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1.
2.

Gamma ( )

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1-1

1-2

1-3

17

1-4

25

1-5

36

57

2-1

58

2-2

64

2-3

68

2-4

77

2-5

82

2-6

87

100

101

3-1

102

3-2

103

3-3

112

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3-4

120

3-5

126

3-6

129

3-7

135

146

147

4-1

148

4-2

156

4-3

159

4-4

168

4-5

176

4-6

183

4-7

189

4-8

194

207

5-1

208

5-2

215

5-3

220

5-4

232

5-5

235

5-6

239

Leibniz

251

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253

6-1

254

6-2

260

6-3 Gamma

272

6-4

281

## 6-5 Beta Weibull Cauchy

294

6-6

298

310

CDF

311

312

319

7-1

320

7-2

331

7-3

336

7-4

346

7-5

353

7-6

377

7-7

385

405

409

8-1

410

8-2

415

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8-3

417

433

9-1

434

9-2

439

9-3

443

9-4

447

10

455

10-1

456

10-2

459

10-3

466

10-4

472

10-5 Bayes

11

473

485

11-1

486

11-2

488

11-3

490

11-4

495

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1-1
1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5

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1-1

SetElement

Empty set
Finite set
Infinite set
Countable set
Uncountable set
A A

A A

A means "x is

x
an element of set A"
A

B means "

## every element in A is also an element of B" A B Subset

S or Universal set
Null set
UnionA

B = {x|x

IntersectionA

A or x

B = {x|x

A and x

## ACA ComplementAc = {x|x

A

BA

Disjoint A

B = {x|x

A and x

B}
B}

A}

B}

B = AB disjoint

Mutually exclusive Ai

Aj = i

j {A1, A2,

n
j=1

A1, x

A2, x

An"

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n
j=1

## Aj means that "x

A1 x

A2 x

An"

Sc =
1-1

1-1

S = Sj Sj mutually exclusive
j

A=

(A

Sj )

1-1
Sj Mutually exclusive

1-2Demorgan's law

(A

B)c = Ac

Bc

(A

B)c = Ac

Bc

1-2

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B)c x

(A

Ac and x

Bc x

B x
Ac

A and x

Bc

Ac

Bc x

(A

B) x

Ac and x
(A

Bc x

A and x

B)c

(AB) c

A x

Ac x

Bc

Ac

Bc

Ac x

A x

AB

(AB)c

B
B

AB A
Ac

BAcBc

Bc

Venn diagram
1-3 B

S AB = B

1-3

1-4 BC
B

BC = B

BC = S

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1-4

1-2
B = (A

B)

B)(Ac

(A

(Ac

B)

B)

1-3Distributed law

(B

C) = (A

B)

(A

C)

(B

C) = (A

B)

(A

C)

(A

B)

C=A

(B

C)

(A

B)

C=A

(B

C)

Venn diagram
Venn diagram

1-2

(A

B)

(A

C)

1-4

k i ni

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n1 n2 nk =

ni

i=1

1-5 k
(i

1) i

ni n1 n2
nk

1-5

1-5

N n N n

N (N

1) (N

n + 1) =

N!
= PNn
n!

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i j

N
N!
= CnN =
n! N n !
n

N k1 k2
m km N
N
N!
=
; N = k1 + + km
k1 !km !
k1 , k2 , km

1 N
P
n n

n! n n!

1
abcdg7
abc
abc
abc 2
a b c
ab cd
a b c b

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5! 3!

5
4!
3!(4! P53 )
3

4! C25 2! 3!

Aa

6!

Bb

6!

Cc

6!

ABC = A

C = 7!

3 6! + 3 5!

4!

## Let Aab 26!

Bcd 26!
AB = A B = 7! 4 6! + 5 2 2
7!
2!abc ac
3!
2

aaabbcd
aabbccdd
Aaaa
Bbb
AB = A

(AB) =

4! 5
C
2! 3

3!C34

Aaa
Bbb
Ccc
Ddd
ABCD = A

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8!
2! 4

4
7!
+
2! 3 2

6!
2! 3

4
3

4
5!
+
4!
2!
4

3ABCD

A B

4
7!

