Ecosetup | Eco-Friendly Shopping | Kenya’s 280Mw Geothermal | LED lights the future | Solar Powered Flight | Clean

Energy stamps out Kerosene | Rwanda, the Renewable Energy Virgin?
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Inside: Compact biogas unit

ecount is a Renewable Energy Magazine covering all areas of renewable and sustainable energy-related fields that apply to the physical science and engineering communities. Content is published and collected into bimonthly issues (6 times a year). Recount is circulated both in print and electronically. Recount is responsive to the many new developments expected in this field. The topics covered in Recount include: Bioenergy, Geothermal energy, Marine and hydroelectric energy, Nuclear energy,Wind energy, Energy conversion, Energy efficient buildings, photovoltaics, solar thermal converters, passive solar approaches, Energy storage, Power distribution, Renewable energy resource assessment and energy in transportation among other things. Recount brings together the world’s most respected renewable energy information resources professionally packaged into one magazine. Hundreds of renewable energy professionals rely on Recount magazine for the information, news, answers and updates they need most. The Recount articles are written by selected industry experts, to help readers broaden their expertise in your current field, understand other related disciplines, provide quick-glance references. Editorial Team

Content Biogas behind your Kitchen |Pg 3 Charge your phone as you walk |Pg 4 Shopping without hurting the Environment |Pg6 Undestanding Global warming |Pg7 The Difference between Carbon Offsets and Renewable Energy Credits |Pg 10 Kenya get 280Mw from Geothermal |Pg12 LED lights the future |Pg15 Solar Powered Flight |Pg17 A Primer On Alternative Power |Pg 19 Clean Energy stamps out Kerosene |Pg 21 Reason why you need Energy Audit |Pg 24 Rwanda, the Renewable Energy Virgin? |Pg 26


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Biogas behind your Kitchen
By Anthony Muiruri

iogas systems are those that take organic material (feedstock) into an air-tight tank, where bacteria break down the material and release biogas – a mixture of mainly methane with some carbon dioxide. The biogas can be burned as a fuel, for cooking or other purposes, and the solid residue can be used as organic compost. The current practice of using low calorie inputs like cattle dung, distillery effluent, municipal solid waste, or sewerage, makes methane generation in conventional biogas plants highly inefficient. This led to an ARTI, India (Appropriate Rural Technology Institute) develop a robust compact system that is easier to assemble. Through this compact system, it has been demonstrated that by using feedstock having high calorific and nutritive value to microbes, the efficiency of methane generation can be increased by several orders of magnitude. Operating the system on this simple tenet also brings in many more advantages over the conventional systems: As a result of the higher efficiency, the size and cost


of the new system are also lower. While the conventional biogas system occupies about 4 cubic meters of space, the compact biogas system is about as large as a domestic refrigerator. It is an extremely user friendly system, because it requires daily only a couple of kg feedstock, and the disposal of daily just 5 litres of effluent slurry and it uses waste food rather than dung/manure as feedstock, to supply biogas for cooking. The plant is sufficiently compact to be used by urban households, and about 2000 are currently in use – both in urban and rural households in Maharashtra, India. The design and development of this simple, yet powerful technology for the people. Compact biogas system uses starchy or sugary feedstock (waste grain flour, spoilt grain, overripe or misshapen fruit, non-edible seeds, fruits and rhizomes, green leaves, kitchen waste, leftover food, etc). “Just 2 kg of such feedstock produces about 500 g of methane, and the reaction is completed with 24 hours. The conventional biogas systems, using cattle dung, sewerage, etc. use about 40 kg feedstock to produce the same quantity of meth-

ane, and require about 40 days to complete the reaction.”, Dr. Anand Karve,President of ARTI Biogas, INDIA. But how do you install the system? Trained technicians install the biogas plants using locally available plastic tanks (commonly used for water storage) and a plumbing. All you will need is different sizes of PVC pipes, ball valve, hosepipe, plastic tanks (1000 liters and 750 liters) and other few plumbing accessories and of course biogas configured burner because biogas wont burn on the normal LPG burner. I once installed in Mr. Mung’uri’s home in Gatundu, Kiambu (Central Kenya) and it was fun. He still uses it todate and I installed it about 2 years ago. The cost of materials was below KES 20,000. This technology can be replicated in the rural and urban setup because the system utilises a very small space. The technology is also a very good way of waste management.

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Charge your phone as you walk
as you walk you generate pressure that in turn generates energy, once you have arrived where you were going you can now sit down and charge your mobile phone. His efforts bore fruits when he got KSh500,000 from National Council of Science and Technology (NCST). The council has also pledged to fund the mass production of the device to reach out to a larger market. Inspired by the skaters, Argentine Industrial designer Soledad Martin is trying to make renewable energy generation easy with a similar concept charger that harvests motion in any form to produce useful electrons. The charger is attached with the shoe & plug your mobile with USB cable. The movement of your body (walk or run) will charge the battery of the cellphone. The cellphone charger concept is based on the modern way of transforming movement into electric energy called the “kinetic energy,” The crucial part of the product is an extremely thin crystal chip. It can generate electricity when put under certain pressure, for example, the act of walking and running. A similar concept was conceived by Tom Krupenkin and Ashley Taylor at the University of Wisconsin at Madison who developed similar "inshoe technology" that harnesses the thermodynamic power gener(Continued on page 5)

By Peter Mugo


Kenyan man invented a shoe-powered charger for phones, joining other inventors in making mobile technology greener and more independent of traditional infrastructure, even as the idea of using our bodies to generate energy is becoming more common. Anthony Mutua developed a thin crystal chip that fits into shoe soles and generates electricity under pressure. He first unveiled a prototype at the Science and Innovation Week in Nairobi and has since patented the idea in preparation for mass production. He predicts the device will prove popular as a commercial enterprise, as people can use it to charge several phones during one walk. He has since patented his idea with the Kenya Industrial Property Institute, the body responsible for patenting and protecting intellectual property in Kenya. The charger is basically a nanogenerator system which transforms your movement into electric energy, aka “kinetic energy.” This charger works using pressure,

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ated from footsteps. The engineering students later founded a comp an y b y t h e n a m e In S t ep NanoPower and plan to sell the device starting from 2013. The nonogenerator can be attached to your shoe, where it can harness the energy of motion, while you’re practicing any kind of sport or even walking your dog. Whenever your cellphone of PMP runs out of juice, you can simply remove the lid and attach the USB cable to power up the batteries right there on the street. According to Mutua, the Ksh3,800 device connects to a user's phone via a thin extension cord, ultimately allowing people to charge their mobile batteries while going for a walk. Mutua says the chip fits into all footwear except bedroom slippers

and will last for almost three years provided the shoes don't wear out first. Charging solutions like these not only help the environment by encouraging exercise and decreasing electrical consumption, they may also prove vital in countries lacking solid infrastructure. In Kenya, for example, mobile phones are already helping citizens navigate health and safety issues, but many villagers lack the constant power supply needed to keep their phones at full battery. The shoe, which generates electricity once stepped on when the user walks, Mutua says, harvests the energy in two ways. Firstly, it charges the phone when the wearer is in motion through a thin extension cable that runs from the shoe to the pocket. Secondly, the shoe

can also charge the phone immediately after a walk since the crystals have the capacity to store electric energy. Mutua says the second option is about to go into mass production since it is likely to prove more popular with people looking to charge mobile phones as a commercial activity. He explains this is because it has the ability to charge several phones simultaneously. In case the shoe gets worn out, you can always transfer the chip to the new one. Mutua can fit the device in your shoe at a cost of Ksh3,800. “It has two and a half-year warranty, provided the shoe is not stolen or lost,” says Mutua.

