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Chapter 1 Introduction To Multimedia
Chapter 1
Introduction To Multimedia

Muddassar Ali

International University of Technology Twintech (IUTT) Yemen muddassar.pieas@gmail.com

Contents
Contents
  • What is Multimedia?

  • History of MM

  • Media Types

  • Elements of MM

  • MM Applications

  • Multimedia Systems

  • Characteristics of a Multimedia System

  • Challenges for Multimedia Systems

  • Components of a Multimedia System

  • Desirable Features for a Multimedia System

  • Trends in MM

What is Multimedia??
What is Multimedia??

The word multimedia is composed of two parts: the prefix multi and media

Multi = Plural, more than one, many

Media = Medium of Communication

What is Multimedia??
What is Multimedia??

Multimedia is a combination of Content forms:

Still Images
Still Images
What is Multimedia?? Multimedia is a combination of Content forms: Still Images <a href=Audio Text Animation Video Muddassar Ali 4 " id="pdf-obj-3-8" src="pdf-obj-3-8.jpg">
What is Multimedia?? Multimedia is a combination of Content forms: Still Images <a href=Audio Text Animation Video Muddassar Ali 4 " id="pdf-obj-3-12" src="pdf-obj-3-12.jpg">

Text

What is Multimedia?? Multimedia is a combination of Content forms: Still Images <a href=Audio Text Animation Video Muddassar Ali 4 " id="pdf-obj-3-16" src="pdf-obj-3-16.jpg">
Animation Video
Animation
Video
What is Multimedia??
What is Multimedia??

Definition:

Multimedia is the field concerned with the computer-controlled integration of text, graphics, drawings, still and moving images

(Video), animation, audio, and any other

media where every type of information can be

represented, stored, transmitted and processed

digitally.

Examples
Examples

Presentations involving audio and video clips are considered as Multimedia

presentation.

Education Softwares that involves animations, sound and text are called Multimedia softwares.

History of Multimedia
History of Multimedia
  • Newspaper: perhaps the first mass communication medium, uses text, graphics, and images.

  • Motion pictures: In 1830’s in order to observe motion too rapid for perception by the human eye.

  • Wireless radio transmission: Guglielmo Marconi, at Italy, in

1895.

  • Television: the new medium for the 20th century, established video as a commonly available medium and has changed the world of mass communications.

History of Multimedia
History of Multimedia
  • 1829: Typewriter Introduced

  • 1899: Magnetic Recording Introduced

  • 1926: First Television

  • 1931: First Stereo Recordings

  • 1941: First TV Commercial

  • 1948: Cable TV

History of Multimedia
History of Multimedia
  • 1959: First copy machine (by Xerox)

  • 1961: Spacewars (1st video game)

  • 1963: Mouse invented

  • 1964: Compact cassette tape

  • 1975: Bill Gates starts MICROSOFT

  • 1977: Visual Effects category added to Oscar awards

History of Multimedia
History of Multimedia
  • 1978: Video Laser Disk

  • 1979: National Computer Graphics Association organized

  • 1980: Disney uses computer graphics for the movie TRON

  • 1980: Sony Walkman

  • 1982: Adobe

  • 1983: 1st CD Player

  • 1984: 1st computer generated 30 second commercial used for Super Bowl

History of Multimedia
History of Multimedia
  • 1986: The Great Mouse Detective (1st animated film to be aided by computer graphics)

  • 1988: Disney & Pixar develop CAPS (Computer Animation Paint System)

  • 1989: 8MM Videotape introduced by Sony

  • 1989 Tim Berners-Lee proposed the World Wide Web

History of Multimedia
History of Multimedia
  • 1991 MPEG-1 was approved as an international standard for digital

  • 1992 JPEG was accepted as the international standard for digital image

  • 1992 The first MBone audio multicast on the Net was made.

  • 1993 The University of Illinois National Center for Supercomputing Applications produced NCSA Mosaicthe first full-fledged browser.

History of Multimedia
History of Multimedia
  • 1994 Jim Clark and Marc Andreessen created the Netscape program.

  • 1996 DVD video was introduced; high quality full-length movies were distributed on a single disk.

  • 1998 Hand-held MP3 devices first made inroads into consumerist tastes in the fall of 1998, with the introduction of devices holding 32MB of flash memory.

  • 2000 WWW size was estimated at over 1 billion pages.

Classification of Media Types
Classification of Media Types
Captured Versus Synthesised Media
Captured Versus Synthesised Media
Captured Versus Synthesised Media Muddassar Ali 15
Discrete Versus Continuous Media
Discrete Versus Continuous Media
Discrete Versus Continuous Media Muddassar Ali 16
Multi-Sensory System
Multi-Sensory System
Multi-Sensory System Muddassar Ali 17
Elements of Multimedia
Elements of Multimedia

Elements of Multimedia are:

1.

Text

  • 2. Graphics

  • 3. Sound

  • 4. Video

  • 5. Animation

Elements of Multimedia Text: characters representing words and
Elements of Multimedia
Text:
characters
representing
words
and

symbols. The use of different styles, fonts and colors can be used to emphasize specific

points.

Graphics: visual representation of an object. Examples include conventional artwork, computer-generated artwork, photographs or

captured video frames.

Elements of Multimedia
Elements of Multimedia

Sound: vibration as perceived by hearing. This may include speech, audio effects (e.g.

applause), ambient sound (e.g. the background

sound of the sea etc.) and music.

