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Microwave Engineering II Microwave Engineering II

Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu


WS 2012/2013
1 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
I d t hi (I) Impedance matching (I)
2 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
I d t hi (I) Impedance matching (I)
3 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
I d t hi (II) Impedance matching (II)
Smith chart with normalized admittance Smith chart with normalized admittance
coordinates and short stub
4 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
I d t hi ith l d Impedance matching with lumped
components
Selection criteria:
1. Relation Z
L
/Z
in
2. High /Low pass
5 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
T i i li Transmission lines
6 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
T i i li (II) Transmission lines (II)
Planar Transmission Lines and
Waveguides
Conventional Transmission Lines and
Waveguides
Good for Microwave Integrated
G d f L Di t
7 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
Good for Microwave Integrated
Circuit (MIC) Applications
Good for Long Distance
Communication
l <<
Conventional Circuit
Theory
l ~
l >>
Microwave
Engineering
Optics
l l
Wireline
Coaxial
Cable
Waveguide
Fiber
Transmission Line
1

k
H
z
1
0

k
H
z
1
0
0

k
H
z
1

M
H
z
1
0

M
H
z
1
0
0

M
H
z
1

G
H
z
1
0

G
H
z
1
0
0

G
H
z
1
0
1
4
H
z
1
0
1
5
H
z
8 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
1
1
Form lations for TL Formulations for TL
9 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
C i b t t i i Comparison between transmission
lines
10 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
L t t f di l t i Loss tangent of dielectric
)
1
( tan
Q X
R
c
c
= = o
Material
c=c c
tano
c
Material
c c
r
c
0
tano
c
FR4
c
r
= 4.5
0.014
Ceramic
c 9 9
0 0001 Ceramic
c
r
= 9.9
0.0001
Teflon
c
r
= 2.2
0.0003
G A 0 002 GaAs
c
r
= 12.9
0.002
Silcon
c
r
= 11.9
0.015
11 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
Transmission Line Media Transmission Line Media
Microstrip: w, h w, h control characteristic impedance
w
w s s
coplanar
microstrip
h Semiconductor,
alumina (Al
2
O
3
)
substrate
substrate
ground plane
microstrip or coplanar
oxide
Slow wave line
oxide
s.i. substrate
active layer
12 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
=>small velocity in medium => small
Mi t i li (I) Microstrip line (I)
13 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
Mi t i li (II) Microstrip line (II)
C
L
Z =
2
0
14 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
C l li (I) Coplanar line (I)
15 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
C l li (II) Coplanar line (II)
16 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
P id ti Power considerations
in microstrip:
device
Advantage: Since ground is on the other side of substrate device can efficiently dissipate
heat through substrate.
in coplanar:
device
Device cant dissipate heat
through substrate since ground is
at the same place as the device
gnd
17 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
at the same place as the device
Microstrip equations Microstrip equations
Dielectric filled medium Dielectric filled medium
0 0
1
0
u c
= v
Propagation velocity in air:
a)
b) Capacitance per unit length C
0
(can be calculated from electrostatic theory)
c) Characteristic impedance
( )
C j G
L j R
Z
e
e
+
+
=
0
Assumption:
1
Z
LC v and C L Z with = =
0 0
/ 1 /
Dielectric filling:
Lossless or very low loss:
0 0
1
0 C v
Z =
12 - 10 ~ c
18 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
Dielectric filling:
12 10
r
c
Di l t i fill d i fill d Dielectric filled vs. air filled
r
v
d
v
c
0
=
0 0
1
0
u c
= v less than v
0
larger than C
0 r d
C C c
0
=
v
d d
Z
C
C v d
Z
c
c
0
0
0
1 1
= = =
smaller than Z
0
0 0
1
0 C v
Z =
r
r
r
d d C
c
c
c
0
(lossless)
19 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
For microstrip For microstrip
h
,
,
0
0
Z Z Z
C C C
v v v
strip d
strip d
< <
> >
< <
u
u
where
eff
Z
strip
eff
v
Z
C C
v
u
u
c
u
c
0
0
0
=
=
=
,
0
Z Z Z
strip d
< <
u eff
strip
Z
c
u
( ) 1 1
static
h <1 t f t d di
w
c ( ) 1 1 + =
r eff
q c c where q<1, geometry factor depending on
h
w
r
, c
r eff
c c < < 1
air =
0
c
r eff
most E-field lines in substrate and a
few E-field lines outside (in air)
u-strip
the field lines outside depend on
geometry w and h
20 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
GND
Designing u strip lines
Z
0
Designing ustrip lines
C C c
Z
0
u-strip
As w | Z
0
|
As c | Z |
Z
t i
eff
Z
C L Z
C C
u
c
0
/
0
0
=
=
=
/h
5
c
r
=1
10
2
As c
r
| Z
0
|
eff
strip
Z
c
u
w/h
1. Need 1. Need to to consider consider size size of of chip chip,, loss loss,, processing processing
2. 2. Metal Metal thickness thickness t t influences influences width width: :
1. Need 1. Need to to consider consider size size of of chip chip, , loss loss, , processing processing
( )
x t
w w
2
ln 1+ + =
w = real width of line
( )
t eff
w w ln 1+ + =
t
t = t = metal thickness
f
h w for h x
h
2 2
2 / > = t
21 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
t w for w x
h
2 2
2
> > =
t
t
| | |
0
; ; Z w t when
eff
C L Z
C C
eff
/
0
= c
u
Check processing for t => affects layout
3 Frequency dependence for characteristic of lines:
C L Z /
0
=
3. Frequency dependence for characteristic of lines:
( )
( )
( )
2
1
0
d
f
f
eff r
G
f
r eff
f
+
=
=
c c
c c
( )
d
f
frequency dependent not
= static dielectric constant of substrate
= dielectric constant of u strip
r
c
( ) f c frequency dependent, not
static
= dielectric constant of u strip ( ) f
eff
c
0 2
1
09 . 0 6 . 0 ,
0
0
Z G f
h
Z
d
+ = =
u
Large Z lines or thin substrate (small h) f high less dispersive (less dependent of
22 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
Large Z
0
lines or thin substrate (small h) f
d
high less dispersive (less dependent of
frequency)
4 Losses
( )
4. Losses
( )
z
e P z P
o 2
0

