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Ferrous & Non Ferrous Metal & Alloys Iron & Steel Steel is an alloy that consists mostly of iron and has carbon content between 0.2% and 2.1% by weight, depending on the grade. Carbon is the most common alloying material for iron, but various other alloying elements are used, such as manganese, chromium, vanadium, and tungsten. Carbon and other elements act as a hardening agent, Varying the amount of alloying elements and the form of their presence in the steel controls qualities such as the hardness, ductility, and tensile strength of the resulting steel. Steel with increased carbon content can be made harder and stronger than iron, but such steel is also less ductile than iron. Alloys with a higher than 2.1% carbon content are known as cast iron because of their lower melting point and good cast ability. Steel is also distinguishable from wrought iron, which can contain a small amount of carbon, but it is included in the form of slag inclusions. Two distinguishing factors are steel's increased rust resistance and better weldability. Today, steel is one of the most common materials in the world, with more than 1.3 billion tons produced annually. It is a major component in buildings, infrastructure, tools, ships, automobiles, machines, appliances, and weapons. Modern steel is generally identified by various grades defined by assorted standards Iron is found in the Earth's crust only in the form of an ore, i.e., combined with other elements such as oxygen or sulfur. Typical iron-containing minerals include Fe2O3the form of iron oxide found as the mineral hematite, and FeS2pyrite. Iron is extracted from ore by removing oxygen and combining the ore with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon. This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower melting points, such as tin, which melts at approximately 250C and copper, which melts at approximately 1,100 C . In comparison, cast iron melts at approximately 1,375 C (2,507 F). All of these temperatures could be reached with ancient methods that have been used since the Bronze Age. Since the oxidation rate itself increases rapidly beyond 800 C , it is important that smelting take place in a low-oxygen environment. Unlike copper and tin, liquid iron dissolves carbon quite readily. Other materials are often added to the iron/carbon mixture to produce steel with desired properties. Nickel and manganese in steel add to its tensile strength and make it more chemically stable, chromium increases hardness and melting temperature, and vanadium also increases hardness while reducing the effects of metal fatigue. To prevent corrosion, at least 11% chromium is added to steel so that a hard oxide forms on the metal surface; this is known as stainless steel. On the other hand, Sulfur, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus make steel more brittle, so these commonly found elements must be removed from the ore during processing. The density of steel varies based on the alloying constituents, but usually ranges between 7,750 and 8,050 kg/m3 . Even in the narrow range of concentrations which make up steel, mixtures of carbon and iron can form a number of different structures, with very different properties. Alloy steels are those carbon steels that have certain other elements purposefully mixed in during processing to achieve various results in the performance of the steel. As mentioned in the previous page there are sometimes unintentional alloys in steel.. These impurities can be present in the iron ore or can be added for refining purposes but they are not included to manipulate the physical characteristics of the steel. For example the problem with the iron ore in the British Isles is that it contains too much phosphorus which makes the steel

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The first alloy steel was invented by Robert Hadfield in Sheffield England. By mixing large quantities of manganese with the iron and carbon he made an alloy steel that was extremely hard wearing and most suitable for train rails. For many decades this steel was known as "manganese steel". Note that manganese was already used in the steel making process and was limited as an impurity to no more than 0.7% content. Hadfields manganese steel had about 1.6 % manganese. Many other alloying elements have followed which produce steels with greater strength, fatigue resistance, corrosion resistance, and other physical attributes. Alloy elements are commonly chromium, molybdenum, manganese, and nickel. Definition of Mechanical Properties

Mechanical properties of steel are defined as the reaction of the material to certain types of external forces. Mechanical properties include:

Tensile strength

The maximum force that a material can withstand before fracturing. Also called Ultimate Strength. This is usually reported in terms of force per unit of area: lbs. per square inch or newtons per millimeter squared.

Yield strength

The force that a material can withstand before permanent deformation occurs. Also reported as force per unit of area.


The ability of a material to deform without fracturing. Generally reported as elongation and reduction of area in a cross section that has been purposely fractured. Tensile, Yield, and Ductility of steel are determined by performing a Tension Test in which a standard sample of the material is subjected to a pulling force that increases gradually until the material deforms, stretches, and fractures.