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Shopping without hurting the Environment
By Matthew Stanton
ur environment is a testament of us; for it is through our environment that we survive, that we grow and that we progress. The deterioration of our environment could very well mean our deterioration. It is through our environment that we eat; it is through our environment that we breathe. Without a good environment, it would probably result to the deterioration of the things that we are dependent on it for, like food and water and air. This could then result to the deterioration of our health. This is why it is important to take care of our environment. In today's world of constant technological advancements and material options, our environment has been neglected. Many people do not think of the consequences of even the puniest of their actions. Even throwing a little piece of candy wrapper can go a long way to hurting the environment and eventually to hurting us. Because it is not there yet, we neglect to ponder on the possibilities of what will happen if we continue to ignore the care of our environment in pursuit of more surface purposes. Responding to the call for a better environment, many environmentalists and other ecologically -conscious people have created


ways to prevent the deterioration of our environment. One of these ways is through encouraging the replacement of plastic bags with Eco friendly bags. Plastic bags vs. eco friendly bags. Many of us love to go shopping. After we have bought what we ant to buy, these things are then placed in plastic bags. We may not think much of it, but plastic bags are very harmful to our environment. They are non-biodegradables, which means that once you throw them they will probably wander around for as long as nobody takes them. With the millions of people shopping and buying stuff from stores everyday, you can just imagine just how many of these plastic bags are wandering about and littering our streets today. What is more is that if you burn these plastic bags, it will give off chlorofluorocarbons (CFAs) which are the main factors in the widening hole of our ozone layers. You would be amazed at how much damage a small, seemingly harmless plastic bag can cause. This is why we now have Eco friendly bags. Eco friendly bags are the kind of shopping bags that environmentalists are pushing for today. Unlike plastic bags, these bags are significantly less expensive, they are re-

usable and they are washable. You can use Eco friendly bags for as many times as you like without having the deterioration of the environment on your conscience. These bags are usually made of various kinds of recycled materials. Eco friendly bags may be environment friendly, but they do not deprive you of the pleasure of toting around a beautifully designed bag. This is because Eco friendly bags today that is designed in a variety of shapes, colors and sizes, donning different patterns. With Eco friendly bags, you have fun shopping, you sport a nicely designed bag, and you are helping the environment. Businesses have also now come to realize the significance of catering to Eco friendly bags. Many of them now use these bags for their products and services. It is also a good way to market the business, for it shows that you care about the environment. So if you want to help the environment without being deprived of a great shopping experience, Eco friendly bags are the way to go.

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Understanding Global Warming
of cement). Carbon dioxide is also removed from the atmosphere (or “sequestered”) when it is absorbed by plants as part of the biological carbon cycle. Methane (CH4): Methane is emitted during the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil. Methane emissions also result from livestock and other agricultural practices and by the decay of organic waste in municipal solid waste landfills. Nitrous Oxide (N2O): Nitrous oxide is emitted during agricultural and industrial activities, as well as during combustion of fossil fuels and solid waste. Fluorinated Gases: Hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride are synthetic, powerful greenhouse gases that are emitted from a variety of industrial processes. Fluorinated gases are sometimes used as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances (i.e., CFCs, HCFCs, and halons). These gases are typically emitted in smaller quantities, but because they are potent greenhouse gases, they are sometimes referred to as High Global Warming Potential gases (“High GWP gases”). Global warming can spell the doom for Human-race by 2050 or even earlier! Yes, it’s a reality; not a myth anymore. The great river Ganges in India is going to be reduced to a seasonal river because of the glacier melting effect on the Himalayas due to global warming! The effects of global warming are the ecological and social changes caused by the rise in global temperatures. Evidence of climate change includes the instrumental temperature record, rising sea levels, and decreased snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere. That is just one of many expected consequences that Global warming may force on our climate and eco system. Studies have
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Written By Anthony N.M

hat is global warming? What causes global warming? What are the consequences of global warming? Is global warming a real threat to our existence? Alas, many of us are still not sure about the answers! Gases that trap heat in the atmosphere are often called greenhouse gases. This section of the EPA Climate Change Site provides information and data on emissions of greenhouse gases to Earth’s atmosphere, and also the removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. For more information on the science of climate change, please visit EPA's climate change science home page.


Some greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur naturally and are emitted to the atmosphere through natural processes and human activities. Other greenhouse gases (e.g., fluorinated gases) are created and emitted solely through human activities. The principal greenhouse gases that enter the atmosphere because of human activities are: Carbon Dioxide (CO2): Carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere through the burning of fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal), solid waste, trees and wood products, and also as a result of other chemical reactions (e.g., manufacture

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predicted spreading diseases, flooding, droughts, fires, disappearances of many species etc. due to global warming. Projections of future climate change suggest further global warming, sea level rise, and an increase in the frequency of some extreme weather events. The impacts of climate change can be thought of in terms of sensitivity and vulnerability. "Sensitivity" is the degree to which a particular system or sector might be affected, positively or negatively, by climate change and/or climate variability. "Vulnerability" is the degree to which a particular system or sector might be adversely affected by climate change.Mountainous areas in Europe will face glacier retreat and in Polar regions, there will be reductions in glacier extent and the thickness of glaciers. The retreat of glaciers and ice caps can cause increased volcanism. Reduction in ice cover reduces the confining pressure exerted on the volcano, increasing deviatoric stresses and potentially causing the volcano to erupt. This reduction of pressure can also cause decompression melting of material in the mantle, resulting in the generation of more magma. More than one-sixth of the world's population are supplied by meltwater from major mountain ranges. Changes in glaciers and snow cover are expected to reduce water availability for these populations. In Latin America, changes in precipitation patterns and the disappearance of glaciers will significantly affect water availability for human consumption, agriculture, and energy production. A numerical modeling study has demonstrated that seismicity or earthquake occurrence increases during unloading, such as that due to the removal of ice. The role of the oceans in global warming is a complex one. The oceans serve as a sink for carbon dioxide, taking up much that would otherwise remain in the atmosphere, but increased levels of CO2 have led to ocean acidification. Furthermore, as the temperature of the oceans increases, they become less able to absorb excess CO2. The ocean have also acted as a sink in absorbing extra heat from the atmosphere. This extra heat has been added to the climate system due to the build-up of GHGs. More than 90 percent of warm-

