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CORRECTIONS

SIGMUND

FOR

GRAVIMETER

STATIONS*

HAMMER**

ABSTRACT In this paper the correction for the.gravitational attraction of the topography on a gravity station is considered as consistmg of two parts; (I) the restricted but conventional Bouguer correction which postulates as a convenient approximation that the topography consists of an infinite horizontal plain, and (2) the Terrain correction which is a supplementary correction taking into account the gravitational effect of the undulations of the terrain about the plane through the gravity station. The paper illustrates the necessity of making terrain corrections if precise gravity surveys are desired in hilly country and presents terrain correction tables with which this quantity may be determined to a relative accuracy of one-tenth milligal. This accuracy is required to fully utilize the high instrumental precision of modern gravimeters.

Applications of the gravity method of geophysical prospecting in the search for small, local, geological structures require very precise data. To supply this need gravimeters have been developed or improved to the point where the probable error of the observed gravity values is of the order of I/IO mg. or even less1~2~3,4 fully To utilize this high instrumental precision it is obvious that corrections for the several non-significant influences, which are present in the observed gravity values, must be of the same order of accuracy. One of the important non-significant influences is the gravitational attraction of the topography in the vicinity of a gravity station. This so-called topographic correction will be considered, by definition, in the present paper to consist of two parts; (I) the Bouguer correction which postulates as a convenient approximation, that the topography consists of an infinite horizontal plain, and (2) the Terrain correction which evaluates the error in the Bouguer correction due to undulations of the terrain. The purposes of this paper are (a) to illustrate the necessity of making terrain corrections if precise gravity surveys are desired in hilly country, and (b) to present * Published by permission of the Gulf Research 8r Development Co., Pittsburgh

Pa. ** Gulf Research & Development Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. r E. A. Eckhardt, Geophysics I, pp. 292-293 (1936) (abstract). D. C. Barton and W. T. White. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, Part I, pp. 106-107 (1937). s A. Graf. Zeits f. Geophys. 14, pp. 152-172 (1938). H. Hedstrom, 4.T.M E. Tech. Publ. So. 953 (1938).

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TERRAIN

CORRECTZONS

FOR GRa4VIMETER

STATIONS

185

the terrain

correction

may be determined

to the

THE CORRECTION FOR TOPOGRAPHY

procedure

in gravity

prospecting

anya(H Ho)

(I)

where I&II0

of the gravity

station

u is the density of the surface soil or rock y is the gravitational constant. This formula calculates the gravity effect of the matter between a horizontal plane through the field station and the horizontal eleva-

~rnvitational effects due to undulating terrain.

tion-datum-plane

on the assumption

that

these if

radius is uniformly

the station is above the datum plane, or is uniformly station is below this plane.5 (See Fig. I). Subtracting (algebraically) from the observed gravity plane or to completely the assumed amount of matter in the infinite above the datum

value amounts to removing flat plate if the station is filling up this space if the datum.

station is below the datum plane so as to reduce, in effect, the surface of the ground to the plane through the elevation

6 liar an excellent brief stntemcnt of the nature of the Ilouguer reduction SW EIay ford and Bowie, U.S.C. & G.S. Special Publication No. IO, p. 75 (1912). These authors define the Bouguer Correction in the more general scnsc which is equivalent to our Topographic Correction.

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186

SIGMUND

HAMMER

Undulations of the terrain are completely ignored in this Bouguer correction. Let us consider the error involved. First we see in Fig. I that the Bouguer formula overestimates the gravitational attraction of the actual mass below the station because it ignores the voids in this space. Therefore the corrected gravity value obtained by subtracting the approximate Bouguer correction will tend to be too low. Second, the upward component of the gravitational attraction of the mass

26 ______ \t 2.4 -~

rnxah

2.0

I

CRE CURVE

/---T--

;Ez

I GRAVITATIONAL OF CONE AT APEX 2 DEPARTURE OF CONE lNFlNlTE OF FROM FLAT

2= 2nXuh(kslNa) 65 h : 100 FT

ATTRACTION

,

E IN FIG. 2.

50 DEGREES

60 OF

70 SIDE OF

80 CONE

90

Gravitational attraction of an idealized hill, illustrating the magnitude of the error in the Bouguer correction.

above the plane through the station, which tends to lower the observed gravity value, is not removed by the Bouguer correction. Thus, topographic elevations above and depressions below the station both act in the same sense and the gravity value corrected by the Bouguer formula will always be too low. Corrections for the effect of undulations of the terrain with respect to the station elevation plane will therefore always be positive. Possible magnitudes of the terrain correction (as defined in this paper) are illustrated in Figs. z and 3. Figure 2 shows an idealized hypothetical case in which a gravity station is situated at the apex of a conical hill, which in turn is located upon a flat plain. Curve I shows