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The resistance of the material to penetration. Not to be confused with hardenability, which is a measure of the ability of a certain steel to respond to heat treatment. Hardness is measured by applying a standard force to the surface of the steel through a small, hardened ball point, and then measuring the diameter of the resulting impression. Hardness usually is reported as a value on one of two industry standard scales, Brinell or Rockwell. Brinell hardness is usually more accurate for measuring hardness of plate products.

Impact strength

The ability of a material to withstand a high velocity impact. Impact strength is measured by subjecting a standard notched sample to a swinging weight. As it is often important to know how the steel will perform in colder environments, this test is often done at sub-zero temperatures. Known as a notch test or Charpy test, the testing requires three standard samples of a defined grain orientation. The results are reported as foot-lbs or joules, showing the average of the three specimens and the lowest value of the three, at the testing temperature. Physical properties of steel pertain to the physics of the material, such as density, electrical conductivity, and coefficient of thermal expansion. The term physical properties is often used erroneously to refer to mechanical properties.

300 series steel Physical

Type 302 304 304L 309 309S 310 310S 316 316L 317 317L

Tensile (ksi) 75 75 70 75 75 75 75 75 70 75 75

Yield (ksi) 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 25 30 30

Elongation 40% in 2" 40% in 2" 40% in 2" 40% in 2" 40% in 2" 40% in 2" 40% in 2" 40% in 2" 35% in 2" 35% in 2" 35% in 2"

Hardness (Brinell) 183 183 183 217 217 217 217 217 217 217 217

Hardness (Rockwell B) 88 88 88 95 95 95 95 95 95 95 95

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321 347

75 75

30 30

40% in 2" 40% in 2"

183 183

88 88

Chemical (Values appear as percentages.) Type 302 304 304L 309 309S 310 310S 316 316L 317 317L 321 347 C 0.15 max 0.08 max 0.03 max 0.20 max 0.08 max 0.25 max 0.08 max 0.08 max 0.03 max 0.08 max 0.03 max 0.08 max 0.08 max Mn 2.00 max 2.00 max 2.00 max 2.00 max 2.00 max 2.00 max 2.00 max 2.00 max 2.00 max 2.00 max 2.00 max 2.00 max 2.00 max P 0.045 max 0.045 max 0.045 max 0.045 max 0.045 max 0.045 max 0.045 max 0.045 max 0.045 max 0.045 max 0.045 max 0.040 max 0.040 max S 0.030 max 0.030 max 0.030 max 0.030 max 0.030 max 0.030 max 0.030 max 0.030 max 0.030 max 0.030 max 0.030 max 0.030 max Si Cr Ni Mo -

1.00 max 17.00/19.00 8.00/10.00 1.00 max 18.00/20.00 8.00/10.50 1.00 max 18.00/20.00 8.00/12.00 1.00 max 22.00/24.00 12.00/15.00 1.00 max 22.00/24.00 -

1.5 max 24.00/26.00 19.00/22.00 1.5 max 24.00/26.00 19.00/22.00

1.00 max 16.00/18.00 10.00/14.00 2.00/3.00 1.00 max 16.00/18.00 10.00/14.00 2.00/3.00 1.00 max 18.00/20.00 11.00/15.00 3.00/4.00 0.75 max 18.00/20.00 11.00/15.00 3.00/4.00 1.00 max 17.00/19.00 9.00/12.00 0.75/0.75 0.5/1.00 17.00/19.00 9.00/12.00 0.5/0.75

High Temperature Steel These materials are designed to provide unique strength and/or corrosion properties at elevated temperatures. Major attributes include properties such as high strength, high creep resistance, resistance to softening, or resistance to metals loss at high temperature from oxidation, sulfidation, or carburization. Nickel content ranges from approximately 25% to 60%, with critical amounts of chromium, molybdenum, columbium and titanium. Grade AL 600 AL 601 AL 625 HP End Use Furnace parts, Heat treatment fixtures and restaurant cooking appliances Heat treat baskets, Muffles and Retorts Applications similar to AL 625 where extended fatigue life is

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desired, particularly at low cycle. Process piping, Heat treat fixtures and Furnace parts Land based gas turbines Jet engine nacelles, Engine plumbing, Aircraft ducting, Recuperators and Trust

