confections theirs are,
syllable in its praise.
:

as a rule,

simple sugary affairs at best, with a

modest flavouring or colouring. Either the involved and artistic achievements of the present day, it would seem, were beyond the
scope of our mothers, or they did not trouble to set down the secrets thereof. These, therefore, but are more or less of a familiar nursery type gratifisuch as they are, they are always a source of
:

cation

:

pure of glucose and of baneful colouring

matters, safe and sound to eat. buttered dish is indispensable in sweetmaking, and a very sharp knife. " Lined " saucepans or

A

and it is copper preserving pans must be used hardly necessary to remark that all utensils should
:

be exquisitely
687.

clean.
(Middlesex)

CANDIED ANGELICA
them
into slices,
271

When the stems
run
to seed, cut

are of a good size and before they

and put them

for

272

SWEETMEATS AND CANDIES
:

some time into cold water after having removed the rind then boil them until they become soft, and wash them afterwards two or three times in cold water boil them in strong syrup for an hour, then let them stand for twenty-four hours now take them out of the syrup, and drain them. In the meantime, strengthen the syrup by the addition of more sugar, and afterwards let the angelica simmer in it for half an hour. It is then to be taken out, placed upon tins, and dried in a slow oven, or on a hot plate, powdering it well with white sugar. Angelica preserved in this way will remain good for
;

;

several years.

688.

BURNT ALMONDS

(Eighteenth

Century)

Take two pounds of loaf sugar, and two pounds almonds, put them in a stewpan with a pint of water, set them over a clear coal fire, let them boil till you hear the almonds crack. Take them off and stir them about till they are quite dry then put them in a wire sieve and shake all the sugar from them. Put the sugar into the pan again with a
of
;

Uttle water, give

it

a

boil,

of scraped cochineal to colour

put four (tea ?) spoonfuls it. Put the almonds

into the

pan

;

keep

stirring

them over the

fire

tiU

they are quite dry.
in a glass jar.

They

will

keep twelve months

689.

BURNT ALMONDS, RED
of the finest

(1815)

Take some

Jordan almonds you can

get, sift all the

dust from them, have some syrup

boiling in a pan,

and

let it boil

tm

it

comes almost

SWEETMEATS AND CANDIES
to caramel
;
;

273

put half a (tea ? ) cupful of cochineal put the almonds in as fast as you can, and stir them till they are cold then put them in your sieve, and break those that stick together; then have another pan of syrup boiling, the same as before, and when they are cold, pick them from each other, for they must always have the coats of sugar on them. See that your cochineal is properly mixed to make them of a fine colour, as you must put more cochineal in the last coat than you did in
in
;

the

first.

690.

BURNT ALMONDS, WHITE
;

(1815)

Take some of the finest Jordan almonds you can and sift all the dust from them then have some syrup boiling in a pan, and let it boil till it comes almost to a caramel put your almonds in, and stir them till they are cold put them in your sieve, break those that stick together, and then have another pan of syrup boiling, the same as before, and give them two coats of sugar when done, pick them from each other.
get,
;
;

;

691.

ALMOND PASTE
of

(Somerset)

Take one pound

ground almonds, one pound

of castor sugar, one tablespoonful of orange-flower

water, eight or nine drops of essence of almonds, two whole eggs and one white of egg. Mix sugar

and almonds well together add orange-flower water and essence of almonds. Beat the eggs well and knead them into it. If to be used on a cake, spread
;

the paste on with a knife dipped in hot water,
18

274

SWEETMEATS AND CANDIES
692.

CANDIED APRICOTS

(Surrey)

Take some apricots which are not quite ripe, and remove the stones without entirely dividing the fruit. Put them into cold water then blanch them fire when they become soft, take them off, on the and put them again into cold water. When they are cold, drain them, and throw them into some clarified sugar, which has been made into a thick syrup
; ;

while

it

is

in a boiling state

;

let

the whole boil

again for a few minutes, and let. them stand for twenty-four hours. Take out the apricots, and give
the syrup another boil, then throw it boiling over the fruit, and let all stand another twenty-four

hours

;

after

which take them out, drain them, put
stove,

them on

dishes which have been well covered with

powdered sugar, dry them in a

and lay them

by

in a box, placed in layers, with a sheet of paper

between each.
693.

CANDIED BARBERRIES
strong syrup,

(Surrey)
it boils,

Make a good

and when

put

in your barberries in bunches

(the proportion of

syrup should be two pounds of sugar to three pounds

and let them simmer a few minutes. them out and let them get cold. The next day boil them again in the sugar for about half an hour. When cold, take them out and powder them with sugar, and let them dry under glasses in
of barberries),

Then

lift

the sun,
694.

BARLEY SUGAR

(Middlesex)

barley,

Melt some sugar over the fire with a decoction of mixed with whites of eggs, well beaten into

:

SWEETMEATS AND CANDIES
a
light froth
:

275
jelly-

this is then passed

through a

and again boiled till it forms large bubbles then throw it out on a marble slab or flat dish, which has been lightly rubbed over with oil of sweet almonds when the bubbles disappear, it is rolled into round sticks, and left to cool and harden.
bag,
:

695.

BARLEY SUGAR

(Surrey)

Put into a lined saucepan a good handful of fine and the thinly pared rind of half a lemon. Pour in one quart of cold water, and let it simmer for two hours. Then let it stand and settle when it has settled, pour off the water carefully. Pour a pint of what is left, with two pounds of loaf sugar, into a pan, and stand it over a gentle heat until the
barley,
;

Add the juice of is melted, then let it boil. one lemon, and boil up again till it begins to crack. Pour it out on to a buttered dish, and when cool cut it into strips. When these are almost cold, hold them at either end and twist them in opposite
sugar
directions.

696.

BLACK CURRANT DROPS

(1816)

Get half a sieve of black currants, put them in a mash them with your spaddle, and put them bring them just to a boU, and pass over the fire through a sieve over an earthen pan. Put them what jelly comes from them in an earthen pipkin, and put it over the fire and let it boil for two hours stir it all the time at bottom with your spaddle, or put in two pounds and a half of else it will bum powdered sugar, mix it with the jam and stir it Drop it on metal sheets or over the fire half an hour.

pan

;

;

;

;

276

SWEETMEATS AND CANDIES
;

from your knife, and put them your hot stove let them be there tUl you find they are quite dry, and then take them off with your
plates, in little drops

in

knife.

697.

BUTTERSCOTCH

(Middlesex)

Take one pound of lump sugar and half a pint of them together ia a saucepan over the fire until the sugar is thoroughly melted. Then add half a pound of butter, dropping in little bits at a time, and a pinch of cream-of-tartar. Mix well, and boil the butterscotch until a piece will set into
milk, stir

a fairly hard ball on being dropped into cold water.

Pour

it

upon an oiled

or buttered tin,
sufficiently set.

and out

it

into

small squares
698.

when

CHOCOLATE ALMONDS
:

(Surrey)

melt some good chocolate necessary with a very little syrup. Dip the almonds in, one at a time, upon a long pin, and lay them to dry upon a

Blanch your almonds

in a lined pan, thinning

it if

buttered dish.
699.

CHOCOLATE DROPS
half
of

(1815)

Take one pound and a
put put
of
it

chocolate,
;

and
then

in the

oven just to warm the chocolate

it

into a copper stewpan, with three-quarters
;

a pound of powdered sugar mix it well over fire, take it off, and roll it in pieces the size of small marbles put them on white paper, and when
the
;

they are all on, take the sheet of paper by each comer, and lift it up and down, so that the paper may touch the table each time, and by that means

;

SWEETMEATS AND CANDIES
you
will see the size of

277

drops come quite flat, about the a sixpence put some sugar nonpareils over them, and cover all that are on the paper, and then shake them off, and you will see all the chocolate drops covered with the sugar nonpareils. Let them stand till cold, and they will come off well, and then put them in a papered box.
;

700.

COCONUT CANDY

(Hampshire)

half pounds of white sugar and with three-quarters of a piut of cold water to boil in a lined saucepan. When the sugar has dissolved, boil for five minutes, then strain it, and mix in, thoroughly well, one and a half pounds of grated coconut. Put the saucepan close to the fire and stir the mixture until it begins to candy. Then spread it on sheets of white paper which have been

Take one and a
it

put

made warm, or on a warmed tin, well buttered. Before the candy is quite cold, take off the paper, and cut it into squares Let it get quite dry before being stored. If you wish any to be pink, divide the mixture into two pans (before putting in the
coconut),

and colour the syrup

in

one of these with

a

little

cochineal.

701.

COCONUT CANDY
let it

(Surrey)

it very fine, spread it dry naturally for two or three days. To every four oimces of grated coconut add one pound of sugar (but you can add more coconut if you choose). Boil the sugar to a syrup when it has boiled about ten minutes, and begins to be thick and white, stir in the nut, mix it well,

Take a

fresh coconut, rasp

on a

dish,

and

278

SWEETMEATS AND CANDIES

and do not leave it a moment till it is done. Stand the pan over, not on, the fixe, as this candy bums
very easily. For almond candy, proceed the same, but first dry the almonds in a gentle oven, and do not put them to the sugar till it approaches candying
point.
702.

ANOTHER WAY
of

Take two pounds
boil
till it is

powdered sugar,
it off

set

it

in a
it

lined saucepan, just covered with water.
brittle,

Let

then take

the

fire.

Have

ready two whites
as quick as

of eggs well beaten, and beat them you can into the sugar. When the mixture is quite cool, add either a grated coconut (fresh), or the same amount of desiccated coconut and ten or twelve drops of lemon-juice. Then pour off into a buttered dish or pan, and cut it in strips. For pink candy, set half the mixture in a separate saucepan, and colour it with a little cochineal.
703.

COCONUT ICE

(Hampshire)
of

Take one grated fresh coconut, two pounds
loaf sugar,

a small piece of butter, one tablespoonful of cream, a little cochineal. (A very large nut will require three pounds of sugar, and water in proportion.) Take the coconut mUk, and add water sufiicient to make half a pint all together. Add the sugar, and boil well for ten minutes, then stir in the grated nut and boU another ten minutes. Take it off the fire, add the cream, and beat the mixture Pour half into a buttered well until it begins to set. soup-plate add a little cochineal to the other half, and pour this on top of the first when it is set enough to bear it. When cold, cut it up into strips.
;

SWEETMEATS AND CANDIES
704.

279

TO CANDY COWSLIPS OR ANY OTHER FLOWERS IN BUNCHES (Seventeenth Century) Steep gum arabic in water, wet the flowers with it, and shake them in a cloth that they may dry,
Then dip them
on a
there
is

in fine sifted sugar,

and hang them

string across a stove or chimney-piece

when

a

fire.

They must hang

for

two or three

days, until the flowers are quite dry.

705.

CANDIED FILBERTS

(Middlesex)

Blanch them, and when the skins are removed, let them simmer iu very thin syrup for about an hour put them to cool, and then set them on the flre again, adding more sugar, so as to thicken the syrup simmer for another hour, and then let them cool. Repeat this process a third time, adding more sugar, until the syrup has become so thick as to candy when cold take out the filberts before the syrup is cold, and cover them well with pounded loaf sugar then dry in the sun or in a slow oven. The syrup may be used for any other preserve.
:

;

:

:

706.

HARDBAKE

(Surrey)

Put one pound of Demerara sugar into a saucepan with enough water to make a strong syrup half

a pint more or

less.

Boil the sugar until

it sets

when

dropped into cold water. Meanwhile have split blanched almonds laid in rows, flat side down, upon a buttered dish. Pour the S3Tup over the almonds, and put the dish in a cool place. When the hardbake is quite dry and hard, cut it into pieces, and keep it in a dry tin.

280

SWEETMEATS AND CANDIES
707.

LEMON PRALINES

(Hampshire)

Peel some lemons thinly, and cut the peels into
small narrow strips about an inch long.

Put one powdered loaf sugar to boil in one teacupful of water, and when the sugar is dissolved put in a quarter of a pound of butter, beaten to a cream.

pound

of

Keep
if

stirring it over the fire until it will nearly set

dropped upon a dish. At this point put in the lemon strips. Lift the pan from the fire, and stir the lemon strips about till it is nearly cold, with a wooden or silver spoon. Then put them in a sieve To be kept in a dry tin. Some people to drain. add six drops of essence of lemon just before putting
in the strips.

708.

LEMON PRAWLONGS
all

(1815)
oJBE

Take some lemons and
quarters
;

peel the rind
off

in four

from the inside of cut the yellow rind in pieces, about one the rind inch long and about the tenth part of an inch wide. Have a pan of boiling syrup on the fire, and let it then put the boil till it comes almost to caramel in, and stir them very much with a large prawlongs wooden spoon, till they are cold put them in a large sieve, and shake them just to let the sugar that does lastly, put not stick to them go through the sieve them in your box, and keep them in a dry place.
take
the white
;
; ;

;

709.

CANDIED LEMON OR ORANGE CHIPS
fruit in halves
till
:

(Kent)

Cut the
juice.

take out
chips.

all

the pulp and

Boil the rinds

quite tender, drain

a

cloth,

and cut them into

them on Weigh an equal

SWEETMEATS AND CANDIES
;

281

quantity of white sugar, and to every pound of sugar put a pint of water set it on the fire, and when Boil quickly on it is quite dissolved put on the chips. a clear fire, about half an hour, or tiU you perceive When quite it begin to candy, then take it off. cool, spread it upon a dish or slab, and continue to move it about during two or three days, so as to separate it. It wiU take a fortnight to dry in the sun, or in a cool oven. When dry enough, put it

up

in folds of paper.

710.

MARZIPAN

(Middlesex)

Mix a quarter of a pound of icing sugar with a quarter of a pound of ground almonds. Add in the white of one egg well beaten, and a pinch of salt.
Mix
this well with a
little
;

wooden spoon, and

if it is

too

stiff use a a teaspoonful) but on no account make it too wet. Put it into a basin and let it stand for twenty-four hours. It can then be rolled out about half an inch

orange-flower water (not more than

thick and cut into shapes, or made into smaU balls to imitate fruits, with a strip of angelica as stalk.

This

is

a cheap and wholesome sweet.

711.

MARZIPAN POMME DE TERRE

(American)

Take half a pound of ground almonds, half a pound of icing sugar, one egg, and the yolk of another, chocolate powder, and a few drops of
essence of almonds.

Proceed as above.
(Hampshire)

712.

MARZIPAN POTATOES

ounces of ground almonds, add threequarters of a pound of sifted icing sugar, twelve

To

six

282

SWEETMEATS AND CANDIES

drops of orange-flower water (or a little brandy), and a few drops of almond essence. Mix to a stiff paste with the beaten white of an egg (sometimes two eggs are needed). Roll the paste into small
pieces, potato shapes,

castor sugar

and roll them and grated chocolate.

in a mixture of

713.

NOUGAT

(Middlesex)

Blanch a pound of sweet almonds, and, having them lengthways, let them lie in the sim for a short time, until they become slightly discoloured. Now dissolve, in an iron stewpan shghtly buttered, twelve ounces of sugar without water, stirring constantly, and when the sugar has melted, and begins to change colour, throw in the almonds, which are previously to be made thoroughly hot, in another vessel, over the fire, but without burning them. Mix them well with the sugar, and, as they mix, range them round the sides of the saucepan, leaving about the same thickness at the bottom as now, let the saucepan become a little at the sides having cool, and turn out the mixture upon a plate done this, press the contents well together in the form of a thick cake, and wrap up in writing paper. It should be kept in a dry tin.
sliced
:

:

714.

ORANGE-FLOWER CANDY

(Middlesex)

Throw some orange flowers into syrup (proportion not stated) when it has boiled about ten minutes and after they have simmered in it for five minutes more, pour the whole out, and leave them to infuse until the following day, or even longer if convenient.
;

SWEETMEATS AND CANDIES
Then bring the syrup
strain
it

283

to the boiling point again,

from the blossoms through a piece of muslin, and lay it quickly in cakes, with a large spoon, upon thick and very dry sheets of paper or tin. Take the candy off before it is quite cold, and lay it reversed upon dishes. This, kept secure against air, will be excellent for more than a year.
715.

PEPPERMINT CREAMS

(Hampshire)

of an egg (not beaten), add half quantity of cold water. Stir well to mix the two together. Put in enough icing sugar to make it stiff enough to handle mould into any shape
its
:

Take the white

desired.

Flavour with essence of peppermint. Vanilla creams are prepared the same as above, only with vanilla flavouring instead of peppermint. Shape into balls, and put a piece of dried walnut at top and bottom.
716.

CRYSTALLIZED ROSES OR VIOLETS

(Siirrey)

them in rows you on a pasteboard. Have a thoroughly good strong sjrrup boiling, and dip the rose-leaves let them be thoroughly coated, in, one at a time them on a sieve to drain and dry. then set
Select large sweet rose-petals, set

before

717.

SUGAR CANDY

(Middlesex)

Clarify four pounds of lump sugar, which must be allowed to simmer with a little water, over the fire, until by taking up a little on a spoon, and blowing on it, you find it fly off in small flakes then having skimmed it well, take it off the fire, throw into it a glass of good spirits of wine, and
:

;

284

SWEETMEATS AND CANDIES
:

pour the whole out mto an earthen dish cover it over and put it into an oven for eight days, taking care to keep it of an equal temperature at the end of that time, drain o£E the syrup, and the candy will remain attached to the dish, which must be warmed in order to allow the candy more readily to be detached.
:

718.

TO

KNOW WHEN SUGAR
HEIGHT
(Yorkshire,

IS
1769)

AT CANDY

till it

Take some sugar and clarify it, keep it boiling becomes thick, then stir it with a stick from you, and when it is at candy height, it will fly from your
till

stick like flakes of snow, or feathers flying in the air.

And

comes to that height, Then you may use it as you please.
it

it

will

not

fly.

719.

TO MAKE SUGAR-PLUMS OF ANY SORT

(Surrey)

of

Take a copper pan which has not only a handle some sort across the middle, but two side holes

Suspend it from a rack, or otherwise, about four inches above a charcoal brazier or redhot fire. Put the articles which are to be sugar coated blanched almonds, nuts, walnuts, or whatever they are into the pan with some strong syrup. Shake the pan so that every part of the articles may be covered, and keep on gently agitating it until the sugar has dried on them. Then add more syrup, and agitate till dry and so on until the coating is as thick as you desire. The original shape of the articles will in this way be preserved, and they will be covered with any thickness of sugar required.
or handles.

;

The same applies to any paste of but this must be dry before going

fruit

and sugar

into the pan.

SWEETMEATS AND CANDIES
720.

285

FRUIT PASTES FOR SUGAR PLUMS (Surrey) You take the fruit black currants, damsons, quinces, etc. whatever it may be, and boil it till

it is

so soft

it

the skins and stones.
in the

can be put through a sieve, all except Then put the pulp back again

evaporated.

pan and boil it again till the moisture is Then put in three-quarters of a pound of sugar to every pound of pulp, mix it in well, and let it go on boiUng slowly till it becomes a firm, smooth paste. It must be put into pots and well covered with brandied paper and butter paper.
721.

TOFFEE

(Kent)

Take
lemon

half a

pound

of coarse sugar,

two ounces

of butter, one tablespoonful of vinegar, a piece of
peel.

Boil

Butter a large dish
722.

them together for half an hour. all over, and pour on thinly.

DEVONSHIRE TOFFEE
just beginning
it

Mix granulated sugar with cream
to " turn," until

assumes the consistency of a batter. Put it into a lined saucepan very thick and keep on stirring until it is smooth and white and thoroughly cooked. Then add a spoonful of jam, raspberry for preference give it another stir-up,
:

pour

it

into a buttered tin,
it

and cut

it

into squares

before

has set hard.

723.

EVERTON TOFFEE

(Lancashire)

treacle,

Take one pound one pound

of butter, quarter of a

pound

of

of sugar (two tablespoonfuls of

water to be first put in the pan). AU to be boiled together for three-quarters of an hour.

286

SWEETMEATS AND CANDIES
724.

RUSSIAN TOFFEE
richer

(Surrey)

and better than ordinary cream (or, toffee. had, condensed milk), and stir into if this cannot be Boil it slowly over a it one pound of castor sugar. clear fire till it is all dissolved and begins to thicken. Then add two teaspoonfuls of vanilla essence and one tablespoonful of whisky. Boil it up again until then it froths and leaves the sides of the pan clear turn it out on to a buttered dish slab, and when it
This
is

much

Take

half a pint of thick sour

;

sets,

cut

it

into squares.

If

made with condensed
for the

milk, one small tin will
of sugar
;

sufifice

same amount
of vanilla

boil until
;

it

hardens when dropped into
boil

then add one teaspoonful and the juice of half a lemon, and mentioned above.
cold water

essence

up as

725.

TURKISH DELIGHT
;

(Hertfordshire)

Soak one ounce of gelatine in half a pint of cold put into a stewpan water for two or three hours with two pounds of loai sugar, and when it boils stir take off the fire and add two for twenty minutes teaspoonfuls of vanilla essence, and one of lemon essence pour into a wet soup plate and let it stand for twenty-four hours, then cut into squares and cover with icing sugar.
; ;

726.

TURKISH DELIGHT

(Surrey)

Boil two breakfastcupfuls of water in a lined

saucepan, add two ounces of French leaf gelatine,

and
boils

stir it

of loaf sugar,
:

with a wooden spoon. Add two pounds and go on stirring the mixure till it

let it boil for

twenty minutes, and

stir it all

;

SWEETMEATS AND CANDIES
the time.
acid,

287

Then add a small eggcupful of citric and two good tablespoonfuls of rose-water. Wet two china pie-dishes with cold water, and pour
half the mixture into one dish (through a strainer)

put a few drops of cochineal into the other half, and pour into the second dish. Before the mixture cools, add (if liked) a few chopped nuts or almonds. Let it stand twenty-four hours, and then cut it into cubes, rolling it well in smooth sifted icing
sugar.

CHAPTER XVIII

CAKES
Our mothers, grandmothers, and greatgrandmothers were what we should consider extravagant in the matter of eggs. They used eight where we should hesitate over four. They liked
Note.
their oakes rich, sweet,

and highly flavoured

;

and

they liked them in great variety and plenty. That happy institution " high tea," previously mentioned, supplied an excellent opportunity for showing

what the
respect.

skilful

housewife could turn out in this
all

Moreover,

important occasions

birth,

christening, wedding, funeral, re-union of the family
(as

on Simnel or Mothering Sunday), and a host
other family functions,

of

now

only traditional,
its

demanded each its own particular cake. Hence it is that not only every coimty has
celebrated specialities, as have also a great
provincial

many
still

towns,

but families

innumerable

possess certain favourite cake-recipes,

whose sweet-

ness custom cannot stale.
will

Among

those following
desired

be found the most interesting and dehghtful
;

concoctions

and

especially the reader

is

to note the large

number

of suggestions regarding

ginger-bread

wholesomeness,

and ginger-cake. For cheapness, and toothsomeness, this nursery
288


CAKES
desideratum can hardly be bettered. The Irish potato-cakes are also extremely good.
289
(salt)

The
'uns "

superiority of
is

home-made cakes

to " shop

so self-evident, that

no attention need be
a reputation for

called to the fact.

A hostess, with

dainty
first

little

cakes of private manufacture, has the

claim upon the gratitude of those guests

who

are weary of being regaled with the stereotyped

productions of the local confectioner. Moreover, the saving in cost is enormous, and the doubling in
excellence

undeniable.
afford,
little

The

revelations
well be

of

marit

garine and egg-powder

—to
may

say the least of

which shop cakes

abandoned

in

favour of the very turning out one's own. A good oven is very desirable neither spasmodically hot, nor irritatingly

extra trouble involved in

slow.

But

careful attention will obviate

many

of
is

the faults of a bad one.
I

The baking

of a cake

at least as important as the making.

have found that good beef-dripping (not bought is an excellent substitute for butter, and makes a large cake lighter as a rule. It is a good plan to warm the flour slightly first, and to mix
dripping)

your sugar with the flour, before rubbing in the the work is thus performed butter or dripping more quickly, because the grittiness of the much
:

sugar helps to break up the fat, especially in cold weather. Sour milk or buttermilk is invaluable for mixing cakes, rendering them much lighter. Always
beat the mixture with a fork, unless specially otherwise directed.

Cakes and

biscuits,

whether stored or in daily
tins.

use,

should be kept in closed
19

290
727.

CAKES
GENERAL RULES FOR MIXING CAKES
(Gloucestershire)

1.

Beat butter to a cream.

2. 3.
if

Add Add
Add

sugar (castor, granulated, or Demerara).
eggs well beaten
;

work

in one at a time

possible.
4.

Lastly,

flour, well sifted, and other add the baking powder.

ingredients.

728.

BAKING POWDER

(Somerset)

Twelve ounces of ground rice. Six and a half ounces of bicarb, soda. Five and a half ounces of tartaric acid. Get chemist to mix well together.
729.

GOOD BAKING POWDER
rice six ounces.

(Kent)

Ground

Tartaric acid, three ounces.

Carbonate of soda,

five ounces.

Cream of tartar, three ounces. One dessertspoonful to a pound of flour. Mix the above ingredients well together, taking care there are no small lumps left in it, and keep
it

in a glass bottle.

730.

AN EXCELLENT CHOCOLATE FILLING
(Hertfordshire)

is for putting into cakes. Take one cupful powdered sugar, four large spoonfuls of grated chocolate, and the whites of two eggs. Whisk the eggs to a stiff froth, then add the sugar, and then the chocolate. A few drops of essence of vanilla is

This

of

CAKES
an improvement to the mixture. smartly for five or ten minutes.
731.

291

Beat

all

together

ICING

(Kent)
;

Beat and

sift

eight ounces of fine sugar

put

into a mortar with four tablespoonfuls of rose-water
of two eggs beaten and strained. and when the cake is nearly cold, dip a feather in the icing, and cover the cake well. Set it in the oven to harden but not discolour.

and the whites
it well,

Whisk

Keep

in a

dry place.

732.