7!
2
7

4!
(2!)4
4

8!
7!
6! 6
C (2!) A =
2
6 2
8
7
6!
8!
7!
2+
(2!)2
AB = A B =
2
8
7
6
6!
6 4 2A B 6 C 4
D 2

4!
4!
4
4!
2
4
4!
2
4
5!
4!
5

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1-6

n
n
n!
=
=
k!
n
k!
k
n k
n
n 1
n 1
=
+

k
k
k 1
Crn + m =

r
k=0

Ckn Crm

1
1
+
= 21
0
1
2
2
2
+
+
= 22
0
1
2
3
3
3
3
+
+
+
= 23
0
1
2
3
4
4
4
4
4
+
+
+
+
= 24
0
1
2
3
4
n k (n

k) k (n

k)

n (n

1)

13
13
13
n
+2
+
=
95
5
6
7
m
13
5

+2

13
6

13
7

13
5

13
6

13
6

13
7

14
6

14
7

15
7

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## 5C22 + C23 + + C225 =

92

C22 = C33
C33 + C23 = C34
C34 + C24 = C35
C325 + C225 = C326 = 2600
6 In how many ways can we give 6 different gifts to 4 students and
each of them get at least one gift.

92

1 C14
2 C24(26

2)

4
4 6
4 6
3 6
(2 2)
3
2
46
1
2
3
2

1
3

1-7

(a + b)N =

x=0

ax bN

aaa bbb = ax bN
x

x
x
N x

axbN

(N

x)

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1-82N =

N
N
N
+
+
0
1
N

N
N

2N

## 7C1n + 2C2n + + nCnn = ?

82

f (x) = (1 + x)N =

xN
0
1
N
N
N
N N
N(1 + x)N 1 =
+2
x++N
x
1
2
N
N
N
N
N2N 1 =
+2
++N
1
2
N
+

x +

n
n
n
+ ( 1)n
=0
0
1
n
f (1) + f ( 1) 2n = 2 (C0n + C2n + ) C0n + C2n + = 2n
f (1)

## 2n = 2 (C1n + C3n + ) C1n + C3n + = 2n

f ( 1)

1
1

1-9

(a + b + c) N =

N N x

axbycN x y
x, y
(a + b + c)N = (a + b + c)(a + b + c)(a + b + c)
x=0 y=0

## aaa bbb ccc = ax by cN

x

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by cz N (a + b + c) x a(N
y b N
N

x
y

x)

y = z c ax by cz

N!
N x!
x! N x ! y! N x y !
N
N!
=
=
x! y! z!
x, y

(x + y + z) 9 x2 y3 z4
9 2 3 4
2 500 3 4 9
9!

2! 3! 4!

1-10

N k1 k2 ... N
kN N m

HmN = CmN + m

N = 5m = 6
XOOXOXXOOXOX
"O" denotes the numbersX
2 1 0
2 1 X
OX
CmN + m

= C65 + 6

HmN

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m N
CmN + m

x + y + z = 6
m = 6N = 3
CmN + m

= C68 = C28 = 28

## 8From the set of integers {1, 2, , 100000} a number is selected at

random. What is the probability that the gum of its digits is 8?
95

a1 + a2 + a3 + a4 + a5 = 8; a1

0, a5

0, a2

0, a3

0, a4

8 5
8+5 1
12
12
=
=

8
8
4

12
4
100000
1-11n

k, m

m+n
n m
n m
n m
=
+
+
k
0 k
1 k 1
k 0
n+m
n m
n m
Hk
= H0 Hk + H1 Hk 1 + + Hkn H0m
(n + m) n m k
n m
n m k

0 k
n m
n 1 m k 1

1 k 1

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n k m

n m
k 0

5 3

35
53

10 1-6 A D

B
D

C
1-6

C B
4 3
7!

4! 3!
3!
4!

2! 2! 2! 1!
5!

C
1! 4!
C
5!
7!
4! 3! 1! 4!
n (B

C) = n (B) + n (C)

n (B

C) =

4! 3!
5!
+
1! 4! 2! 2! 2! 1!