AL 800 AL 800H AL 800AT ALTEMP 263 ALTEMP 625 AL 718 AL 722 AL X750

Corrosion Resistant These alloys are intended for applications in the chemical processing, petroleum refining, marine, heat treating, pollution and waste control industries where common 200, 300 and 400 Series stainlesses may not provide adequate corrosion protection. The Corrosion Resistant Materials may be grouped as follows: Grade AL 200/201 AL 22 AL 276 AL 400 AL 825 ALLCORR End Use Containers and Piping Flue-gas desulphurization systems, Waste incinerators, and Sour Gas service Pipe, tube for aggressive chloride environments Pumps, Valves and Fittings Pollution control and Radioactive waste equipment, Chemical transportation and acid production equipment, Pickling equipment, Oil/Gas well piping. Highly aggressive acidic chloride environments

NON- FERROUS METALS: The properties of metals are: Malleability: can be hammered and pressed into shape. Ductibility: can be drawn into fine wire. Hardness: resists being scratched or cut. Elasticity: regains its shape after being deformed. Conductivity: ability to conduct heta or electricity. Copper and Copper Alloys Properties: Extremely ductile and malleable when either hot or cold. Good conductor of heat and electricity. Solders easily. A warm reddish-pink metal that tarnishes and oxidizes very quickly. Copper is attractive for its colour, softness and easy working characteristics. Its very softness however is also one of its disadvantages because it is easily damaged during storage or in the course of working. Copper acquires a soft finish after polishing. It is not suitable for casting. It should be annealed by heating to a dull red colour and then quenched in cold water. Copper can be bought as tube, sheet, rod, wire, flat bar hexagon, flat bar square. Copper can be bought as Hard, Half Hard or Annealed.

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When exposed to moist air, copper forms poisonous acetates, sulphates and chlorides known as verdigris. Copper cookware and serving piece should be plated woith a non-corrosive metal such as tin or washed before each use. Copper is available in more than 100 alloys (e.g. shibi-ichi 75% copper 25% silver melting point: 1775 degrees F/ 968 degrees C) Melting point: 1083 degrees C/ 1981 degrees F. Uses: Water pipes, electrical wiring, decorative articles. Pure copper is a reddish, highly malleable metal, and was one of the first to be found and utilized. Copper and its alloys are widely used because of their excellent electrical and thermal conductivities, outstanding resistance to corrosion, ease of fabrication, and broad ranges of obtainable strengths and special properties. Almost 400 commercial copper and copper-alloy compositions are available from mills as wrought products (rod, plate, sheet, strip, tube, pipe, extrusions, foil, forgings, and wire) and from foundries as castings. Copper alloys are grouped into several general categories according to composition: Coppers and high-copper alloys

Brasses Bronzes Copper nickels Copper-nickel-zinc alloys (nickel silvers) Leaded coppers Special alloys

Classification of Copper and Copper Alloys Cast Copper Alloys.Generally, casting permits greater latitude in the use of alloying elements than in the fabrication of wrought products, which requires either hot or cold working. The cast compositions of coppers and high-copper alloys have a designated minimum copper content and may include other elements to impart special properties. The cast brasses comprise copper-zinc-tin alloys (red, semi red, and yellow brasses); manganese bronze alloys (high-strength yellow brasses); leaded manganese bronze alloys (leaded high-strength yellow brasses); and copper-zinc-silicon alloys (silicon brasses and bronzes). The cast bronze alloys have four main families: Copper-tin alloys (tin bronzes) Copper-tin-lead alloys (leaded and high leaded tin bronzes Copper-tin-nickel alloys (nickel-tin bronzes) Copper-aluminum alloys (aluminum bronzes) The cast copper-nickel alloys contain nickel as the principal alloying element. The leaded coppers are cast alloys containing 20 per cent or more lead. Solders easily and polishes well.

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Brass is yellow metal that appears a pale straw yellow color when polished. Brass is an alloy of copper and Zinc making Brass harder than either of its components. Brass is malleable, machine able and resists corrosion. Brass is harder than copper and casts well. Brass can be purchased in hard, half hard and dead soft tempers. It can be bought as sheet, round and square rod, extruded molding, and hexagonal bar and round wire. Alpha brasses contain more than 62% copper and are used to make screws, pins and bolts. Brass is 60% copper, 40% Zinc. It is a metal that lends itself well to turning, spinning or machining and is quite unsuitable for high temperature silver-soldering because it tends to collapse suddenly. It is not suitable for raising, sinking because of its hardness. Brass should not be used for box making using silver solders as flat sheets of brass tend to warp easily when heated with a gas torch. Melting point: 1015 degrees C / 1750 degrees F. Uses: Screws, hinges, water fittings and electrical parts.