ing that occurred over 1960–2009 is estimated to have gone into the oceans. The amount of oxygen dissolved in the oceans may decline, with adverse consequences for ocean life. If CO2 emissions can be reduced far enough, the IPCC report estimated, the atmosphere could be stabilized at a much lower level of greenhouse effect than is forecast now. Still, the effects of global warming will be with us for many centuries, the IPCC said. The world body of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) on its latest published report on global warming narrates an increasing impact to natural systems and living things as earth's temperature rises because of global warming. Scientists have many proofs to show global warming effects. The high rate at which the arctic Greenland ice cap is melting away triggering earth quakes as pieces of ice several cubic kilometres in size break off is clear evidence (this is a first time happening in the history of Earth). This is how effective global warming is! The trend of global warming and the heating effects are strong in melting of ice, rising global mean sea level, ocean salinity, wind patterns and aspects of extreme weather including droughts, heat waves and the intensity of tropical cyclones. Scientists caution that the effects of climate change due to global warming are rampant throughout the World. A huge change is underway across the globe and in its atmosphere, they report, that is affecting not only nature, but the lives and homes of millions of people. Changes caused by global warming can be measured from the highest mountains to deep in the oceans and are leading to extinction for parts of earth's rich biodiversity. For humans, the changes in climate owing to global warming can spell the doom! According to IPCC reports on global warming, temperatures are sure to rise faster in the next decades than they did during the same time span in the last half of the 20th century and it will follow with catastrophic consequences. Researchers are pinning the cause of global warming directly on pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Is it too late to prevent global warming effects on our future generations? If we

show some real sense and will-power to take concrete steps, then we can reduce the impact of global warming on our lives. In fact all the nations in the world have to unite their actions towards preventing global warming and preservation of our environment. There are simple tips that can lessen global warming include: advocating teleconferences instead of flying, less use of automobiles, more usage of recycled and energy-saving products, planting more trees, using public transportation in and between cities all of which reduces the green house emissions. So let us first start from our own courtyard…our simple and determined efforts will surely inspire many others and collectively we can save our good earth and ourselves! Let’s use cleaner (bio-fuel), more efficient vehicles and reduce driving: one gallon of gas burned creates 20 pounds of CO2, the main promoter of global warming. An efficient world body energy policy should be developed moving away from fossil fuels. We can replace bulbs with low-voltage fluorescents and buy renewable energy, like wind and solar generated and also discipline ourselves with reduced use of air conditioners and heaters. The UN secretary general has recently shown a great example towards reducing global warming by setting the A/C two degrees up. First thing is awareness; tell your friends about global warming, explain the effects of global warming, how global warming can be prevented and how we can save earth from the consequences of global warming.

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The Difference between Carbon Offsets and Renewable Energy Credits

About the Author James Nash is a climate scientist with Greatest Planet ( Greatest Planet is a non-profit environmental organization specialising in carbon offset investments. James Nash is solely responsible for the contents of this article

ou think you understand renewable energy credits. You're sure you understand Carbon Offsets. You are fuzzy on the details about how they differ and when the purchase of one or the other might be appropriate. Never fear! This article explains the key differences, and similarities, between the two. The first difference is the way that offsets and Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) are measured. Carbon offsets are measured in metric tons of C02 or C02 Equivalent. Renewable Energy Credits are measured in kilowatt hours, which are a standard electricity measurement metric. A kilowatt hour is the amount of work that can be performed by one kilowatt of energy in one hour. Picture a lonely, dim light bulb hanging from the ceiling that turns on for one hour each day by which you feverishly darn socks in a carbon constrained world; that's a watt, and for the privilege of its use, you'll be charged for 1/1000 kwh of electricity each day. These days, you probably use a several kwh per day. The second difference between carbon offsets and renewable energy credits is that renewable energy credits only come from renewable energy projects (solar, wind geothermal, biofuels, etc.) while carbon offsets can come from all dif-

ferent kinds of projects, including renewable energy generation, that reduce the level of greenhouse gases that are entering the atmosphere. To put it another way, RECs are primarily concerned with promoting the generation of clean energy, while carbon offsets are primarily concerned with preventing the emissions that enter the atmosphere. They are both systems that have developed to deal with global warming systematically, but they have different approaches. RECs are forward looking, focused on building a clean energy economy and providing an extra incentive for the creation of renewable energy, while carbon offsets are oriented in the present, dealing with preventing greenhouse gases from entering the atmosphere right now. Because of these different measurement systems and the different foci of the two programs, RECs and carbon offsets have different precision rates when it comes to carbon. Carbon offsets are all about exactitude, and many of the discussions about the efficacy of offsets center around the degree of certainty a buyer has that the exact amount of carbon s/he has paid for is actually being prevented or captured. RECs, on the other hand, are measured in kilowatt hours, and the carbon con(Continued on page 11)

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tent of that 'saved' kwh differs depending on the location of the project and the quality of the local electricity. The dirtier the local electricity, the more carbon an REC 'saves.' Different utilities around the country use different mixes of energy sources, from coal to natural gas to renewables, to create electricity. These sources vary widely in their carbon content. To make matters even more confusing, a utility might even change the mix it uses depending on the time of day- when peak load sets in they might have to rely on dirtier power sources than they would otherwise. So, it's impossible to say exactly how much carbon a clean kwh of renewable energy 'offsets.' The closest we can get is to use the 'emissions factor' for energy from the local utility, which is the average emissions for the mix of sources that the utility uses to create power, and multiply it by the number of kilowatt hours to produce an estimate of the carbon saved per kilowatt. But it will always be an estimate. This is not to say that RECs are no good. They are an extremely effective way to promote clean energy because they give the providers and extra incentive to keep creating clean energy and we need all the incentives we can get to move toward a clean energy economy. RECs just aren't the most accurate way to offset carbon. I highly recommend using RECs to offset electricity use, because your electric bills will have a record of the exact number of kwh you used, and you can buy RECs to account for all the dirty emissions your plugged-in Macbook caused. Then, you can buy carbon offsets to cover all your driving and flying. 'But what about renewable carbon offsets?', you say. 'Those seem like the best of both worlds!' I'm getting there. Those are good to, and if you really value the promotion of clean energy despite some of the accuracy issues, you can buy renewable energy offsets. Many times offsets will actually come from the exact same projects as the RECs, but the nice thing about buying the offset version instead of buying RECs and doing the calculations yourself is that someone else, hopefully a third party verifier, is determining how much carbon each kwh of clean energy replaced. So you don't have to! Rest easy, and lay off the carbon guilt.