3!
2! 1!

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11

x1 + + xm = n
x1 + + xm = n
x1 + + xm = n k xi 0
1-10 x1 + x2 + x3 = 4
XXXOOOOX
x1 = 0x2 = 0x3 = 4
C34 + 31

= C26

Cmn + m1
yi = xi

= Cmn + m1

y1 + y2 + + ym = n

mn

yi xi
Cmn

m+m
1

= Cmn

1
1

= Cnn

1
m

xi k 0 m
CkmCmn

1
k

## 12Determine the number of integer solutions to x1 + x2 + x3 + x4 = 19

where

xi

Let yi = xi + 5 0

10 for all 1
yi

xi

4.

## 15, for all 1

99
4, then, y1 + y2 + y3 + y4 = 39.

## Let Ei ; i = 1, 2, 3, 4 represents the event that 0

yi

15, then it is

equivalent to finding
n (E1 E2 E3 E4 ) = n (S) n (E1 E2 E3 E4 )
39 + 4 1
23 + 4 1
4 7+4 1
=
4
+
39
23
2
7
13If a fair die is rolled 12 times, what is the probability that the sum
of the rolls is 30?

99

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## x1 + x2 + + x12 = 30, where 1

Let yi = xi

1 0

yi

xi

6 for all 1

12.

5, y1 + + y12 = 18.

## Let Ei ; i = 1, 2, , 12 represents the event that 0

yi

5, then it is

equivalent to finding
n (E1 E2 E12 ) = n s n (E1 E2 E12 )
18 + 12 1
12 + 12 1
12 6 + 12 1
=
12
+
18
12
2
6
12 0 + 12 1
3
0

18 + 12 1
12 + 12
12
18
12

12 6 + 12

12

12 0 + 12
3

1-3

Sample space
Random ExperimentOutcomes S

S = {boy, girl}

S = {}

S = { , +}

S 1-1
Universal set Element
S

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Discrete
sample space
Continuous sample space
Event
Any subset of the sample space

E event E

P (E) E S
P (E) E S
14 6 5 2
E
F
P (E), P (F)

Sample Space
6 5

= 30
1 1
6
= 15
F
2
6
30
=
P E =
55 11
3
15
=
P (F) =
55 11
S S = ( , )
E

11
= 55
2

E 05 V E = (0, 5)
F 210 V F = (2, 10)
E
E

S
S

F = (2, 5)
F = (0, 10)

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E
F
E

F = SE c = FF c = E

F=

E and F Disjoint
Event Space
Mutually exclusive set of events
Probability Measure, P[.]
P[.] sample space event
Sample space, Event, Probability measure

PE

Event E [0, 1]
P (S) = 1
with probability 1, the outcome will be a member of the Sample
space
n

i=1

i=1

## Ei Ej = i = jmutually exclusive P( Ei ) = P(Ei )

E1 , En =
1-12 E F S

P E =1
P (E c
P (E

P Ec

F) = P F

P (E

F) = P E + P F
S = E

F)
P (E

F)

E c E E c mutually exclusive

P S = P (E
P (E) = 1

E c) = P E + P (E c) = 1
P (E c)

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F = (EF)

(E cF) EF E cF

## P (F) = P (EF) + P (E cF)

P (E cF) = P F
E
P (E

P EF

F=E

F) = P (E

(E c

(E c

F) E E cF

F))

= P (E) + P (E cF)
= P (E) + P (F)

P (EF)

15Among 33 students in a class 17 of them earned A's on the midterm exam, 14 earned A's on the final exam, and 11 did not earn
A's on either examination. What is the probability that a randomly
selected student from this class earned an A on both exams?
100
P AB = P A + P B P (A B)
11
17 14
+
1
=
33 33
33
16Drop 4 balls into 3 boxes randomly. What is the probability that
no box is empty?

34

24 2
1
4
=

9
34
4
C 3!
2 4
3
3

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. .
, 2012.11
.-
ISBN 978-957-11-3882-1
1. 2.
319.1

101020379

5BG1

## Applied probability and statistics

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