TO ICE A CAKE

(Yorkshire)

Beat up the whites of five eggs to a froth, and put to them one pound of double-refined sugar,

powdered and
all
it

sifted,

and three spoonfuls

of orange-

flower water and lemon-juice.

comes out

the time the cake is in of the oven, ice

Keep beating this the oven, and the moment
it

over the top with a

spoon.

Be
733.

careful to keep the sugar clean.

ALMOND ICING
pound
;

(Somerset)

To
of

half a

of castor sugar, allow six

ounces

mix with one or two ground sweet almonds yolks of eggs, and a little rose or orange-flower water.
734.

CHOCOLATE ICING

(Cheshire)

Put into a saucepan half a pound of castor sugar, two ounces of grated chocolate, and about a giU of
water.
Stir it over the fire
till

the mixture

is

about

as thick as cream, then dip in your almonds, or pour
it

over your cakes.

292
735.

CAKES
CHOCOLATE ICING
(Surrey)

Half a pound of icing sugar, one white of egg, one heaped up tablespoon of powdered chocolate, a few
drops of essence of vanilla. Decorate the cake with blanched sweet almonds, or split walnuts.

736.

ALMOND CAKE
of flour

(Middlesex)

Put a quartern

upon a pie-board, and
a quarter of a pound
of sweet

make

a hole in the middle to receive a piece of butter
little salt,

the size of an egg, a
of fine sugar,

and
fine.

half a

pound

almonds
it

pounded very
into a cake.

Knead

the whole, and form
it

When

baked, cover

with sugar,

and glaze with a salamander.

737.

AMERICAN CAKES

(Kent)

Mix three ounces

of cornflour, quarter of a

pound

a pound of butter, three eggs, one teaspoonful of baking powder, a little Bake in patty tins. citron peel.
of sifted sugar, quarter of

738.

AMERICAN CAKE
of currants,

One teacupful
coffee
flour,

same

of sultanas, lard

or dripping, candied peel, one teacupful of strong
(as

made

for

drinking),

six
little

teacupfuls of

half of golden

syrup, a

nutmeg,
soda.

salt,

and one
then
oven.

teaspooniiil

of carbonate

of
all

Mix

together lard, treacle, and coffee,

hot in oven, the flour in

add currants and

peel.

Stir

gradually, lastly the soda.

Bake

in a moderate

CAKES
739.

293

ARBETH CAKE

(Hertfordshire)

a pound of brown sugar, three teaspoonfuls baking pawder, two of ground ginger, one-third ounce of grated nutmeg, half a teaspoonful of cinnamon, one teaspoonful of caraway seeds, a grated lemon, half a pound of fresh butter, with
of

HaK

half a pound of flour, half a pound of raisins, half a pound of currants, one pint of butter-milk, all

mixed
cake.

well together

;

this will

make a three-pound

740.

AUNT-MARY CAKE

(Ireland)

half pounds of flour, half a pound of and a half pounds of sultanas, one and a half pounds of currants, one dessertspoonful of bread-soda (bi-carbonate ?), one pint of sour mUk. Rub butter thoroughly into flour and mix all the dry ingredients, putting the bread-soda in last and mixing it well in. Last of all, put the milk. Mix all well, and bake in a greased tin for two and a half

One and a

butter, one

to three hours, in a hot oven to start with. the cake has risen, the heat should be less.

When

741.

AUSTRIAN CAKE
fifteen

(Hertfordshire)

Six ounces of ground
eight eggs,
glass of brandy.

rice, six ounces of sugaj, drops of essence of almonds, Mix rice and sugar together add
;
;

yolks of eggs well beaten
stir in stiffly

add essence

of almonds,

the whites of five eggs, beat twenty

minutes and bake in a quick oven an hour.

294
742.

CAKES
BANBURY CAKES
it,

(Oxfordshire)

Having made some
cleaned currants over
thickness.

Cut

it

some welland roll it out to a moderate iato round cakes, and bake upon
pufE-paste, strew

floured tins.
finely

When

taken out of the oven, strew
set

powdered sugar over them, and

them by

to cool.

743.

BARM-BBACK
pounds

(Ireland)

One and a
butter,

half

of flour, four ounces of

sugar to taste, half a breakfastcupful of

currants,

one dessertspoonful

of

caraway

seeds.

Rub

the butter well into the flour, then the sugar,

and seeds. It must then be wetted with enough buttermilk to drop into shape, and not be in a solid lump. Bake in rather a slow oven for two hours, with paper on the top of shape. (Evidently the yeast or baking powder has been omitted here. By using self-raising flour and buttermilk or sour milk, this may be remedied. Ed.)
currants,
744.

ANOTHER WAY

Quarter of a stone of flour, four eggs beaten up a breakfast-cupful of brown sugar, and one pound of currants, the same of barm (yeast)
separately
; ;

and a

glass of spirits.

745.

BORDEAUX CAKES

(French)

Make a

paste, with the white of egg well beaten,

and powdered lump sugar, to a consistency proper to cut into shapes. Flavour with oil of cinnamon and bake in tins in a slow oven.

:

CAKES
746.

295

SMALL BRANDY SNAPS

(Hertfordshire)

quarter of a pound of butter, half a pound of treacle, a quarter of a pound of Demerara sugar
bring to the boil, add the juice of one lemon and
rind, one
flour.

A

ounce of ginger, a quarter of a pound of Let the whole be well mixed and kept warm. Drop in teaspoonfuls on a baking sheet, bake in a quick oven, hang on a spoon until crisp.

747.

CARAWAY CAKES
of

(Middlesex)

Mix a pound
pounds

of flour, half

pounded a pound
:

loaf sugar with of butter,

two and a small

make them into a paste handful of caraway seeds beaten, a little orange- water, and with five eggs well a small glass of ratafia roll it to the thickness of a
:

crown, cut them into shape, and bake on floured tins in a quick oven.

748.

CHARLIE'S CAKE

(Gloucestershire)

One pound

of sifted flour, half a

pound each

of

currants and sultanas, half a pound of salt butter, half a pound of castor sugar, two ounces of grated

mixed

baking powder, A handful of three eggs, sufficient for two medium-sized ground almonds is Takes about one hour in moderate oven cakes.
peel,

two teaspoonfuls

of

half

a pint of milk.

to cook.

749.

CHERRY CAKE

(Hertfordshire)

Beat a quarter of a pound of butter to a cream with a quarter of a pound of castor sugar ; when

296
perfectly

CAKES
smooth and white, add, one by one, four

eggs, beating the mixture well before adding each

one sprinkle in lastly a quarter of a pound of flour with a teaspoonful of baking powder, and a quarter of a pound of cherries cut in halves. Bake for about one and a quarter hours, and let the oven be rather
;

hot at

first.

750.

CHOCOLATE CAKE
of butter, six
flour,

(Somerset)

Four oimces
ounces of

ounces of sugar, eight
of

two ounces

ground chocolate,

two

large eggs or three small ones, half a teacupful

of milk, one teaspoonful of baking powder, half a teaspoonful of ground cinnamon, a few drops of vanilla. Beat the butter and sugar to a cream, add

the eggs well beaten, with a

little flour,

mix

tho-

roughly
fire,

;

dissolve the chocolate in the milk on the

add to the other ingredients.
This cake
is

Bake one

hour,

or until quite firm.
if

much improved

iced with

almond or chocolate

icing.

751.

CHOCOLATE CAKE

(Sussex)

of a

Quarter of a pound of chocolate powder, quarter pound of flour, quarter of a pound of sugar, quarter of a pound of butter, one egg.
Or, another

One pound of grated chocolate, white sugar, three or four pounded almonds mix well, add a quarter of a poimd of flour, four whites of eggs, pour in a cake tin and bake till
way
six ounces of
;

done.

CAKES
752.

297
(Eighteenth

CHOCOLATE PUFFS
half a

Century)
it

Take

pound

of sifted sugar, scrape into

one ounce of chocolate very fine, mix them together. Beat the white of an egg to a very high froth, then strew in your sugar and chocolate, keep beating it till it is as stiff as paste sugar your baking paper, and drop the mixture on in pieces about the size of a sixpence, and bake them in a very slow oven.
:

753.

CHRISTMAS CAKE

(Hertfordshire)

Two pounds of butter, two pounds of sugar, two pounds of flour, two pounds of currants, one and a half poimds of raisins, two pounds of sultanas, haK a pound of peel, half a potmd of ground or chopped almonds, one ounce of baking powder, one teacupful Bake six of brandy or maraschino, sixteen eggs.
hours.

754.

CHRISTMAS CAKE

(Yorkshire)

Four pounds of flour, three pounds of currants, two pounds of raisins, two pounds of sugar, six eggs,
twelve ounces of butter in a pint of new milk, four oimces of candied lemon, two ounces of candied Cinnamon citron, two ounces of candied orange. flavour with almonds or an and nutmeg to taste almond flavouring, add rather better than a pint of yeast, and a httle wine or brandy.
:

755.

CINNAMON BISCUITS
of flour, half a

(Kent)
of butter, half

Two pounds
of

poxmd

lump sugar, a pound Bake on volatile salts.

half a pint of milk, a httle
tins in a slow oven.

298
756.

CAKES
COCONUT BISCUITS
(Gloucestershire)

coconut,

Twelve ounces of flour, four ounces of desiccated two ounces of lard, two ounces of butter,

six ounces of sugar, three teaspoonfuls of baking powder, haK teaspoonful carbonate of soda (in milk), pinch of salt. Make into stiff dough, roll out, and bake. (Should not be allowed to get too dark

in colour.)
757.

COOMBER CAKE
of flour, half a

(Sussex)

One pound

pound

of butter, ditto

sugar and currants, three ounces of almonds, three
eggs, half a pint of milk.

758.

CORNFLOUR CAKES

(Hertfordshire)
;

Six ounces of butter, beaten to a cream

add two

yolks of eggs, then a quarter of a pound of sugar,

a quarter of a pound of cornflour, one teaspoonful of baking powder, mix all together then add the of the eggs. whipped whites Bake in small moulds.
;

759.

CORNFLOUR CAKE

(Gloucestershire)

Half a pound of cornflour, two ounces of butter,
quarter of a pound of castor sugar, one teaspoonful

two teaspoonfuls of plain flour, Beat butter to a cream (must not be Break in eggs one at oily), add sugar, mix well. a time and work well together. Stir in lightly beat for the cornflour, flour, and baking powder Pour into a well-greased tin and few minutes. a bake in a moderate oven. Be careful not to open oven for about thirty minutes, or the cake wUl fall
of baking powder,

two

eggs.

;

in the middle.

CAKES
760.

299

CORNISH HEAVY CAKE

(Cornwall)

About half a pound of flour, four ounces of fat (two ounces of butter, two ounces of lard), four ounces of chopped raisins, four ounces of currants
or sultanas, half an ounce of nutmeg, half a teaspoonful of mixed spice, two ounces of lemon peel,

three ounces of castor sugar, two eggs, salt. Mix all well together, making it pretty stiff can be
;

moistened with miUs, if necessary. Roll out to about one or one and a half inches in thickness, put on a greased flat tin, bake in moderate oven for about
half

an hour.
761.

CRACKNELS

(Yorkshire,

1769)

Take half a pound of fine flour, haK a pound of two ounces of butter, two eggs, and a few caraway seeds. You must beat and sift the sugar, and put it to your flour and work it to paste. Roll this as thin as you can, and cut out the cracknels with queen-cake tins. Lay them on paper and bake them in a slow oven. They are proper to eat with
sugar,

chocolate.
762.

CUP CAKE

(Kent)

One cup
flour,

of butter, one

cup of sugar, three cups of
of sultanas.

four eggs, one cup of milk, two teaspoonfuls

of baking powder,

two cups
Ed.)

(Presum-

ably breakfast-cups.
763.

ISLE OF

WIGHT DOUGHNUTS

(Farmhouse recipe)

One gaUon
well into
it
:

of flour, one pound of butter rubbed pour in one teacupful of good ale yeast

:

300

CAKES
;

(not bitter), and put it to rise mix and knead it as you would bread, and add in six well-beaten eggs, three-quarters of a pound of sifted sugar, one grated nutmeg, and a little warm milk. The dough must not be mixed too soft at first, or it wiU be too soft to roU up subsequently. Leave it again by the Then take out small fire to rise for an hour or two. lumps of dough, the size of a smalhsh orange, insert into the centre of each a piece of candied peel and some currants (some grated lemon-rind also is a great improvement) roll it up securely. Have ready a deep pan of quite boiling lard, and be sure that it is quite boiling when the doughnuts are put in let them be completely covered with the lard, and Take out, set boil fifteen minutes over a slow fire. to drain on paper, and let them get cool gradually and not stand in a draught. Dust over with sifted
;

sugar.

These are
764.

first-rate.

AMERICAN DOUGHNUTS
of self-raising flour, haii

One cupful
sugar, half a

a cupful of
roll

nutmeg.

Mix together with mUk,

out on a board, cut with a sharp, round cutter.

Make
one

a hole in the centre about the size of a
in boiling laard.

shilling,

and fry

When

a nice golden brown

side,

turn and fry the other.
765.

Serve immediately.

DURHAM YULE CAKE

into

Take one and a quarter pounds of dough, work it a quarter of a pound each of butter, sugar, sultanas, and currants, one small teaspoonful of allspice, a quarter of a pound of candied citron, a quarter of a pound of lemon peel (cut into thin

CAKES
slices).

301

Melt the butter and beat it up with a knife before putting it in. The cake should be rolled out

about one and a half inches thick, marked with a and brushed over with white of egg.
knife at the top into small squares,
766.

ECCLES CAKES

(Cumberland)

A quarter of
little

a pound of currants, which should be

well washed, a quarter of a

pound

nutmeg, and a

little

of moist sugar, a rum, well mixed. Rub

a pound of butter into a pound of flour, roll out about half an inch thick, cut into squares about three inches across, then put some of the currant mixture in the centre of each square. Wet the edges and join the four comers of each square in the centre turn over and roll lightly with the rolling to make a round cake. Bake in a hot oven, pin, not too hot.
;

767.

ETHEL'S CAKES

(Susi3ex)

Two
eggs
till

eggs, their weight in flour

teaspoonful baking powder.
;

and sugar, one Beat the sugar and

creamy and frothy when bubbling all over, add flour and baking powder and turn into greased when firm on tins, and bake in a very hot oven Scoop out the inside and put top, they are ready. in whipped cream, and place one on another with
;

chocolate icing.

768.

DELICIOUS FINGER CAKES

(Hertfordshire)

Mix two tablespoonf uls of cornflour into one pound of powdered sugar, and stir them gradually into

302

CAKES

the stiffly whipped whites of two eggs. Bake on buttered tins in a moderate oven untU very delicately brown. For chocolate fingers, add two tablespoon-

two tablespoonfuls and one pound of powdered sugar, and stir gradually into two beaten eggs. For coconut fingers add four tablespoonfuls of grated cocof uls

of finely grated chocolate to

of corn starch,

nut.

769.

FLEED CAKES
half a

(Kent)
of fleed, quarter

of

One pound of flour, a pound of good

pound

butter.

Rub

the fleed and

butter into the flour and

roll well.

Fleed cakes (says the sender of this recipe) were
usually seen on every tea-table in

Kent when

I

was

a girl. Very rich these homemade cakes were. I never see or taste such fleed cakes nowadays, puffed In winter we had another teaup in dehcate flakes cake, made simply of flour and suet cut into the shape of a diamond. They were served hot from a Dutch oven placed in front of the fire. We know an old " woman of Kent " who has her own recipe
!

for fleed

cakes.

Instead of pig's fleed, she uses

rabbit's fleed.

feed
will

them

well

grow fat. them open and take out all the inside fat, or f^eed, cook the rabbit as you like it for your dinner, but make delicious cakes for your tea with the fleed. Bake the cakes in an old-fashioned Dutch oven
in front of the
fire.

Her hobby is to keep pet rabbits, and keep them happy, when they Then kill them, skin them, cut

CAKES
770.

303

GALETTE

(French)

Take equal quantities of butter and flour, a little and two eggs (in the commoner sorts of galette, however, no eggs are used, the ingredients are merely flour, buttej, and salt), knead the whole together into a paste, roll it as thin as a crown-piece (here we must
salt,

beg to observe that the Paris galette
it it

is

usually rolled

to twice the thickness of a crown-piece), and

the size of a dessert plate (or

much

larger)
;

;

make mark
into

with a knife so as to form diamonds

put
it

it

the oven for a quarter of an hour, take

out, beat

up two eggs with a little cream and some salt, pour it over the cake, and return it to the oven to bake for another quarter of an hour.

771.

GATEAU A LA MOCHA

(Hertfordshire)

Beat up the yolks of four eggs, with a quarter of a pound of powdered loaf sugar, add gradually two ounces of flour, two ounces of potato flour, lastly the whites of four eggs, whipped to a stiff froth. When the whole is well mixed, put it in a buttered turn out the cake when done, plain mould and bake and when it is quite cold, cover it all over with the following icing, ornamenting it with piping of the When icing squeezed through a small rose pipe. cake is flnished it should be put in a cold place the on ice till wanted. For the icing, take half a pound of fresh butter, and beat it into a cream in a bowl, adding drop by drop during the process half a teacupful of the strongest coffee that can be made.
;

304
772.

CAKES
GERMAN GAIIFRES

Blanch a pound of sweet almonds, and cut them into small thin chips, put them in a vessel with threequarters of a pound of powdered sugar, and a small
quantity of
ingredients well

mix these candied orange-flowers up with whites of eggs, beaten with
:

a Httle good cream, and bake them in shapes. Serve hot, with sugar strewed over them.
773.

ITALIAN GAIIPRES
loaf

Beat well together eight eggs, a pound of
sugar finely pounded, six ounces of cream, as
milk, a little orange-flowers,

much

and the rind of a lemon mix the whole well together, taking care that the batter is not lumpy bake in gaufre irons,
grated
; ;

as for ordinary gaufres.

774.

HARD GINGERBREADS

(Hertfordshire)

A

cupful of treacle, a tablespoonful of butter, a

tablespoonful of cold water, a teaspoonful of ginger,

a teaspoonful of bi-carbonate of soda, and enough
flour to

make
775.

a dough

;

bake in a brisk oven.
(Kent)

GINGERBREAD
I

One pound of flour, one pound of moist sugar, a few cloves pounded, one pound of treacle, one ounce of butter, a little ginger.
II

One pound
and a

of treacle,

half ounces of ginger,

two pounds of flour, one one pound of sugar,

CAKES
three and a quarter pounds of butter.

305

The treacle and sugar to be dissolved and poured over the other

mgredients.

in
of flour, three-quarters of a pound of ounces of butter, six ounces of brown sugar, one ounce prepared ginger, the peel of one
treacle, four

One pound

lemon chopped fine. Mix them well together, and bake them in a slow oven. One egg is an improvement.
776.

GINGERBREAD CAKE

(Lancashire)

One and a half pounds of flour, one and a quarter pounds of treacle, one ounce of ginger (ground freshly), six ounces of butter, a quarter of a pound of brown sugar, a lemon or Seville orange (both peel and juice), three teaspoonfuls of baking powder. Melt the butter in the treacle, add a little warm milk, and pour into the dry ingredients. Mixture must be rather soft. Bake four hours in a slow oven. This is an old and excellent recipe.
777.

GINGERBREAD

(Middlesex)

Three pounds of treacle are to be mixed with

pound of and a pound of brown sugar, five fresh ounces of caraway seeds, six ounces of candied orange and lemon peel, cut very small, a quarter of a pound of powdered ginger, five eggs, and the rather more than haK an otince of pearl-ashes butter is mixed with the other ingredients by being beaten to a cream. The mixture must stand for
three pounds and a half of good flour, a
butter,
:

20

306

CAKES

twenty-four hours, and on the following day is to be worked up like bread, and baked into a cake, of about an inch thick, in a slow oven. The same mixture, made more liquid, and without the pearlashes, the butter being melted instead of beaten,

dropped with a spoon upon a buttered tin, makes gingerbread nuts but it is usual to put a larger quantity of ginger. Gingerbread nuts are also made by rubbing up a pound of butter with two pounds of flour, a pound of brown sugar, and rather more than an ounce of powdered ginger. These are mixed together with as much treacle as will form them into the consistency of dough it is then made into the form of nuts, and baked upon tins. In order to make them richer, a little powdered allspice and powdered cinnamon may be added. Nutmeg and crushed or powdered almonds may be added
; :

either to gingerbread or gingerbread nuts.

778.

GINGEEBREAD
of flour, one

(Yorkshire)

Two poimds
pound
bread,

of sugar, twelve

pound of treacle, one ounces of butter, with a httle
ginger-

lemon-peel and ginger to taste.
it

For rolled must be made the night before.

779.

TRANSPARENT GINGERBREAD
of

(Lancashire)

To ten ounces
butter, one

flour take

twelve ounces of

pound of treacle, and one pound of sugar. Melt the butter and mix well with the treacle and put in the flour, and about a quarter of an sugar ounce of cinnamon and mace, with a little lemon
;

peel grated or shredded very fine.
gether, drop
it

Beat

all

well to-

very thin and bake in a moderate


CAKES
oven.

307

Cut
it

it

the finger, and put

out in squares and just turn it round it in a canister. Take it out
for use, or it will turn soft.

only as
(This
is

is

wanted

equivalent to Ormskirk gingerbread, a welldainty.

known Lancashire
omitted.
It of

But the ginger has been
half

an ounce

would be as well to add about ground ginger. Ed.)

780.

GINGER-CAKE
pound

(Isle

of

Wight)

pound powdered sugar, one penny packet of baking powder, two teaspoonfuls of powdered ginger. Beat up and add two eggs, and

Mix

into one

of flour, a quarter of a

of butter, one tablespoonful of

a full half-pound of thick treacle not golden syrup, but the old-fashioned treacle sold at oil-shops. You may need to thin the treacle with a little milk, before you can work it in. Beat all well together, and bake for two hours in a slow oven.
781.

GINGER CAKES

(Kent)

One pound
ginger,
cassia.

of flour, six ounces of sugar, one egg,

six ounces of butter, half

an ounce

of best

ground

one glass of brandy, four drops of oil of

782.

GINGER CAKE

(Lancashire)

Half a pound of butter, half a pound of sugar, two ounces of ground ginger, one dessertspoonful of baking powder, one pound of syrup, a little salt, a
gill

of milk, four eggs, the rind of

two lemons.
give
it

Stir

into this mixture as

much flour as will

the con-

sistency of very thick batter. Put it into a buttered tin and bake for an hour in a moderate oven.

308
783.

CAKES
SHEET GINGER CAKE
(Hertfordshire)

One pound of flour, half a pound of treacle or golden syrup, half a pound of butter, half a pound of brown sugar, half an ounce of ginger, one teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, three eggs warm the butter, sugar, and treacle in a stewpan, then
;

add the eggs beaten, ginger, and soda flour. Not to be baked hard.
784.

;

stir in

the

WHOLEMEAL GINGERBREAD CAKE

(Surrey)

One pound of wholemeal or entire wheat flour, one pound of coarse oatmeal, one pound of golden
pound of butter, six ounces of moist sugar, half a pint of milk, three large teaspoonfuls of baking powder or yeast powder. Put the milk and golden syrup together into the oven to warm, rub the butter into the meal in a dry state, and all the other dry ingredients, then pour
syrup, quarter of a
in the

warmed

sjrrup

a wooden spoon.

and milk, mixing lightly with Turn into two well-buttered
for

baking-tins, place immediately in a very slow oven.

Bake very slowly
necessary.

two hours,

or longer

iE

785.

MRS. GURNEY'S GINGER SNAPS

(Gloucestershire)

of sugar, one of golden syrup, one melted butter (or butter and a little lard), two teaspoonfuls of ground ginger, one of carbonate of
of

Take a cupful

soda dissolved in two tablespoonfuls of hot water. Just work in as much flour as will make a very stiff dough. Roll on a floured board as thin as possible,

and cut into small rounds.
plate in a moderate oven.

Bake on a

flat

oven

CAKES
786.

309
(Kent)

GINGERBREAD NUTS

One and three-quarter pounds of flour, one and a half pounds of treacle, one pound of sugar, one ounce of ginger, half an ounce of allspice, quarter of a pound of butter, quarter of a pound of lard. The sugar to be rubbed in first, every lump broken, then the lard and butter, then the spice, which must be very fine.
787.

PINE SWEET GINGERBREAD NUTS

(1815)

of the best treacle, and put it then take haK a pound of the best fresh butter, and carefuUy melt it, not to oil pour the butter to the treacle, and stir it well as you pour add three-quarters of an ounce of the best it in pounded ginger, and put it with two ounces of preserved lemon and orange peel cut very small, two ounces of preserved angelica cut very small, one ounce of coriander seed poimded, one ounce and a half of caraway seeds whole mix them well then break two eggs, yolks and whites together

Take two pounds
;

in a large basin

;

;

;

;

together,

and mix
;

a

fine paste

as much flour as will bring it to make them the size you choose, put

them on a
brisk.

tin plate,

and

let

your oven be rather

788.

GIRDLE CAKE

(Lancashire)
:

Rub

six ounces of sugar into two pounds of flour

add a little salt, make it into a paste with some good milk or buttermilk roll it out, cut into shapes, and bake on a girdle (sometimes known as
:

griddle.

Ed.).

;

310
789.

CAKES
GIRDLE CAKE
one pound
of flour

(Kent)

Sift together

and two

full tea-

spoonfuls of baking powder, then crumble into this
three ounces of butter with the tips of the fingers
as lightly as possible tiU
it

is

all fine

like

bread

crumbs. milk tiU

Next work
it

by degrees half a pint of forms a firm dough halve this dough
in
;

and knead each piece into a
790.

flat

cake.

GOLD CAKE
butter,

(American)

Half a cupful of

one cupful of sugar,

two and a
cream of

half

cupfuls of flour, half a cupful of
six eggs,

milk, half a teaspoonful of soda, one teaspoonful of
tartar, the yolks of

one tea-

spoonful of vanilla.

Frost with yellow

frost.

