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Stateless Socialism: Anarchism

Mikhail Bakunin
RIDENDO CASTIGAT MORES
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Siaiclcss Socialisn. AnarcIisn
MilIail Dalunin
Ediçao
Fidcndo Casiigai Morcs

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cDoolsDrasil.con
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CopyrigIi ©
Auior. MilIail Dalunin
Ediçao clcirónica.
Ed. Fidcndo Casiigai Morcs
(www.jaIr.orgi
ºTodas as olras sao dc accsso graiuiio. Esiudci scnprc por conia
do Esiado, ou nclIor, da Socicdadc quc paga inposios; icnIo a
olrigaçao dc rciriluir ao ncnos una goia do quc cla nc
proporcionou." ÷ Nclson JaIr Carcia (1947-2002i
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Stateless Socialism: Anarchism
by Mikhail Bakunin 1814-1876
Fron
ºTIc Poíítícuí PIííosopIu o] HuIunín"
ly
C.P. Ma×inoff
1953, TIc Frcc Prcss, NY

Effect of the Great Principles Proclaimed by
the French Revolution.
Fron iIc iinc wIcn iIc Fcvoluiion lrougIi
down io iIc nasscs iis Cospcl ÷ noi iIc nysiic
lui iIc raiional, noi iIc Icavcnly lui iIc cariIly,
noi iIc divinc lui iIc Iunan Cospcl, iIc Cospcl
of iIc FigIis of Man ÷ cvcr sincc ii proclaincd
iIai all ncn arc cqual, iIai all ncn arc cniiilcd io
lilcriy and cqualiiy, iIc nasscs of all Europcan
counirics, of all iIc civilizcd world, awalcning
gradually fron iIc slccp wIicI Iad lcpi iIcn in
londagc cvcr sincc CIrisiianiiy druggcd iIcn
wiiI iis opiun, lcgan io asl iIcnsclvcs wIciIcr
iIcy ioo, Iad iIc rigIi io cqualiiy, frccdon, and
Iunaniiy.
As soon as iIis qucsiion was poscd, iIc
pcoplc, guidcd ly iIcir adnirallc sound scnsc as
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wcll as ly iIcir insiincis, rcalizcd iIai iIc firsi
condiiion of iIcir rcal cnancipaiion, or of iIcir
Iununízutíon, was alovc all a radical cIangc in
iIcir ccononic siiuaiion. TIc qucsiion of daily
lrcad is io iIcn jusily iIc firsi qucsiion, for as ii
was noicd ly Arisioilc, nan, in ordcr io iIinl, in
ordcr io fccl Iinsclf frcc, in ordcr io lcconc nan,
nusi lc frccd fron iIc naicrial carcs of daily lifc.
For iIai naiicr, iIc lourgcois, wIo arc so
vocifcrous in iIcir ouicrics againsi iIc
naicrialisn of iIc pcoplc and wIo prcacI io iIc
laiicr iIc alsiincnccs of idcalisn, lnow ii vcry
wcll, for iIcy iIcnsclvcs prcacI ii only ly word
and noi ly c×anplc.
TIc sccond qucsiion arising lcforc iIc pcoplc
÷ iIai of lcisurc aficr worl ÷ is iIc
indispcnsallc condiiion of Iunaniiy. Dui lrcad
and lcisurc can ncvcr lc oliaincd apari fron a
radical iransfornaiion of c×isiing sociciy, and
iIai c×plains wIy iIc Fcvoluiion, inpcllcd ly iIc
inplicaiions of iis own principlcs, gavc liriI io
Socialisn.
Socialism Is Justice
Socialisn is ]ustícc. WIcn wc spcal of jusiicc,
wc undcrsiand iIcrcly noi iIc jusiicc coniaincd
in iIc Codcs and in Fonan jurisprudcncc ÷
wIicI wcrc lascd io a grcai c×icni upon facis of
violcncc acIicvcd ly forcc, violcncc consccraicd
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ly iinc and ly iIc lcncdiciions of sonc cIurcI
or oiIcr (CIrisiian or pagani, and as sucI
acccpicd as alsoluic principlcs, fron wIicI all
law is io lc dcduccd ly a proccss of logical
rcasoning ÷ no, wc spcal of iIai jusiicc wIicI is
lascd solcly upon Iunan conscicncc, iIc jusiicc
io lc found in iIc consciousncss of cvcry nan ÷
cvcn in iIai of cIildrcn ÷ and wIicI can lc
c×prcsscd in a singlc word. cquítu.