Video:

presentation

of

moving

representing actual events.

pictures

Elements of Multimedia
Elements of Multimedia

Animation: moving sequence of still images.

It consists of a series of still images shown in

rapid succession. It is an illusion of motion. It

tricks our mind into thinking that stationary artwork is truly moving.

Multimedia Applications
Multimedia Applications
  • A Multimedia Application is an Application which uses a collection of multiple media

sources e.g. text, graphics, images,

sound/audio, animation and/or video.

Multimedia Applications
Multimedia Applications

Examples of Multimedia Applications include:

  • World Wide Web

  • Hypermedia

  • Video conferencing

  • Interactive TV

  • Games

  • Virtual reality

  • Digital video editing and production systems

  • Multimedia Database systems

Hypertext??  Hypertext is a text which contains links to other texts. The term was
Hypertext??
Hypertext is a text which
contains links to other
texts. The term was

invented by Ted Nelson

around 1965.

  • Hypertext is therefore usually non-linear (as indicated in fig).

Hypertext??  Hypertext is a text which contains links to other texts. The term was invented
HyperMedia?
HyperMedia?
  • HyperMedia is not constrained to be text-based. It can include other media, e.g., graphics, images, and especially the continuous media - sound and video. Apparently, Ted Nelson was also the first to use this term.

  • The World Wide Web (WWW) is the best example of hypermedia applications.

HyperMedia?  HyperMedia is not constrained to be text-based. It can include other media, e.g., graphics,
Multimedia Systems
Multimedia Systems
  • A Multimedia System is a system capable of processing multimedia data and applications.

  • A Multimedia System is characterized by processing, storage, generation and manipulation of Multimedia information.

Characteristics of a Multimedia System A Multimedia System has 4 Basic characteristics: Muddassar Ali 27

Characteristics of a Multimedia System

A Multimedia System has 4 Basic characteristics:

Characteristics of a Multimedia System A Multimedia System has 4 Basic characteristics: Muddassar Ali 27
Challenges for Multimedia Systems  The key issues multimedia systems need to deal with are: 

Challenges for Multimedia Systems

  • The key issues multimedia systems need to deal with are:

    • How to represent and store temporal information.

    • How to strictly maintain the temporal relationships on play back/retrieval

Challenges for Multimedia Systems  Data has to be represented digitally so many initial source of

Challenges for Multimedia Systems

  • Data has to be represented digitally so many initial source of data needs to be digitise -- translated from analog source to digital representation.

  • The data is large several Mb easily for audio and video -- therefore storage, transfer (bandwidth) and processing overheads are high.

Components of a Multimedia System
Components of a Multimedia System

Components (Hardware and Software) required for a multimedia system:

  • Capture devices -- Video Camera, Video Recorder, Audio Microphone, Keyboards, mice, graphics tablets, 3D input devices, tactile sensors, VR devices. Digitising/Sampling Hardware

  • Storage Devices -- Hard disks, CD-ROMs, Jaz/Zip drives, DVD, etc

  • Communication Networks -- Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, ATM, Intranets, Internets.

Components of a Multimedia System
Components of a Multimedia System

Computer Systems -- Multimedia Desktop machines, Workstations, MPEG/VIDEO/DSP

Hardware

Display Devices -- CD-quality speakers, HDTV,SVGA, Hi-Res monitors, Colour printers etc.

Desirable Features for a Multimedia System  Very High Processing Power -- needed to deal with

Desirable Features for a Multimedia System

  • Very High Processing Power -- needed to deal with large data processing and real time delivery of media. Special hardware commonplace.

  • Multimedia Capable File System -- needed to deliver real- time media -- e.g. Video/Audio Streaming. Special Hardware/Software needed e.g RAID technology.

  • Data Representations/File Formats that support multimedia -- Data representations/file formats should be easy to handle yet allow for compression/decompression in real-time.

Desirable Features for a Multimedia System Efficient and High I/O -- input and output to the
Desirable Features for a Multimedia System
Efficient and High
I/O
--
input
and
output
to
the
file

subsystem needs to be efficient and fast. Needs to allow for real-time recording as well as playback of data. e.g. Direct to

Disk recording systems.

  • Special Operating System -- to allow access to file system and process data efficiently and quickly. Needs to support direct transfers to disk, real-time scheduling, fast interrupt processing, I/O streaming etc.

Desirable Features for a Multimedia System  Storage and Memory -- large storage units (of the

Desirable Features for a Multimedia System

  • Storage and Memory -- large storage units (of the order of 50 -100 Gb or more) and large memory (50 -100 Mb or more). Large Caches also required and frequently of Level 2 and 3 hierarchy for efficient management.

  • Network Support -- Client-server systems common as distributed systems common.

  • Software Tools -- user friendly tools needed to handle media, design and develop applications, deliver media.

Where to use Multimedia
Where to use Multimedia
Trends in Multimedia
Trends in Multimedia

Current big applications areas in Multimedia include:

  • World Wide Web -- Hypermedia systems -- embrace nearly all multimedia technologies and application areas. Ever increasing popularity.

  • MBone -- Multicast Backbone: Equivalent of conventional TV and Radio on the Internet.

  • Enabling Technologies -- developing at a rapid rate to support ever increasing need for Multimedia. Carrier, Switching, Protocol, Application, Coding/Compression, Database, Processing, and System Integration Technologies at the forefront of this

END OF CHAPTER
END OF CHAPTER

Any Questions???

Muddassar Ali