The

yellow frost

is

made with

the yolk of one egg to nine
vanilla.

lumps

of sugar
791.

and flavoured with

HONEY CAKES

(Middlesex)

To two pounds and a half of dried flour, add a pound of honey, three-quarters of a pound of pounded loaf sugar, half a pound of citron, and the same
half

quantity of orange peel cut into thin strips, add an ounce each of ginger and cinnamon, pounded
;

melt the sugar with the honey, and mix in the other roll out the paste, cut into forms, and bake on floured tins.
ingredients
;

792.

COMMON JOHNNY CAKE
;

(Ireland)

Into one quart of meal
water, with salt

and bake
fire.

it

stir one pint of boiling on a board an inch thick, before the fire, or on an iron over the

spread

it

;

CAKES
793.

311
(Lancashire)

JOHNNY CAKE
of

One teacupful
flour,

of fine sugar,

two teacupfuls

of

one teacupful

semolina, two ounces of

butter or lard, two teaspoonfuls of baking powder.

Mix with milk
for about

rather dry.

Bake

in

moderate oven

twenty minutes.

794.

JOHNNY CAKE

(Surrey)

To one quart of milk add three eggs, one tea^ spoonful of carbonate of soda, one teacupful of
wheaten flour, mixed with enough Indian meal to form a thickish batter. Bake very quickly and eat
hot, with golden syrup or butter.

796.

JUDGES' BISCUITS

(1815)

and break them into a copper pan, whisk them well for about five minutes mix half a pound of powdered sugar with the eggs, and whisk them for ten minutes put as many caraway seeds as you think proper, and half a pound of sifted flour mix it well with a wooden spoon, and put three papers on your plates then take a spoon and drop them on papers about the size of a crown-piece, sift some powdered sugar over them let them be rather thick in the middle, and the oven rather sharp, and when they come out, (Rice paper is cut them off the paper while hot.
six eggs

Take

yolks and whites together
;

;

;

;

;

advisable here.

Ed.)

796.

JUMBLES

(Middlesex)

Well beat the whites of three eggs and remove the Then take about one tablespoonful each of froth.

312
flour, sifted sugar,

CAKES
and milk.
ginger
seeds
all

way
Mix
flat.

;

a

little

Add a very few caramay be added at pleasure.
stiff

together into a very
it

paste,

and

roll it

out into various shapes, and bake on a sheet of white paper.

Cut

797.

KENTISH CAKES
;

Rub

four ounces of butter into three-quarters of

add some caraway seeds, and a pound of flour mix half a pound of loaf sugar finely pounded these into a stiff paste with a little water, roll out
;

to the thickness of a crown piece, cut
glass,

or into squares, prick them,

them out with a and bake on

floured tins.

798.

KING CAKES

(Yorkshire,

1769)

of butter, half a

Take one pound of flour, three-quarters of a pound pound of sugar, and half a pound of
flour,
it

currants, well cleaned.

your

and put
;

in as

Rub your butter well into many yolks of eggs as will

make

supple

then put in your sugar, currants,

and some mace, as much as will give them a taste. So make them up in little round cakes, and butter the papers you lay them on.

799.

KRINGLES

(Kent)

Beat well the yolks of eight and the whites of two and mix with four ounces of butter just warmed, and with this knead a pound of flour and four ounces of sugar to a paste. Roll into thick or thin biscuits, prick them, and bake on tin plates.
eggs,

CAKES
800.

313

LANCASHIRE CAKE

Beat well the yolks of twelve and the whites of seven eggs for half an hour, add a pound of pounded loaf sugar, half a pound of flour, and the peel of a lemon grated beat all well together and bake in a
;

floured tin.

801.

LEMON CAKES
;

(Hertfordshire)

ounces of castor sugar and beat it into the whip the whites of three eggs to a firm froth, and add it gradually to the sugar and lemon beat all together for half an hour. Make this mixture up in pyramid shapes, and place on rounds of short crust. Set in a moderate oven, and bake for six or eight minutes.
Sift four

grated rind of two lemons

;

802.

LIGHT CAKE

(Welsh)

basin.

Put one pint of buttermilk (two days old) into a Drop into it one egg unbeaten add seven
;

it into the consistency of thick batter, and one teaspoonfiil of

or eight tablespoonfuls of flour to
salt.

make

Beat together very well until light. Then put one teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, and the same of granulated sugar, into a cup with half a teacupftd of buttermilk. Mix well, and add to the other batter. Beat all together thoroughly well. Take a small frying-pan, and rub it with a piece of bacon-rind when it has been made very hot. Pour in two tablespoonfuls of the batter, and fry. Turn the cake over with an egg-shoe to brown the other Serve very hot, with butter. side.

314
803.

CAKES
LUNCH CAKE
(Kent)

Half a pound of flour, three ounces of sugar, two ounces of butter, one egg, one teaspoonful of baking powder, one teacupf ul of warm milk caraway seeds,
;

currants, or raisins to taste.

804.

LUNCHEON CAKE

(Westmorland)

One pound of flour, half a pound of butter, six ounces stoned and chopped raisins, and candied
peel,

caraway seeds to

taste, half a

pound

of

moist

sugar, three eggs, teacupful of milk (boiling), one

teaspoonful of carbonate of soda.

Pour the

boiling

milk on to soda in a small basin, stir occasionally till cold. Put dry ingredients into large basin, then mix and add milk and eggs. Beat all with a wooden spoon for twenty minutes. Bake one and a half hours in a moderate oven. (Excellent cake.)
805.

MACAROONS

(Middlesex)

Take haK a pound of blanched sweet almonds, and a quarter of a pound of shelled bitter almonds beat
;

them each very smooth, and mix them together if prepared the day before, it will be the better. Next take a large teaspoonful of mixed spice, nutmeg, mace, and cinnamon, which must be weU pounded and sifted; beat the whites of three eggs till they stand alone add to them gradually, twenty-four large teaspoonfuls of powdered loaf sugar, a teaspoonful at a time beat it very hard, and put in by degrees the spice and a tablespoonful of rose;

;

;

water, after which stir in gradually the almonds. Should the almonds not prove sufiicient to make the

CAKES

315

paste as thick as a good soft dough, prepare a few more, and stir them in. When all is well mixed, put some flour in the palm of your hand, and taking up a lump of the paste with the point of a knife, roll it with the flour into a small ball have ready an
:

and lay the balls in it as they are made up, placing them about two inches apart, and then bake them for about eight or ten minutes in a moderately heated oven, mxtil they become of a pale brown colour. The top of the oven should be hotter than the bottom, so that they may crack on
iron or a tin pan,

the surface.

806.

MADELEINE CAKE
of butter, one

(Staffordshire)

One ounce
egg,

ounce of castor sugar, one

quarter of a pound of self-raising flour, and about two tablespoonfuls of milk. WeU beat the egg, then add the sugar, the butter (which must be creamed), and beat aU weU again. Then add the flour and milk, making the mixture moderately stiff. Butter a medium-sized Yorkshire puddiag-tin, put Turn it out of in the cake and bake a nice brown.

the

tin,

and when

it is

cooled a httle, cut

it

in two,
it.

spread jam on the one half and put the other over Cut into finger-pieces and pile in a glass dish.

807.

MADEIRA CAKE

(Gloucestershire)

quarter of a pound each of butter and castor sugar, half a pound of flour (sifted), three eggs.

A

Work

in one at a time.

One

teaspoonful of baking

powder, one tablespoonful of milk. Place a slice of citron on top when mixture has been put in cake

316
tin

CAKES

lined with greased paper. Bake in moderate oven about three-quarters of an hour.

808.

MADEIKA CAKE

(Hertfordshire)

Six ounces of butter, six ounces of castor sugar,
six eggs, twelve ounces of flour, a little grated nut-

meg, citron. Slightly warm butter and beat it to a cream add the sugar and beat five minutes add the eggs one at a time and then the flour mix put gently and then pour into a Uned cake tin citron on top. Bake for hour and half.
; ;
;

;

809.

MAIDS OF HONOUR

(Surrey)

Eight teaspoonfuls of sifted sugar, one egg, two ounces of ground almonds, a pinch of baking powder. The sugar and egg to be beaten well together, then the almonds stirred in. Put the baking powder last. Have some patty-pans lined with puff-paste, lay a little raspberry jam at the bottom of each, and cover with a teaspoonful of the mixture. Bake in a moderate oven.

810.

MERINGUES

(Middlesex)

Whisk to a froth the whites of twelve eggs, and when it is well raised, add some powdered sugar and
Continue whisking hghtly to mix put the meringues in httle portions about the size of half an egg upon a sheet of white paper, and place them under a cover that will contain hot ashes on the top when they are done on the outside, and of a good colour, remove them from the paper, take out the
grated lemon-peel.
those ingredients, but without melting the sugar
;
;

CAKES

317

part of the inside which is not done, and supply its place with sweetmeat join the two sides of them well together again, and serve as dry as possible.
;

811.

BAG CAKE

(Ireland)

Take three breakfastcupfuls of sugar, two of flour, and one of sour cream or milk. Take four eggs, and weU beat the yolks and whites separately. Cream the butter and sugar, and beat them up

Add one tableone teaspoonf ul bi-carbonate of soda to the cream, and add these to the eggs and sugar. Put the whites of the eggs in last. Bake in a tin, and ice at pleasure.
again with the beaten yolks of eggs.

spoonful cream of tartar to the

flour,

812.

RATAFIA PUFFS

(Seventeenth

Century)

Take haK a pound of bitter almonds, beaten very and one and a half pounds of sifted sugar. Make it up to a stiff paste with white of egg whipped Beat it well in a mortar, and make it up to a froth. Bake them in a very cool into little round loaves. oven, on paper and tin plates.
stiff,

813.

GROUND RICE

BISCUITS

(Isle

of

Wight)

Three ounces of butter, three ounces of white sugar, six ounces ground rice, three ounces of flour, half a teaspoonful of baking powder, one egg (beaten), a little milk, grated lemon rind. Cream the butter and sugar, then add the egg and dry ingredients. The mixture should be like pastry turn on to a
;

floured board, roll lightly (as

it will stick),

and cut
Place

into biscuits about a quarter of an inch thick.

;

31 g

Cakes
;

on a greased tin golden brown.
814.

bake

in

a moderate oven to a

RHODA'S RICE BUNS

(Gloucestershire)

pound

Three-quarters of a pound of flour, quarter of a of ground rice, six ounces of butter and lard,

three-quarters of a

pound

of sugar,

of baking-powder, six eggs,
well.

and a

Uttle milk.

two teaspoonfuls Mix
minutes to

These take from ten to cook in moderate oven.
815.

fifteen

RICE CAKE

(Yorkshire)

Two

eggs beaten well for a quarter of an hour

quarter of a pound of sugar, put to the eggs and

beaten ten miautes quarter of a pound of rice, put to the eggs and sugar, and beaten five minutes. Butter a tin or mould and bake three-quarters of
;

an hour.
816.

RICE CAKES

(Kent,

1809)

pound of ground rice, the same of pound of white sugar, sifted, a quarter flour, one of a pound of melted butter, four eggs, leaving out two whites. The rice, flour, and sugar to be mixed together, the eggs and butter to be added when the batter is nearly cold. If you choose currants, put
quartelr of a

A

a quarter of a pound.
817.

RICE CAKE

(Middlesex)

Whisk separately for an hour the yolks of eight add to them half a and the whites of six eggs pound of rice flour, three-quarters of a pound of
;

CAKES
finely

319

powdered
:

grated

loaf sugar, and the peel of a lemon beat one pound of butter into cream, and

mix the above

ingredients well with

it

;

bake in a

buttered tin in moderate oven.

818.

RICHMOND CAKE

(Hertfordshire)

Six ounces of butter, a quarter of an ounce of

mixed

spice, the same of ground ginger mix till they are a cream add a quarter of a pound of
;
;

brown
all

sugar, a quarter of a

pound

of treacle

;

mix

together with half a pound of flour, two oimces

of

ground

rice,

two tablespoonfuls

of dried coco-

nut, four eggs, half an ounce of baking powder.

819.

RICH CAKE
and a

(Hampshire)

Nine ounces
four and a

of currants, four

and a

half ounces of

raisins chopped, four

half ounces of butter,

haH ounces of flour, four and a half oimces nutmeg grated, quarter of a teaspoonful of mace pounded, two and a quarter ounces of citron, three eggs. Bake two and a half
of sugar, half a

hours.

This

is

very good.

If

the cake be iced,

remember to beat the white of an egg to a soHd frQth before adding the pounded white icing sugar, and place it on the cake directly it is drawn from
the oven.

820.

RICH PLUM CAKE

(Devonshire)

Eight ounces of fresh butter, eight ounces of castor sugar, eight ounces of mixed peel, eight ounces of dried cherries, three-quarters of a pound of flour, half a pound of sultanas, four oimces of

;

320

CAKES

almonds, a quarter of a pint of brandy, five eggs, an ounce of allspice, half a teaspoonful of salt. Cream the butter and sugar. Sift in flour and salt gradually add eggs one at a time and beat in well.
half

Chop the
together.

cherries, the peel,

these with the sultanas and allspice

and the almonds add mix aU well
; ;

the brandy last, a httle at a time. thoroughly mixed. Line a cake tin, putting three rounds of paper at the bottom. Bake three hours in a moderate oven. Don't let the heat rise after the cake has gone in.

Add

Be

sure

all is

821.

ROUT CAKES

(Middlesex)

butter,

two pounds of flour an ounce of fresh then add washed in orange-flower water half a pound of well beaten loaf sugar, the same weight of candied orange and lemon cut into strips, and a quarter of a pound of well-dried currants mix all these ingredients well together with five eggs, well beaten, and half a glass of brandy or
into
;

Rub

drop this paste in smaU and bake in a quick rough knobs upon they will require but a very short time to oven bake, as they must not be high-coloured.
ratafia, or

a httle of both

;

floured tins,

;

822.

OAT-CAKES

(Scotland)

Mix into one and three-quarter pounds

of

medium

Scotch oatmeal, one teaspoonful of carbonate of soda and two teaspoonfuls of salt. Then rub in three or four ounces of lard or dripping, and

add enough hot water to mix into a dough. It must not be too dry, and must not cool off, but should be done very quickly. Dust some fine

CAKES
oatmeal over the board,
as
it will

321

roll the dough out as thin and cut it into round or triangular shapes, and bake it in a quick oven. If you try to get the rolled dough too thin, it will break.

stand,

823.

OATMEAL CAKES

(Lancashire)
flour,

Six ounces of oatmeal, five ounces of

three

ounces of butter, two tablespoonfuls of milk, one ounce of sifted sugar, one egg, one tablespoonful of baking powder. Mix the dry ingredients, rub in the butter, mix up with the egg and milk. Boll it out like pastry, cut it with a round cutter. Bake these biscuits for about ten minutes.
824.

ORANGE CAKE

(Somerset)

Six ounces of flour, six ounces of castor sugar,
of butter, one small teaspoonful of baking powder, the rind of two oranges

two and a quarter ounces
grated,

and sufficient juice to make it soft, two eggs. Beat the butter and sugar to a cream, add the eggs one at a time, with a little flour beat well, then add the rind, flour, and baking powder, all mixed together by degrees. Bake one hour. Make an icing with six ounces of icing sugar, and the juice of haK an orange spread it over the cake when cool.
;
;

825.

OSWEGO CAKES

(Kent)

One pound of oswego or cornflour, quarter of a pound of butter, quarter of a pound of fine white
two teaspoonfuls of baking powder, quarter of a pound of currants, two eggs (yolks and whites beaten separately for quarter of an hour). Mix aU together, beat well for a quarter of an hour before pouring into a buttered shape. Bake a nice brown.
sugar,

21

;

322

CAKES
826.

PAISLEY CIRCLES

(Kent)

Three-quarters of an ounce of Paisley flour, six ounces of ordinary flour, one ounce of butter, one ounce of castor sugar, one egg, a little milk. Put the flour in a basin and rub the butter in lightly add sugar and Paisley flour. Mix well. Beat up egg and add, with enough milk to make a rather

dough. Roll out rather less than a quarter an inch thick. Cut into rounds with cutter two and a half inches in diameter, then cut out centre with a small cutter. Fry the circles in smoking hot fat (a few at a time). They will drop to the bottom of the pan. Do not try to lift them, they wiU rise of themselves. Directly they rise turn over if nicely browned and cook the other side. They wiU not take more than a few minutes. Drain on paper, let get cold. Split open circles carefully. Spread with preserve or lemon curd. Lay one half over the other and dust with castor sugar.
stiff

of

827.

PARKINS

(Derbyshire)

One pound
almonds

of, fine

porridge oatmeal, hali a pound

of butter or beef dripping, six ounces of
(a few), half

brown

sugar,

an ounce

of
salt.

ground ginger,

nine ounces treacle, pinch of

Mix

all

dry

ingredients well together, rub butter into meal,

add
half

treacle last

and make stiff enough to roll out, an inch thick, on a floured pasteboard. Cut

out in rounds, place half almond in centre of each.
Place immediately in slow oven, to cook half to
three-quarters of an hour.

CAKES
828.

323

PARKIN

(Lancashire)

half a

Four pounds of oatmeal, four pounds of treacle, pound of butter, ginger and candied lemon

according to taste.

829.

PARKIN

(Shropshire)

Rub
of a

a quarter of a pound of butter and a quarter
of fresh lard into

pound

two pounds

of fine

oatmeal.
half

Add

a quarter of a pound of moist sugar,

an ounce of ground ginger, and a little candied lemon peel. Stir half a breakfastcupful of hot milk into one and three-quarter pints of good treacle, and heat this a little, so that it may mix easily with the meal. Beat all together and bake in a slow oven. To be kept in a closely covered tin box.
830.

YORKSHIRE PARKIN

Half a pound of flour, half a pound of fine oatmeal, two ounces of lard, two ounces of butter, half a pound of treacle, two ounces of sugar, one teaspoonful of ground ginger, one teaspoonful mixed spice, one teaspoonful baking powder, pinch of salt, a Uttle mUk. Rub the lard and butter into the flour, add all dry ingredients, warm the treacle, and add with a little milk, mix well, pour into a flat tin, well greased. Bake in a very moderate oven about
forty minutes.

831.

ANOTHER WAY

half a

One potmd of flour, half a pound of oatmeal, pound of sugar, half a pound of butter, half an ounce of ground ginger, one pound of treacle

324

CAKES

two eggs, pinch of carbonate of soda. Melt butter and sugar together, add flour, oatmeal, etc. Bake in a flat tin in a moderate oven.
832.

PLAIN CAKE

(Cape Colony)

Take the weight of four eggs in sugar and butter and the weight of six in flour, two teaspoonfuls of baking powder, two or three eggs. Flavour as reStir the sugar, butter, and eggs together quired. with a spoon, then gradually add the dry ingredients previously mixed. If less eggs are used they can be substituted by a little milk.
833.

PLAIN CAKE

(Surrey)

pound
sugar.

Three-quarters of a pound of flour, a quarter of a of ground rice, three eggs, some candied peel,
of

baking powder, six ounces of should be rather moist, and if the eggs do not make it sufficiently so, add a little milk or water. one tablespoonful

When mixed

it

834.

PLAIN CAKE

(Yorkshire)

Half a pound of flour, six ounces of currants, six ounces of sugar, two ounces of butter, three eggs, two ounces of candied lemon, two teaspoonfuls of baking-powder bake one hour.
;

835.

PRIMBLES

(Hertfordshire)

A
eggs.
pipe,

sugar,

quarter of a pound of flour, three ounces of two oimces of butter, rind of a lemon, two

Mix
bake

perfectly smooth, force through a rosein brisk oven.

Should be a pale gold

colour.

;

CAKES
836.

325

POTATO-CAKES, SALT

(Ireland)

This recipe is most excellent. Take an equal weight of cold cooked potatoes pressed through a sieve, and of flour. Rub in beef dripping in the proportion of four ounces to the pound, and salt to taste. Moisten with a little milk, roll out about half an inch thick, cut the paste into little cakes with the top of the flour dredger. Bake in good hot oven till the cakes are a golden brown.
Split, butter,

and serve piping

hot.

Suitable either

for breakfast, tea, or for dinner as a substitute for

potatoes

;

in the latter case, very

good with cold

meat.

About one pound of boUed potatoes. Mash well, with some milk and water, salt, and a little butter, into a thick batter. Then work in about double the quantity of flour, with which you have previously mixed a dessert-spoonful of yeast powder. The mixture becomes softer the more you work it. Make it into little cakes and bake in good oven.

837.

POTATO-CAKE, SWEET
I

(Devonshire)

Take three or four warm potatoes, mash these; pound of flour, quarter of a pound of fat (two ounces of butter, two ounces of lard), a few currants or sultanas, a little Demerara sugar, salt well mix together with milk roll out to about one
half a
;


326

CAKES
tin.

inch or one and half mches thick, and put on flat

greased

II

Two pounds

of

boiled

potatoes

mashed,

add

quarter of a pound of flour, quarter of a pound of
butter, quarter of a

pound of^urrants, two

table-

spoonfuls of sugar.

Work

all

well together, roll out

nearly an inch thick, cut into round cakes and bake.

To be eaten
838.

whole, or split and buttered.

QUEEN CAKES

(Gloucestershire)

Cream a quarter of a pound of butter and then add quarter of a pound of castor sugar, two eggs work in one at a time five ounces of flour (sifted), a little grated nutmeg, one ounce of currants, one

teaspoonful of baking powder.
stiff

This

is

a rather

Well grease queen-cake tins, and bake from ten to fifteen minutes in moderate oven.
mixture.
839.

QUEEN CAKES

(Surrey)

Put into a bowl a quarter of a pound of fresh pound of castor sugar and cream it. Add, to six ounces of flour, one
butter with a quarter of a

teaspoonful of baking-powder, the grated rind of a

lemon, a pinch of
of

salt.

these, alternately with the flour mixture, to the

Beat up two eggs, and add bowl

creamed butter and sugar, until all is in, beating Lastly, add three ounces of glace cherries well. or of sultanas, and two ounces of candied peel pour into patty-pans, or very small thinly cut " castle pudding " tins, and bake in a good oven. These cakes may be decorated on top with glac6 They are most delicious. cherries or candied peel.
:

CAKES
840.

327

SAND CAKE

(Gloucestershire)

Weight
(Colman's

of
is

two eggs in butter, sugar and cornflour the best for this recipe), one teaspoonful

of baking-powder.

Bake in a moderate oven. Pour over a Uttle water or lemon icing. Just warm two
or three tablespoonfuls of icing or castor sugar,

wetted with about a tablespoonful of lemon and pour over cake.

juice,

841.

SANDWICH CAKE

(Devonshire)

sugar, beat the sugar

Three eggs, the weight of two eggs in flour and and eggs together for twenty

rniautes, gradually sift in the flour.

Bake in a quick

oven for ten minutes.

-

842.

SANDWICH CAKE

(Gloucestershire)

sugar, ground rice,

two eggs in butter, castor and flour add one teaspoonful Bake in large flat cake tin. of baking-powder. split and insert raspberry jam. Takes WJIien dold, about twenty to thirty minutes to cook in a moderate
j^Take the weight of

oven.

843.

SCOTCH CAKE

Four pounds of well-dried flour, two pounds of good butter, half a pound of candied citron and lemon peel, the same quantity of pounded loaf sugar, quarter of a pound of sweet and half the quantity of bitter ahnonds blanched, and half a cut the citron and pound of caraway comfits
;

;

328

CAKES

lemon peel into thin strips, the almonds into small chips, and mix them with httle more than half of the flour, part of the comfits, and the sugar melt the butter, and when nearly cool pour it into the flour mixing it briskly all the time then form it with the hands into a large round, about an inch
;

thick, using the remainder of the flour to

make

it

up with

;

cut

it

into four, pinching each part round

the edge with the finger and

thumb

;

prick and

strew the remainder of the comfits over

them bake
;

on paper on floured

tins in

a moderate oven.

844.

SEED CAKE

(Cheshire)

Take one pound of flour, one pound of sugar, one dozen eggs, quarter of a pound of caraway seeds. Put one pound of butter before the fire till it gets when well beaten with the soft enough to beat it up hand, put in the sugar and beat it well, then the They must all be eggs, and afterwards the fiour. beaten as they are put in. Line your pan with buttered paper and put in the batter.
;

845.

SEED BISCUITS
half

(Kent)

Take three and a
of moist sugar,
seeds,

pounds of flour, one pound one and a half ounces of caraway

volatile salts.

one and a half pints of milk, and a little Wash them over with egg and sugar, and bake in a quick oven. N.B. The sugar should be dissolved in the milk

and

strained, for all biscuits.

;

CAKES
846.

329

SEED CAKE
(Rich)

(Gloucestershire)

Take one pound of flour and a pinch of salt, six ounces of butter, three-quarters of a pound of castor sugar, four eggs, one teaspoonful of caraway seeds, one ounce of baking powder, one gill of milk or cream. Add the eggs well beaten, and work well together thin down with milk. Add bakingpowder and seeds last. Let it stand on plate rack over oven (coolest part) for about one hour. Then bake in moderate oven about one hour. Sufficient for two medium-sized cakes.
;

847.

SEED CAKE

(Ireland)

Take one pound of butter beaten to a cream. Beat in one pound of powdered sugar (white) then beat in, one by one, a pound of eggs, each whole. Keep beating all together with a wooden spoon. Then add one pound of flour, well dried at the fire, and lemon or hawthorn whisky to flavour a wineglassful. Beat at least one hour from the commencement. Bake in tin shapes Bake about two hours. lined with buttered paper. (The seeds have been omitted. Two ounces of caraways should suffice. Ed.)

848.

COMMON SEED CAKE

(Yorkshire)

a half pounds of flour, half a pound of loaf sugar, one tablespoonful of thick yeast, half a pint of warm milk, half a pound of butter, one ounce of caraway seeds. Line a tin with buttered paper,

Two and

;

330

CAKES

put in the mixture, and set it before the fire to Bake it about one hour in a rather hot oven. When done, brush the tops over with milk.
rise.

849.