TIis univcrsal jusiicc wIicI, owing io
conqucsis ly forcc and rcligious influcnccs, Ias
ncvcr yci prcvailcd in iIc poliiical or juridical or
ccononic worlds, sIould lcconc iIc lasis of iIc
ncw world. WiiIoui ii iIcrc can lc nciiIcr lilcriy,
nor rcpullic, nor prospcriiy, nor pcacc. Ii iIcn
nusi govcrn our rcsoluiions in ordcr iIai wc
worl cffcciivcly ioward iIc csiallisIncni of
pcacc. And iIis jusiicc urgcs us io ialc upon
oursclvcs iIc dcfcnsc of iIc inicrcsis of iIc
icrrilly nalircaicd pcoplc and dcnand iIcir
ccononic and social cnancipaiion along wiiI
poliiical frccdon.
The Basic Principle of Socialism.
Wc do noi proposc Icrc, gcnilcncn, iIis or
any oiIcr socialisi sysicn. WIai wc dcnand now
is iIc proclaining ancw of iIc grcai principlc of
iIc FrcncI Fcvoluiion. iIai cuc)u Iunun Icíng
sIouíd Iuuc tIc nutc)íuí und no)uí ncuns to
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dcucíop uíí Iís Iununítu, a principlc wIicI, in our
opinion, is io lc iranslaicd inio iIc following
prollcn.
To organizc sociciy in sucI a nanncr iIai
cvcry individual, nan or wonan, sIould find,
upon cnicring lifc, appro×inaicly cqual ncans for
iIc dcvclopncni of Iis or Icr divcrsc faculiics
and iIcir uiilizaiion in Iis or Icr worl. And io
organizc sucI a sociciy iIai, rcndcring inpossillc
iIc c×ploiiaiion of anyonc's lalor, will cnallc
cvcry individual io cnjoy iIc social wcaliI, wIicI
in rcaliiy is produccd only ly collcciivc lalor, lui
io cnjoy ii only in so far as Ic coniriluics dirccily
ioward iIc crcaiion of iIai wcaliI.
State Socialism Rejected.
TIc carrying oui of iIis iasl will of coursc
ialc ccniurics of dcvclopncni. Dui Iisiory Ias
alrcady lrougIi ii foriI and IcnccforiI wc cannoi
ignorc ii wiiIoui condcnning oursclvcs io uiicr
inpoicncc. Wc Iasicn io add Icrc iIai wc
vigorously rcjcci any aiicnpi ai social
organizaiion wIicI would noi adnii iIc fullcsi
lilcriy of individuals and organizaiions, or wIicI
would rcquirc iIc sciiing up of any rcgincniing
powcr wIaicvcr. In iIc nanc of frccdon, wIicI
wc rccognizc as iIc only foundaiion and iIc only
crcaiivc principlc of organizaiion, ccononic or
poliiical, wc sIall proicsi againsi anyiIing
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rcnoicly rcscnlling Siaic Connunisn, or Siaic
Socialisn.