=
conductor loss
o
where
power as function of
distance along line
= loss
o
conductor loss
c
o
dielectric loss
d
o
Total loss:
+ ~ o o o
Total loss:
( )
( )
( )
cm
N
z P
d c
P dz
z dP
unit
2
: =
+ ~
o
o o o
The neper (unit symbol Np) is a logarithmic unit NOT SI
( )
( ) ( )
P P
z P
G V R I
d conductive
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
+ =
=
+
o
o
The neper (unit symbol Np) is a logarithmic unit. NOT SI
unit but also used for gain and loss of electronic signals.
23 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
( ) ( ) z P z P 2 2
+ = o
L i diff t t i i Losses in different transmission
line types
Microstrip
Coplanar
Slow-wave
Microstrip Lines
R L
d c
o o o + =
G
C
24 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
C d t l (I)
A ti
conductivity
Conductor loss (I)
Assumption:
f
c
, , , o o o
( ) J
1) 1 >>
h
w
bottom of u-strip line
top
( ) x J
1
Uniform current distribution (I/w) 2)
3)
cm
dB
Z w
R
c
m
S
68 . 8 ~ o
1
= R
bottom
( ) x J
2
o o
=
S
R
sheet
resistance
o
= skin depth
| |
2
1
1
= o u t f R
S
o u e
o
2
=
S
25 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
| | u f
S
equation overestimates losses by 80 %. 2 <
h
w
for
c
o
Cond ctor loss (II) Conductor loss (II)
o | as f |
(dB) c
R
h Z
0
o
o = skin depth
o | as f |
o u e
o
2
=
S
20
40
small dependence
on thickness of
metal
S
R
attenuation attenuation factor factor::
S
c
R
h Z
0
o
20
22
0.4 0.1
h
w
biggest influence of attenuation factor is height (h) of substrate
26 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
dielectric loss o o o c c e o tan =
Dielectric loss
dielectric loss
d d
o o ~ o c c e o tan
0 r d
=
dielectric dielectric loss loss tangent tangent
c c c ' ' ' = j
c
c
o
'
' '
= tan comes from j
c
o tan
380
resistivity
( )( ) cm
cm
dB
d
O p o
( ) 7 . 11 =
r
c
0.003
330
380
( )
r
( ) 4 12.
r
= c
0.001
2
( ) GHz f
10
330
2
0 h
e
1
there is a difference in losses when using Si substrate versus GaAs substrates
GaAs GaAs:: semi insulating => shouldnt be very lossy
Si Si l ( d ti ) b t d bt i hi h i ti it b t t
27 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
Si: Si: lossy (conductive) but one can nowodays obtain high resistivity substrates
( )
cm
dB
o
Very good substrate
but cannot be used for integration
of devices (need to flip chip bond)
d
o
c
o
( )
cm
10
0
10
-1
Al
2
O
3
10
-4
f
10
-2
10
-3
=> reasonable to use Si substrate
at high frequencies
cm dB/ 6 . 0
conductor loss is higher
than substrate loss at very
hi h f
10
29
2
f
g q
( )
dB
At W b d (90GH /h 0 8)
high frequency
1
Total
( )
cm
dB
o
At W-band (90GHz; w/h=0.8)
0.5
substrate losses
conductor losses
d l
28 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
w
00
ground plane
width(mm)
Radiation losses
Radiation losses: associated with higher order modes (due to discontinuities)
Radiation losses
Radiation losses: associated with higher order modes (due to discontinuities)
( )
r
f h c / ~
2
losses
Coplanar Lines
GND
central (signal) line
Microstrip Lines
GND
GND
CPW
E