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TERRAIN

CORRECTIONS

FOR GRAVIMETER

STATIONS

187

the decrease in the gravitational attraction of the hill as the sides become steeper. The attraction calculated by the Bouguer formula is the ordinate of curve I at CL=O. Curve z shows the error in the Bouguer formula, that is the terrain correction, as a function of the steepness of the hill. For example, if the slope of the hillside is 30~ the Bouguer correction is twice too large. Fig. 3 shows an actual example of a gravimeter profile across a very steep topographic feature, Sierra Madera (also known as

I I

4600

BOUGUER .INCLDING

ANOMALY TERRAIN_

7 4400

I-

----- il 4200

t: LL z z 4000 0 : 2 d 3600 SOUT

3600

3400 MILES

i :

I 2

FIG. 3. Gravimeter profile across Sierra Madera, Pews County, Texas, illustrating the importance of terrain corrections.

Madera Mountain), in Western Pecos County, Texas, which is known to be a sharply uplifted geological structure. Curve I depicts the topography. Curve 2 is the gravity profile (Bouguer anomaly) as reduced with the ordinary Bouguer correction, and curve 3 is the gravity profile after applying terrain corrections. The terrain corrections in this case amount to several milligals. It is clear that the interpretations of the two gravity profiles will differ fundamentally. Admittedly, this example is an extreme one for ordinary gravity prospecting but we must conclude that terrain corrections cannot be disregarded if precise gravity surveys are desired in hilly country. Having demonstrated the importance of the terrain correction to gravity stations in hilly country, we consider next the method of

188

SIGMUWD

HAMMER

evaluating it. By its very definition it is clear that the terrain correction depends upon the details of the topography. Therefore, a topographic map, or the equivalent, of the vicinity of the gravity station is required. The area about the station is divided into zones

FIG. 1. Zone chart for use in evaluating terrain corrections at gravity stations.

and compartments, for example, by laying a transparent terrain correction zone chart, such as that shown in Fig. 4, upon the map and centering it at the gravity station. The average departure without regard to sign of the topography in each compartment from the plane through the station is then determined* and the terrain cor* Since the sign of the terrain correction (as defined in this paper) depends only on the absolute value of the departure of an element of the topography from the plane through the statron, and not on its sign (that is; whether it is above or below the plane) it follows that the difference between the simple average elevation in each compartment and the station elevation cannot be used, in principle, if the terrain within any one com-

is evaluated

for each

TERRAIN CORRECTION

these terrain corrections arc summed over all the zones in which there

TABLES

,4 number

of terrain

correction gravity

tables have been published6,7-8 However, the author knows precise for are sufficiently

for geodetic and regional of no previously modern gravity over a number The present published

work.

tables which

prospecting

needs. The tables presented in this paper calculations. those by Hayfortl and

have been designed especially for this use after experience extending of years with terrain correction tables were modelled after

Bowie6*7 but are more precise and have been modified in principle to evaluate, not the total topographic correction, but only the error in the Bouguer correction as discussed above.* relatively However, by Hayford larger compartments to attain cision, and thus reduces the labor involved the precision desired This modification permits in the distant zones, for a given prein the use of the tables. the compartments advantage in the

zones near the station are smaller in the present tables than in those and Bowie. Another important of the moditication in the principle is that it is necessary to use the tables in moder~.________ parlment consists of elements both above and below the station. Thus, theoretically,

if the topography within one compartment consists of a hill above the station and a valley below the station, the average departure must be determined as if the topography consisted of two hills or two valleys. However, in practice, it turns out that the terrain effect in such a compartment is ordinarily zero. Therefore, the mathematically rigorous but cumbersome procedure outlined above may usually be replaced by the much more rapid procedure of estimating the average elevations in all the compsrtments (irrespective of Lbhether the topography in any one compartment rs above and below the station) and then calculating the departures of these simple average eleva tions from the station elevation. This would not be true, in general, in extremely rugged topography of large relief but even then the complication may usually be avoided by rotating the zone chart to a different azimuth. The azimuth must, of course, be maintained while reading the elevations in all the compartments of any one zone. Hayford and Bowie, lot. cit., pp. r3-53. 7 Hayford and Bowie, U.S.C. & G.S. Spec. Publ. 40, pp. 11-18 (1917). * Bullard, Philos. Trans. Roy. Sot. London A235, pp. 4866491 (1936). * Bullard tables (1~. cit.) are also of this type. His paper contains a detailed diss cussion of the advantages of this modification. A recent search m the literature reveals the historically interesting fact that this n-ethod was described by F. R. Helmert in 1884 (Thcorien der hoheren Geodasie, Vol. II pp. 169-172) and was called the ordinary method by F. A. Venning-Meinesz in 23 (Observations de Pendule tlans 9 1~s Pays-Bas. I bl. de la comm. g6od. nCer!andaise, p, 141). u

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