TIPPERARY SEED CAKE

(Ireland)

a pound of butter in a little orange-flower and beat it to a cream then mix into it by degrees a pound and a half of pounded loaf sugar and sixteen eggs well beaten add one pound of welldried flour, half a pound of sweet almonds, blanched and pounded in a little rose-water, two ounces of caraway seeds beat the whole well together for half an hour, pour it into a buttered tin lined with buttered paper, and bake ia a quick oven for two
water,
;
;

Wash

;

hours.

850.

AYRSHIRE SHORTCAKE

(Scotland)

Mix together in a basin a quarter of a pound of two ounces of castor sugar, and a pinch of salt rub in gently but thoroughly a quarter of a pound of butter. Shghtly beat up one egg, mix with it one
flour,

Make a hole in the middle of the flour, pour in the egg and milk
tablespoonful of milk or cream.

mix
It

into the flour with a knife,

and then knead
is

it

well with the

hand

till all

the flour

weU mixed.
roll

must be a

soft paste.

Flour a board and

out the paste half an inch thick and cut into any shape desired. Ornament the edges, decorate the top with caraway seeds, place on a greased paper

on a

tin,

and bake.

CAKES

331

851.

SAFFRON CAKE

(Cornwall)

One and a half pounds of flour (if self-raising flour not used, add four teaspoonfuls of baking powder), half a pint of milk, one pound of fruit (raisins, currants, or both), three ounces of candied peel, six ounces of brown sugar, six ounces of butter (to be creamed along with the sugar), two eggs, a pinch of salt, and three pennyworth of saffron. Put the saffron in the oven over-night, or for an hour when the oven is quick, to " draw " it well, in a cup with a little hot water. Then strain it, well squeezing out the essence. Add it to the milk and eggs, which have been well beaten (yolks and whites separately), and mix this to the dry ingredients. The above
is

amount will make two good-sized cakes. Bake (Some people dry their two hours or more. saffron, then crush it to powder and mix it with
the
flour.)

852.

SHORTBREAD
of

(Kent,

1809)

Take one pound

fresh butter,
it,

beaten

to

the consistency of cream; add to
three pounds of flour, half a
sifted quite fine,

by

degrees,

poimd

of loaf sugar,

which must be mixed with the flour previous to its being crumbled into the butter, two ounces of sugar plums, one ounce of lemon After the inpeel, one ounce of orange peel sliced. gredients are mixed together, form them into cakes, eight in number. The orange peel and sugar plums are to be placed on the top.

;

332
853.

CAKES
SHORTBREAD
(Leicestershire)

quarter of a pound of butter, a quarter of a pound of flour, two ounces of ground rice, two

A

ounces of castor sugar, strip of citron peel. Put all work weU with the ingredients in a bowl together the hand until all is mixed into a stiff paste (without
;

any

liquid added).

press well with the

Turn on to a floured board, hand until the cracks are out brown
colour.

cut into squares and place on each a piece of peel.

Bake on a greased
854.

tin until a nice

SHORTBREAD BISCUITS
quarter of a poimd of rice

(Hertfordshire)

Mix together
flour, a

in a basin a quarter of a
flour,

pound of two or three

into

ounces of castor sugar, a pinch of salt. Rub gently this a quarter of a pound of fresh butter. Slightly beat an egg, mix with a tablespoonful of cream, pour this into the shortbread mixture it with a knife.
;

stir

866.

GINGER SHORTBREAD

(Hertfordshire)

Rub a quarter of a pound of butter into half a pound of flour, to which a pinch of salt, a quarter of a pound of castor sugar, an eggspoonful of baking powder, and one and a half teaspoonfuls of ground
ginger has been added.

Mix

into a paste with an

866.

SHREWSBURY CAKES

(Shropshire)
;

Beat to a cream one pound

of fresh butter

add

the same quantity of well-dried flour, a pound of sugar pounded and rolled with a bottle, an ounce

;

CAKES
and a
in

333
six eggs well beaten

half of

caraway seeds and
;

a

little

orange-flower water
ratafia,

add, last of

all,

half

a glass of

and mix the whole well together
and bake on floured
tins.

make

it

into a paste, roll to the thickness of a crown-

piece, cut into shapes,

857.

SHREWSBURY CAKES

(Kent)

Take one poimd of butter beaten to a cream, one and a half pounds of flour sifted and dried, one pound of loaf sugar, four eggs, a little mace and cinnamon pounded. Work all together; roll it out thin and cut it into shapes. To be baked in a slow oven.

858.

SHREWSBURY CAKES

(StafEordshire)

Take one pound of flour, six ounces of butter, rubbed into the flour, three-quarters of a pound of castor sugar, two eggs, leaving out one white. Mix all well together, first butter, sugar, and flour, then eggs. Roll out very thin and cut in rounds with a wineglass or small tumbler, and bake in a slow oven.

869.

SILVER CAKE

{American)

soda,

Take one cupful of butter, half a teaspoonful of two cupfuls of sugar, one teaspoonful of cream
mUk, one teaspoonful
frost.

of tartar, three cupfuls of flour, the whites of six
eggs, half a cupful of
juice.

of

lemon

Frost with white

860.

SIMNEL CAKE

(Gloucestershire)

Take a quarter of a pound of flour, three ounces of mixed peel, quarter of a pound of butter, three good-

334

CAKES
pound

.

two pound ounces of ground almonds, three-quarters of a of currants. Beat butter to a cream, add sugar and beaten eggs gradually, and work well together. Add flour sifted; beat thoroughly, then add resized eggs, quarter of a
of castor sugar,

maining ingredients. Line a tin with greased paper, pour in mixture, and bake in gentle oven from

two to three hours. When cold, make some almond Put a layer on top of cake. Form remainder into round balls. Brush the cake over with white of egg and dust with castor sugar. Set in a cool oven till balls are lightly browned, and decorate with
paste.
crystallised fruits.

861.

MRS. STOCKDEL'S SMALL CAKES
(Seventeenth Century)

Take three poimds of very fine flour add one and pounds of butter, and as much each of currants and of sugar. Add the yolks and half the whites of seven eggs, well beaten, knead all well together into a paste, adding one grated nutmeg and a little rose-water. Make them up about the bigness of your hand, and bake them upon a tin
;

a

half

plate.

862.

SLIM CAKES
as wiU wet
it

(Kent)

Take one and a
in
it,

half pints of flour
it,

as

much milk
it

put one egg put one ounce of

butter in the milk, beat

melts

—add

over the
;

to the flour

roll

fire tUl the butter out and bake on a

griddle (or girdle).

.

CAKES
(Kent)

335

863.

SODA CAKE
flour,

Take

five

ounces of

six

ounces of

raisins,

three ounces of

brown

sugar,

one egg, a

little

essence of

two ounces of butter, lemon, and a small tea-

spoonful of carbonate of soda dissolved in a teacupful
of cold milk.

Rub

the butter into the flour, then

add the

raisins

degrees, the soda

and sugar, then all the rest by and milk last, and bake directly.

864.

ANOTHER WAY

Take two pounds of flour, half a pound of butter, pound of currants, one ounce of caraway seeds, two drachms of carbonate of soda, two drachms of ginger, half a pound of sugar, and four Mix with one pint of new milk. To be baked eggs. in a moderate oven for two hours.
half a
865.

SODA CAKE

(Yorkshire)

half a

One pound of flour, half a pound of lump sugar, pound of currants, one gill of milk, four

ounces of butter, one teaspoonful of carbonate of soda, one egg. Rub the butter in the flour, and put the milk, sugar, and egg together. Put the currants into the flour, and mix them together before

you add the milk,

sugar,

and

egg.

Dissolve the

carbonate of soda in the milk.

Directly you have

mixed

all

together, put in the oven.

866.

SPONGE CAKE

(Surrey)

Three eggs, their weight in castor sugar, the weight of two eggs in flour, three drops essence of lemon. Beat the eggs and sugar together, till light

336
(quite

CAKES

twenty minutes' good beating), stir in the but do not beat it, add the flavouring, put into a greased and sugared tin, and bake at once in a moderate oven, about thirty minutes.
flour,

867.

CHEAP SPONGE CAKE
flour,

(Surrey)

Three eggs, three cupfuls of

two cupfuls
lemon.

of

sugar, half-cupful of milk, one teaspoonful of cream
of tartar, half teaspoonful of soda,

Bake

quick. (Breakfast-cups are apparently intended. Ed.)

868.

RICH SPONGE CAKE

(Hampshire)

Break twelve large eggs into a deep basin, beat one pound of castor sugar when this has been beaten all together twenty minutes, sift half a pound of pastry flour and half a pound of self-raising flour, previously well mixed together and warmed. Continue to beat, till the time in aU is half an hour. Put into tins well buttered and sugared, and bake for one hour.
for ten minutes, sift in by degrees
;

869.

SULTANA CAKE

(Devonshire)

Three-quarters of a pound of flour, six ounces of

pound of butter, six ounces of one egg, two teaspoonfuls of baking powder, one and a half ounces of citron. Beat butter and sugar to a cream, and add the egg well
sugar, a quarter of a
sultanas,

beaten,

mix

in the other ingredients,
if

the mixture,

necessary, a

little

and add to Bake warm
milk.

one and a half hours.

;

CAKES
870.

337

SUSSEX CAKES
of well-dried flour,

To two pounds

mix

three-

quarters of a pound of pounded loaf sugar, four

pounded pound of

ounces of sweet and one ounce of bitter almonds in a little orange-flower water, and one
fresh butter beaten to a

cream

;

mix these

well together, bake in small tins, well floured, or

drop on small

tins.

871.

SWEET BISCUITS
beat
all

(Yorkshire)

Take

five eggs well beaten,
;

one pound of sugar,

one pound of flour and bake in tins.

together half an hour

872.

SWISS ROLLS

(Kent)

Take a cupful
a
little
;

of sugar, another of flour, three eggs,

milk well beat the eggs, then add together with one teaspoonful of baking-powder, mix well bake in moderate pour in grease a baking tray oven for fifteen minutes. Spread raspberry jam
;

;

on,

and

roll up, or fold over.

873.

TEA BISCUIT

(Surrey)

Four teacupfuls of flour, one heaped teaspoonful of cream of tartar, one small teaspoonful of carbonate Mix of soda, butter to taste rubbed into flour. into a dough with milk, not at all stiff, and bake directly in a quick oven. Buttermilk will do instead
of

cream
22

of tartar.

338

CAKES
LITTLE TEA-BISCUITS (MACAROON AND COCONUT) (Surrey)

874.

Beat up the white of an egg to a stiff froth ia a Gradually add half a pound of castor sugar and a few drops of essence of almonds. Mix into a thick white paste, and drop pieces of it, with a spoon, upon a sheet of rice paper or tissue paper, keeping them about half an inch apart. This paper, of course, must be first laid upon the oven sheet. Put the biscuits in a slow oven till they colour to a pale drab, then take them out, and when cold remove them from the paper with a sharp silver knife. A somewhat similar style of biscuits may be made,
basin.

by substituting a quarter

of a

pound

of grated coco-

nut for the castor sugar and almond essence. a teaspoonful of sugar will be required only
little

;

About and a

cochineal will colour

some

of these as a pretty

variety.

875.

TEA CAKES

(Middlesex)

Take one pound

of flour, half a

pound

of butter,

nine ounces of pounded loaf sugar, the peel of a

lemon grated, a few caraway
together into a
stiff

seeds, the yolks and whites of three eggs beaten separately; mix these

paste, roll
tins.

it

out,

and cut

it

with a glass

;

bake upon

876.

BUTTERMILK TEA CAICES
flour,

(Somerset)

Half a pound of
ful of

three ounces of dripping or
of sultanas, a teaspoon-

butter, a quarter of a

pound
little

baking powder, a
salt.

candied peel and sugar,
first,

one small egg,

Mix

in the flour

sugar,

CAKES
;

339

powder, and salt then rub in the dripping, and put in the sultanas and peel mix with egg and buttermilk (not too moist). Bake in moderate
lastly
;

oven.

877.

FRIED TEA CAKES
Very old recipe

(Somerset)

One pound of flour, two ounces of currants, two ounces of dripping or lard, one teaspoonful of baking powder. Mix these with milk in the morning, stiff to the consistency of pastry roll out in the afternoon, a quarter of an inch thick. Cut with a round cutter and fry in boiling lard in a saucepan or deep frying-pan. Serve hot, with castor sugar sprinkled
:

over.

878.

POTATO TEA CAKES

(Isle

of

Wight)

Boil some nice potatoes dry, and when cold pass them through a sieve, or mash well. Take three oimces of mashed potatoes, three ounces of flour, one teaspoonful of baking powder and a pinch of salt Mix
.

all well,

and then rub

in lightly three ounces of lard

or dripping.

a

stiff

paste.

Add sufficient water to make all into EoU out thin, cut with round cutters
Serve hot with butter.
little

and bake

at once.

or currants and a

Sultanas sugar added are also liked.

879.

TREACLE CAKE

(Yorkshire)

Three-quarters of a pound of golden syrup, one and a half pounds of flour, quarter of a pound of sugar (Demerara), two ounces of butter, two ounces of lard, one egg, and one teaspoonful of ground ginger,

340

CAKES

one teaspoonful of carbonate of soda dissolved in half a teacupful of cold milk. Have the golden syrup hot. Rub in butter and lard to the flour, then add syrup, lastly the egg and milk (with carbonate of soda in). Bake in moderate oven about half an hour in ordinary square or oblong " dripping " tins. Cut in squares when cold.

880.

ICED TRIFFIES

(Hertfordshire)

Whisk
to a
flour.
stiff

three eggs with five ounces of castor sugar
batter,

and flavour with a few drops
batter, half
fill

of

vanilla essence, then sift in five ounces of pastry

With the

some fancy-shaped

bun-tins which are well greased with butter, and

bake in a sharp oven from ten to twenty minutes. During this time prepare the icing as foUows Mix in a basin six ounces of poimded sweet almonds, a dessertspoonful of pounded bitter almonds, four ounces of grated chocolate, and four ounces of fine icing sugar. Meanwhile dissolve in a double boiler one ounce of butter and a beaten egg. This dissolved butter and egg should be gradually added to the dry
:

ingredients

till

the icing

is

of the right consistency.

Spread this over the top and sides of the little cakes, smooth with a knife dipped into boiling water, and set in a cool oven to harden a little. Afterwards place each little cake in a small fancy d'oyley or
paper.
881.

WAFFLES

(Hertfordshire)

Two

cupfuls of flour, two eggs, one teaspoonful

one and a quarter cupfuls of milk, one tablespoonful of creamed butter, a pinch of salt.
of baking powder,

CAKES
Mix
flour,

341

baking powder, and salt together. Mix mix with the dry ingredients, adding last the whites and creamed butter. Have the waffle iron very hot and well greased with lard, bake on both sides until a nice deep brown.
yolks with mUk, then
(Breakfast-cups are indicated.

Ed.)

882.

WALNUT CAKE
of sugar, half a

(Hertfordshire)

Six whites, six yolks of eggs, six ounces of flour,
half a

poimd

pound

of butter, half

a

teaspoonful of baking powder, one pound of walnuts,
three drops of vanilla.
(there

Chop walnuts very

finely

should be six ounces when shelled), beat butter and sugar to a cream, add yolks one by one, whisk whites very firmly, add walnuts to the
whites,

add

flour

and whites

alternately.

883.

WENNINGTON CAKES

(Yorkshire)

of flour, half a pound of lump ounces of butter rubbed into the flour, a sugar, six three few currants or almonds, which you please mix all well eggs, the rind of a lemon grated together, lay them in lumps upon the tins a few
; ;

Take haK a pound

minutes will bake them.

884.

THE MOST WHOLESOME OF CAKES (Surrey) Two pounds of wholemeal flour, half a pound

pound of sultanas, half a pound pound of moist sugar (more if liked), one teaspoonful of mixed spice, two large mix with about teaspoonfuls of yeast powder new milk. Rub the butter into the a pint of
of raisins, half a

of butter, half a

;

342

CAKES
Add
all

dry meal.
stir in

the other dry ingredients, then

the milk as quickly and lightly as possible
;

with a wooden spoon no kneading required. Turn out at once into two well-buttered baking-tins, place immediately in a good but not over-heated oven. Bake about two hours, taking care not to burn.
885.

WIGGS

(Yorkshire,

1769)

Take two pounds of flour, one pound of butter, one pint of cream, four eggs (leaving out two of the
whites),

and

and two tablespoonfuls of yeast. Mix well a little. Then add half a pound of sugar, and half a pound of caraway comfits, make up the dough with these, and bake in a dripping pan.
let it rise

;

CHAPTER XIX

BREAD, ROLLS, BUNS, MUFFINS, TEACAKES, SCONES, ETC.
Note.

—That
is

the art and practice of making our

own bread among us,

has, in large

measure, died out from one of the most lamentable signs of

so-called civilisation. We allow the baker, with his alum, bone-flour, and other unnecessary ingredients, to supply us with that " staff of life," which should surely be a sound and trust-

modem

staff if it is to be any good at all. We speak of home-made bread as though it were some treasure beyond our attainment. Now, in remote country villages, where brewer's yeast is almost unprocurable, one can understand the art of breadmaking dwindling down to nothing although, even witness the there, yeast can be made quite easily But in towns, recipes at the end of this section. where the breweries are only too glad to get rid of their yeast for the asking, there need be no such (I do not allude to German or comdifficulty. it really is not a patch upon the position yeast genuine article.) Then, the absence of the oldfashioned brick oven is a great drawback in towns but here, again, some of the best bread I have ever eaten was baked by a Hammersmith woman in an

worthy

;

;

343

344

BREAD, ROLLS, BUNS, MUFFINS, ETC.
The Daily Mail bread-making competition
all

oil-stove.

proved, to the satisfaction of

well-wishers to

humanity, that there are still many wives and mothers who have solved one of the secrets of good health for that home-made bread and good health are frequently synonymous, is a fact to be verified
;

by experience. The few and uninteresting breads, buns,
etc.,

scones,

obtainable at a shop,
hope, replaced
varied

can be supplemented

from the following hst, with and toothsome productions. I the most desire to commend this section to everybody who can appreciate the difference between bread made It is a differfor eating, and bread made for selling. ence not to be stated in mere words.
or, I

Amongst minor

items,

the reader should par-

ticularly note the delicious Cornish Saffron Buns.

886.

TO MAKE HOUSEHOLD BREAD OB ROLLS
,

(Middlesex)

Take ten pounds
which
is

of flour,

about lukewarm,

if

and three quarts of water in summer, and rather

warmer in winter. Put the water in a large pan, and add a tablespoonful of salt. Add a portion of the flour, stirring it up well, until it is of the consistency of butter, adding rather more than a pint then add more flour, mixing the of good yeast whole well, and put the pan, covered with a cloth, and throwing flour over the dough, before the fire for a few minutes. About a third of the flour is to be kept back in the first operation, and this is to be weE kneaded in when the mixture which has been
;

BREAD, ROLLS, BUNS, MUFFINS, ETC.

345

placed before the fire has risen properly. Put the dough again before the fire, and let it rise for a few minutes, then knead again, and bake in a quick oven, having previously put the dough into pans, and pricked the surface of the dough with a fork, and placed it again before the fire in the pans. The baking, in an ordinary oven, will require about an hour for a four-pound loaf and fifty minutes for a
loaf
it

of

three pounds.

If

a heated oven

is

used,
is

put with the bread in If potatoes be mixed into it. the proportion of an ounce to two ounces to the one pound,- the flavour, (to some people's thinking) The potatoes must be first will be improved.
boiled
in
their
skins,

must

be well-heated before the dough

then

skinned,

dry, rubbed well

up

in milk or water boiled

and when and al-

Then add the mixture

lowed to stand for a few minutes before it is used. to the dish in which the dough Rice may also be used. Take a pound is mixed. of rice to ten pounds of wheat flour, boil it in one quart of water tUl the rice has become a complete
pulp.

Strain off the water, and beat the rice well in
it

is completely crushed, and is then add the water in which it entirely dissolved, was boiled, and a pint of milk, and boil the whole to-

a mortar until

gether for an hour. Strain off the liquid and add it to the dish in which the dough is made, suppressing as much water from the process as the quantity of
liquid obtained from the boiling of the rice will supply. The dough must in aU cases be thoroughly

kneaded.
for

Filtered rain water
;

is

the best to use

bread-making

if

the water be hard, a drachm

of carbonate of soda of water, but this

may

be added to three quarts

is

unnecessary when the water

346
is

BREAD, ROLLS, BUNS, MUFFINS, ETC.

of a soft nature. If rolls are to be made, take a portion of the dough and mix it up with a few tablespoonfuls of cream, in which the

whipped whites of two or three eggs have been put knead them carefully, and add a little flour if they be too moist. The dough for rolls should
;

be taken o£E when it has risen the second time, as above stated, before the fire. After taking the dough from the fire the second time, it must be kneaded for haK an hour on a board strewed with flour, if intended for loaves, but the rolls will not require more than five or six minutes kneading. They are then to be baked in a quick oven until they are nicely browned. A minute or two before they are done, they should be taken out of the oven, and a brush dipped in the white of egg passed over the top then they are to be put into the oven again for one or two minutes. When there is reason to suspect, either from the appearance or smell of the flour, that it is not good, and there is still a necessity for using it, let it be baked for an hour in a very slack oven, and add to it, when making into dough, about ten grains of fresh carbonate of ammonia, carefully powdered, for every pound of flour. This will frequently correct any bad quaUties of the flour, and render the bread palatable. Milk may be substituted for water in the manufacture of bread, but it does not improve the flavour if the flour be
;

good.

887.

HOME-MADE BREAD
of best flour, half

(Middlesex)

One quartern

yeast, one teaspoonf ul of salt, one

an ounce of German and three-quarter

BREAD, ROLLS, BUNS, MUFFINS, ETC.
pints of
into a

347

warm

water.

Mix

all

into a dough, put

wooden
for
in

or earthen basin, cover with a thick

cloth, stand it in a
it rise

warm

corner of the kitchen, let

put

it

two or three hours. Knead it up well, two baking tins, bake in a brisk oven.

888.

HOME-MADE BREAD

(Essex)

Take one and a quarter pounds

of flour,

two

ounces of yeast, one saltspoonful of salt, and about one pint of milk or more, with a little warm water to make the temperature of blood heat. Have a deep
basin, or better in

a small bread-pan, put the flour round the sides of the basin to make a deep hole in the centre, mix the yeast in a cup with a little milk and water till it is nice and smooth but not thick. Now pour it into the centre of the flour and sprinkle a little flour on the top of the yeast, cover the basin with a cloth and put it in front of the fire, to rise for about an hour, constill

and

pile it all

tinually turning the basin round.

Then mix lightly

with a wooden spoon so that the yeast is well mixed in the flour then, with the hand, mix in gradually the milk and water, till the dough is nice and light but not too moist. Put the basin on a chair and knead well with the knuckles tiU the dough looks Butter a tia or tins, put the nice and smooth. dough in, cover with a cloth and place in front of the Now have a fire to rise nicely but not too much. nice hot oven ready, put the bread on the lower shelf for three-quarters of an hour, and then on upper shelf with a greased paper on top of the tins
;

for another three-quarters of

an hour.

Watch

it

348

BREAD, ROLLS, BUNS, MUFFINS, ETC.

about every twenty minutes, for to open the oven too
often spoils the bread.

For making brown bread use wholemeal
instead of the ordinary flour.

flour

889.

CORN BREAD

(Ireland)

To one quart of sifted meal add one teacupf ul of cream, three eggs, a teaspoonful of carbonate of soda dissolved in water, enough buttermilk to make it quite
soft
;

stir well,

and bake
890.

in a baking kettle or oven.

ITALIAN BREAD

dough, with twelve tablespoonfuls of white powdered sugar, three eggs, the raspings of a lemon, and two ounces of fresh butter mix them in a pan with a wooden spoon, and
stiff

Make a

fine flour, six of

;

not sufficiently firm, add more flour it out and work it well with and cut it into the shape of round long bisthe hand, cuits, and glaze them with white of egg. They are
if

the dough
sugar.

is

Then turn

then to be baked in a hot oven.

891.

MANNHEIM BREAD

(German)

Take two eggs, six tablespoonfuls of flour, three some salt, and a Uttle essence of aniseed to when worked well together, cut give it a flavour pieces as above, and bake in a quick oven. into
of sugar,
;

892.

POTATO BREAD

(French)
;

Take the quantity of potatoes required boil them in their skins. When done, peel them, and bruise them with a rolling-pin to the consistence of

BREAD, ROLLS, BUNS, MUFFINS, ETC.
a paste.

349

To

this

add as much

flour as there is

potato pulp, and some yeast. Knead them well, putting as much water as may be necessary. When properly kneaded, form into loaves, and place in the oven, taking care that it be not quite so hot as for

become hard on the outside The door of the oven should not be closed so soon as on ordinary occasions. This bread must be allowed longer time to bake than any other.
bread, or
it will

common

before the inside

is

properly baked.

893.

YANKEE BROWN BREAD
;

(Ireland)

To two
and knead
lukewarm.

quarts of corn meal, pour one quart of
stir

boiling water

yeast into two quarts of rye meal,

all

together with two quarts of water
if

Add,
894.

you choose, one

gill of

molasses.

LITTLE LOAVES

(Kent)

One quart of flour, one small teaspoonful of soda, much tartaric acid as would fit on a sixpence, mixed with either milk or water, a pinch of salt. Mix
as

the salt and soda with the flour, then dissolve the tartaric acid in the milk, and make your dough.
895.

FRENCH ROLLS
two tablespoonfuls
of

Two pounds
milk, a

of fine flour,

fresh table-beer yeast, a full pint of
little salt.

warm

water or

and make the dough quite tender cover it over with a napkin and let it rise before the flre about half an hour, then mould it into rolls, and let them rise about bake them half an hour in a half an hour more

Mix
;

all

together,

;

quick oven.

;

350

BREAD, ROLLS, BUNS, MUFFINS, ETC.
896.

MILK ROLLS
flour,
salt,

(Devonshire)

Half a pound of powder, a pinch of

one teaspoonful of baking one ounce of butter, a teacupful of cold milk. Sift the flour, baking powder, and salt, and mix well rub in butter, mix with the milk, make quickly into rolls, and bake at once brush over with milk when half baked.
;

897.