E field lines distributed No ground ideally But in reality there is a bottom


GND
E-field lines distributed
along width of microstrip
No ground ideally. But in reality there is a bottom
metal due to mounting of chip.
This backside ground plane
h th i d
29 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
changes the impedance
CPW d t CPW advantages
Z
0
field
E

Z
0
c=1
H-field
s w s
c=1
c=12
1. Compatible with components such as circulators (also ferroelectrics)
Ci l t h i it (H fi ld li )
c 12
( ) s
w w
+
2 2
/
Circulators: show no reciprocity (H-field coupling)
2. Control of properties (i.e. Z
0
) from top (without h or w/h)
( )
s
w
f Z =
0
design option (independent of processing)
30 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
3. No low frequency cutoff (due to quasi TEM propagation)
CPW di d t
1 Losses higher in CPWdue to confined Efield lines
CPW disadvantages
1. Losses higher in CPWdue to confined E field lines
field E

Conductor losses in CPW:


dx
J
Z
R
S

=
2
2
1
2
o
J
1
higher in CPW due to confined E-field lines
dx
I
Z c

2
0
2
o
c
o higher in CPW versus u-strip
31 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
CPW di d t CPW disadvantages
2. Need to re-establish ground reference to avoid parasitic modes such as slot-line mode
Connection of ground lines
via air-bridges
Crossovers to avoid parasitic modes
(i e slot line mode) (i.e. slot-line mode)
air bridge
pillar
air bridge
32 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
3. no good thermal dissipation (u-strip better)
4. ohmic losses |compared with u-strip
Ex: 0.62 dB/cm versus 0.4 dB/cm
10 GHz, 50 O for u-strip
p u p
5. dispersion CPW ~ u-strip
33 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
How does finite width of GND plane
affect the line properties?
c
w s
Presence of finite GND plane
eff
c
Z
0
200
c
w
100
5
7
1 5
5
100
s
w
+
2
1.5
5
6.9
c
1.5
100
0.7 0
20
( ) s /
w w
+
2 2
( ) s /
w w
+
2 2
34 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
s
c
z
w
+ 0
Z
eff
c ,
S b t t thi k ff t Substrate thickness effect
Z
0
(O)
70
0.5
7
eff
c
2
3
50
( ) s
h
w
+
2

3
5
0.25
( )
2
30
( ) s /
w w
+
2 2
0.7 0.3
30
( ) s /
w w
+
2 2 0.7 0.3
if substrate is too thin (too close to lines) the Z
0
changes
35 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
Summarize CPW Summarize CPW
- advantage for coupling
- everything controlled from top (Z
0
not controlled by substrate) y g p (
0
y )
- ohmic losses higher
- finite GND plane (c small) has effect on Z
0
t d h i f lifi ( t d f th l di i ti ) - not a very good choice for power amplifier (not good for thermal dissipation)
36 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
Sl li Slow-wave lines
1
f
metal
insulator
1
b
1
c
freq.
dielectric
quasi TEM
2 2
2
1
p c t c
= f
semiconductor
1
2
b