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280Mw more from Geothermal
poration Agency and French Development Agency, AFD and KenGen. The project will help the nation moving way from over-reliance on hydrogeneration, which is unpredictable given that it relies on the weather conditions and the high cost of the fuel fired generation. By 2014, the project will raise the country’s total capacity by 25 per cent at a go, pumping in 280MW of power into the national grid. According to KenGen, the contractors are already on site and have laid the groundwork for the construction expected to be completed in two years. The main plant will be constructed by a consortium of contractors including Japan’s Toyota Tsusho Corp and South Korea’s Hyundai Engineering & Construction. Sinopec of China is also on site, developing a steam field, while the construction of a substation and transmission is in the hands of KEC of India. Geothermal power is cheaper than hydro and diesel generation of power and with increased production comes the promise of lower priced electricity to the consumer. “Studies have confirmed a further 560MW potential in the Olkaria complex. This is our next focus after the 280MW project. Our plans are to have geothermal contribute above 50 per cent of our total electricity capacity in five years time, so that the country can avoid expensive modes of generation,” Mr Njoroge, the MD Kengen, said. According to Kibaki “This project will firmly put Kenya on the path to Vision 2030, since affordable, reliable and adequate power are key to the attainment of this economic growth blue print,” The power generation firm is working on other issues including relocating families that will be displaced by the project. According to new timelines, local infrastructure and resettlement of people around the project that began last month should be completed by February 2013. The Olkaria complex currently generating 15OMW of power will pride in the production of 430WM once the project is complete in 2014. The government plan to raise power output to 3,750 MW by 2018 and more than 15,000MW by 2030 to meet growing demand in line with Vision 2030 from the current 1533MW Kenya is endowed with geothermal resources mainly located in the Rift Valley. It is estimated conservatively that the Kenya Rift has a potential of greater 2000 MWe of Geothermal Power. A total of twenty sites have been earmarked for further investigation. Exploration first started by drilling two wells in 1956 in Olkaria I and was followed by increased interest in the 1970s. Initial production started in 1981 when the first plant of 15MW was commissioned in Olkaria I. The main problem hindering Geothermal Power development is one of high tariffs. The Government needs to raise funds both internally and through donor support in order to undertake geothermal resource assessment. For tariffs to be low the government needs to undertake exploration, including steam field development. The Olkaria geothermal field covers an area of approximately 70 km2.

n Monday, 23rd July, 2012 Kenyan president, Hon. Mwai Kibaki presided over the groundbreaking ceremony for a Sh82.5 billion geothermal power project, officially kicking off the construction of Kenya’s single largest green energy generation plant ever undertaken Kengen, the kenya power producer. The project is so timely as it comes at a time when the country is faced with a steady increase in power demand and the unreliability of hydroelectric power, which is often affected by drought. The 280MW Olkaria geothermal project will encompass two plants, each having two units and generating a total of 140MW of electricity from geothermal sources. The project will be based in the Olkaria complex where two other geothermal plants – Olkaria I and Olkaria II. The plant is funded jointly by the Kenya Government, World Bank, Germany’s Development Bank KfW, European Investment Bank, Japan International Cor-


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The future is great with solar Energy,
It is Greener

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Energy Conservation Tips
1. Buy an energy monitoring device There is an old saying that goes "if you can't measure it, you can't manage it". The simple way to find the true 'real-time' cost of the energy being consumed in your home is by using a wireless smart meter in your home. The results will astound you! 2. Switch to energy saving light bulbs Energy saving light bulbs use up to 80% less energy than an ordinary light bulb and last up to 10 times longer. Each energy saving light bulb that you purchase will pay for itself in around 8 months time and will save you around £60 over its lifetime. 5. Insulate pipes Using spiral pipe wrap you can easily insulate pipes to keep the heat in or to stop them freezing up in the cold weather. Pipe wrap is an alternative to polystyrene / foam tubing and is more economical and far easier to fit by simply wrapping it round and securing it with tape. 6. Cover up your hot and cold water tanks Insulating your hot water tank with a jacket is a low cost and effective way to save energy. A jacket will only cost a few pounds and with all the heat it traps in, will pay for itself within months. Fit one that is at least 75mm (3") thick and you could save around £20 per year. A cover for your cold water tank is a good idea as it will prevent it freezing in sub zero temperatures. 7. Buy a standby saver A standby saving device will ensure that your electrical equipment is not left in the 'standby' mode. this is costing the average home £37 per year. The easy thing to do is get out of your chair and turn electrical equipment off at the wall. With a standby saver, you don't even need to do that! 8. Buy an energy saving kettle An energy saving kettle will use up to 65% less energy than an ordinary kettle. Save water, energy and time. Choose from an Eco kettle which also saves water or a Tefal Quick cup which is super fast, boiling water for a cup of tea in three seconds. 9. choose solar lights outdoors Choose solar powered lights for doorways and in the garden. They cost nothing to run and come on at dusk and go off at dawn. An energy saving alternative to leaving lights on all night. 10. Look for alternatives to using electricity and batteries. There a mini solar panels for sheds and garages, try solar powered water features to put in the garden, fountains and pond pumps also work from solar power from spring to early Winter. Use wind-up technology for gadgets such as torches and radios and for charging mobile phones. You can even shave with a wind-up shaver!

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LED lights the future
By Ben Anton
slightly higher upfront costs of LED lights make sense. LED lighting is finding its way into many niche markets. You can get a LED flashlight that also uses less battery energy, ensuring that the next time the power goes out in your home, you can be confident that your batteries will last. There are also LED lanterns that you can choose from that are ideal for camping or hunting. They last for considerably longer than other lanterns because they use 10 times less energy to run than standard incandescent bulbs and even less energy than a kerosene lantern. For LED home lighting, there are many options available other than just bulbs. You can find LED light fixtures for your home, indoor and out, that will provide low energy, environmentally-friendly lighting that can save you money on your energy bill. We all are challenged to do our part to conserve energy. By making small adjustments to the way we live, we can begin to make an impact on our world. One small change we all can make is to switch our home and outdoor light fixtures to LED light options. There are a large number of options for LED home lighting and LED camping and hunting outdoor equipment available on the market, all of which provide the energy efficiency benefits inherent in LED products. The benefits can become apparent very quickly as we begin to see our energy bill costs reduce over a period of a few months.


ED lights are a wonderful invention that has changed the way the world is lit. Not only are they long lasting, they have many environmental benefits. LED lights are four times more efficient than a regular incandescent light bulb and last 10 times as long. LED lights also use between 50 and 80 percent less energy than an incandescent bulb. LED lights are considerably less expensive to operate, however are a little more expensive to purchase. LED home lighting requires only one third of the energy that an incandescent bulb will use. A single 18-watt LED light can replace a 75-watt incandescent and in the lifetime of the LED light, will save 570 kWh of energy. At a basic eight cents per kilowatt rate, that equals $45 dollars in energy bill savings. By switching to low energy LED home lighting in your home, even one bulb will keep one half of a ton of carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere through the lifetime of the bulb instead of using incandescent bulbs. Switching also keeps sulfur oxide and nuclear waste out of the atmosphere as well, leading to a cleaner world and one that will last much longer. By

simply switching, our environment could easily revitalize itself without having to deal with the excess carbon dioxide, sulfur oxide and nuclear waste emissions that are currently being released into the atmosphere every day. Even changing one lonely bulb in every home to LED home lighting would make a significant impact on the environment. If every home in the United States were to switch to LED home lighting, 90 power plants could be retired, a potentially powerful impact to the long-term health of the environment. Being energy efficient and environmentally conscious doesn’t have to disrupt your entire life. The switch is as difficult as changing one light bulb in your home, the results of which would save you money on your electricity bill each month. Just one home lighting fixture, one light bulb can be a positive step forward for your household. Take a look around your home and count how many bulbs you use and consider how often you change them. Say, for example that you change a bulb every two months. Now, consider that by changing them all to LED lighting for your home, you could leave them and not have to replace them for 20 months. The

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Are you eating your future by
Destroying the environment?