Abolition of the Inheritance Law
TIc only iIing wIicI, in opinion, iIc Siaic
can and sIould do, is firsi io nodify liiilc ly liiilc
inIcriiancc law so as io arrivc as soon as possillc
ai iis conplcic aloliiion. TIai law lcing purcly a
crcaiion of iIc Siaic, and onc of iIc condiiions of
iIc vcry c×isicncc of iIc auiIoriiarian and divinc
Siaic can and sIould lc alolisIcd ly frccdon in
iIc Siaic. In oiIcr words, Siaic sIould dissolvc
iisclf inio a sociciy frccly organizcd in accord wiiI
iIc principlcs of jusiicc. InIcriiancc rigIi, in our
opinion, sIould alolisIcd, for so long as ii c×isis
iIcrc will lc Icrcdiiary ccononic incqualiiy, noi
iIc naiural incqualiiy of individuals, lui iIc
ariificial nan incqualiiy of classcs ÷ and iIc
laiicr will always lcgci Icrcdiiary cqualiiy in iIc
dcvclopncni and sIaping of ninds, coniinuing io
lc sourcc and consccraiion of all poliiical and
social incqualiiics. TIc iasl of jusiicc is io
csiallisI cqualiiy for cvcryonc, inasnucI iIai
cqualiiy will dcpcnd upon iIc ccononic and
poliiical organizaiion sociciy ÷ an cqualiiy wiiI
wIicI cvcryonc is going io lcgin Iis lifc, iIai
cvcryonc, guidcd ly Iis own naiurc, will lc iIc
produci of Iis own cfforis. In our opinion, iIc
propcriy of iIc dcccascd sIould accruc io social
fund for iIc insiruciion and cducaiion of cIildrcn
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of loiI sc×cs including iIcir nainicnancc fron
liriI uniil iIcy conc of agc. As Slavs and as
Fussians, wc sIall add iIai wiiI us iIc
fundancnial social idca, las upon iIc gcncral
and iradiiional insiinci of our populaiions, is iIai
las iIc propcriy of all iIc pcoplc, sIould lc
owncd only ly iIosc wIo culiivaic ii wiiI iIcir
own Iands.
Wc arc convinccd gcnilcncn, iIai iIis
principlc is jusi, iIai ii is csscniial and incviiallc
condiiion of all scrious social rcforn, and
conscqucnily Wcsicrn Europc in iurn will noi fail
io rccognizc and acccpi iIis principlc,
noiwiiIsianding iIc difficuliics of iis rcalizaiion
in counirics as in Francc, for insiancc wIcrc iIc
najoriiy of pcasanis own iIc land wIicI iIcy
culiivaic, lui wIcrc nosi of iIosc vcry pcasanis
will soon cnd up ly owning nc×i io noiIing,
owing io iIc parccling oui of land coning as iIc
incviiallc rcsuli of iIc poliiical and ccononic
sysicn now prcvailing in Francc. Wc sIall,
Iowcvcr, rcfrain fron offcring any proposals on
iIc land qucsiion...Wc sIall confinc oursclvcs
now io proposing iIc following dcclaraiion.
The Declaration of Socialism
ºConvinccd iIai iIc scrious rcalizaiion of
lilcriy, jusiicc, and pcacc will lc inpossillc so
long as iIc najoriiy of iIc populaiion rcnains
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disposscsscd of clcncniary nccds, so long as ii is
dcprivcd of cducaiion and is condcnncd io
poliiical and social insignificancc and slavcry ÷
in faci if noi ly law ÷ ly povcriy as wcll as ly iIc
ncccssiiy of worling wiiIoui rcsi or lcisurc,
producing all iIc wcaliI upon wIicI iIc world
now pridcs iisclf, and rccciving in rciurn only
sucI a snall pan iIcrcof iIai ii Iardly sufficcs io
assurc iis livcliIood for iIc nc×i day;
ºConvinccd iIai for all iIai nass of
populaiion, icrrilly nalircaicd for ccniurics, iIc
prollcn of lrcad is iIc prollcn of ncnial
cnancipaiion, of frccdon and Iunaniiy;
ºConvinccd iIai frccdon wiiIoui Socialisn is
privilcgc and injusiicc and iIai Socialisn wiiIoui
frccdon is slavcry and lruialiiy;
ºTIc Lcaguc ífor Pcacc and Frccdon| loudly
proclains iIc ncccssiiy of a radical social and
ccononic rcconsiruciion, Iaving for iis ain iIc
cnancipaiion of pcoplc's lalor fron iIc yolc of
capiial and propcriy owncrs, a rcconsiruciion
lascd upon sirici jusiicc ÷ nciiIcr juridical nor
iIcological nor nciapIysical jusiicc, lui sinply
Iunan jusiicc ÷ upon posiiivc scicncc and upon
iIc widcsi frccdon."