2 2
, p c
1
quasi TEM
skin
effect
MIS structure
resistivity
slow wave
Slow wave modes: Slow wave modes:
10
-3
10
0
10
4
10
6
10
8
) ( cm O p
Si
GaAs
1
2
1
p c t b
b
S
f =
low frequency
low resitivity p
( l it ti ) || di i di i ||
37 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
2 1 2
2 p c t b S
f
=> vv
pp
(velocity propagation) || dimensions dimensions ||
|| b t t i pp || substrate screening
substrate acts as imperfect metal
skin-effect mode
ex: silicon substrate
Si
wave propagates at surface of metal
(skin skin effect effect)
p |
Si
substrate acts as insulator
p |
Dielectric quasi-TEM waveguide mode
ex: GaAs
GaAs
wave propagates through whole system
38 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
Slow wave
reduced phase velocity for the wave that propagates in system
Reason is because: - E-field lines primarily on top
- H-field lines penetrate the substrate
component size can be reduced

o
v
39 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
Transmission Transmission line line model model Transmission Transmission line line model model
for slow-wave line
L
No TEM mode!
C, L are independent from each other
C
C determined by
E fi ld fi ti f t i l t E-field configuration of top insulator
L determined by
H-field in semiconductor substrate
40 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
Transmission Transmission line line model (II) model (II)
:: charging time constant (possibility of response of charge) t
Transmission Transmission line line model (II) model (II)
for slow-wave line
: : charging time constant (possibility of response of charge) t
t t 2
1
= <
S
f f
For:
microstrip
a
medium 2 responds very fast:
medium 2 = isolated from field
all E-fields in medium 1 Si
b
1
b
2
1
2
SiO
2
1
1 b
a
C c ~ ) (
S
f f for <
b
L ) b b b (
=> complete coverage of substrate by field then H-field penetrats entire substrate o <
2
b If
a
b
0
L u = ) b b b (
2 1
+ =
f f
p
= <
o
f f for <
from
o < b
o
2
: =
S
recall
41 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
2
2 0
b
f f
u t
o
= <
from
o <
2
b
o u e
o :
S
recall
Transmission Transmission line line model (III) model (III) Transmission Transmission line line model (III) model (III)
for slow-wave line
1
f f if <
a
C c ~
p
1
~
S
f f if <
1
1 b
C c ~
p
o
~ f f if <
a
b
0
L u =
( ) | |
2
1
1
1 0
1 1
b
b
C L
wave slow p
c u
v = =
# less than 1 since b=b
1
+b
2
>b
1
=> v
p
smaller than v
p0
definition of v
p0
in medium 1:
1 0
1
1
c u
v =
p
in medium 2:
2 0
2
1
c u
v =
p
2 1
,
p p p
v v v <
42 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
2 0
u
ff
transition
p
1
~
S
f f =
f f
slow wave
o
f f
f f
S
<
<
transition
skin effect
dielectric
p
o
~ f f =
resistivity
f '
slow wave
p log
1
p
2
p
-- Si, Si, SiGe SiGe high frequency, high speed circuits
- phase shifters based on voltage dependent v
p
( )
( ) V C L
p
V v
1
=
43 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
voltage dependent capacitance
Attenuator with slow Attenuator with slow-
wave line
f
f
f
f
S
f
o
f
L
R
L
= e
attenuation
p
| |
) V ( 2
1 L
) V ( C L ) V (
e
e
e
e
e o + =
attenuation
| |
) V ( 2
S
) ( ) (
e e
G
S
e
o
p
Slowing Slowing
( ) V C S
S
= e
factor factor
p
v v /
0
= series, shunt resistive elements
of TRL equivalent circuit
S
G , R
44 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
p
How does attenuation of slow wave compare to other transmission line systems ?
Disadvantage
Slow-wave systems have higher attenuation
(due to low ) than other systems.
p
Ex: at 10 GHz
1 dB/cm for slow wave
versus versus
0.2 0.4 dB/cm for microstrip
45 2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu
larger than 1
p
v
v
0
with slow
without slow wave
larger than 1
slow slow- -wave wave
mode mode
2.64
waveguide waveguide
mode mode
with slow
wave
(GH )
f
2.59
(GHz)
f
10 100
as as , , slowing slowing ff
Slow Slow waves waves exist exist in in materials materials
that have low low pp or
46
that are operated at low low frequencies frequencies
=> but => but higher higher losses losses
2012 / Microwave Engineering II / Dr.-Ing. Oktay Yilmazoglu