SUFFOLK RUSKS

Half a pound of flour, one egg, and a little milk. Three ounces of butter, salt, and baking powder. Work all together as for pastry, and cut into rounds with a cutter, and bake. When nearly done, take out and cut in half bake again for a few minutes. To be eaten with butter or cheese.
;

898.

RUSKS

(Kent)

Three pounds of

fine flour, three

ounces of fresh

butter, three ounces of sugar.

Rub all together. Lay

a leaven with a few tablespoonfuls of yeast and three eggs beaten together. Let it stand for half an hour,

then mix it up with a pint of warm milk. After it has stood half an hour longer, make it into small
loaves
size

when baked as much as cakes of the same should be, put them back into the oven to dry.
;

899.

TOPS AND BOTTOMS

(Kent)

one pound of flour, three ounces of The butter to be dissolved in a sufiicient quantity of milk to make it into a stiff paste, with
eggs,

Two

butter.

as

much

yeast as will

make

it light.

Afterwards

roll it out,

and cut them into whatever shapes you

BREAD, ROLLS, BUNS, MUFFINS, ETC.

351

please. Put them on tins in a warm place for twenty minutes, then in rather a cool oven when cooked through, divide them and put them again in the oven till quite crisp.
;

BUNS
900.

BUNS AND FRENCH BREAD Two pounds of flour, two ounces

(Hertfordshire)

of sugar,

two

ounces of butter, two ounces of German yeast, two eggs, one pint of milk. Dissolve yeast in a little warm water, make a well in centre of flour, pour it in well whisk eggs, add the milk made hot, and mix all into a light dough heat it for about ten minutes, then leave it to rise and make into any shapes preferred. For the buns, add a little more sugar and sultanas if for dough cakes, raisins always leave to rise for about half an hour, when made into shapes then bake in a quick oven half an hour for dough cake ten minutes each for bims
; ; ;

;

;

;

;

and

roUs.

901.

BROWN MEAL BUNS

(Hertfordshire)

One pound of fine meal, six ounces of butter, three ounces of sugar, one teaspoonful of baking powder,
two
eggs.

902.

BATH BUNS

(Kent,

1809)

Four eggs, yolks and whites, beaten up and mixed in two spoonfuls of table-beer yeast, and strained
through a sieve eight ounces of butter, melted in half a pint of milk, and mixed with the eggs and make it up into yeast into two pounds of flour
;

;

352

BREAD, ROLLS, BUNS, MUPFENS, ETC.

dough, and let it rise an hour and a half. Mix seven ounces of sifted sugar in the dough, and make it up into twelve cakes, then let them rise three hours and a half, taking care not to place them too near the fire. Strew a little sifted sugar over them before baking.
903.

BUTTERMILK BUNS

(Kent)

Three pounds of flour, half an ounce of carbonate well-pounded and mixed with one teaspoonful of ground spice and two teaspoonfuls of salt which must then be weU mixed with the flour three and a quarter pounds of moist sugar and a tablespoonful of caraway seeds. The oven should be rather hotter than for bread. When the oven
of soda,
;

is

quite ready,

add to the ingredients
it

sufficient

which must be dropped with a spoon on a floured tin.
buttermilk to
into a thin batter,
904.

make

COBURG BUNS
of

(Northumberland)

Three ounces

castor sugar, four ovmces of

butter, six oxmces of flour,

two

eggs, half a tea-

spoonful of carbonate of soda, half a teaspoonful

cinnamon, one teaspoonful of ground ginger, half a teaspoonful of nutmeg, two teaspoonfuls of golden syrup. Beat the butter and sugar to a cream, add the eggs well beaten, mix in the dry ingredients (which have been previously well mixed in a basin) without beating, add the syrup last. This mixture fills one dozen small tins. If liked, put spht almonds in the bottom of each tin. Be sure to butter or lard the tins very thoroughly. Bake in a sharp oven until nicely browned.
of

BREAD, ROLLS, BUNS, MUFFINS, ETC.
905.

353

COFFEE BUNS

(Somerset)

Six ounces of butter, six ounces of Demerara sugar,
six ounces of sultanas, a quarter of a

pound

of flour,

one and a half teaspoonfuls baking powder, two eggs. Cream the butter and sugar, add the wellbeaten eggs gradually with a little flour, lastly add all the dry ingredients, mix to a stiff paste, form into round balls with the hands pressed slightly. Place on a greased baking sheet brush over with egg, and bake in a fairly quick oven twenty to thirty minutes. Sufficient for two dozen buns.
;

906.

EASTER BUNS

(Surrey)

Take one cupful of yeast, three of milk, and enough flour to make a thick batter mix lightly, and set it over-night. Next morning, add one
:

cupful of sugar, half a cupful of butter, melted
salt,

(but not creamed), half a nutmeg, one saltspoonful and sufficient flour to make the mixture roll

out like biscuit. Mix and knead all well, and leave Then roll it out half an it for five hours to rise.
inch thick, cut it into round cakes, lay them on a then mark buttered baking-sheet for half an hour a cross on each with a knife, and bake immediately They can be till they are a good light brown.
;

brushed with white of egg and sugar.
indicated.

(Tea-cups

Ed.)
907.

LEMON BUNS

(Kent)

of flour, quarter of a pound of butter, ounces of sugar, two ounces of lump sugar, two rubbed on the rind of one lemon squeeze the lemon-

One pound

;

23

354

BREAD, ROLLS, BUNS, MUFFINS, ETC.
the
ingredients.

juice into

Dissolve your butter
milk.

in half a teaeupful of

Mix weU with a wooden spoon, drop them on your baking-sheet, and bake in a quiet oven twenty minutes. When half done, sprinkle some powdered sugar on them.
908.

warm

PLAIN BUNS

(Kent)

Rub
flour,

four ounces of butter into two pounds of

in four ounces of sugar, one nutmeg, a few Jamaica peppers, a dessertspoonful of caraways. Put one or two spoonfuls of cream into a tea-cup of yeast, and as much milk as will make it into a Hght paste. Set it to rise by the fire tiU the oven is ready. Bake on tins.

mix

909.

PLAIN BUNS

(Cape

Colony)

Two

full

breakf astcupfuls of

flour, three-quarters

two to four ounces one nutmeg grated, two eggs, two teaspoonfuls of baking powder, a pinch of salt, and enough milk to mix the whole into a fairly moist dough. Stir the butter (which should be soft), sugar, and eggs together with a spoon, add a little milk. Mix all the dry ingredients and add if the dough is too stiff, put gradually to the rest a little more milk. Place large spoonfuls on baking Bake from tin, sprinkle white sugar on each bun. ten to twenty minutes according to heat of the
of a breakfast-cupful of sugar,

of butter or beef dripping,

;

stove.
910.

SAFFRON BUNS
two ounces

(Cornwall)

To half a quartern of dough add a quarter of a pound
of currants, of grated lemon-peel,

De-

BREAD, ROLLS, BUNS, MUFFINS, ETC.

355

mcrara sugar to taste (say about quarter of a pound), half a teaspoonful of mixed spice, six ounces of lard or dripping, two-pennyworth of saffron (pour boiling water on this and leave it overnight) warm the dough and melt the lard before mixing, and add (while the mixture is not too hot) two well-beaten eggs. Do not let the lard be too hot. Knead all together with the hands, then leave in a warm place covered with a cloth, until the whole has " plimmed up " or risen then divide into small lumps, place on a greased tin, and bake in a slow oven until
;

;

slightly coloured.

(For other buns, see Chap. XVIII.)
911.

CURRANT LOAF
of flour,

(Hertfordshire)

Two pounds
five

a quarter of a pound of

butter, five ounces of sugar, five ounces of currants,

ounces of sultanas, three ounces of candied

peel, three eggs, three-quarters of a pint of

warm

milk, a pinch of salt, one pennyworth of
yeast.

German

Rub butter into flour, add fruit and sugar, beat up eggs, milk, and yeast, set aside for a little time, then knead and stand aside to rise. Bake in good oven.

912.

SCONES SCONE FLOUR (Hertfordshire)

Eight pounds of flour, one ounce of soda, two ounces of cream of tartar.
913.

SCONES

(Devonshire)

One pound
lard, three

of flour, three and a half ounces of ounces of white sugar, half an ounce of

356

BREAD, ROLLS, BUNS, MUFFINS, ETC.
of tartar, a quarter of

an ounce of carbonate one egg, one pinch of salt, little milk. Mix all the dry ingredients together, then add the eggs and milk, and mix to a roll out on floured board nice dough, not too stiff half an inch thick, cut into diamond shapes, allow

cream

of soda,

one ounce

of sultanas,

;

them
for

to rise before the
in

fire

for ten minutes.

Bake

twenty minutes

moderate oven.

914.

SCONES

(Hertfordshire)

One pound of flour, two ounces of butter, two ounces of sugar, a quarter of an ounce of carbonate of soda, a quarter of an ounce of cream of tartar, one egg. Bake twenty minutes.

915.

SCONES
I

(Kent)

One pound of flour or brown meal rub into it two ounces of butter, one teaspoonful of baking powder, one teaspoonful of pounded white sugar, and a little salt. Mix with lukewarm milk to a
;

stiff

paste

;

roll

out,

cut with

circle into rounds,

eaten hot, cut in

and bake them on a halves and buttered

a tumbler or tin tin. To be

—or

toasted

next day.
916.

ANOTHER WAY

Half a pound of finest flour, two ounces of butter, a pinch of salt and of sugar, a teaspoonful of baking

powder, and three-quarters of a gill of milk. Rub the butter into the flour with the sugar, salt, and baking powder, and mix in the milk with an iron

BREAD, ROLLS, BUNS, MUFFINS, ETC.

357

spoon as lightly as possible. Roll out -with a little flour to the thickness of an inch, and cut into threecornered shapes. Bake in a quick oven twenty minutes, and serve up on a napkin. For these scones wholemeal flour can be used if preferred to
white.
917.

ANOTHER WAY
one ounce of butter, two tea-

One pound

of flour,

spoonfuls of baking powder, two teaspoonfuls of castor sugar, half a pint of milk, a little salt. Rub

the butter in the flour, then add the baking powder, sugar, and salt. To be sent to the table hot.
918.

IRISH SCONES

of Paisley flour,

Six tablespoonfuls of plain flour, one tablespoonf ul one tablespoonful of lard, half a

Mix with milk and roll out on a Cut with sharp round cutter, and bake in board. a quick oven. May be served either hot or cold, with
saltspoonful of salt.
butter.
919.

SCOTCH SCONES

(Lancashire)

One pound

of flour, three tablespoonfuls of sugar,

three ounces of dripping or butter,
of bicarbonate of

soda, two teaspoonfuls

one tablespoonful of cream of

one teacupful of milk. Mix flour and sugar, soda and tartar, rub in butter, mix up with milk, roll out and cut into scone shapes, and bake twenty or
tartar,

thirty minutes.
920.

SODA SCONES

(Scottish)

Eight tablespoonfuls of flour, two teaspoonfuls of cream of tartar, one teaspoonful of carbonate of

358

BREAD, ROLLS, BUNS, MUFFINS, ETC.
little little

soda, a

salt.

Mix

well together, dry

;

then

rub in a

butter, about the size of a nut,

and

make

a soft dough, with a little milk or milk-and-water. Put it on a well-floured board, roll it out about half an inch thick. Cut it into rounds with a cutter, or roll it out in one large round and divide it in four. Bake for about ten minutes in a moderate oven.
all into

921.

WHEATMBAL SCONES

(Isle

of

Wight)

Half a pound of wheatmeal, one teaspoonful of two ounces of butter, one and a half teaspoonfuls of baking powder.
sugar, a pinch of salt, one or

Rub the butter into the meal, add the salt, sugar, and baking powder. Mix to a stiff paste with cream turn on to a floured board, roU out about or milk Cut with a round cutter, or in half an inch thick. Bake about fifteen minutes. Serve hot triangles.
;

or cold, with butter.

CRUMPETS, ETC.
922.

CRUMPETS
;

(Kent)

the

Set two pounds of flour with a little salt before fire tUl quite warm then mix it with warm

milk and water till it is stiff as it can be stirred. Let the milk be as warm as it can be borne with the finger. Put a cupful of this with three eggs well beaten and mixed with three tablespoonfuls of very thick yeast then put this to the batter and beat
;

all

well together in a large

pan or bowl

;

add as
fire to

much milk and water
batter
;

as will

make
it

it

into a thick

cover

it close,

and put

before the

BREAD, ROLLS, BUNS, MUFFINS, ETC.
rise.

359

tie it up,

Put a bit of butter in a piece of thin muslin, and rub it lightly on the heated frying
then pour over
light.

pan

;

sufficient batter at

a time to
it will

make one crumpet.
be very

Let

it

do

Cook them all should not be brown but of a fine
923.

and the same way.
slowly,

They

yellow.

MUFFINS

(Middlesex)

Mix a quartern of fine fiour, one and a half pints warm milk and water, with a quarter of a pint of good yeast and a little salt. Stir them together for
of

an hour, then strain the liquor into a mix the dough well, and set it to rise for an hour. Then roll it up and pull into small pieces make them up in the hand flannel on them while rolling, like baUs, and lay a to keep them warm. The dough should be closely covered the whole time. When the whole is rolled into balls, the flrst that is made will be ready for baking. When they are spread out in the right form for muffins, lay them on tins and bake them, and as the bottoms begin to change colour, turn them on
of

a quarter

quarter of a peck of fine flour

;

;

the other side.
924.

PIKELETS
half

(Stafiordshire)

Take one and a

pounds

of flour, half

of carbonate of soda, a pinch of salt,

an ounce and mix them

to a batter with one quart of buttermilk.

Have

ready a hot iron plate or a heated frying pan, either of which must be rubbed with a piece of fat beicon before putting in the batter. Allow one small teacupful of batter for each pikelet. When it is a light brown, raise and turn it over gently with a
sharp knife.

360

BREAD, ROLLS, BUNS, MUFFINS, ETC.
925.

SALLY LUNN
a

(Lancashire)
little

Make a
in

light dough, using
loaf.

more yeast than
little
it

making a

butter dissolved

Mix with warm in it and a pinch
it is

milk, with a
of salt.

Leave

to rise in the tin in which

to be baked.

926.

SALLY LUNN

(Kent)

a pound of barm, put all into a quart of flour with as much rich warm milk as you wUl want to wet it. Beat all with a spoon; let it stand for an hour, and bake in a pan.

Beat up two

eggs, melt a quarter of

butter, one tablespoonful of thick

927.

SPLITS

(Kent)

one ounce of butter to be of baking powder, to be rolled out about an iach half a pint of milk thick, and cut out with a small tin shape.
of flour,

One pound

rubbed into

it,

two teaspoonfuls
;

928.

TEA-CAKES

(Lancashire)

Put a halfpennyworth of barm into a little warm milk, then rub three ounces of butter iato one and a Beat up one half pounds of flour, and set it to rise. egg, and put it ia when you knead it, then let it rise again when you put it in your tins, before you
bake the cakes.
929.

TEA-CAKES
I

(Yorkshire)

Take one quart

of sifted flour

and three spoonfuls

of bakiag powder, mix them weU together, and then rub one tablespoonful of lard into tbe flour, and

BREAD, EOLLS, BUNS, MUFFINS, ETC.
Roll

361

moisten with water, kneading till you get a dough. it on a pie board until thin, and cut in round cakes and bake immediately.

n
Take half a peck of flour, half a pint of yeast, one pound of currants, one pound of butter, half a pound
of sugar,

one ounce of caraway seeds

;

to be

made

into large cakes.

Set to rise a short time before

being put into the oven.

930.

TO MAKE BARM OR YEAST
I

(Cheshire)

Boil one ounce of hops in six quarts of water

till

and when blood-warm, add two tablespoonfuls of sugar and three pints of flour. Leave it at the fire two days, stirring it frequently then add one pound of boiled potatoes, bruised, and well mixed through the barm. Strain all through a colander and set it by the fire
the hops
fall

to the bottom, then strain,

till it

rises in

the vessel.

Keep

it

in a cool place

covered.
flour.

One

pint will answer for eight quarts of

931.

ANOTHER WAY.

handful of hops to a breakfastcupful of malt. Pour four to five quarts of boiling water on it, and

A

simmer down to about three quarts. Then and when milkwarm, add half a pint of flour, and some old barm. Leave it a day to rise, and bottle it that day or the next.
let it

strain,

;

362
932.

BEEAD, ROLLS, BUNS, MUFFINS, ETC.
TO MAKE BARM OR YEAST
(Lancashire)

Half a pound of bruised malt, half an ounce of hops, four ounces of sugar, four ounces of salt, two Boil for an hour in a very clean gallons of water. pan. Have ready two pounds of fine flour rubbed very smooth with cold water in a deep mug (pan).
Strain the boiling liquid on the flour while some one

with a wooden spoon. About one quart of barm should be put to the new while it is warm. Let it stand to work for two days and then cork it up
stirs it

old

very tightly.
it is

better

of flour

Shake the bottle well before using it two or three days old. Fourteen pounds wiU require two teacupfuls of barm.

CHAPTER XX

BEVERAGES
Note.
great
ale, a wines and beers were also made. Some of these, " tasting of Flora and the country green,"

—In

the olden days of home-brewed

many

in rural districts

still

survive.

The Surrey

cottager regards the elder-bloom in

the hedges as significant of the coming elderberry wine that shall " hearten a man up," as he puts it,
elderberry wine and in a drear-nighted December Christmas are for him synonymous. CowsUp wine, sweet, sticky, and innocuous rhubarb, and turnip, and blackberry wine, are yet immensely popular in provincial places and " currant wine is very good," as Jenny Wren said in the nursery rhyme. But aerated drinks have largely superseded these
:

:

pleasant beverages
I

;

rapidly becoming obsolete.

and the old-time recipes are Amongst those ensuing
cheap, wholesome, and re-

would

call

attention to the various formulas for
is

ginger beer
freshing

cordials and liqueurs, and to the notes on coffee and tea-making. It should be noted that many cottage wines are spoiled by the use of brown sugar, which renders them somewhat coarse and crude in flavour. White preserving sugar is nowadays just as cheap, and much more refined to the taste.

—to

—which
the

home-made

363

;

364

BEVEEAGES

HOME-MADE WINES (ALCOHOLIC)
933.

APPLE WINE

(1822)

To make a wine nearly equal

to the Rhenish,

you

must, to every gallon of the juice of apples, immediately after it comes from the press, add two pounds of common loaf sugar. Boil it as long as any

scum rises strain it through a sieve, and let it cool add some good yeast, and stir it well. Let it work in the tub for two or three weeks, or till the head begins to flatten, then skim off the head, draw it clear off, and turn it. When it has been made a year, rack it off, and fine it with isinglass then add to
;

;

every three gallons half a pint of the best rectified spirits of wine, or one pint of brandy (see note This wine wUl be found very superior. to No. 940).
934.

BLACKBERRY WINE

(Essex)

Put any quantity of blackberries in a pan, just cover them with boiling water, and allow them to
stand in a cool oven or outside the cooking-stove all night to draw the juice or the berries may be mashed with a mallet.
;

Measure and strain into a cask or stone bottle, and allow the juice to ferment for a fortnight. No yeast is required. Then add one pound of loaf
sugar to every gallon of the wine, with a quarter of a
pint of best brandy (see note, No. 940).
bottled in six months, but wiU improve
It

may

be

by keeping.
1769)

935.

BALM WINE

(Yorkshire,

Put a peck of balm leaves in a tub or large jar, beat four gallons of water scalding hot, ready to

BEVERAGES
boil,

365

leaves. Let it stand all through a hair sieve. To every gallon of liquid put two pounds of fine sugar, and stir up very well. Take the whites of four or five eggs, beat them very well, put them into a pan with the liquor. Whisk it well before it be over
it

then pour

upon the
it off

night, then strain

hot

;

keep

it

when the scum begins to rise take it skimmed all the time it is boiling.
;

off,

and
it

Let

an hour then put it into the tub. When it is cold, put a little new yeast upon it, and beat it in, every two hours, that it may head the better. So work it for two days, then put it into a sweet keg, b;mg it up close, and when it is clear,
boil three-quarters of

bottle.

936.

COWSLIP WINE
it

(1815)

To one
sugar, boil

gallon of water put four pounds of loaf

and skim

as long as

any scum

rises

;

to each gallon of water put the rind of a lemon or

orange, and boil with the sugar and water three
gallons of the flowers of cowslips.

Let them

boil

three minutes, then put

it

into a tub,

and when

almost cold, toast a bit of bread and spread it with very thick yeast, put it in the liquor, and let it when you put it into the cask, stand two nights add all the juice of the orange or lemon which you
:

and if you make ten gallons of wine, you must put two quarts of brandy, and so on in proportion for any quantity you wish to make. (See
pared
;

note. No, 940.)

366

BEVERAGES
937.

COWSLIP WINE

(Surrey)

Boil twelve pounds of loaf sugar, with the juice of
six Seville oranges,

and the whites
it

of three or four

eggs well beaten, in six gallons of water, for
hour, carefully

haK an
In the

skimming

all

the time.

meanwhile, put a peck of the finest and freshest picked cowslip flowers into a tub, with the rinds of two or three of the oranges, and, pouring on them
the boiling syrup,
stir

the whole up, and leave

it,

well covered, to infuse.

On

its

getting nearly cold,

spread a thin toast of bread

all

over with good yeast,

and put
After
it

it

into the tub to excite a fermentation.

has worked two or three days, strain it off, pressed the cowslips in a coarse cloth Having turned it up, to strain out all the juice. keep the bung loose for a few days, and on finding the wine has ceased to work, which is always known

having

first

by its ceasing to hiss, drive the bung tight. Let the hquor remain undisturbed for about three months and then bottle it off, either for present or future If, on running the wine, about a quarter of use. a pint of brandy be put in for every gallon (see note. No. 940), with a quarter of a gill of syrup of citrons, lemons, or clove gilly-flowers, it will make a very fine addition to its strength and flavour. (This is the
best recipe of the three.

Ed.)

938.

ANOTHER WAY
and
half a

flowers,

peck of cowslip add two and a half pounds of powdered Boil them for half an hour, and take off the sugar. scum as it rises. Then pour it into a tub to cool,

To two

gallons of water

BEVERAGES

367

with the rinds of two lemons. Let it stand in the tub for two days, stirring it every two or three hours, and then put it into a barrel. Let it stand a month bottle it, and put a lump of loaf sugar in each bottle.
;

939.

CURRANT WINE

(1815)

qua,rts of water add two quarts of currant and four pounds of good powdered sugar let it stand two or three days before you put it into the cask and if you make ten gallons, add three quarts of brandy (see note. No. 940), and one gallon of raspberry juice mixed with four poimds of sugar. Put the bung in, but do not stop it close till it has done hissing, which perhaps will not cease in less than a fortnight then stop it close, and let it stand twelve months, if you make a large quantity. N.B. As currant wine is seldom two years alike, on

To three

juice

;

;

;

account of the different seasons for ripening the it will be proper to try the wine in four or five months after it is made, as the sweetness goes off much sooner some years than others, but it will generally require to stand twelve months or more. If it is made with loaf sugar, it is fit to drain off much sooner but the wine is not so strong as that made of powdered sugar. The raspberry juice and brandy should not be mixed with the wine till it is put into
currants,
;

the cask.

940.

CURRANT WINE

(1822)

currant wine, take black currants, red white currants, ripe cherries, raspberries, currants, and strawberries, of each an equal quantity. To

For a

fine

every four poimds, well bruised, add one gallon of

;

368
clear soft water.

BEVERAGES
Steep three days and nights in
stir

the mass frequently. Then and press the pulp to dryness. To each gallon of liquor put three pounds of good, rich moist sugar. Let the whole stand three days,

open

vessel,

and

strain through a sieve,

skim the top, and stir frequently. Put it into casks, to purge at the bung, for about a fortnight then to every nine gallons you can add a quart Isinglass of good brandy, and close the cask. finings may be applied, if necessary. Note Some of the finest-flavoured and strongestbodied home-made wines I ever met with, were made without any addition whatever of brandy and the excellence they had attained from age, was a proof that brandy was not necessary merely to enable them
:

;

to keep.

941.

CURRANT WINE

(Kent)

To every
and
Let
it

quart of juice put two quarts of water,

and a half pounds of sugar. ferment in the cask three days, and then bimg it down with a quarter of a pint of brandy to each gallon (see note to above, No. 940). AU home-made wines are better if you first boil the sugar and water together, and add the juice when
to every gallon three
cold.

Grape wines are made in the same proportion. The fruit should be gathered in a dry season and when quite ripe.
942.

ELDERBERRY WINE

(Essex)

Remove

sary wash them.

the berries from the stems and if necesPlace in a pan, mash weU, and

BEVERAGES

369

pour over boiling water in the proportion of three quarts to four quarts of berries. Let them remain for twenty-four hours, then strain and press out all the juice that can be forced through the strainer. For every two quarts of juice add one and threequarters of a pound of loaf sugar, a dozen allspice, an inch of ginger root, and a teaspoonful each of caraway seeds and powdered cinnamon. Boil aU together for five minutes, and when quite cold, put in half an ounce of compressed yeast, which has been stirred till liquid with a teaspoonful of sugar. The fermentation will commence in a short time, and when it is quite finished the wine may be bottled. As this wine is rather heady, many people prefer to substitute elder syrup, which can be made like blackberry syrup, and wiU make a nice hot drink
for winter evenings.

943.

ELDERBERRY WINE

(Surrey)

Take five gallons of ripe elderberries, and boU them in ten quarts of water for half an hour. Then
do not squeeze the berries. Pour back the liquor into the boiler, measuring it. To every gallon add three and a half pounds of sugar, with the peels and juice of five or six lemons. Boil twenty minutes, and when at boiling point, add
strain through a sieve, but

the well-beaten whites of five or six eggs. Stir all When the liquor has cooled well, and fill the cask. put in some yeast, or a bit of toast with enough,
yeast on.

ready to be bimged, half a pound of bruised race ginger, in a muslin bag, should be tied so as to hang in the middle of the cask.
it is

When

In two months 24

it will

be ready to bottle.