Organization of Productive Forces in Place
of Political Power
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Ii is ncccssary io alolisI conplcicly, loiI in
principlc and in faci, all iIai wIicI is callcd
poliiical powcr; for, so long as poliiical powcr
c×isis, iIcrc will lc rulcr and rulcd, nasicrs and
slavcs, c×ploiicrs and c×ploiicd. Oncc alolisIcd,
poliiical powcr sIould lc rcplaccd ly an
organizaiion of produciivc forccs and ccononic
scrvicc.
NoiwiiIsianding iIc cnornous dcvclopncni
of nodcrn siaics ÷ a dcvclopncni wIicI in iis
uliinaic pIasc is quiic logically rcducing iIc
Siaic io an alsurdiiy ÷ ii is lcconing cvidcni
iIai iIc days of iIc Siaic and iIc Siaic principlc
arc nunlcrcd. Alrcady wc can scc approacIing
iIc full cnancipaiion of iIc ioiling nasscs and
iIcir frcc social organizaiion, frcc fron
govcrnncnial inicrvcniion, forncd ly ccononic
associaiions of iIc pcoplc and lrusIing asidc all
iIc old Siaic froniicrs and naiional disiinciions,
and Iaving as iis lasis only produciivc lalor,
Iunanizcd lalor, Iaving onc connon inicrcsi in
spiic of iis divcrsiiy
The Ideal of the People
TIis idcal of coursc appcars io iIc pcoplc as
signifying firsi of all iIc cnd of wani, iIc cnd of
povcriy, and iIc full saiisfaciion of all naicrial
nccds ly ncans of collcciivc lalor, cqual and
olligaiory for all, and iIcn, as iIc cnd of
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doninaiion and iIc frcc organizaiion of iIc
pcoplc's livcs in accordancc wiiI iIcir nccds ÷
noi fron iIc iop down, as wc Iavc ii in iIc Siaic,
lui fron iIc loiion up, an organizaiion forncd
ly iIc pcoplc iIcnsclvcs, apari fron all
govcrnncnis and parliancnis, a frcc union of
associaiions of agriculiural and faciory worlcrs,
of connuncs, rcgions, and naiions, and finally,
in iIc norc rcnoic fuiurc; iIc univcrsal Iunan
lroiIcrIood, iriunpIing alovc iIc ruins of all
Siaics.
The Program of a Free Society
Ouisidc of iIc Mazzinian sysicn wIicI is iIc
sysicn of iIc rcpullic in iIc forn of a Siaic,
iIcrc is no oiIcr sysicn lui iIai of iIc rcpullic
as a connunc, iIc rcpullic as a fcdcraiion, a
Socialisi and a gcnuinc pcoplc's rcpullic ÷ iIc
sysicn of AnarcIisn. Ii is iIc poliiics of iIc
Social Fcvoluiion, wIicI ains ai iIc aloliiion of
iIc Siaic, and iIc ccononic, aliogciIcr frcc
organizaiion of iIc pcoplc, an organizaiion fron
lclow upward, ly ncans of a fcdcraiion.
...TIcrc will lc no possililiiy of iIc c×isicncc
of a poliiical govcrnncni, for iIis govcrnncni will
lc iransforncd inio a sinplc adninisiraiion of
connon affairs.
Our progran can lc sunncd up in a fcw
words.
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Pcacc, cnancipaiion, and iIc Iappincss of
iIc opprcsscd.
War upon all opprcssors and all dcspoilcrs.
Full rcsiiiuiion io worlcrs. all iIc capiial, iIc
faciorics, and all insiruncnis of worl and raw
naicrials io go io iIc associaiions, and iIc land
io iIosc wIo culiivaic ii wiiI iIcir own Iands.
Lilcriy, jusiicc, and fraicrniiy in rcgard io all
Iunan lcings upon iIc cariI.
Equaliiy for all.
To all, wiiI no disiinciion wIaicvcr, all iIc
ncans of dcvclopncni, cducaiion, and
uplringing, and iIc cqual possililiiy of living
wIilc worling.