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Solar Powered Flight
By Fredrick M

he Solar Impulse is not the first solar airplane ever designed, but it is certainly the most ambitious. None of its predecessors has ever managed to fly right through the night with a pilot on board. The gigantic, but ultra-lightweight dimensions of this revolutionary airplane - capable of flying day and night without fuel are its trademark feature. Every one of its take-offs, propelled silently by its four electric motors, inspires us to consider using clean, new technologies to free our society, little by little, from dependence on fossil energy. To build it, the whole team had to push back the frontiers of knowledge in materials science, energy management and the man-machine interface. DRIVER OF PROGRESS Aviation has always been an outstanding agent of progress and innovation. It transformed the 20th Century, and set whole generations dreaming. Today, the world faces major challenges, and aviation must continue to show the way forward. The team behind Solar Impulse is not to revolutionize the aviation industry – it


would be stupid and pretentious to even attempt this – but instead to use the power of this airborne symbol to help change people’s minds about renewable energies. Aviation, for its part, must clearly change to survive, given the constant rise in the price of kerosene and CO2 taxes.
Technical datasheet

Wingspan 63.4 meters Length 2.85 meters Height 6.40 meters Weight 1600kg Powerplant: 4 brushless, sensorless engines each developing 10Hp Monocrystalline silicon solar cells: 11,628 (10,748 on the wing, 880 on the horizontal stabilizer Average flying speed: 35Km/h Maximum altitude 8500 meters (27900 ft) But it is obvious that, unlike Solar Impulse, airliners’ engines are not about to start functioning without fuel. The solar airplane simply demonstrates that “less can mean more”. “Our airplane is not designed to carry passengers, but to carry a message.” Bertrand Piccard “From the very start of the project, we understood that our primary

goal was to save energy.” André Borschberg At midday, each square meter of land surface receives, in the form of light energy, the equivalent of 1000 watts, or 1.3 horsepower of light power. Over 24 hours, this sun energy averages out at just 250W/m². With 200m² of photovoltaic cells and a 12 % total efficiency of the propulsion chain, the plane’s motors achieve an average power of 8 HP or 6kW. That’s roughly the amount of power the Wright brothers had available to them in 1903 when they made their first powered flight. And it is with that energy, optimized from the solar panel to the propeller, that Solar Impulse managed to fly day and night without fuel! The Solar Impulse is not the first solar airplane ever designed, but it is certainly the most ambitious. None of its predecessors has ever managed to fly right through the night with a pilot on board. Solar aviation began with model aircraft in the 1970s, when affordable solar cells appeared on the market. But it was not until 1980 that the first human flights were realized. SOLAR AVIATION HISTORY
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Solar aviation began with model aircraft in the 1970s, when affordable solar cells appeared on the market. But it was not until 1980 that the first human flights were realized. In the United States, Paul MacCready's team developed the Gossamer Penguin, which opened up the way for the Solar Challenger. This aircraft, with a maximum power of 2.5 kW, succeeded in crossing the Channel in 1981 and in quick succession covered distances of several hundred kilometers with an endurance of several hours. In Europe, during this time, Günter Rochelt was making his first flights with the Solair 1 fitted with 2500 photovoltaic cells, generating up to 2.2kW. In 1990, American Eric Raymond crossed the United States withSunseeker in 21 stages and 121 flying hours over a period of almost two months. The longest leg was 400 kilometers. TheSunseeker was a solar motorglider with a glide angle of 30 and an empty weight of 89 kg, and was equipped with amorphous silicon solar cells. In the middle of the 1990s, several airplanes were built to participate in the ‘Berblinger’ competition. The aim was to be able to climb to an altitude of 450m with the aid of batteries and to maintain horizontal flight with solar energy power of at least 500W/m2 , corresponding to about half of the power emitted by the sun at midday on the equator. The prize was won in 1996 by Professeur Voit-Nitschmann’s team from Stuttgart University, with Icaré II (25 meters wingspan with 26 m² of solar cells.) Even if it could not carry a pilot, one must not forget Helios, developed by the American company AeroVironment for NASA. This remote-controlled aircraft, with a wingspan of more than 70 meters, established a record altitude of nearly 30 000 meters in 2001. It was destroyed during flight two years later as a result of turbulence, and crashed into the Pacific Ocean. In 2005, Alan Cocconi, founder of AC Propulsion, succeeded in flying an unmanned airplane (drone) with a 5metre wingspan for 48 hours non-stop, propelled entirely by solar energy. This was the first time a device of this type was able to fly through a whole night, thanks to the energy collected by, and stored in, the solar batteries mounted on the plane. Zephyr From 9 to 23 July 2010, the Anglo-US company QuinetiQ made a non-stop flight of 336 hours, 22 minutes (14 days) with its drone Zephyr (27 kg, wingspan 12m), at an altitude of 21,562 m.

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A Primer On Alternative Power
By Michele Bery
hanks to the advent of alternative power, no longer must we rely on depleting the planet of its natural resources, burning fossil fuels that cause pollution of the atmosphere, depletion of the ozone layer, can potentially be unstable (as in nuclear energy), and continues to increase in cost year after year. The main sources of alternative power are the following: energy producing crops: synthetic biofuels and direct combustion; wind power and power from waves and tides; hydroelectric (water) power; solar power: heat and electricity; heat power: from manmade and natural waste products and from the making of synthetic biofuels; By definition, an energy resource is renewable if it is replaced at a rate equal to or faster than the rate at which it is consumed. Renewable energy is therefore also considered sustainable energy, since it will continue to be available in unending supply even as it is being utilized. Renewable energy has also been given the moniker alternative en-


ergy in reference to the alternative it offers to conventional, non-renewable sources. Renewable energy can be utilized in one of two ways: directly: as in water mills, windmills, solar ovens, geothermal heating; indirectly: using the renewable resources to create other sources of power, either as fuels (biodiesel, bioethanol, biogas) or by generating electricity (wind turbines, solar panels). Before renewable energy replaces the conventional sources of power that we’re used to (ie. public utility grid power), it will take years of research and development, continually studying, experimenting, improving, and innovating. The study of renewable energy, its applications and repercussions is concerned with environmental, economical, social, and political factors. The reasons for switching from conventional, non-renewable energy to renewable energy are vast and varied, and the list grows larger every day. Among them are: It has a small to nil environmental impact with little to no harmful emissions, as a result supporting and protecting our natural eco-

system for future generations to enjoy; Supplementing utility power with renewable power allows you a precious and invaluable backup system in the case of emergencies such as power outages and shortages; Once a renewable energy system is installed, the energy costs a consistent amount to use year-round – as opposed to utilities that fluctuate in price throughout the year based on seasonal as well as socio -political factors; It is energy that is used in the same location where it is produced this cuts down considerably on transportation and distribution costs; Many local and state governments as well as the federal government offer incentives in the form of tax breaks for the production and use of renewable energies; If you produce more power using renewable resources than you need for your own personal use, you can actually sell that power back to the utility companies. To complete a truly wellrounded discussion on renewable energy, there must be equal time given to its drawbacks as to its

benefits. The most prevalent concerns about the long-term viability of renewable energies are that it is extremely dependent on numerous climactic factors and that it is considered diluted energy in that much more is needed to generate much less power. These so-called drawbacks, however, are no reason not to continue a fervent pursuit of incorporating renewable energy usage into more and more parts of our everyday lives. They are only to keep us present to the issues we must address in order to make a widespread switch to renewable energies a viable reality.