370

BEVERAGES
944.

ELDERBERRY WINE
of

(Sussex)

Take about twenty pounds

very ripe elderberries

them into a deep earthen pan or small tub, with just enough water
(picked from the stalks), and put
to cover them.

Crush them every now and then with some heavy utensil, till all the juice is out of

the berries.
boiling,

Then strain the liquor into a pan for with three pounds of Demerara sugar to

every gallon of juice. Add some cloves, a stick of mace, the same of cinnamon, and six or seven pieces good " race " ginger. Let this boU for about one and a quarter hours, then pour it back into the former vessel (cleaned ready to receive it), and when it is fairly cold, put in a little yeast on a bit of toast, cover it up and leave it to work. In about five days you can strain out the wine into a cask, and leave the bunghole half open till fermentation ceases, when it must be securely fastened and left so for three months.

945.

GINGER WINE
boil
it

(1815)

To

five

gallons of water put seven
;

pounds

of

powdered sugar
the scum

off as it rises,

a quarter of an hour, take put the liquor into a tub,

add six pounds of sun raisins. Have ounces of ginger boiled in two quarts of ready water till it is reduced to one quart, and the peels when it is cold of two large lemons boiled with it
cold,
five
;

and, when

put this to the liquor, with two ounces of isinglass. Toast a bit of bread, and spread it thick with good let it stand in the tub one yeast, and put it in night, take out the bread and put it into the cask
;

;

BEVERAGES
;

371

and

with a pint of brandy (see note, No. 940) stop it close let it stand six weeks, and it will be fit to bottle.
946.

GINGER WINE

(Kent,

1809)

sugar, half a

of water, seven pounds of lump pound of ginger well bruised boU it all one hour, then add the whites of four eggs, weU beaten to clarify it, and skim it well when boiled strain it iato a tub, and let it stand till it is quite cold, then put into a vessel, with the peels and juice of seven lemons out very thin, and two spoonfuls of
;

Seven gallons

yeast.

Stop the cask
for bottling,

close.

In a fortnight

it will

be

fit

and

in a fortnight

more

for drink-

ing.

N.B. The juice of the lemons should be passed through a colander, or strainer, and the egg-sheUs be boiled in it.
947.

GOOSEBERRY WINE

(1822)

To every two gallons of full-ripe gooseberries, mashed, add an equal quantity of soft water, milkwarm, and one pound of refined sugar, in process of dissolving. Stir up the whole in a tub, and cover
with a blanket, to preserve the heat of fermentation. first Stir frequently for three days, then strain through a sieve, and secondly through a coarse The liquor must then be put into a cask, cloth. kept full, and allowed to ferment from ten days to

three weeks,
(see

when two

or three bottles of brandy

No. 940), according to the size of the cask, in the proportion of one to eight, may be poured in, with the same quantity of sherry, together with a small quantity of isinglass, perfectly dissolved in water. Close the cask tightly, and if
note,

372

BEVERAGES

at the end of a fortnight it is not sweet enough, add more sugar. Close finally for six months, and

then bottle

;

or sooner,

if

it is

wished to imitate

sparkling champagne.

948.

GREEN GOOSEBERRY WINE

(Lancashire)

To every pound

Gather gooseberries when quite hard and sour. of fruit when picked and bruised put one quart of cold spring water. Let it stand
three days, stirring
it

twice every day.

To every

add three pounds of loaf sugar. Put it in a brandy cask and to every twenty quarts of the liquor add one quart of French brandy (see note, No. 940), and a little isinglass. Try it in six months, and if the sweetness is gone off, The corks should be wired down. bottle it.
gallon of juice,
strained,
949.

when

ANOTHER WAY

To one pound of bruised gooseberries, add one quart of spring water. Let it stand two days and then strain it off. To every gallon of liquor add three
pounds
it

of loaf sugar

;

when that
of

is

dissolved, barrel

When

the fermentation has subsided, to every

five gallons

add one pint
little isinglass.
it.

940), and a then bottle

brandy (see note, No. Let it stand six months,

950.

GRAPE WINE
it

(Kent)

To every

gallon of water put four quarts of grapes

well bruised.

Let

stand twenty-four hours, then

strain it through a hair sieve.

To every
;

gallon of

liquor put three

pounds of

loaf sugar

when

the

BEVERAGES
Bugar
quite
is

373

which must be then add a quarter of an ounce of isinglass to every five gallons, stirring it weU with a stick. Take off the scum, which rises for several days, and
dissolved, put it into a cask,
full,

when the
and

liquor
it

is

bottle

in

clear, stop up the cask very close, March (September in Australia).

951.

LEMON WINE

(Kent,

1809)

Take a sufficient number of the best lemons to produce five quarts of juice, and pass the liquid through a strainer to free it entirely from the seeds. Peel all the lemons before squeezing, throw the pulps into a large tub, and cover them with water. When they have been steeped for two days, strain off the liquid, and pour it on seventy-five pounds of lump sugar, to which, when formed into a syrup,
add as much
of

lemon peel as you obtain by

putting half of the rinds, cut very thin, into a jug, and pouring on them about two quarts of boiling
water, which, after being covered over for two days

and nights

will

have

sufficiently

imbibed the flavour.

Gret a cask of twenty-one gallons measure (if one that has held brandy, sherry, or Madeira, it will be better), pour into it the juice of the fruit and the syrup mixture, and fill the cask up with water leave
;

the bung out for about six weeks, or even two months, and by that time it will have sufficiently

fermented, but should there be the least hissing or the smallest quantity rising out of the bung hole, you must not stop it down the vent peg, for security,
;

had better be left out for a few days. The wine must remain two years in the cask before it is bottled. Rainwater or Thames water is much to be preferred in

374

BEVERAGES

making the wine.

It is all to be used cold, excepting that put to the rinds, and nothing is to be used to produce fermentation. If you should wish to bottle

the wine before the expiration of two years,

it

may

be done at the end

of

by

fining

it

down

twelve months, but not sooner, with isinglass. N.B. ^At the

expiration of a fortnight add two bottles of brandy

No. 940) should the fermentation not ceased in four days after adding the above, have put in one bottle more brandy.
(see note.
;

952.

LEMON WINE

(1815)

gallon of brandy,

Pare four dozen of lemons, put the peels into one and let them stand fourteen days make the juice of the lemons into a syrup, with two when the peels are ready, pounds of lump sugar boil ten gallons of water with forty pounds of good lump sugar, for half an hour put it into a tub, and, when cold, add the brandy, peel, and syrup, and put stop it close, and let it stand six it into the cask months. N.B. Beat the whites of six eggs to a froth, and mix with the water while it is cold.
;

;

;

;

953.

MADEIRA WINE

(Kent,

1809)

of

Thirty poimds of coarse, moist sugar, to ten gallons water boil it half an hour, and take off the scum
; ;

as it rises

when

cold,

put to every gallon one quart
it

of ale out of the vat, let

work

well a couple of days,

one pound of sugar-candy and four pounds of raisins, with some isinglass in a pint of brandy (see note, No. 940). When it has done working, stop it up close and let it stand twelve months. October is the best month for making it.
then put
it

ki a barrel with

;

BEVERAGES
954.

375
(Surrey)

MARIGOLD WINE
of

marigold blossoms, stand them ill an earthenware pan, with one and a half pounds of stoned raisins. To three gallons of water, add

Take a peck

two pounds
eggs, strain

of

Boil this, clear
it,

honey and seven pounds of sugar. with the whites and shells of three and put it to the flowers. Cover the
it
;

and leave it for twenty-four hours then, next day, stir it up with a wooden spoon, and let it stand another twenty-four hours. Then strain it
close
off into

pan

a cask, adding the thinly pared rinds of five

or six oranges, a pound of sugar-candy, and about

a wineglassful of brewer's yeast. Stir well, and it to work until it foams out at the covered bunghole. When fermentation is over, add one pint of brandy and about half an ounce of isinglass (melted), and stop up the cask (see note, No. 940). In four or five months' time it should be ready.
leave
955.

MEAD

(1815)

honey and let as soon as the scum it boil one hour and a half begins to rise take it off, and continue skimming it then put two ounces of as long as any scum arises hops to every ten gallons of liquor, and two ounces of coriander seeds, each ounce sewn up in a separate bag add the rind of three or four lemons and oranges, when it is cool, put it into the cask with if you like a bottle of brandy (see note. No. 940), and stop it up
of
;

To one gallon of water put five poimds when the water is hot put the honey into
;

it,

;

;

:

quite close.

Mead made of this strength will generally
barrel
it

require to stand six or nine
if

months in the you wish to have the sweetness gone off,

must

stand longer.

376
956.

BEVERAGES
MEAD
(Middlesex)

Put into a large earthenware pan three gallons pounds of honey, half an ounce each of cinnamon, mace, and ground ginger four cloves, and the whites of two eggs well beaten. Mix all thoroughly weU. Pour it into a deep lined saucepan, or large preserving pan, and stir it gently till it comes to the boil, then let it simmer for at least an hour. Take it ofE and let it go cold. Then stir in one tablespoonful of brewer's yeast, and strain it off into a
of water, five
;

cask to ferment.
for nine

fermentation ceases, then close

Keep the bunghole covered tUl it up and leave it
so, after

months or

which the wine can be

bottled.

957.

MEAD

(Surrey)

Boil fourteen pounds of honey in six gallons of

water for half an hour, breaking into it four eggs. Add some small bunches of marjoram, balm, and sweet briar, half an ounce each of cinnamon, cloves, mace, and bruised ginger, and boil for quarter of an hour longer. Pour it out to cool, toast a large slice of brown bread, spread it over with fresh yeast, and put it into the liquor. Let it ferment for one day, and then put it into a cask, which keep open tiU fermentation has ceased, then bung close. It may be bottled in a month, but the corks must be weU
wired.

958.

METHEGLIN
half

(Cornwall)

Take three and a

of white-currant juice,

pounds of honey, one quart two gallons of boiling water,

BEVERAGES
well together
let it

377
stir all

quarter of an ounce of cream of tartar, and till the honey is quite dissolved.

Then

stand to ferment.

When

fermentation ceases,

it off, add one pint of brandy (see note. No. 940), and bottle it. If it be properly corked and kept in a dry place, it will keep good for years.

strain

959.

ORANGE WINE

(1815)

To lump

add forty pounds of sugar, and the whites of six eggs beat them to a froth, and mix it with the water while it is cold boil it half an hour, and take off the scum as it rises.
thirty quarts of water,
;

;

Have ready ten
and put

quarts of the juice of Seville oranges,

and pour the upon them let it stand till quite cold, and add the juice and a quart of brandy (see note, No. 940) put it in the cask and stop it close, and let it stand for six months, and if it is too sweet let it stand longer. If you wish to have it very rich, you may add what quantity you please of citron syrup. Wine made by this recipe is very rich withhalf the rinds into a tub,
;

liqour boiling hot

;

out the syrup.
960.

RAISIN WINE

(1815)

sun stand in a tub twelve days, stir it frequently, press the raisins as dry as possible, and if you put the liquor into a cask the proper size have ten gallons, put a quart of brandy in it (see If you wish to make it very rich, note. No. 940). put seven pounds of raisins to the gallon, you may and dissolve five pounds of sugar-candy in the liquor before you put it into the barrel when made thus, it requires to stand longer, and is equal to any foreign
raisins
;

To one

gallon of water put six pounds of

let it

;

:

wine.

;

378

BEVERAGES
961.

RHUBARB WINE

(Suffolk)

Measure one pint of rhubarb, cut into small one pint of water, to the quantity you require. Put all together into an earthen vessel
pieces, to

stand for a fortnight. Stir and squeeze it wooden spoon) every morning. Then strain o£f, and measure half a pound of white sugar to every pint of liquid. Let this stand for a week skim every morning, and bottle at the end of the

and

let it

(with a

week.
962.

ENGLISH SHERRY
Boil
it

(Kent,

1809)

Thirty poimds of moist Lisbon sugar to ten gallons
of water. half

an hour, then skim

it

clean.

When

quite cold, put to every gallon of the liquor
of

Let it work in then put it in the barrel with one pound of brown sugar-candy, six pounds of common raisins, one pint of French brandy, and two ounces of isinglass. When it has done working, stop It should remain in the vessel two years, if it up. not particularly wanted.

one quart

new

ale out of the butt.
;

the tub a day or two

963.

VALENTIA WINE

(Kent,

1809)

One

gallon of good spirits, one gallon of water,
of ginger, one

eighteen lemons, juice and rind, one ounce of cinna-

mon, two ounces
ounce
spices,
spirits,

ounce of nutmeg,

three and a half pounds of loaf sugar, or brown, one
of bitter

almonds.

The

spices to be

powdered
of the

together, the lemons grated, put together with the

and infused

for three

days in a quart

afterwards to be strained.

The sugar to be

BEVERAGES
dissolved in water
ents.

379

and added to the other ingrediThe whole to be mixed well in a cask, and three

quarts of boiling milk poured into

it, keeping the mixture stirring aU the while the milk is pouring in. The cask to be covered close and let stand twentyfour hours. The liquid then to be strained through a thick flannel bag, and, if not free from sediment, again strain it until it seems quite clear. When perfectly cold, to be bottled for use.

BEERS (NON-ALCOHOLIC)
964.

GINGER BEER
:

(1822)

Ginger beer of a very superior quality may be prepared as follows Powder of ginger, one ounce, cream of tartar, half an ounce, a large lemon shced, two pounds of lump sugar and one gallon of water added together, and simmered over the fire for half an hour. Then ferment it in the usual way with a
tablespoonful of yeast, and bottle
it

for use, tightly

corked.

965.

GINGER BEER

(Kent)

of

Bruise two ounces of the best ginger, two ounces cream of tartar, four lemons pared and sUced, with

the rind of one, and two pounds of loaf sugar.

Pour

upon them two

gallons of boiling water.

When

nearly cold, strain through flannel, and add two large spoonfuls of yeast. Let it stand till quite

and pour off the clear liquor into half-pint bottles, which must be well corked and tied down. It will be fit to drink in three or four days.
cold,


380
966.

BEVERAGES
ANOTHER WAY
of of

lump sugar, one and a half ounces of bruised ginger, and the peel of a lemon when milk-warm add one tablespoonful of yeast.
quarters of a
If this

Pour one gallon pound

boiling water

over three-

be done at night,

it will

night.

Put the piece

of

be fit for bottling next lemon into the yeast. Not

to be used for three days.

967.

GINGER BEER

(Middlesex)

very pleasant and wholesome beverage when It was first invented a great many years ago by a Mr. Pitt, a surgeon at Lewes, and rose rapidly into fame. ^ Even when made as it ought to be, it is a cheap beverage, but as it is
well made.

A

usually made,

it is still

cheaper, tartaric acid being
juice.

used instead of lemon

making ginger beer

is

as

follows

The best way of Pour eleven
:

upon fourteen pounds of white sugar, the juice of eighteen lemons, a pound of bruised ginger, and the rind of two lemons. When at the proper temperature, add two or three spoonfuls of yeast and let it ferment for about a day then put it into a cask to finish the fermentation, and when that is completed, fine it and bung
gallons of boiling water
;

it

be bottled in stone bottles persons boil the water and sugar together before it is poured upon the ginger, but this trouble is unnecessary, unless it be intended to add raisins, which are a great improvement. In that case, a pound of good raisins may be boiled with the water and sugar. The quantity
closely.

down

It

may

almost immediately.

Some

BEVERAGES
of ginger
suit

381

above ordered is rather larger than would every taste. It may of course be reduced.

In bottling, good corks should be used, and tied over with twine.

968.

GINGER BEER
of

(Stafiordshire)

Mix one ounce
of

cream

of tartar, one

powdered lemon

ginger, half
sliced,

an ounce two pounds of

lump sugar, and one gallon of water together. Simmer it over the fire for half an hour, and ferment it in the usual manner with a tablespoonful of yeast. Then bottle it close for use in half-pint or pint
bottles,

days

it

will

such as are used for soda water be fit to drink.

;

in a few

969.

GINGER BEER

(Sussex)

Four gallons of water, two ounces of groimd two ounces of cream of tartar, two and a half pounds of moist sugar. Pour half the boiling water on these ingredients, except the sugar. Let it stand a day or two, then add the remainder of the water, boiling also, and the sugar, and a teacupful of yeast. Bottle it when rather warm.
ginger,

970.

GINGER POP

(Ireland)

Take two ounces of cream of tartar, one ounce and a half of white ginger well beaten (not ground), one lemon shredded fine, one pound and a half of sugar. Put them all together in an earthen vessel, and pour on them ten quarts of boiling water. Let it stand till nearly cold, then add two tablespoonfuls of mix it well let it stand for thirty good barm
;

;

382
hours, then strain
it

BEVERAGES
it

through a flannel bag, pressing
it,

well through.

Bottle

with twine.

It will

be

fit

for use in

and confine the corks two days.

971.

IMPERIAL POP

(Kent,

1809)

To two gallons of boiling hot water add two pounds of loaf sugar, two ounces of white bruised ginger, one ounce of cream of tartar and two tablespoonfuls of yeast. When it is blood warm, put in the yeast. Do not bottle it until quite cold and
clear.

This quantity will
It will be
fit

fill

ten bottles.

Tie

the corks.

to drink in one

down week in

the summer.

972.

NETTLE BEER
them
for

(Hampshire)

Wash
green),
little

the nettles (which should be young and
boil

about three hours, with a cool enough, add about one pound of sugar to every two gallons of liquor, and add about a permyworth of .yeast to the same quantity. After it has worked a few hours, skim

and

race ginger.

When

and bottle

it.

973.

NETTLE BEER

(Surrey)

Boil two quarts of nettle sprouts in one gallon of
water.

Strain the liquor,

and add

half a

pound

of

sugar, with a teaspoonful of ginger.
cold,

When

nearly

in a state

ferment with yeast, and bottle securely while of effervescence. It will be ready for

use in a few days.

BEVEEAGES
974.

383

ANOTHER WAY

Into a saucepan or kettle that will hold three gallons, put two gallons of water. When this is
boiling,
tain.

add as many nettles as the saucepan will conthem for half an hour, and strain into an earthenware pan broader at the top than at the
Boil

bottom.
possible,

Make

up, with hot water, the quantity of

liquor to four gallons.

bruised,

While it is stiU as hot as add two ounces of best raw ginger, well one ounce of cream of tartar, the peel of
of white sugar.

three lemons cut thin, also their squeezed juice,

and two pounds
stand, stirring
it

Let the liquor

occasionally, until lukewarm,

when

add two pennyworth of brewer's yeast. While the liquor is hot, a little isinglass may be used to fine
it.

Stir well,

and

let it

stand in a cool place
all

all

night.

In the morning,
risen to the top
;

have

wiU skim very carefully and
impurities,
etc.,

champagne bottles. The corks cannot be too good bad corks wiQ destroy the whole thing.
bottle in
;

water for a couple of hours before they are used (hot), they will drive much easier and cork much more perfectly. They
If the corks are boiled in

tied down as soon as corked. If the value of this beverage were generally known, no household would be without it.

must be

975.

TREACLE BEER

(1822)

This

To a

is a very pleasant and wholesome beverage. quarter of a peck of sweet wheat bran, add

three handfuls of hops, and ten gallons of water. Boil the whole together in a copper saucepan, tiU

the bran and hops sink to the bottom.

Then

strain

384
it

BEVERAGES
quarts of treacle (or three pints
if

through a hair sieve into a cooler, and when lukesufficient for a nine-

warm add two
it

be very thick). This will be Before you pour the liquor into the barrel, which must be done as soon as the treacle is melted, put two tablespoonfuls of good yeast into the barrel. When the fermentation has subgallon cask.

bung the cask up close, and in four days it fit to use. If you choose to bottle any of the beer, it will be much improved by so doing, and will be ready to drink in six or seven days.
sided,
will

be

LEMONADE, SYRUPS, FRUIT VINEGARS,
ETC.
976.

BLACKBERRY SYRUP

(Essex)

of a pint water to every three pounds, until the juice is drawn. Strain, and to every pint of juice add six ounces of sugar. Boil sugar and juice together for
of
fifteen minutes,

Stew the blackberries with a quarter

and bottle

for use

when

cold.

977.

BLACKBERRY VINEGAR
of

(Surrey)

Take three quarts

ripe

blackberries,

crush

them, and pour over them two quarts of the best white vinegar. Let it stand twenty-four hours, then strain it off through a piece of muslin, and pour the fluid on to three quarts of fresh blackberries. Let and if not strong enough when it stand as before you strain it off the second time, pour it on to
;

three quarts of

fresh

berries

again.

When

rich

enough, put

it

into a jar,

and stand the

jar in a

BEVERAGES

383

pan of boiling water. Let it boil fast for an hour, then bottle for use. This is very good for colds, etc., diluted with hot or cold water.
978.

CHERRY WATER

Take one pound of good cherries, pound them in a mortar till the kernels are broken, put them in a large bowl and add four gills of thick syrup. Put to this the juice of four lemons, and some water, enough
to thin

the

liquid

sufficiently.

Then

strain

off

through a sieve into glass jugs.

979.

COWSLIP SYRUP

(Surrey)

Take twelve ounces
pint of boiling water.
strain,
it

of fresh cowslip flowers, one

Infuse twenty-four hours,

and then add two pounds of white sugar.
it

BoU

gently until

attains the consistence of a syrup.

980.

ELDER ROB

(Eighteenth

Century)

Gather your elderberries full ripe, pick them clean from the stalks, put them in large stew-jars and tie paper over them. Let them stand two hours in a moderate oven. Then put them in a thin, coarse cloth, and squeeze out all the juice you can get.

Put eight quarts into a preserving pan,
slow
fire, let it

set

it

over a

be reduced to one quart. When it is near done, keep stirring it, to prevent it burning. Then put it into pots, let it stand two or three days in the sun then dip a paper, the size of your pot, LQ sweet oil, lay it on, tie it down with a bladder, and keep it in a very dry place. Black
boil
till it
;

Currant 25

Rob

is

made

the same way, but six quarts

386

BEVERAGES

(These are excellent, diluted with water, for use in feverish colds.)
of juice will suffice.

981.

FLUMMERY
of
;

(Ireland)

oatmeal pour one gallon of water let it remain for four days, then strain through a hair sieve. Two quarts more of water may be put on the oatmeal, and let

To one quart

and a pint

of buttermilk

stand four days longer

;

it will

be sufficiently sour

without buttermilk the second time.

982.

FRUIT SYRUP

(French)
it

Put the fruit into a pan and let Then squeeze out the juice and
jelly-bag.

boil five minutes.

strain it through a

Add

it

to a S3?rup of sugar, in the pro-

portion of half a pound of juice to one pound of sugar.

For

this

purpose your syrup must be very good, the

water being evaporated by boiling until the syrup

be very thick. When the juice and syrup are thoroughly mixed, strain again through a jelly-bag.
983.

GINGERETTE

(Sussex)

Three drachms of tincture of cayenne, four drachms of essence of ginger, three-quarters of an ounce of either tartaric or citric acid, four pounds of loaf sugar. Pour three quarts of boiling water on to these ingredients. When cold, add about fifteen drops of essence of lemon, and bottle.
984.

GINGER WINE, NON-ALCOHOLIC

(Ireland)

Three pounds of lump sugar, four quarts of boiling
water, eighteen pepper corns (break nine of them).

;

BEVERAGES
thirty-six cloves,

387
of citric acid

the same of essence of lemon.

and Burnt sugar to colour. Put ingredients into a large basiQ, pour over them the boiling water, and leave till cold, when add the colouring.
985.

two pennyworth

SYBUP OF GILLIFLOWERS
five

(Yorkshire,

1769)

Take
flowers,

pints

of freshly-gathered clove gilli-

and put to them two pints of boiling water, then put them in an earthen pot to infuse a night and a day. Take a strainer and strain them out to a quart of your liquor, put one and a half pounds boil it over a slow fire, and skim it of loaf sugar scum rises. When it is cold, bottle it while any
;

for use.

986.

LEMONADE

(Ireland)

One pound of lump sugar, one ounce of citric acid, one teaspoonful of essence of lemon, one quart of boUing water. Put the ingredients into a jug, pour the water over them, leave till cold.
987.

LEMONADE

(Sussex)

Two pounds

of castor sugar,

one ounce of

citric

acid, the grated rind of three oranges, three tumblerfuls of cold water.

Let

it

stand three or four days,
strain,

stirring

occasionally.

Then

bottle,

and

cork

tight.

988.

LEMONADE SYRUP

(Lancashire)

Take two ounces
essence of lemon;

of citric acid, two scruples of rub these thoroughly together

388
in a mortar.
gills

BEVERAGES
of water,

into a basin,
stir it ia

Take three pounds of loaf sugar, three boil together and strain it. Pour and when half-cold, add the acid, and

with a sUver spoon.

When

cold, bottle

it.

989.

LEMON SYRUP

(Essex)

Put twelve ounces
water, and let
carefully.
it

of loaf sugar into one quart of

boil for fifteen minutes,
it off

skimming

it

Take

and

let it

get cold, then add

half a pint of strained lemon-juice,

of essence of lemon.

and one drachm Mix well and bottle it. Cork
or soda-water.

very tightly.

To be used with water

990.

LEMON SYRUP
of

(Kent,

1809)

To every
rather

pint of lemon juice add one

pound

or

skim it well while simmering. When all the dross is removed, boil it briskly for half an hour when cold, bottle it. Put into each bottle a very few thin shces of lemon peel, which must be boiled soft in the syrup.
good
loaf sugar,
;

more

991.

RASPBERRY VINEGAR
pounds
of raspberries,

(1816)

Take

six

gathered in dry

put an earthen pan, placing a layer of raspthem Lq berries, then a layer of sugar, and so on let them stand for three days, and stir them once a day with a wooden spoon ; then take three pints of Burgundy vinegar, put it to them, stir them well together, put them into a clean preserving pan, over a charcoal fire, make them boUing hot, then nm them through a jelly bag. Put the
;

weather, and six pounds of pounded sugar;

BEVERAGES

389

syrup in a clean earthen pot ; then put a large pan of water on the fire, put the pot with the syrup in the boiliag water, and let it boil for two hours if not sweet enough, sweeten it to your palate with fine loaf sugar let it stand till cold, and put it into dry pint bottles.
; ;

992.