Gilding metal is a warm golden yellow metal that acquires a soft pink color after polishing. Gilding metal is malleable and less prone to oxidation than copper. Similarly to Brass, Gilding metal is a combination of Copper and Zinc but in different percentage: 90% Copper to 10%Zinc. Gilding metal has qualities both found in Brass and Copper. It possesses the hardness of Brass when it has been work hardened and the softness of Copper when it has been annealed. Unlike Brass it is stable under heat and does not collapse or warp severely. Melting Point: above 1000 degrees C.

ALUMINIUM: Properties: Malleable, ductile, lightweight and a good conductor. It casts well but is difficult to solder and weld because oxides form rapidly upon its surface.

Aluminum is a dull grayish- white metal. Aluminum is extremely malleable. Aluminum is excellent for stamping and forming.

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Aluminum cannot be soldered with hard solders but is suitable for cold fixing method such as riveting. Aluminum can be welded with a Tig welder. Aluminum can be colored brightly with dyes. This process is called anodizing. Aluminum is the most common metallic element found in the earths crust. It is easily formed & machined, it is a superb conductor of electricity, & it can be used in many decorative applications by making use of its high reflectivity. As a metal it is non toxic, non magnetic and non sparking. Aluminum also has a density of approximately 1/3rd the weight of steel, making it a very light material. Because of this fact, it is widely used in the aerospace industry and other areas where the weight factor is a key design consideration. Aluminum and the majority of its alloys are highly resistant to most forms of corrosion, and if left untreated the metals natural coating of aluminum oxide provides very effective protection. Aluminums natural color is silver/white, but it can be dyed to virtually any color by anodizing, which also gives it an additional protective film. The strength of the aluminum depends upon the purity. 99.996% pure aluminum has a low tensile strength, but by alloying it with other elements, & given suitable heat treatment the tensile strength can reach figures of around. Uses: Aircraft industry, aluminum foil, cooking utensils and road signs Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys Properties:

Pure aluminum is a silver-white metal characterized by a slightly bluish cast. It has a specific gravity of 2.70, resists the corrosive effects of many chemicals, and has a malleability approaching that of gold. When alloyed with other metals, numerous properties are obtained that make these alloys useful over a wide range of applications. Aluminum alloys are light in weight compared with steel, brass, nickel, or copper; can be fabricated by all common processes; are available in a wide range of sizes, shapes, and forms; resist corrosion; readily accept a wide range of surface finishes; have good electrical and thermal conductivities; and are highly reflective to both heat and light. Characteristics of Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys.Aluminum and its alloys lose part of their strength at elevated temperatures, although some alloys retain good strength at temperatures from 400 to 500 degrees F. At sub zero temperatures, however, their strength increases without loss of ductility so that aluminum is a particularly useful metal for lowtemperature applications. When aluminum surfaces are exposed to the atmosphere, a thin invisible oxide skin forms immediately that protects the metal from further oxidation. This self-protecting characteristic gives aluminum its high resistance to corrosion. Unless exposed to some substance or condition that destroys this protective oxide coating, the metal remains protected against corrosion. Aluminum is highly resistant to weathering, even in industrial atmospheres. It is also corrosion resistant to many acids. Alkalis are among the few substances that attack the oxide skin and therefore are corrosive to aluminum. Although the metal can safely be used in the presence of certain mild alkalis with the aid of inhibitors, in general, direct contact with alkaline substances should be avoided. Direct contact with