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Clean Energy stamps out Kerosene
By Anthony & Russ


lean Energy Foundation Improving Quality of Life in Kenya With Nokero’s Solar Lights Moses Mucigu (in the photo) can afford to smile as he holds a solar charged Nokero N100 bulb and his old tin kerosene lamp. The solar charged bulb was provided by the Clean Energy Foundation (CEF) in an effort to “Stamp out tin kerosene lamps” in Africa. This kind of news is often horrific in Kenya: “In Nairobi, Kenya two small children were burned to death when a fire razed their house. The children, only one and three, were left under the care of their five-year-old sister when their parents went to work on their farm around 6 a.m. According to neighbors, the older sister left the house to hunt for white ants nearby. A tin kerosene lamp that was lighted exploded, setting the mud walled house where the children were sleeping on fire. The parents and the villagers attempted to save the children, but failed. The area Chief said the house was razed and that the two children were burned beyond recognition.” The United Nations estimates that 1.5 billion people across the globe still live without electricity, including 85 percent of Kenyans. Millions of rural Kenyans use tin lamps fueled by kerosene to provide light after it gets dark, but one organiza-

tion is trying to change that because the lamps cause fires and emit harmful pollutants. They are also expensive. The Clean Energy Foundation (CEF), a for profit organization based in Phoenix, Arizona, has a subsidiary office in Nairobi, Kenya that offers a safer, more affordable alternative to kerosene lamps. The renewable energy comes in the form of solarpowered light bulbs and replaces dangerous kerosene lamps that produce significantly less light than solar powered bulbs. Kenyan Moses Mucigu, a casual laborer with a wife and young daughter, lives in Kiambu County in a village called Muhara. He tills his own land and finds work at construction sites. Money is tight. Mucigu received a solar-powered Nokero N100 bulb from CEF in December. The product, which costs about $15, is made by Nokero, a Denver-based company whose name means No Kerosene. The bulb has replaced Mucigu’s kerosene lamp, which emitted unhealthy particulates, something Mucigu wanted his young daughter to avoid. Mucigu uses his new light for studying, as a flashlight for walking to town at night, and everything else he does when darkness arrives in his Kenyan village. He receives six hours of light from the bulb, which collects energy from the sun by day and releases clean, non-toxic light at night. "Nilisahau mambo ya ma-

futa,” Mr. Mucigu said. It means: "I have now forgotten (about) buying kerosene.” Mucigu’s situation is typical; During the evening in most rural communities in developing countries like Kenya the work in the field stops and people return home because there is no light to illuminate their workplaces. After dark, most homes in poor areas are lit by two kerosene lamps; one in the main house and the other in the kitchen, which is typically a separate structure. The kerosene lamp, a simple device which consists of a tin tank and a wick, is a common source of light for people in Kenya, but it’s problematic to say the least. "Lighting the lamp" is a daily ritual that starts just before dusk. Before the lamp is lit, families check to see if there is enough kerosene. This is done by shaking the lamp vigorously. The hope is that none of it spills on them. Anthony Muiruri, employed by Clean Energy Foundation in Nairobi, Kenya, has seen firsthand the negative effects of kerosene lamps. Muiruri said children use the lamps as a source of light to study during the evening, but it isn’t easy. The lamps cast long shadows, so the children have to sit next to the lamp, often in crowded conditions. “They inhale harmful toxins from the lamps,” says Muiruri. “Their vision is affected. Their breathing
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gets poorer from repeated use.” There is mounting evidence that exposure to indoor air pollution increases the likelihood of common, serious health problems, including childhood pneumonia and chronic lung disease. Stefano Pagiola, in his book Generating Public Sector Resources to Finance Sustainable Development, said “exposure to indoor air pollution is a major factor contributing to the global burden of disease, including acute respiratory infections in children, chronic obstructive lung diseases such as asthma and bronchitis, lung cancer and still births.” The World Bank estimates that breathing kerosene fumes from an indoor lamp is equivalent to smoking two packs of cigarettes a day, and the Lumina Project estimates that nearly one million people a year die from kerosene lamp fires. An additional 1.6 million are estimated to die from the long term effects of indoor air pollution. Pagiola estimates indicate exposure to indoor air pollution in developing countries causes over 2 million deaths each year with 75 percent in rural areas. “In this day and age, there’s no reason that should happen,” said Steve Katsaros, who invented the Nokero solar light bulb used by Mucigu and other CEF clients. “We have the technology and know-how to solve this problem.” Katsaros and Nokero took on the problem of kerosene lighting by trademarking the world’s only solar light bulb in June of last year. They followed up in November with a new version of the bulb, one which can last 6-8 hours on one day’s charge, and which is 60 percent brighter than the original version. Katseros’ vision is to improve everyday life for millions worldwide. When family members have to get something from the other room or outside, they must take the lamp with them. “Everyone left inside the house waits in darkness until the lamp returns,” Muiruri said. “Sometimes, because the lamp has an open flame, the wind blows it out, which only adds to the anxiety.

Every evening you have to make sure the match box is near you when you go to sleep.” Once the family is finished with whatever they were doing that evening, the person appointed to “turn off” the light escorts the rest of the family to their bedrooms. Then they return to bed with the lamp beside it. They blow the flame off the lamp to put it out. For kids who fall asleep while studying, they risk inhaling poisonous gases and soot or worse, knocking over the lamp, which could spill the kerosene on the books. It’s a fire hazard. Sometimes the kerosene in the lamp gets really hot and explodes like it did that dreadful day in the Kanyamaji village. The Clean Energy Foundation knows there is a better, cleaner, more affordable and safer lighting solution. In rural areas renewable resources like the Nokero light bulbs are helping improve learning conditions. In Kenya, kerosene for a family's small tin lamp costs about $2.5 per week or between 850 and 1,200 Kenya Shillings (KES) monthly. That’s approximately $10 to $15 each month to light their homes. In other developing countries kerosene is a big part of the daily budget. According to Mr. Pagiola, “in rural Nepal, where lighting is generally achieved by the use of kerosene lamps, the kerosene bill accounts for 10 to 20 percent of a typical families earnings.” Muiruri of CEF said some families can go for a week without kerosene to light the lamp because they do not have money to buy the fuel. CEF’s clients can upgrade to a more advanced solar system if they choose. The bulb offers a portable lighting solution and is the smallest system of multiple solutions that CEF sells. They have larger roof mounted solar panels that can power multiple lights for the entire home, charge cell phones, run fans, radios, and televisions. Because a great majority (85 percent) of the Kenyan population is off grid and does not have easy access to electricity, only large cities like Nairobi have an electric utility service available. Solar is a better

option for most people in Kenya, and CEF can size systems to customer’s needs and budgets. Even in the bigger cities like Nairobi, where the two small children died from the fire caused by the kerosene lamp, there is widespread concern. At night, kerosene lamps and illegal connections to the city's main power supply provide intermittent light across the region. It’s a problem that CEF is helping to solve. By making solar lighting products in Africa available, CEF hopes to reduce the use of kerosene lamps, save lives and money, improve health conditions, provide brighter lighting alternatives and improve education. It’s short-term goal is to partner with like-minded organizations to enhance its distribution network and ultimately improve the lives of millions of people. More information: Clean Energy Foundation 1411 South 47th Avenue St. #110 Phoenix, AZ 85043 (602) 278-6545