Organizing of a sociciy ly ncans of a frcc
fcdcraiion fron lclow upward, of worlcrs
associaiions, indusirial as wcll as a agriculiural,
scicniific as wcll as liicrary associaiions ÷ firsi
inio a connunc, iIcn a fcdcraiion connuncs
inio rcgions, of rcgions inio naiions, and of
naiions inio inicrnaiional fraicrnal associaiion.
Correct Tactics During a Revolution
In a social rcvoluiion, wIicI in cvcryiIing is
diancirically opposcd io a poliiical rcvoluiion, iIc
a of individuals Iardly couni ai all, wIcrcas iIc
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sponiancous aciion of nasscs is cvcryiIing. All
iIai individuals can do is io clarify, propagaic,
and worl oui idcas corrcsponding io iIc popular
insiinci, and, wIai is norc, io coniriluic iIcir
inccssani cfforis io rcvoluiionary organizaiion of
iIc naiural powcr of iIc nasscs ÷ lui noiIing
clsc lcyond iIai; iIc rcsi can and sIould lc donc
ly iIc pcoplc iIcnsclvcs. Any oiIcr nciIod
would lcad io poliiical diciaiorsIip, io iIc rc-
cncrgcncc of iIc Siaic, of privilcgcs of
incqualiiics of all iIc opprcssions of iIc Siaic ÷
iIai is, ii would lcad in a roundaloui lui logical
way ioward rc-csiallisIncni of poliiical, social,
and ccononic slavcry of iIc nasscs of pcoplc.
Varlin and all Iis fricnds, lilc all sinccrc
Socialisis, and in gcncral lilc all worlcrs lorn
and lrougIi up anong iIc pcoplc, sIarcd io a
IigI dcgrcc iIis pcrfccily lcgiiinaic lias againsi
iIc iniiiaiivc coning fron isolaicd individuals,
againsi iIc doninaiion c×crciscd ly supcrior
individuals, and lcing alovc all consisicni, iIcy
c×icndcd iIc sanc prcjudicc and disirusi io iIcir
own pcrsons.
Revolution by Decrees Is Doomed to
Failure
Conirary io iIc idcas of iIc auiIoriiarian
Connunisis, aliogciIcr fallacious idcas in ny
opinion, iIai iIc Social Fcvoluiion can lc
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dccrccd and organizcd ly ncans of a diciaiorsIip
or a Consiiiucni Asscnlly ÷ our fricnds, iIc
Parisian Social-Socialisis, Icld iIc opinion iIai
iIai rcvoluiion can lc wagcd and lrougIi io fiis
full dcvclopncni only iIrougI iIc sponiancous
and coniinucd nass aciion of groups and
associaiions of iIc pcoplc.
Our Parisian fricnds wcrc a iIousand iincs
rigIi. For, indccd, iIcrc is no nind, nucI as ii
nay lc cndowcd wiiI iIc qualiiy of a gcnius; or if
wc spcal of a collcciivc diciaiorsIip consisiing of
scvcral Iundrcd suprcncly cndowcd individuals
÷ iIcrc is no conlinaiion of inicllccis so vasi as
io lc allc io cnlracc all iIc infiniic nuliipliciiy
and divcrsiiy of iIc rcal inicrcsis, aspiraiions,
wills, and nccds consiiiuiing in iIcir ioialiiy iIc
collcciivc will of iIc pcoplc; iIcrc is no inicllcci
iIai can dcvisc a social organizaiion capallc of
saiisfying cacI and all.
SucI an organizaiion would cvcr lc a
Procrusican lcd inio wIicI violcncc, norc or lcss
sanciioncd ly iIc Siaic, would forcc iIc
unforiunaic sociciy. Dui ii is iIis old sysicn of
organizaiion lascd upon forcc iIai iIc Social
Fcvoluiion sIould pui an cnd io ly giving full
lilcriy io iIc nasscs, groups, connuncs,
associaiions, and cvcn individuals, and ly
dcsiroying oncc and for all iIc Iisioric causc of
all violcncc ÷ iIc vcry c×isicncc of iIc Siaic, iIc
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fall of wIicI will cniail iIc dcsiruciion of all iIc
iniquiiics of juridical rigIi and all iIc falscIood of
various culis, iIai rigIi and iIosc culis Iaving
cvcr lccn sinply iIc conplaisani consccraiion,
idcal as wcll as rcal, of all violcncc rcprcscnicd,
guaraniccd, and auiIorizcd ly iIc Siaic.
