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Plum pudding Model of the atom JJ Thompson 1897 Rutherford Model ; experiment firing alpha particles at a thin Au sheet; most went right thru, but some reflected straight back. atomic model of a small positive nucleus. Bohr Model of a mini Solar system flawed; can not explain why electrons do not fall to the nucleus Atoms/Matter and Light linked Spectral lines => Quantized electron energy levels Photoelectric Effect experiment new model needed Quantum Model discete energy levels / states E=hf c=f E = hc/ h = Plancks Constant = 6.63 e 34 J - sec Photon is a packet of energy; a particle 1/ # photons intensity, not amplitude of a wave. 2/ Energy of photon is proportional to Frequency f Size of the change in electron energy levels in the atom frequency of the light emitted or absorbed Energy level comparisons Per Atom Energy Per Atom Energy KE gas @RT 0.02 ev Chemical 50 ev Red Light 1.75 ev Nuclear 200 Mev Blue Light 3.1 ev Ex; of 6ev f = E / h = 6 ( 1.6e 19 J/ev ) / 6.63e 34 f = 1.45 e15 Hz => UV light at 207 nm Kinetic Energy mosquito = 1 TeV; Cosmic Ray 10MeV 1kTeV Energy of electron at 1eV = 1.6e 19 Joules # electrons / Coulomb = 6.24 e18 q / C Unified Atomic Mass Unit 1 u 2 1 u = 931.5 MeV/c = 1.66054e27 kg Mass Electron 9.1 e 31 kg Mass Proton 1.672e27 kg = 1.00782 u Mass Neutron 1.675 e27 kg = 1.00866 u Calc Mass Proton =1800 x 16380e31 = 1.64e27 kg Photons interact with the atom, alphas bounce off Ionization; electron removed leaving + charged ion Absorption Spectra => additional evidence of energy levels Electron gun and Zinc Sulfide detector screen emits light if electrons excite the ZnS electrons. Phosphorescence Electrons thru a thin graphite film give a pattern that looks like a wave diffraction pattern. Louis DeBroglie 1924 related particle momentum to Wavelength = h / p h = 6.63e 34 J sec Matter has a wavelike nature; superposition & interference Wave Particle Duality Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

E = m c2

12

1 kg = 9e12 Joules 1 u = 935.1 MeV u = 1/12 M[C ] Fe ( Iron ) has highest BE/A so stable abundant

Radioactive Decay

Emission of or Rays (Alpha, Beta or Gamma) from a nuclide that decreases Mass & increases Binding Energy making it more stable Binding Energy BE = Mass Defect M[separate] > M[bound]

Energy not present in the mass which holds the nuclei together. ** In Decay Fission or Fusion, BE **

2

p x = E t > h / 4

= h / 2 [h bar]

2

Electron in Potential Well KE = m [ h /m ] Standing Wave metaphor for the electron trapped in a box model too simple Edwin Schrodinger replaced the SW sine wave with his 2 Probability Wave Function ; a partial differential equation Electrons/ Protons as Mass & Charge Probability waves A=Z+N A = Mass #; Z = Proton #; N = Neutron # Experiments showed all atoms had mass and charge that were multiples of the same number nucleus was made of unit masses and unit charges. Nucleon Neutron or Proton Nuclide Unique Nucleus species Isotope Nuclides with same Z, different N & A A 14 Symbol X Z or AXZ Ex Carbon14 C 6 or 14 C6

Energy Rel = [M[initial] (M[final]+M[decay particle])] c Conservation of Momentum the decay particle will get the highest speed [KE] in the decay 1/ Alpha Decay 2 protons + 2 neutrons [Helium nucleus] 226Ra88 => 222Rn86 + 4He2 nucleus Typical energy of 5 Mev Range of 2-3 cm of air Can not penetrate paper 2/ Beta Minus Decay ( ) electron Neutron Proton + electron ( ) + Antineutrino 14C6 => 14N7 + e + bar Range of 30cm air, 1 mm in Al Not highly ionizing 3/ Beta Plus Decay ( + ) positron Proton Neutron + positron ( + ) + neutrino 22Na11 => 22Ne10 + e+ + Range of 30cm air, 1 mm in Al Not highly ionizing 4/ Gamma Rays = Photons of very high Energy 5/ Neutrino No charge, little mass, unreactive, Range 1000s km of Pb (Lead) Not ionizing Antimatter = positive electrons + negative positrons Changes in Z, N & A numbers with Decay Radiation Type # Z N A Alpha 2 2 4 Beta +1 1 = Beta + 1 +1 = Gamma 0 0 = Radiation protection; Distance, Lead or Concrete Shielding Half Life the time it takes for the mass to halve by Decay Rate of decay Mass M [# of Nuclei] dM/dt M Decay follows an Exponential curve dM/dt M N Unit of Becquerel = Counts per sec = Decays per sec t dN/ dt = N Solution is N[final] = N[initial] e t N (t) = N0 e Exponential Decay Equation 1 Decay Constant s The Log of both sides yields Ln [ N ] = Ln [ N0 ] t t [ half life ] = 0.693 / = [ (Ln 2) / ] Plot of Log of Activity N vs time is linear with slope = Carbon Dating measures ratio of radioactive C14 to C12. C14 Half Life is 6000 years; Organic materials only Potassium Argon Dating K40 t [half] = 1.26e9 yrs Nuclear Reactions Fission & Fusion 14N7 + 1n0 => 14C6 + 1p1 Nitrogen to Carbon To find Energy released, subtract masses A before and after the reaction in units of u and x by 931.5 MeV/u Energy came from Binding Energy of nucleus, NOT from Mass Fusion and Fission increase Binding Energy per Nucleon 6 Binding Energy Nucleus = 10 x Binding Energy of an Atom Nuclear Strong Force holds nuclei together *Strong, acting over *short range *same for all nuclei Neutrons are stable in nucleus but unstable outside; Free neutrons decay in about 15 minutes

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