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Reason why you need Energy Audit
tives. An energy audit consists of three main segments: understanding energy costs, identifying potential savings and reporting cost beneficial recommendations. Energy concerns that you may be identified for your facility during energy are typically associated with energy inefficiency, which results in excessively high heating, cooling and electrical costs. Energy efficiency audits can lead to lower energy expenses, increased production reliability, increased productivity, increased comfort of building occupants and reduced environmental impacts. With today’s high energy costs and increased emphasis on energy conservation and environmental restrictions, more facility owners need an Energy Audit to improve energy efficiency, increase energy savings and help the environment in the process. People need to understand that energy audits and improvements can pay for themselves. For example, regarding energy audit benefits, improved energy efficiency from renovations are the only home improvements that can actually pay you back.The average energy savings for a home that undergoes home energy performance improvements is over 20%, with many homeowners saving 40% or more. Some of the greatest effects on energy use are user behavior, climate, and age of the home. An energy audit may therefore include an interview of the facility owner to understand their patterns of use over time. Advances in computer-based thermal modeling can take into account many variables affecting energy use. Generally, four levels of analysis can be outlined: Benchmarking: This first analysis consists in a preliminary Whole Building Energy Use analysis based on the analysis of the historic utility use and costs and the comparison of the performances of the buildings to those of similar buildings. This allows determining if further analysis is required; Walk-through audit: Preliminary analysis made to assess building energy efficiency to identify simple and low-cost improvements but also a list of energy conservation measures (ECMs, or energy conservation opportunities, ECOs) to orient the future detailed audit. This inspection is based on visual verifications,
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n energy audit is an inspection, survey and analysis of energy flows for energy conservation in a building, process or system to reduce the amount of energy input into the system without negatively affecting the output(s). When the object of study is an occupied building then reducing energy consumption while maintaining or improving human comfort, health and safety are of primary concern. Beyond simply identifying the sources of energy use, an energy audit seeks to prioritize the energy uses according to the greatest to least cost effective opportunities for energy savings. The rationale behind conducting energy audits is to provide information needed to establish or improve the energy management program as well as provide a baseline against which to compare the results of any management initia-

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study of installed equipment and operating data and detailed analysis of recorded energy consumption collected during the benchmarking phase; Detailed/General energy audit: Based on the results of the preaudit, this type of energy audit consists in energy use survey in order to provide a comprehensive analysis of the studied installation, a more detailed analysis of the facility, a breakdown of the energy use and a first quantitative evaluation of the ECOs/ECMs selected to correct the defects or improve the existing installation. This level of analysis can involve advanced onsite measurements and sophisticated computer based simulation tools to evaluate precisely the selected energy retrofits; Investment-Grade audit: Detailed Analysis of Capital-Intensive Modifications focusing on potential costly ECOs requiring rigorous engineering study. Summarized benefits of Energy Audit The direct benefits of conducting energy audits include the financial, operational and environmental. FINANCIAL BENEFITS Financial benefits may accrue from low, medium or high cost investments measures and can be realised in several ways, not necessarily dependent on the level of investment. The benefits are as follows: Reduced expenditure on energy; e.g., by reducing consumption or changing tariff or fuel type. Reduced maintenance cost; e.g., following improved utilisation of plant and optimisation in operation. Saving in other costs; e.g., water charges, where demand is reduced. Reduced capital expenditure; e.g., where increased efficiency avoids the need for additional plant or supply capacity or makes possible ac-

curate sizing of any replacement plant. More productive use of labour where measures release staff for other duties; e.g., automated control systems. Increased productivity where working conditions are improved; e.g., improved temperature levels, airflow, etc Hedging against forecast increases in energy and water costs with the introduction of the carbon emissions trading scheme. OPERATIONAL BENEFITS In addition to direct cost benefits, further benefits can be achieved by optimizing the operation of a building, process or plant. Ultimately, these may well have financial implications. The information made available to management on energy costs and use could in itself be found invaluable in asset planning and decision making. Measures can also lead to improved working practices or conditions. ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS Environmental benefits that arise from using energy more efficiently may include Reduction of CO2 and other emissions both from the site itself and upstream of energy suppliers that can be harmful to the environment; Reduction of environmental impacts related to transmission, delivery or transport of energy; Reduction of regional and national energy demand; Conservation of natural resources particularly fossil fuels and other non-renewable fuels. Measures can be implemented in a way that improves the quality of the working environment, but not necessarily reducing energy cost, as follows: Comfort might be improved by draft -proofing, insulating the building fabric, resetting controls, providing additional controls or installing alternative systems. Changes in the

temperature, humidity or lighting levels may be desirable. Productivity can be increased because the occupants are more satisfied with the working environment. Closer control of space conditions can be essential to the effective operation of buildings or equipment and could result in higher standards of quality and safety. MARKETING BENEFITS Now more than ever, companies are finding that going green makes good marketing sense. As the urgency of climate change becomes more apparent companies and clients are looking to support green businesses and products. Organisations will achieve recognition by the community, including potential customers by being environmentally responsible

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We are write about products
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Rwanda, the Renewable Energy Virgin?
Compiled by Anthony Njoroge
he country is at peace and among the most stable on the continent. Rwanda was named top performer in the Doing Business 2010 report, among the ten most improved economies in 2011, and ranked 3rd easiest place to do business in Sub-Saharan Africa, after Mauritius & South Africa, World Bank DB Report 2013. A reliable supply of energy is a basic prerequisite for Rwanda economic development and improvement of living standards for all. No country has had sustained development without a corresponding increase in energy demand per capita, and Rwanda will be no exception. In one of the recent Leadership Retreat held at Gako Military Academy, President Paul Kagame's concern was specifically towards turning the many energy prospects into tangible projects. The same sentiments were raised in a Rwanda Energy Investors Forum held at the end of February 2012 in Rwanda capital, Kigali. The forum was attended by the existing and prospective investors in the sector, from Rwanda, region and beyond to discussed the opportunities in the energy sector and the investment climate. Rwanda currently has 100.5 MW of electricity installed On-Grid capacity and 87.5 MW available capacity with energy demand projected to shoot to