Ii is cvidcni iIai only wIcn iIc Siaic Ias
ccascd io c×isi Iunaniiy will oliain iis frccdon,
and iIc iruc inicrcsis of sociciy, of all groups, of
all local organizaiions, and lilcwisc of all iIc
individuals forning sucI organizaiion, will find
iIcir rcal saiisfaciion.
Free Organization to Follow Abolition of
the State
Aloliiion of iIc Siaic and iIc CIurcI sIould
lc iIc firsi and indispcnsallc condiiion of iIc
rcal cnfrancIiscncni of sociciy. Ii will lc only
aficr iIis iIai sociciy can and sIould lcgin iis
own rcorganizaiion; iIai, Iowcvcr, sIould ialc
placc noi fron iIc iop down, noi according io an
idcal plan nappcd ly a fcw sagcs or savanis, and
noi ly ncans of dccrccs issucd ly sonc
diciaiorial powcr or cvcn ly a Naiional Asscnlly
clccicd ly univcrsal suffragc. SucI a sysicn, as I
Iavc alrcady said, incviially would lcad io iIc
fornaiion of a govcrnncnial arisiocracy, iIai is, a
class of pcrsons wIicI Ias noiIing in connon
wiiI iIc nasscs of pcoplc; and, io lc surc, iIis
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class would again iurn io c×ploiiing and
cniIralling iIc nasscs undcr iIc prcic×i of
connon wclfarc or of iIc salvaiion of iIc Siaic.
Freedom Must Go Hand-in-Hand With
Equality
I an a convinccd pariisan of ccononíc und
socíuí cquuíítu, for I lnow iIai ouisidc of iIis
cqualiiy, frccdon, jusiicc, Iunan digniiy,
noraliiy, and iIc wcll-lcing of individuals as wcll
as iIc prospcriiy of naiions arc all noiIing lui so
nany falscIoods. Dui lcing ai iIc sanc iinc a
pariisan of frccdon ÷ iIc firsi condiiion of
Iunaniiy ÷ I lclicvc iIai cqualiiy sIould lc
csiallisIcd in iIc world ly a sponiancous
organizaiion of lalor and collcciivc propcriy, ly
iIc frcc organizaiion of produccrs' associaiions
inio connuncs, and frcc fcdcraiion of connuncs
÷ lui nowisc ly ncans of iIc suprcnc iuiclary
aciion of iIc Siaic.
The Difference Between Authoritarian and
Libertarian Revolution
Ii is iIis poini wIicI nainly dividcs iIc
Socialisis or rcvoluiionary collcciivisis fron iIc
auiIoriiarian Connunisis, iIc pariisans of iIc
alsoluic iniiiaiivc of iIc Siaic. TIc goal of loiI is
iIc sanc. loiI pariics wani iIc crcaiion of a ncw
social ordcr lascd c×clusivcly upon collcciivc
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lalor, undcr ccononic condiiions iIai arc cqual
for all ÷ iIai is, undcr condiiions of collcciivc
owncrsIip of iIc iools of produciion.
Only iIc Connunisis inaginc iIai iIcy can
aiiain iIrougI dcvclopncni and organizaiion of
iIc poliiical powcr of iIc worling classcs, and
cIicfly of iIc ciiy prolciariai, aidcd ly lourgcois
radicalisn ÷ wIcrcas iIc rcvoluiionary
Socialisis, iIc cncnics of all anliguous allianccs,
lclicvc, on iIc conirary, iIai iIis connon goal
can lc aiiaincd noi iIrougI iIc poliiical lui
iIrougI iIc social (and iIcrcforc anii-poliiicali
organizaiion and powcr of iIc worling nasscs of
iIc ciiics and villagcs, including all iIosc wIo,
iIougI lclonging ly liriI io iIc IigIcr classcs,
Iavc lrolcn wiiI iIcir pasi of iIcir own frcc will,
and Iavc opcnly joincd iIc prolciariai and
acccpicd iis progran.