RASPBERRY VINEGAR

(Surrey)

Bruise two quarts of fresh raspberries, and pour over them a quart of good white wiae vinegar; cover closely, and let it stand for four days, stirring strain through a flannel bag without it occasionally
;

and boil the liquor for a quarter of an hour, with powdered sugar in the proportion of a pound when cold, bottle to a pint, skimming carefully and cork. If it is intended that the viaegar shall be very acid, less sugar must be used. Some perthis is sons add a little brandy when it is bottled good for keeping, but it injures the flavour.
pressing,
;
;

993.

RASPBERRY SHRUB

(Surrey)

Take two quarts of good ripe raspberries, pour cover them one quart of good vinegar over them Then mash closely and let them stand for two days.
;

berries in the vinegar, and strain off the on to two quarts of fresh fruit. Let this stand another two days, then mash and strain as To every pint of liquid, add two teacupfuls before. Let it simmer very gently for of white sugar. fifteen minutes in a lined saucepan over the fire, keeping it well skimmed. Then strain it, bottle it, cork, and cover closely, seal the cork. This should be taken with cold water.

up the
liquid

390
994.

BEVERAGES
SHERBET
(Sussex)

Take

half a

pound

of castor sugar, half a

pound

of

a pound of carbonate of soda. Put forty drops, or rather more, essence of lemon ia the sugar. Mix well, then add the other
tartaric acid, quarter of

ingredients.

VARIOUS MIXED BEVERAGES (ALCOHOLIC)
995.

ALE SYLLABUB

(American)

Put a quart

of strong ale into a large bowl,

add

sugar to taste, and a little nutmeg. Milk the cow into the bowl, as quickly and strongly as possible
to

make a good froth

;

let it

stand for an hour before

drinking.
996.

BISHOP

(Middlesex)

Roast four good-sized bitter oranges till they are brown colour, lay them in a tureen, and put over them half a pound of pounded loaf sugar, and three glasses of claret place the cover on the tureen and let it stand tiU the next day. When required for use, put the tureen into a pan of boiling water, press the oranges with a spoon, and run the then boil the remainder of juice through a sieve claret, taking care that it does not the bottle of bum add it to the strained juice, and serve it warm in glasses. Port wine wUl answer the purpose
of a pale
;
;

;

as well as claret.
997.

BISHOP
it

(Surrey)

Stick twelve cloves into a lemon (not right through

the rind) and put

in the

oven

for half

an hour.

BEVERAGES
Put a good-sized pinch
pint of water, and boil
of
it.

391
spice into half a

mixed

Boil separately one and

a half pints of sherry, add the lemon and the spiced water to this, stand it in a very warm place for a few minutes. Take another lemon, rub two ounces of lump sugar on the rind, and squeeze out half of the juice add these to the rest, and serve up very hot.
;

998.

CLARET CUP

(Cheshire)

Two

bottles of Bordeaux, one bottle of soda-water,
taste, peel of a

powdered sugar to
wineglassful of

rum

or

cura9ao,

lemon cut fine, a and a sprig of

borage.

To be

well iced.

999.

ANOTHER WAY

Take a large jug, put into it a lemon and half a cucumber (about four inches of it), cut in slices, without paring them pour in one bottle of claret, two bottles of soda-water, one gill of sherry. Add a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar, and a sprig of borage. Cover it up for an hour, then strain out the lemon, cucumber, and borage.
;

1000.

EGG FLIP

(American)
;

Put one quart of ale into a lined saucepan beat up in a bowl the yolks of four eggs and the whites of two. Mix in four tablespoonfuls of brown sugar, and a Httle nutmeg. When the ale boils, pour it
gently into the egg, so that
it

shall

not curdle.

Pour it to and fro and back and forward with the hand raised high, so that it shall look frothy and
fleecy.

392

BEVERAGES
EGG FLIP

1001.

(Cheshire)

Heat one quart
whites of two.
grated.

of ale to boiling point.

Beat up

to a froth, separately, the yolks of four eggs, and the

ounces of powdered sugar,
another, hot ale

Mix them, by degrees, with six and half a nutmeg,

Pour the mixture rapidly from one jug to and all together, raising the jug to a height that will froth the liquid and continue till it is smooth and foaming. Serve hot. Sherry may be used instead of ale in which case, a little lemon peel is an improvement.
;

1002.

EGG HOT

(Middlesex)

very agreeable posset, taken in many parts of England after great fatigue, and not infrequently as a remedy for colds in which case, however, it is not to be recommended, as it increases feverishness
;

A

and

fails

to promote copious perspiration.

Beat up

the yolks of three eggs and the white of one in a teacup of weak ale, with a httle nutmeg in the
;

meantime have upon the

kind of ale. When it eggs thus beaten up, and let the boiling very gently, stirring the whole time when
;

a quart of the same has nearly boiled, add the
fire

finish
it

has

thickened, pour

it into a jug containing about a quartern of brandy and three ounces of loaf sugar. Have another jug handy and pour backwards and forwards for three or four minutes before serving. White French wine mixed with about a third of water may be substituted for the beer.

;

BEVERAGES
1003.

393

MINT JTJLEP

(American)

Put into a tumbler about one dozen sprigs of the tender shoots of mint, put upon them a spoonful of white sugar, and equal proportions of peach brandy

and common brandy, so as
pounded
but this
melts,
ice

to

third, or perhaps a little less.

fill up the glass oneThen take rasped or

and

fiU

up the tumbler.

(The

lips of it

should be rubbed with a piece of fresh pineapple,
is

not absolutely necessary.)

As the

ice

you drink.

1004.

MULLED WINE

(Middlesex)

Boil in a quarter of a pint of water, for about ten

minutes, three cloves, a bit of cinnamon, a

little fresh

lemon

and one ounce and a half of skim, and then add a pint of port wine
peel,
boil,

loaf sugar
;

when the

and grate serve with toasted bread. French in some nutmeg red wine may be used, but in that case more sugar
whole begins to
take
it off,

strain

it,

;

will

be necessary.

1005.

MULLED WINE

(Surrey)

Break nine eggs, the yolks and whites separately, and beat them separately, adding three or four spoonfuls of sugar. Pour a bottle of good wine into and when it a skillet, with half a pint of water boils, put the yolks and whites together, beating them well, with half a pint more water, and pour
;

them to the wine in the skillet, stirring quickly as you pour. When all is thoroughly blended, turn
out the liquor into a hot jug (earthenware for

394
preference)

BEVERAGES
and grate some nutmeg
in
it.

To be

served very hot.

1006.

NEGUS
it

(Surrey)
if

Put

half a pint of port (or sherry

preferred) in a

saucepan,

and

let

heat without boiling.

Put

into a jug or basin four thin slices of lemon, a little

nutmeg, and six or seven lumps of sugar. Put half a pint of boiling water on this, and stir well with a wooden or silver spoon until the sugar is cinnamon, melted. Then pour in the hot wine cloves, or allspice may be added at pleasure.
;

1007.

A RESTORATIVE
;

(Sussex)

Put two quite
shells, into

fresh eggs, without breaking the

a basin

squeeze over them the juice of
close

and leave them, almost dissolved. Then beat them well together, strain, put into a bottle, add one pint of good rum, half a pound of sugar candy,
two or three lemons, cover
three or four days,
till

two tablespoonfuls of best salad oil, and shake well Dose half a wineglassful in a little cold together. water, fasting. The best time to take it is quite early in the morning, say five o'clock, and then
:

go to sleep again.
1008.

WHITE WINE WHEY
;

(Eighteenth Century)

Put one pint of skimmed milk, and half a pint of white wine, into a basin let it stand a few minutes, then pour over it one piut of boiling water. Let it stand a little, and the curd will gather in a lump, and
settle to the

bottom.

Then pour

off

your whey

BEVERAGES
into a china bowl,

395
of sugar,

and put
slice of

in a

lump

and

a sprig of balm or a

lemon.

COFFEE AND TEA
1009.

COFFEE

(Surrey)

good coffee, four things are Let the coffee be freshly groimd, and, if possible, freshly roasted. (2) Do not stint the amount weak coffee is unendurable. (3) Let the water be boiling hot, and the utensils thoroughly heated. (4) Use only earthenware and wooden utensils let no metal approach the coffee. Have ready two earthenware jugs (size at least one and a half pints each), well heated. Into the first, measure four wooden tablespoonfuls, or not less than two and a half oimces to the quart, of freshly FUl up with boUing water, stir it ground coffee. with the spoon, cover, and leave the jug to stand in
really
essential.
(1)
: :

To make

place for two or three minutes. Then stir thoroughly once more, let the grounds settle again, and strain it off through a piece of butter-musUn into the hot second jug, and serve at once, with a jug of boiling mUk. Should any coffee be left over, boil it up along with the mUk the second day. This it particularly bland and palatable, and makes for those who prefer " French " coffee, i.e. mixed with chicory, it is especially advisable. Any wellknown good brand of the latter, such as the " Red, White, and Blue," can be used with success according Between the result of the to above directions. above, and the ordinary wish-wash served as coffee,

a

warm

it

the difference

is

too great to be expressed.

396
1010.

BEVERAGES
TEA rOR A HEADACHE
:

(Surrey)

This is a special remedial tea, an expensive one, and not for ordinary use but it will cure, or ameliorate, in most oases, the nervous headaches which
othervidse yield to nothing.

Congou blend, about pound, such as Ridgway's, two ounces of a good China Tea, not less than 3s. per pound, and one ounce of a good green tea, about Blend these thoroughly well 4s. &d. per pound. and keep in a closed tin in a dry place. Do not entrust the making of this (or any other tea) to servants. The " scalding " of the teapot and making of tea with freshly boiling water are
half a of a good
2s.

Take

pound

2d. or 2s.

Qd. per

essential

ignore.
will

and this is just what servants usually Water that has been boiling some time not " draw " tea properly much less so, water
: :

that " has boUed," which

is

too frequently

made

use

of.

LIQUEURS, CORDIALS, RATAFIAS
Note.

—Those

quiet days being long

since

past,

when every well-to-do household possessed a stillroom or at least a still, the art of making cordials
and
liqueurs, so precious to our predecessors, is in
lost for ever.

danger of being

so infinitely preferable, both for health's sake

Yet these things are and

economy's sake, to the foreign manufactured article, that I cannot shut out a few good old recipes. Not all of them, it will be seen, require a process of disand in some cases mere filtering through tillation It is particularly difficult to flannel bag suffices. a
;

make a

hard-and-fast definition of (A) liqueurs, (B)

BEVERAGES
cordials,

397

and (C) ratafias. Roughly speaking, one say that (A) Liqueurs are mostly prepared by distillation the dry ingredients having to be ground to dust, pestled to a paste, or chopped to minute fragments, and then steeped ia spirit for a month, before proceediag with the individual

may

;

formula.

(B) Cordials are usually not so strong nor

so spirituous as

liqueurs

:

they

may may

be prepared

by

distillation,

but

are

generally infused.

The

noyeaus in the following pages
cordials.

be classed as

As

for (C) Ratafias, they are, correctly

speaking, non-alcoholic infusions of fruit, sweet and

syrupy.

But the three terms are more or
it is

less

interchangeable, so that

hard to say where one begins and another ends. Some twenty years ago it was declared that " there are very few liqueurs which are not as good when made by infusion as they would be by the more tedious process of distillation."

Distillation,

indeed,

is

only necessary
of

where the flavouring substance, in the form
essential
oil,

has a deteriorated flavour. There is certainly no reason or excuse for paying fancy prices, when these excellent Uquids can be produced
at
for

home with
flavouring

perfect ease.

purposes,

They are invaluable when not required for
is

beverages.

The
usin^

Aqiia Vitce Composita prescription

given

chiefly as

a curiosity

spirit

but a modification of it, instead of wine, might conceivably
;

result in a cordial of singular efiicacy.
1011.

ALKERMES

(French)

Pound one drachm of cardamom seeds, one drachm of nutmegs, two drachms of cinnamon.

398

BEVERAGES
filter.

Infuse in spirit for a week, then strain and

Add

drops of attar of rose, and proceed as for any other liqueur. Colour it rose with cochineal.
five

1012.

ANISEED
of

(1815)

For four bottles
cloves, to

brandy, take half a pound of

aniseeds, a quarter of a

pound

of fennel,

and three
;

be cut in small
; ;

put all in the brandy it hours before you distil it must be clarified, with the whites of two or three eggs well beaten together, and two bottles and a half of water, and added to the rest.
1013.

with a little salt is to be infused twelve two pounds of sugar
bits,

ANISETTE

(French)

Take five pints of good spirits of wine, add one and a half drachms of essence (or oil) of aniseed, eight drops of oil of cinnamon, and then add syrup
in usual proportion.

1014.

ANGELICA RATAFIA
pound
of

(Surrey)

Put

half a

angeHca shoots into two
little

quarts of brandy, with a pint of water, two pounds
of sugar, a few cloves,

and a
This

cinnamon.

Let

the whole infuse for two months in a close vessel,

then strain and bottle.
cordial.

is

a very rich and fine

1016.

APRICOT RATAFIA

(Middlesex)
;

Cut thirty apricots into small pieces
peeled and bruised
;

crack the

stones and take out the kernels, which

must be then put the whole together

;

BEVERAGES
into a jar, with

399
half a

two quarts

of

good brandy,
;

pound

of sugar, a little cinnamon, eight cloves, a

very small quantity of mace close the jar well, and let it remain for three weeks, shaking it frequently then strain it off into bottles, and keep ia a cool place.
;

1016.

AQUA VIT^ COMPOSITA
of strong

(Sixteenth Century)

French wine, and of thyme, peUitory, rosemary, wild thyme, camomile, lavender, each a handful. These herbs shall be stamped all together in a mortar, and then put in a clean vessel with a pint of rosewater and a quart of Spanish wine, and closely stoppered and let to stand so three or four days. Then put it into a still and distil it once then take your distilled water and pour it back upon
sage, mints, red roses,
;

Take one gallon

the herbs again into the
these powders following
;
:

still,

and strew upon
;

it

Cloves and cinnamon, of

each half an ounce orris, one ounce a few maces nutmegs, half an ounce a little saffron, musk, spikenard, amber and some put camphor in it. Stir all
;

;

well together, and distil
lik e oil,
it

it

clean

off, till it

come

fat

then get away the distilled water and let be well kept (in bottles). After that make a
fire

strong
it

and

distil oil of

what

is left,

and receive

in a phial.

("It

is

wonderful good," adds the

old writer.)
1017.

CARAWAY CORDIAL

(Surrey)

Steep one ounce of caraway seeds in one pint of brandy for a fortnight, then strain off, and add one mix well, and bottle. Thia pint of strong syrup makes a warm and pleasant cordial.
;

400

BEVERAGES
1018.

CHERRY BRANDY

(Kent)

To one pound of black cherries sticks, stones, and all put one quart of brandy, or good spirit, and a pound of lump sugar. Let it stand for three weeks, stirring now and then. Strain and bottle.

1019.

CHERRY BRANDY

(Middlesex,

1822)

Stone six pounds of black cherries, pour on them Bruise the stones in a mortar, and put the kernels in with the cherries. Cover them close, and let the whole stand for a fortnight ; then squeeze them clean from sediment, through muslin. Boil two pounds of very white mix it with the strained sugar to clear syrup
four quarts of the best brandy.
;

liquor,

and

bottle

it

into clear dry bottles.

It

may

be used in two months, and should be kept in a
cool cellar.

1020.

BLACK CHERRY BRANDY

(Yorkshire,

1769)

Take eight pounds of black cherries, stone them, and put them in a gallon of the best brandy and cover up all close. Let the cherries steep for a month or six weeks, then drain off and bottle it for use. You may distil the liquor if you please.
1021.

LISBON CHERRY BOUNCE

(Kent,

1809)

Six pounds of black cherries, four quarts of rum,
three pounds of loaf sugar, half a

pound

of bitter

almonds, a quarter of an ounce of cloves, half a drachm of cinnamon. Dissolve the sugar in the
spirit,

then add the other ingredients, and keep
.

BEVERAGES
them
occasionally shaking the mixture.

401

in a well-corked jar or bottle for six months,

The

fruit is to

be strained, and two ounces of gum arable dissolved in a little water may be added to give it the consistency of a liqueur.

1022.

CHOCOLATE LIQUEUR

(1815)

For four bottles of brandy, take one pound of the best chocolate, cut in small bits, a little salt, two
cloves,

and a little cinnamon infuse all in the brandy add two pounds of sugar clarified in two and a half pints of water, with whites of eggs, and filter it through a paper.
;
;

1023.

CINNAMON WATER

(Middlesex)

Cinnamon water is made by distillation. The cinnamon must be infused for several days in an equal quantity of water and brandy, with some lemon peel and liquorice, and then distiUed, being afterwards sweetened with sugar and filtered. The preparations are one ounce of cinnamon, two
:

quarts of brandy, a pint of water, the peel of a lemon,

and an ounce of fresh liquorice root after distillation add a pound of sugar dissolved in a quart of water
;

for each

ounce of cinnamon.

1024.

CLOVE WATER
is

(Middlesex)

Clove water

a fine stomachic, either taken

alone or as a vehicle for medicine ; it may be made by infusing bruised cloves in spirits of wine or

brandy
26

for a fortnight,

and

distilling

it,

then adding

six times its

quantity of water.

402
1025.

BEVERAGES
COFFEE LIQUEUR
(1815)

For four

bottles of brandy, take one
little

the best Turkey ground coffee, a cloves, and a little cinnamon then
;

salt,

pound of two

for twelve hours before
of sugar,

two

bottles

mix all together you distil it add two pounds and half a pint of water clarified
;

with whites of eggs,

filtered

through a paper.

1026.

CORIAOTDER CORDIAL

(Surrey)

Take one ounce of coriander seed, a quarter of an ounce of caraway seed, a small piece of cinnamon, and steep them for a fortnight or three weeks in one pint of good brandy. Strain off the Hquor and add to it one pint of good syrup ; mix well, and bottle.

1027.

The best
is

CORIANDER WATER (Middlesex) way of using coriander for the kitchen

and put it a bottle with four ounces of spirits of wine. This must stand for a fortnight or three weeks, and
to bruise two ounces of the seed,
into

then be
dislies

filtered off.

A

few drops

may

be used for

or pastry, in which coriander seed forms a

part of the formula.

1028.

CORNELLA OR CINNAMON CORDIAL

(1815)

For four bottles of brandy, take four ounces of cinnamon of the best quality, thirty cloves, thirteen coriander seeds, a little salt, mixed all together in brandy, let it infuse for eighteen hours take from the still as much as you can two pounds of sugar clarified in two bottles and a half of water, with two
;
;

BEVERAGES

403

or three whites of eggs well beaten together, to be

mixed with the spirit, and filtered through blotting paper after you have mixed the spirit, take care
:

to cork your bottles well.

1029.

CURA9AO

(Surrey)
it

Make a very strong sjnrup, boil in
bitter ones.

for five minutes

the juice and rind of four large oranges and three
Strain

and

filter it,

add

six drops of

cinnamon and

six drops of neroU.

1030.

ANOTHER WAY

spirit

Infuse the peel of four bitter oranges in some and syrup for a week, flavour with cinnamon,

cloves, or
spirit

mace, strain
;

off,

and add to the

rest of the

and syrup

i.e.

there should be about one-

third spirit to nearly two-thirds of syrup.

1031.

HAWTHORN BRANDY
of

(Middlesex, 1822)

Put as much fuU blossom

the white thorn

(hawthorn), picked dry and clean from leaves and stalks, as a great bottle will hold lightly, without
Fill it up with French brandy, let stand two or three weeks, then decant it off clear, and add as much sugar as may make it of a proper sweetness.

pressing down.

it

1032.

HAWTHORN BRANDY

(Surrey)

Take a large bottle, fiU it three-parts fuU with hawthorn petals, picked when the day is dry and sunny (putting the flowers only, not the stalks), and fiU up with brandy. Let them infuse for about five or

404

BEVERAGES
hquid into a clean

six weeks, then strain off the
bottle,

and cork up

well.

This imparts a delicious

flavouring to puddings, etc.

1033.

LOVAGE

(Surrey)

Take
cassia,

five drachms each of oil of nutmeg and oil of and mix with three drachms oil of caraway

in one quart of the best spirits of wine.

It should be thoroughly well mixed and shaken. Then you put this to two gallons of spirits of wiae, and pour Take twenty pounds of it into a ten-gallon cask. lump sugar dissolved in hot water, mix into this a quarter of a pint of colouring of any kind preferred, pour all into the cask, fill up with water, and pour lastly add one ounce of salts of it in while hot tartar, and let the whole be well mixed and stirred.
;

1034.

NOYEAU

(1822)

The following

recipe

way

inferior to the veritable

wiU furnish a liqueur in no Martinique at not half
(Smaller quantities

the cost of the foreign article.

may

Blanch and pound one pound of bitter almonds, half a pound of sweet almonds, and two ounces of cassia huds, separately. Put them with two gallons of British gin into a barrel, and shake it every day for a fortnight. Then make a syrup of twelve pounds of sugar and three quarts of water, and put it into the barrel mUk-warm. Add three quarts of spirits
be
in proportionate admixture.)

made

ounces of orangeflower water, the juice of two lemons, and a piece of calcined alum, about the size of a walnut. Then
of wine,
ratafia, four

one pint

BEVERAGES
add

405

half an ounce of isinglass, dissolved in half a pint of gin, reserved from the two gallons for that purpose. Shake the barrel only once afterwards,
let

the whole remain three or four days, and then it through an earthenware colander, with filtering paper laid on it, changing the paper every time it is empty. In two days and nights, sixteen
filter

clear quarts will be produced.

When

bottling, dip

the corks in melted resin.
1035.

NOYEAU

(Kent,

1809)

Put

six ounces of bitter almonds, blanched

and
in a

cut, into

two quarts

of English gin

;

keep

it

moderate heat three days, shaking it well. Add two pounds of good loaf sugar, just melted in boiling water let it stand for twenty-four hours longer, frequently shaking the bottle. FUter it through double blotting paper, and it is fit for use.
;

1036.

NOYEAU

(Kent)

To

a quart of reduced spirits put three-quarters of

a pound of loaf sugar, one and a half ounces bitter,

and the same of sweet, almonds, powdered very fine, and four tablespoonfuls boiled milk. To be shaken every day for twenty-one days, then filtered through blotting paper and it will be fit for use.
;

1037.

NOYEAU
of

(Lancashire)

Take two quarts
of sweet almonds,
fine.

rum, the juice of three lemons,

three pounds of double-refined sugar, two ounces

and two ounces of bitter almonds, Put the above ingredients into a deep covered pot, pour two quarts of new milk and one
beat

406

BEVERAGES

of water boiling hot
five days, stirring it
it

upon them, let it stand four or two or three times a day. Run through a flannel and bottle it for use.

1038.

NOYEAU

(Middlesex)

Collect the kernels of peach, apricot,
stones.

Bruise them and put

and plum them to steep in

strong spirits of wine, for a fortnight or three weeks.

To, say, three ounces of kernels, use half a pint of About half a dozen blanched bitter almonds spirit.

may be added, but not more, as they contain so much prussic acid. Make a syrup of one pound of sugar with as much water as will yield about one
pint of syrup

when

boiled

;

when

this is cold,

add a

pint of good white French brandy (or spirits of wine

can be used instead, but brandy

is best),

using as

much

of the kernel tincture (strained off) as will

impart the right flavour. You must add the tincture very carefully and slowly, and taste it from time to time. If you want pink noyeau, boil some crushed
cochineal in a
it

little

water,

and

strain it

off,

and add

drop by drop to the liqueur.

1039.

OIL OF ROSES

(Surrey)

This is a very nice liqueur. To three quarts of white brandy, put three pounds of roses with the add one pint of water, let them infuse best scent
;

a week in a jar, and then distil. After distilling, add a syrup of two pounds of sugar dissolved in three pints of water, and a Uttle filtered cochineal for
for

colouring.

;

BEVERAGES
1040.

407

ANOTHER WAY
of attar of roses, according to

Put a few drops
taste, into

a quart of good spirits of wine. Add the same quantity of strong syrup, and colour with a
little

tincture of cochineal.

1041.

OIL OF ROSES
of one

(French)

Make a syrup much water only

one pint of one pint of ten drops of attar of roses, colouring it a rich pink by a tincture which may be made by boiling some crushed cochineal in a Uttle water, and straining
it off.

pound of sugar, with as as wiU, when boiled, yield about syrup. When this is quite cold, add good white French brandy, and about

1042.

PERFETTO AMORE

(1816)

For four bottles of brandy, peel six large and fresh lemons ; the peels are to be very thin, cut in small bits, and put in the brandy with a little salt, half a handful of currants, five coriander seeds, five cloves, and a little cinnamon the whole to be infused together for twelve hours, from which draw off only then add two pounds of two bottles of spirit sugar, boUed and clarified in two bottles of water take a little rock alum, which with three eggs you must mix in a little boUiag water, and a little cream of tartar, mix them in a small mortar, and
; ;
;

add to the liquor then mix them all
;

(but

first

together,

you are to strain it) and filter it through

blotting-paper.

408
1043.

BEVERAGES
PERSICO
(1815)

bitter

For four bottles of brandy, take four handfuls of almonds of the best quality, and very fresh

;

they are to be cut in small bits, with a little salt, put all in the two cloves, and a little cinnamon add and infuse them for twenty hours brandy, of sugar, with two two bottles of spirit, two pounds
; ;

bottles of water, without clarifying
will clarify itself.

it,

as this liquor

1044.

PINEAPPLE LIQUEUR

the spirit which

Scrape one and a half pounds of pineapple into is to be used, let it infuse for a week ; then drain it off and add the syrup.

1045.