641 MW by 2017. Out of the available 87.5 MW capacity today, 15.7% is imported, 57.4% locally generated from Hydro and 38.7% locally generated from Thermal. There are plans to phase out thermal from the grid because it is costly. Total electricity connections in the country stand at over 260,000 customers. Over the past few years, the Government of Rwanda has vested a lot of efforts and resources to create a conducive investment environment in the energy sector. Rwanda targets to electrify 100% of Health Centers and administrative centers up to sector level, electrify 50% of all schools in the country, embrace energy diversification and security and Strengthening the governance framework and Institutional capacity. In July 2011, the new Electricity Law was passed. It governs the activities of electric power production, transmission, distribution and trading both within and outside Rwanda. The law liberalizes the electricity sector and brings about harmonious development of the energy sector in the country. The target is to accelerate electricity generation mix proposed in the "Electricity Development Strategy 2011-2017", projecting to generate 1,000 MW from both the indigenous energy resources and
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from shared energy resources with neighboring countries. In line with this, the Rwanda Energy, Water and Sanitation Authority (EWSA) was established in 2011 with the responsibility of planning and implementation of power projects in the country. Rwanda's major rivers have proven potential to support micro hydropower plants in a total of 333 sites across Rwanda. Small hydropower projects that will generate 20.9 MW are currently under construction and will be operational by 2013. There are many more medium hydropower plants of between 12-17 MW. Lake Kivu, covering 2,400 sq km and located in the East African Rift Zone between Rwanda and the DRC, has an estimated 120 to 250 million cubic meters of Methane generated annually. Rwanda has plans to utilize this resource to develop methane-to power projects. The methane resource in Lake Kivu is estimated to be sufficient to generate 700 MW of electricity over a period of 55 years. Rwanda's share of the total generation potential is about 350 MW, with th e rest b eing DR c's share. KivuWatt, a subsidiary of Contour Global (USA), is developing a 100 MW plant with a 25 MW 1st Phase to be running by the end of 2012, and 75 MW 2nd Phase by 2015. Phase I is currently under construction. KP1, a 4.5 MW pilot plant developed by Government of Rwanda, is operational, generating about about 1.5 MW since late 2007. The Government is in negotiations with a strategic partner to scale-up capacity to 50MW in phases. Transforming methane-topower presents exciting financing opportunities of 25 MW of KivuWatt Phase I financed by a lending syndicate – Emerging Africa Infrastructure Fund and Africa Development

Bank (AfDB). The 75 MW of Phase 2 requires financing. The 4.5 MW REC pilot plant was developed as a Private Public Partnership and may be restructured depending on the new partners and investors. Financing institutions such as AfDB, World Bank and EU and other bilateral donors and development partners are ready to support eligible projects. The Government of Rwanda considers providing other incentives. On the legal and regulation side, a draft Gas Law and Regulations for methane projects is under review by Parliament, and is to be gazetted soon. Also, a draft concession Agreement and draft (Power Purchase Agreement) PPA is under development for new projects. Rwanda lies along the Western branch of the East Africa Rift valley– an area with young volcanism, seismic and magmatic activity. There are 4 geothermal prospects, 3 in the Northern Region (Gisenyi, Karisimbi and Kinigi) associated with volcanoes and one in the Southern region (Bugarama) associated with faults along the East Africa Rift. The potential for power generation from geothermal energy in the country is estimated to be more than 700 MW out of which 310MW is planned to be developed by 2017. Surface exploration and reconnaissance studies have been carried out in the Western region. Rwanda has conducted detailed surface studies and plans to drill three exploratory wells in August 2012 to confirm the commercial viability of geothermal-to-power projects. In order to reduce drilling and exploration risk, the Government is financing three exploratory wells in Karisimbi beginning 2012 in addition to putting in place required infrastructure (water supply, access road) to the geothermal site. A Peat Master Plan prepared by EKONO indicated that Rwanda
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has estimated reserves of 155 million tons of dry peat spread over an area of about 50,000 hectares. About 77% of peat reserves are near Akanyaru and Nyabarongo rivers and the Rwabusoro plains Potential for Peatto-Power Generation. The theoretical potential (assuming all peat bogs are exploited) for electricity energy generation from peat is estimated to be about 1,200 MW. Peat in the Rwabusoro marshland and around the Akanyaru river can fuel 450MW of electricity generation for 25 years. The Rwabusoro marshland and Rucahabi in the districts of Nyanza and Bugesera present significant opportunities for large-scale peat harvesting for power generation. Rwanda plans to develop its peat resources to generate about 200 MW of power by 2017. Two firms are mechanically harvesting peat in Rwanda. PEC (Peat Energy Company) supplies 2,000 tons per month to a cement plant. RAS (Rwanda Auto Service) supplies peat to prisons for cooking. The Government is developing a 15 MW peat-topower plant in Bugarama Rusizi district. It is also negotiating with a strategic partner to develop a 100 MW peat fired power plant in South Akanyaru prospect. The project is to be developed as a Public Private Partnership (PPP) The Government is open to discussions with investors for the development of the 100 MW plant, and is ready to sign a long term concession with a strategic investor as long as the off-take price and project structure makes socioeconomic sense. Financing institutions such as AfDB, World Bank, MIGA and other bilateral donors and development partners are willing to support eligible projects. Currently, a Peat Policy is being developed to sustainably and safely harvest peat resources for power generation. Given Rwanda's location astride the equator, it endows the

country with sufficient solar radiation intensity of approximately 5kWh/m2/ day and peak sun hours of approximately 5 hours per day. In 2006, the Government of Rwanda signed an MoU with the German state Rhineland -Palatinate to construct, own and operate a 250 kWp grid connected solar plant. The plant was constructed on the top of mount Jali in Kigali city. Since its commissioning, the plant is operating successfully. Following the successful operation of this 250 kWp solar plant and good potential for solar energy in Rwanda, the Government of Rwanda has identified and reserved 25 hectares of land for the construction of a 10 MW solar plantin Eastern Province Nyagatare District, approximately 190 km from Kigali. At the site there is a 30 Kv transmission line and a 50KvA transformer that will be upgraded to transmit the power generated from the 10 MW plant. The plant will be constructed on IPP (Independent Power Producer) basis. The PPA (Power Purchase Agreement) and a 25years Land Lease Agreement will be signed between the investor and the Government of Rwanda. Consequently, interested investors are invited to construct, own and operate the solar plant. Kigali city produces about 450 tons per day of solid waste of which between 300 and 350 tons/day is centrally collected. Using thermal technologies Kigali can, on a daily basis, transform about 100 tons of raw municipal solid to produce 1MW. The population in Kigali is expected to reach about 1.5 million by 2020, thus increasing the waste collected to about 1,000 tons per day. This presents an opportunity of a 10MW plant. Regulations regarding solid waste management (collection and disposal) have been developed. The Government is developing the strategic plans of integrated solid waste management and eventual closure of Nyanza landfill is ongoing.

Renewable Energy opportunities

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