The Methods of the Communists and the
Anarchists
Hcncc iIc iwo diffcrcni nciIods. TIc
Connunisis lclicvc iIai ii is ncccssary io
organizc iIc forccs of iIc worlcrs in ordcr io ialc
posscssion of iIc poliiical nigIi of iIc Siaic. TIc
rcvoluiionary Socialisis organizc wiiI iIc vicw of
dcsiroying, or if you prcfcr a norc rcfincd
c×prcssion, of liquidaiing iIc Siaic. TIc
Connunisis arc iIc pariisans of iIc principlc
18
and praciicc of auiIoriiy, wIilc rcvoluiionary
Socialisis placc iIcir faiiI only in frccdon. DoiI
arc cqually iIc pariisans of scicncc, wIicI is io
dcsiroy supcrsiiiion and ialc iIc placc of faiiI;
lui iIc firsi wani io inposc scicncc upon iIc
pcoplc, wIilc iIc rcvoluiionary collcciivisis iry io
diffusc scicncc and lnowlcdgc anong iIc pcoplc,
so iIai iIc various groups of Iunan sociciy,
wIcn convinccd ly propaganda, nay organizc
and sponiancously conlinc inio fcdcraiions, in
accordancc wiiI iIcir naiural icndcncics and
iIcir rcal inicrcsis, lui ncvcr according io a plan
iraccd in advancc and ínposcd upon tIc ígno)unt
nusscs ly a fcw ºsupcrior" ninds.
Fcvoluiionary Socialisis lclicvc iIai iIcrc is
nucI norc of praciical rcason and iniclligcncc in
iIc insiinciivc aspiraiions and rcal nccds of iIc
nasscs of pcoplc iIan in iIc profound ninds of
all iIcsc lcarncd dociors and sclf-appoinicd
iuiors of Iunaniiy, wIo, Iaving lcforc iIcn iIc
sorry c×anplcs of so nany aloriivc aiicnpis io
nalc Iunaniiy Iappy, siill inicnd io lccp on
worling in iIc sanc dircciion. Dui rcvoluiionary
Socialisis lclicvc, on iIc conirary, iIai Iunaniiy
Ias pcrniiicd iisclf io lc rulcd for a long iinc,
nucI ioo long, and iIai iIc sourcc of iis
nisforiunc lics noi in iIis nor in any oiIcr forn
of govcrnncni lui in iIc principlc and iIc vcry
c×isicncc of iIc govcrnncni, wIaicvcr iis naiurc
nay lc.
19
Ii is iIis diffcrcncc of opinion, wIicI alrcady
Ias lcconc Iisioric, iIai now c×isis lciwccn iIc
scicniific Connunisn, dcvclopcd ly iIc Ccrnan
scIool and parily acccpicd ly Ancrican and
EnglisI Socialisis, and ProudIonisn, c×icnsivcly
dcvclopcd and pusIcd io iis uliinaic conclusions,
and ly now acccpicd ly iIc prolciariai of iIc
Laiin counirics. Fcvoluiionary Socialisn Ias
nadc iis firsi lrilliani and praciical appcarancc
in iIc Paris Connunc.
On iIc Pan-Ccrnan lanncr is wriiicn.
Hctcntíon und st)cngtIcníng o] tIc Stutc ut unu
cost. On our lanncr, iIc social-rcvoluiionary
lanncr, on iIc conirary, arc inscrilcd, in ficry
and lloody lciicrs. iIc dcsiruciion of all Siaics,
iIc anniIilaiion of lourgcois civilizaiion, frcc and
sponiancous organizaiion fron lclow upward, ly
ncans of frcc associaiions, iIc organizaiion of iIc
unlridlcd ralllc of ioilcrs, of all cnancipaicd
Iunaniiy, and iIc crcaiion of a ncw univcrsally
Iunan world.
Dcforc crcaiing, or raiIcr aiding iIc pcoplc io
crcaic, iIis ncw organizaiion, ii is ncccssary io
acIicvc a viciory. Ii is ncccssary io ovcriIrow iIai
wIicI is, in ordcr io lc allc io csiallisI iIai
wIicI sIould lc...
20

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