MILK PUNCH

(1815)

Take two gallons and a half of French brandy, and infuse in it for one night the outer rind of fifteen lemons, and as many oranges pared very thin add
;

to

it

the juice of the before-mentioned quantity of

water that has been pounds and a half of fine loaf sugar, and half a pint of milk let them be well mixed and stand till cold then add a bottle of Jamaica rum, put it into a cask the proper size, and stop it up close for a month or six weeks. N.B. Take out the lemon and orange peel before you add the juice of the fruit and the water.
fruit,

and

fifteen quarts of cold

boiled, seven

;

;

1046.

TO MAKE ANY KIND OP LIQUEUR
must be
finely

(Surrey)

All cloves, cinnamon, mace, or other

dry ingreAll leaves,

dients

ground or grated.

BEVERAGES
flowers, peels, or rinds,

409

small as possible.

must be cut or shredded as All kernels or almonds must be

pounded into a paste
ingredients,

in a mortar, a very small quantity of spirits being added at the time. The

whatever they are, should then be soaked in the spirit (spirits of wine or brandy) for a month in a warm place, shaking up the mixture every day. The spirit is then poured off, and water

added (when directed in a recipe). After a few days more, the Uquid is pressed out and mixed with the spirits sugar and colouring matter is added (see "Syrup," No. 1050), and the liquid is strained through a flannel bag. Good French brandy is
;

always preferable even to the best
1047.

spirits of wine.

TO MAKE ANY KIND OF RATAFIA
raspberries, mulberries,

(Surrey)

The
rants,

best fruits to use are red currants, black curor
cherries.

Press

out two quarts of juice of the fruit, let it stand for twenty-four hours in a cold place, then skim it, and add two quarts of good brandy, two pounds of Mix it sugar, a few cloves, and a little cinnamon. well, and put it into a stone bottle, where it must
stand, well

corked, for a month.
it.

Then pour

off

and

bottle

1048.

RASPBERRY RATAFIA

(Middlesex)

Stand two quarts of raspberry juice in a cold Then skim it, and mix brandy, two pounds of sugar, in two quarts of good and a Uttle cinnamon and cloves. Put it in a stone bottle, and keep it well corked for a month, then pour off and bottle it.
place for twenty-four hours.

:

410
1049.

BEVERAGES
ANOTHER WAY
of raspberries (or
boil it for a few
:

pounds and filter it minutes with one and half pounds
juice of three

Take the

strawberries) straia

of sugar.

1050.

RATAFIA OF ROSES
;

(Middlesex)

pound of rose leaves in a lukewarm water let them lie for two days and then press them through a cloth add as much brandy as there may be infusion, and a thick syrup, made in the proportion of half a pound of sugar to a quart of the above liquid, and a little coriander let them infuse for a seed, mace, and cinnamon fortnight, and then filter.
Infuse a quarter of a
pint of
;

;

1051.

SYRUP FOR RATAFIAS,
syrup,

ETC.

(Surrey)

To make a strong much water as will
and
boil
it

you merely add

just as

cover your sugar in the pan,

gently for a long time, removing the
it rises.

scum
to be,
it

as long as

The stronger the syrup

is

the longer
clear,

it

must simmer.

When
it is

cool,

put

by

in bottles for use.

When

wanted to be very

you add beaten whites of eggs to the syrup hot, and mix them well in, and strain through a jelly-bag. The straining is not absolutely necessary a quicker method is used in France, as
while
it is
:

follows

For ten bottles
of sugar, break
it

of

any syrup, take seven pounds
it

into small bits, dissolve
filter it carefully.

in six

pints of cold water, then
while,

Mean-

mix your

essences

pints of good spirits of wine,

and colouring with five and add the syrup by

;

BEVERAGES
small quantities at a time, stirring
all

411 the while

then filter the whole. This method does not give, however, the oily appearance which is desirable in
liqueurs.
1052.

RATAPIA

(1822)

Boil equal quantities of gooseberries and sugar
into a thick jelly, over which a sufficient quantity of
for

white wine must be poured, and suffered to remain some time. Press out and filter the mixture, and add half the quantity of brandy, with any spices
that

may

be agreeable.
1053.

ROSOLIO
of

(French)

vamlla into about half a pint Let it stand a week, then Use this hquor with six drops strain and filter it. Boil the of neroU and five drops of attar of roses. syrup before mixing, with the juice of six oranges and one ounce of syrup of capillaire. Then filter
of the spirit to be used.

Put one drachm

and mix with the

spirit.

(The rosoho specially prepared for Louis XIV., said to be called thus from ros solis, dew of the sun, was made with equal quantities of brandy and Spanish wine, in which were infused angelica, anise, fennel, citron, coriander, and sugar-candy, boiled
to a syrup in camomile water.

Ed.)

1064.

SLOE GIN

(Essex)

Into one quart of best gin put one and a half
pints of ripe sloes (some

quarters of a
of bitter

of them bruised), threepound of loaf sugar, and haK an ounce almonds (blanched and split). Cover the

412

BEVERAGES
and leave
it

vessel containing the cordial closely,
six

months, stirring the contents occasionally, then

strain off the liquor

and

bottle for use.

1055.

VESPETRO

(French)

Take equal quantities of angelica seed, aniseed, fennel seed, and coriander seed. Put them in to steep in white brandy or spirits of wine for about a month. Shake the bottle from time to time. Then filter the infusion and add a mixture of strong syrup (about two-thirds) and spirit (about half), but do not drown the flavour with syrup, as this is a stomachic and medicinal cordial.

1056.

ANOTHER WAY

Three ounces of angelica seed, two ounces of
coriander seed, half an ounce each of aniseed and
fennel seed, six ounces each of sliced oranges

and

lemons.

Proceed as above.

1057.

HUILE DB VIOLETTES
;

(French)

Boil three ounces of dried violets for two minutes strain and filter, and add to with water and sugar

the spirits and syrup.

CHAPTER XXI

INVALID AND CONVALESCENT

COOKERY
Note.
told,

For the fastidious invalid, if the truth be our robust predecessors did not take much care to cater. If an unhappy wight should suffer
loss of appetite

palatable food
avoidable.

and turn with disgust from ordinary well, it was unfortunate, but unThere were certain " possets " and

broths and gruels provided for such unfit folk

;

but

the real regard to sick fare

is

of comparatively recent

growth
date.

;

and hence the
;

recipes under this heading

are not numerous

some, indeed, are quite of

modem

Such as they are, they are peculiarly good, and the " Jaunemange " and " Salisbury Minced Beef " are worth their weight in gold, as countless
convalescents can bear witness.

1058.

ARROWBOOT BLANCMANGE
and
together;

(Kent) vanilla to

One

pint of milk, sugar, cinnamon,
all

blend a tablespoonful boiled taste, of arrowroot with some cold milk, then pour it into the milk that is boiling, give it a few minutes' boil,

and pour

it

into a shape,
413

; ;

414

INVALID AND CONVALESCENT COOKERY
1059.

ARROWROOT JELLY

(Middlesex)

Pound

three bitter almonds, and put

them with

the peel of a lemon into a large wineglass! ul of water, and let them steep therein for four or five hours

then strain the
juice,

liquid,

and mix

it

with four table-

spoonfuls of arrowroot, an equal quantity of lemon-

and two tablespoonfuls of brandy sweeten to and stir it over the fire until it becomes quite thick. When cold, put it in jelly-glasses, and set by
;

taste,

in a cool place.

1060.

"SALISBURY" MINCED BEEF FOR VALIDS OR CONVALESCENTS

IN-

One pound of lean rump steak (this will make two meals). Remove all fat, skin, and gristle. Put it three times through a mincer, and then into a small saucepan, with just enough water to cover it, and a httle salt. When it turns from red to brown (simmering very slowly and never coming anywhere near boiling), it is done enough. Serve some in a hot soup-dish, with bread or bread and butter. The remainder can be reheated once, but not twice if any is left the second time, it must be eaten cold.

To beat

it

with a fork while cooking, improves

it.

106L

CHICKEN PANADA

(Cheshire)

Cut up the meat from which chicken broth has been made, pound it in a mortar if obtainable, or roll it with a rolling-pin. Put it in a pan on the fire with a little milk and salt stir it, but do not let it boil. Add a few bread crumbs to thicken it; stir in one whole egg to each quarter of a fowl. It may
;

INVALID AND CONVALESCENT COOKERY
little balls

415

be used either as spoon-meat when hot, or made into and served in the chicken broth. It will keep good for some days.

1062.

WHITE-OF-EGG FLIP

(Surrey)

This

is

a doctor's recipe for a nourishing pick-meIt

up, of which a spoonful or two can be taken at odd

moments.
whites
of

eggs

has the advantage of utiKsing the left over from the Jaunemange.
;

Beat three whites to a stiff froth add (for colour and flavour) a teaspoonful of good strawberry jam, and beat it well in lastly, beat in one dessertspoonful of brandy. Brandy, by the way, should here be regarded purely as medicine, and as you would not willingly administer cheap medicine to an invalid, procure the best cognac that your means will allow. It pays in the long run.
;

1063.

JAUNEMANGE

(Hampshire)

Take one ounce
over

of Swinborne's isinglass,

put

it

into a jar or basin, pour half a pint of cold water
it, add the rind of a large lemon cut very thinly. Let it stand for at least ten minutes. Then add to it a quarter of a pound of loaf sugar, the juice of one and a half lemons, a tablespoonful of brandy, and a wineglassful of sherry. If no sherry is added, put a little more water, the yolks of four fresh eggs well-beaten, and half a pint of boiling water. The whole to be very well mixed, care being taken that the eggs do not " break." Now stand the jar in a pan of boiling

water,

and
;

let
it

the jaunemange just nearly come to
stirring.

the boil

needs careful attention and

416

INVALID AND CONVALESCENT COOKERY
the ingredients are quite melted, take out the Lift the jaunemange out and stand

When
it

lemon-peel.
in a

bowl

of cold water to set, or in a cool place.

when a little cool, into a mould. This an exceedingly nourishing and strengthening preparation, and can be taken at any time, a few
Or pour
is it off,

teaspoonfuls being sufficient.

It is so pleasant to
else,

the taste, and so unlike anything

that the
it.

most

fastidious invalid will hardly refuse

In
'^

cases involving diarrhoea, the lemon-juice

had better

be omitted.
1064.

BEEF JELLY

(Surrey)

Take a small knuckle of veal, break it into small and let it soak two hours in two pints of cold water. Then boil it till reduced to a pint. Strain it. Take one pound of lean beef, remove aU skin and fat, and scrape or finely mince it. Let
pieces,
it

Then cover the
water, and let

stand in a jar in one pint of cold water for one hour. jar and put it in a saucepan of cold
it

warm very

slowly

till it

simmers.

Then strain it, add the veal stock and a and salt, and pour off into a mould to
1065.

Httle
cool.

pepper

BREAD JELLY
roll,

(Kent,
it

1809)

Take a penny French
toast
till it

cut
it

in thin slices,

and

it

a pale brown, boil

in a quart of water
it,

comes to a pint, then and sugar to your taste.
1066.

strain

and add wine

CLARET JELLY

(Kent)
loaf

Take one
sugar, a one

bottle of claret,

ten ounces of

pound pot

of red currant jelly, the peel

;

INVALID AND CONVALESCENT COOKERY
and
juice of one lemon,

417

of best isinglass.

and a quarter of an ounce Let this simmer for a few minutes, and add half a wineglassful of brandy, and strain through muslin into a mould.
1067.

PORT WINE JELLY
of isinglass, one

(Sussex)

One ounce

ounce of

gum

arable,

three ounces of sugar-candy, one pint of port wine.

Soak the dry ingredients in the wine let all simmer for half an hour.
1068.

all night,

then

PORT WINE JELLY
of

(Kent,

1809)

One ounce
little spice,

gum

arable,

one ounce

of isinglass, a

boiled half an hour in a pint of

cold

water, then add a pint and a quarter of old port

wine and sugar to your taste.
quarter of an hour, strain
It
it off,

Let

it

simmer a
it

and keep

for use.

may

be taken cold or hot.

1069.

RESTORATIVE JELLY

(Kent,

1809)

Dissolve an ounce of isinglass in a quart of water,
let it

simmer gently till reduced to a pint, then add pound of fine loaf sugar. When dissolved, strain it off, and put it into a pudding-dish in the
half a

till cold. To be taken in the quantity necessary to sweeten any liquid such as tea, etc.

cellar

1070.

STRENGTHENING JELLY
of best isinglass,

(Kent,

1809)

One ounce

one ounce

of

gum

arable, infused together in

haK a pint

of (either)

Tent, Mountain, or Calcavella, for twenty-four hours, then add one ounce of brown sugar-candy pulverised 27

418

INVALID AND CONVALESCENT COOKERY

these are to be simmered and (to prevent burning)

must be constantly
solved.

stirred^ until the whole is disthrough a fine hair sieve, and when cold it becomes a stiff jelly. A piece the size of a large nutmeg to be taken two or three times a

Strain

it

day, or at night, according as

it

agrees.

1071.

PORT WINE LOZENGES
of isinglass

(Kent,

1809) of

Take two ounces

and

half

an ounce

gum

wine

Steep them then put them in a saucepan, with two ounces of brown sugar-candy and half a nutmeg grated.
arable.
;

all night in a pint of port

Simmer them together

till

quite dissolved, strain

through a hair sieve, and pour on clean plates to harden. Cut it in pieces, and take a piece the size of a nutmeg three times a day.

INVALID BEVERAGES
1072.

APPLE BARLEY-WATER

(Cheshire)

Add

to one pint of the above half a

pound
till

of

apples, cut in slices, with the sldn on,

removing only
gently

the pips

;

cut a lemon in

slices, boil

the

apples are done, and pass through a colander.

1073.

APPLE TOAST-AND-WATER

(Cheshire)

Bake an apple with a little brown sugar over it, and add to the toast-and-water. It will be ready in an hour. A little lemon or orange-peel is an improvement.

INVALID AND CONVALESCENT COOKERY
1074.

419

AROMATIC BARLEY-WATEK
of barley-water, boil

(Cheshire)
it

Take one quart
one-third.

down

to

Add to it,

while

it is

hot, a pint of sherry,

one drachm of tincture of cinnamon, and one ounce Three ounces of this can be taken two of sugar. or three times a day. A good cordial.
1075.

PEARL BARLEY-WATER

(Cheshire)

water.
little

Wash two ounces of pearl-barley well Add about one and a half pints of
lemon
it

in cold

water, a

peel,

and sugar to

taste.

Let

it

simmer,
Strain

stirring

often

till it is

of a nice thickness.

and add lemon

juice.

A

few sweet almonds beaten

to a paste will give a pleasant flavour.
1076.

BEEF TEA

(Lancashire)

gravy beef, one pint of cold water, Shred meat finely, place in an earthenware jar, add the water and salt. Cover closely. Place jar in a saucepan of boiling water, or in the oven, and cook for three hours. Stir
of

One pound

half a teaspoonful of salt.

occasionally.
1077.

GOOD COOLING DRINK

(Cheshire)

Take half an ounce of cream of tartar, the strained juice of one lemon, two tablespoonfuls of honey, one quart of boiling water. Cover up till cold.
1078.

IMPERIAL

(Surrey)

Put two drachms of cream of tartar, the juice of one lemon, and a little peel, into a jug pour on them sweeten to taste. Stir, one quart of boiling water
; ;

and cover

close

till

cold.

420

INVALID AND CONVALESCENT COOKERY
1079.

LIVELY IMPERIAL

(Kent,

1809)

Two
lump

Two
the

ounces of cream of tartar, two pounds of Put them in a pan. gallons of boiling water must be poured over above. When near cold, add two dessertsugar, four lemons sliced.

spoonfuls of yeast.
strain
it

and bottle
be
fit

it.

Let it stand two days, and then Cork it close, and in three days

will

for use.

1080.

QUIET IMPERIAL
of water,

(Kent,

1809)

two ounces of cream of two or three lemons. Boil it just to simmer, then take it off, and pour it on a pound of sugar and let it stand till the next day.
Seven quarts
tartar, the peel of
1081.

SAGO POSSET
is

(Cheshire)

Boil three ounces of sago in a quart of water,
till

a mucilage

formed.

Rub

half

an ounce
it,

of loaf

sugar on the rind of a lemon, and put

with a tea-

spoonful of ginger tincture, into half a pint of sherry.

Add

to this the sago mucilage, and boil the whole

for five minutes.

This

is

an excellent

cordial,

where

acute diseases (not of an inflammatory kind) have left the patient in a state of debiUty. A httle may

be taken at a time, every four or five hours

CHAPTER XXII

VARIOUS
This
final section includes such recipes as do not fall with accuracy under any of the previous headings, but are too useful to leave out.

1082.

BREAD CRUMBS FOR ROAST GAME

(Surrey)

Put some stale white bread through a coarse sieve, and fry the crumbs in fresh butter, enough to saturate them well. Turn and stir them in the pan tiU they drain are a nice hght brown, but not too brown them on a sieve before the fire.
;

1083.

TO PRESERVE BUTTER

(Ireland)

Take two parts of the best common salt, one part and one part saltpetre. Beat them up toTake one gether, and blend the whole completely.
sugar,

ounce of this composition for every sixteen ounces
of butter.
it

up

for use.

a month be delicious.

it well into the mass, and close Butter thus cured requires to stand before it is begun to be used it will then
;

Work

421


422
1084.

; :

VARIOUS
TO PRESERVE BUTTER FIRM IN

SUMMER
Get a large bowl, and

(Kent)
fill

it

with silver sand,

leaving a hole in the centre, in which stand a smaller

bowl with your butter in. Keep the sand just moist with cold water, and your butter will remain firm
in the hottest weather.

1085.

RICE FOR CURRY

(Middlesex)

The
it

rice to

be served with curry should be of the

best quahty,

and should be washed perfectly clean
:

;

then boiled in a bag, or as follows BoU half a pound of rice for about twenty minutes in one quart of cold water, then put it to drain in a sieve, after which dry it before the fire to get rid of all superfluous moisture, stirring from time to time, and serve very hot.

may be

1086.

CURRY POWDER
; ;

(Kent,

1809)

Coriander seed, six ounces cummin seed, one and fenugreek seed, one and a half ounces To be made into a turmeric root, three ounces. fine powder, with the addition of cayenne to your
half oimces
taste.

1087.

CURRY POWDER

(Middlesex)

Pound

six

of black pepper,

ounces of coriander seed, three ounces and one and a half ounces of fenu-

greek seed, one ounce of cummin seed, three ounces of turmeric, and three-quarters of an ounce of cayenne
sift

through muslin,

and dry
fire,

it

thoroughly for
;

several hours before the

stirring repeatedly

VARIOUS

423

then bottle, and cork very tightly. If the powder be made for the use of persons who have lived much in India, and been accustomed to eat curry there, the quantity of cayenne should be increased to an
ounce, or even one and a quarter ounces. Another preparation of curry is made by omitting the cori-

ander seed, doubling the quantity of turmeric, and substituting for the coriander two ounces of ginger in fact, if turmeric and cayenne be made the basis of the powder, the other ingredients may be varied
:

according to taste.

1088.

IRISH FADGE
the
fire.

Mix a quarter

of a pint of milk

of butter together over

ounces of whole brown meal pour in the milk and butter to a hole in the middle of the meal. Knead it well and roll it out to about three-quarters of an inch thick. Bake on a griddle, turning it often to prevent burning. Time, one hour.

and three ounces Then take four (wheaten meal) and

1089.

MOCK

ICE

(Middlesex)

You can make a sort of mock ice, by mixing half a pint of water, in which rather more than a quarter of an ounce of isinglass has been boiled, with a pint of cream and a sufficient quantity of sugar, and the the mixture must be made before juice of any fruit If you have solution of isinglass is quite cold. the this mixture can be set in a mould any ice at hand, or if there in some vessel, and surrounded with ice be none, put it in the coldest situation possible. The sohd appearance given to the mixture, when
; ;

424
cold,

VARIOUS
by the
isinglass, causes this to
ice, if it

imitation of an

be a pretty good can be made quite cold.

1090.

LIME WATER FOR PRESERVING EGGS
(Yorkshire)

Take one pound of stone lime, two handfuls of two gallons of water. The water to be boiling, and poured upon the lime and salt, and to be stirred
salt,

every day.

In a fortnight

it

is

ready for

use.

Be

careful the eggs are not cracked.

1091.

MUSTARD

(Seventeenth
well,

Century)

it by and sift it. Then put the powder in a gallipot, and wet it very well with vinegar put in a whole onion peeled but not cut, a little pepper and salt, and a lump

Dry your mustard seed very
and
little

then beat

little

at a time in a mortar,

;

of sugar.
1092.

ANOTHER WAY

Take horseradish roots and make them very dv} an oven, then beat them to powder. And when you would use any, wet it with wine vinegar, and
in

so

it will

rather be better than the other.

1093. If

MUSTARD

(Surrey)

mustard be mixed, first with the merest drop of and then with tarragon vinegar, it will have a pleasant^ pungency and piquancy which gives a relish to every dish. This is half the secret of French mustard^which is also much milder than ours, and occasionally, I believe, has a dash of flour put in,
water,

beside other ingredients.

VARIOUS
1094.

425
(Ireland)

PORRIDGE
is

Irish porridge

particularly good, being

made

of

specially fragrant oatmeal.

Boil a quart of water

with a large teaspoonful of salt in it. When boiling, pour in one and a half teacupfuls of meal (more or
less according to taste), without stirring at all,

and
;

keep then

it

gently boiling twenty to thirty minutes

stir well,

and serve

(like small soup plate), with cold milk, and, if liked, a small piece of butter A double saucepan in the middle of the plate. should be used. In England, sugar is used, and There is no need for the latter, as, if not stirring. stirred at first, the porridge will not burn, just like

bowl or porridge plate very hot. It should be taken
in

rice.

1095.

POT-POURRI
of

(1822)

Take one pound each

mon

rose leaves, half a

pound

orange flowers and of comof the flowers of red
;

pinks, leaves

roses, leaves of

flowers of myrtle flowers of musk thyme, lavender, rosemary, sage, camomile, melilot, hyssop, sweet basil, and balm, two ounces of each two or three handfuls of jessamine flowers, a large handful of lemon rinds, cut

and

;

as thin as possible

;

the same quantity of rinds of

(tangerines), and fifteen or twenty laurel leaves. Put them all into a wellheaded earthen jar, with half a poxind of bay salt, and stir the whole carefully with a wooden spatula, or spoon, twice a day for a month. Then add Florentine white orris and benzoin, of each twelve ounces powdered cloves and cinnamon, two ounces. mace, storax, calamus aromaticus, and of each

small green oranges

;

;

426

VARIOUS
;

cypress, of each one ounce

lemon-coloured sandal,

and long sweet cypress, of each six drachms. Stir all together, and if the proportions be carefuUy attended to, according to the above directions, a most delightful compound of fine odours will be obtained, in which no one scent will predominate, while the fragrance of the whole will remain unimpaired for a great

number

of years.

1096.

ROSE-WATER

(Surrey)

Gather the rose-leaves very dry, add a quart of water to every four pounds of petals, and place them with a handful of salt, in a closely stoppered vessel.

Leave them so for three days, stirring them well at day at the end of that time, distil the mixture, take care to line the bottom of the still with a sufficient amount of clean straw to keep the flowers from burning, and leave a space of at least one-third in the still. For every twelve pounds of flowers you put in, add six quarts of water and when, for every twelve pounds, three quarts have been drawn off, stop distilling. A very much stronger rose-water is made thus Take thirty pounds of rose-leaves, gathered before sunrise, crush them in a large mortar, and put them into a jar, with four pounds of common salt, in alternate layers of roses and sprinkled salt. Press them down well, and cover the jar so that no perfume can When they have macerated for twelve escape.
least once a
:

;

:

days, distil

them with a sharp

heat, protecting

them

carefully as described above.
tillation will

The

result of this dis-

be small in quantity, but rich in quality.

VARIOUS
1097.

427
(Surrey)

HINTS ON STORAGE

keep all groceries in closed tins or jars, not in paper or cardboard the drier articles
It is advisable to
:

in tins

;

the moister, such as raisins,

etc., in jars.

It is essential that all store-provisions should be

kept covered, otherwise they accumulate dust and germs, and become really imfit for use, even though they may not appear so. This is a fact which no servant can get into her head, and which requires

constant attention.

Stock should be boiled (not merely warmed up) every day. Dripping should be examined and clarified at least twice a week in warm weather. Pieces of bread should be utilised, so far as possible, day by day the crumb can be sieved, dried in the oven, and kept in a closed tin for use in frying fish, The crust can be etc., but it will not keep too long. soaked overnight, when sufiicient has been colThose who keep lected, for use in a bread pudding. fowls, or pigs, have no need of instruction in the
;

disposal of their odds

and ends.

MADE GRAVIES AND SAUCES
few drops of Lea & Perrins' Sauce make an excellent flavouring for soups, stews, gravies, minced meat,, etc., and harmonise well with any other flavouring agent that may be used.

A

FISH SAUCES
good proprietory sauce should always be kept in One that goes well with any kind of fish is Lea & Perrins', which has the advantage of being an all-roand sauce, suitable for hot and cold meats, soaps,
the house.
stews,
etc.

A

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DOUCHES.

CHIROPODY.

STEAM ROOMS.

TWELVE CHILDREN
all

IN ONE brought up on

FAMILY

ROBINSON'S

'^''

BARLEY

(with cow's milk)
Mrs. A. C. Goodall, 12, Mount Ash Road, Sydenham Hill, S.E., wrote on 12/3/12: **1 am the mother of eleven children and have brought them all up on Robinson's 'Patent' Barley since they were a fortnight old t they were all fine healthy babies. My baby now is just seven weeks old, and improves daily."

Since the above

was

written, Mrs. Goodall's family iias received

anotlier increase,

and the new baby

Is

also being reared

on ROBINSON'S "Patent" BARLEY.

MANY PRIZE BABIES HAVE BEEN BROUGHT UP ON THIS SPLENDID FOOD, AND HUNDREDS OF LETTERS ARE RECEIVED EVERY YEAR TESTIFYING TO THE EXCELLENT RESULTS OBTAINED BY ITS USE.
Send
tor Free Booklet

"ADVICE TO M09HERS."

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& S.

N.

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&

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