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certain other metals should be avoided in the presence of an electrolyte; otherwise, galvanic corrosion of the aluminum may take place in the contact area. Where other metals must be fastened to aluminum, the use of a bituminous paint coating or insulating tape is recommended. Aluminum is one of the two common metals having an electrical conductivity high enough for use as an electric conductor. The conductivity of electric-conductor (EC) grade is about 62 per cent that of the International Annealed Copper Standard. Because aluminum has less than one-third the specific gravity of copper, however, a pound of aluminum will go almost twice as far as a pound of copper when used as a conductor. Alloying lowers the conductivity somewhat so that wherever possible the EC grade is used in electric conductor applications. However, aluminum takes a set, which often results in loosening of screwed connectors, leading to arcing and fires. Special clamping designs are therefore required when aluminum is used for electrical wiring, especially in buildings. Aluminum has non sparking and nonmagnetic characteristics that make the metal useful for electrical shielding purposes such as in bus bar housings or enclosures for other electrical equipment and for use around inflammable or explosive substances. Aluminum can be cast by any method known. It can be rolled to any desired thickness down to foil thinner than paper and in sheet form can be stamped, drawn, spun, or roll-formed. The metal also may be hammered or forged. Aluminum wire, drawn from rolled rod, may be stranded into cable of any desired size and type. The metal may be extruded into a variety of shapes. It may be turned, milled, bored, or otherwise machined in equipment often operating at their maximum speeds. Aluminum rod and bar may readily be employed in the high-speed manufacture of parts made on automatic screw-machine. Heat-treatability Aluminum Alloys.In high-purity form, aluminum is soft and ductile. Most commercial uses, however, require greater strength than pure aluminum affords. This extra strength is achieved in aluminum first by the addition of other elements to produce various alloys, which singly or in combination impart strength to the metal. Further strengthening is possible by means that classify the alloys roughly into two categories, nonheat-treatable and heat-treatable. Non-heat-treatable alloys: The initial strength of alloys in this group depends upon the hardening effect of elements such as manganese, silicon, iron and magnesium, singly or in various combinations. The non-heat-treatable alloys are usually designated, therefore, in the 1000, 3000, 4000, or 5000 series. These alloys are work-hardenable, so further strengthening is made possible by various degrees of cold working, denoted by the "H" series of tempers. Alloys containing appreciable amounts of magnesium when supplied in strain-hardened tempers are usually given a final elevated-temperature treatment called stabilizing for property stability. Heat-treatable alloys: The initial strength of alloys in this group is enhanced by the addition of alloying elements such as copper, magnesium, zinc, and silicon. These elements singly or in various combinations show increasing solid solubility in aluminum with increasing temperature, so it is possible to subject them to thermal treatments that will impart pronounced strengthening. Properties of Alumuinum Alloys. Tables for Mechanical Property Limits for Commonly Used Aluminum Sand Casting Alloys, Mechanical Property Limits for Commonly Used Aluminum Permanent Mold Casting Alloys

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for separately cast test bars, Typical Mechanical Properties of Wrought Aluminum Alloys, indicate typical mechanical properties are available from the Aluminum Association. Magnesium Alloys Magnesium Alloys.Magnesium is the lightest of all structural metals. Silver-white in color, pure magnesium is relatively soft, so is rarely used for structural purposes in the pure state. Principal metallurgical uses for pure magnesium are as an alloying element for aluminum and other metals; as a reducing agent in the extraction of such metals as titanium, zirconium, hafnium, and uranium; as a nodularizing agent in the manufacture of ductile iron; and as a sulfur removal agent in steel manufacture. Magnesium alloys are made by alloying up to about 10 per cent of other metals and have low density and an excellent combination of mechanical properties, resulting in high strength-to-weight ratios. Magnesium alloys are the easiest of all the structural metals to machine, and these alloys have very high weld efficiencies. Magnesium is readily processed by all the standard casting and fabrication techniques used in metalworking, especially by pressure die casting. Because the metal work hardens rapidly, cold forming is limited to mild deformation, but magnesium alloys have excellent working characteristics at temperatures between 300 and 500 degrees F. These alloys have relatively low elastic moduli, so they will absorb energy with good resistance to dents and high damping capacities. Fatigue strength also is good, particularly in the low-stress, high-cycle range. The alloys can be precipitation hardened, so mechanical properties can be improved by solution heat treatment and aging. Corrosion resistance was great improved recently, when methods were found to limit heavy metal impurities to "parts per million." Applications of Magnesium Alloys.Magnesium alloys are used in a wide variety of structural applications including industrial, materials handling, automotive, consumerdurable, and aerospace equipment. In industrial machinery, the alloys are used for parts that operate at high speeds, which must have light weight to allow rapid acceleration and minimize inertial forces. Materials handling equipment applications include hand trucks, dockboards, grain shovels, and gravity conveyors. Automotive applications include wheels, gearboxes, clutch housings, valve covers, and brake pedal and other brackets. Consumer durables include luggage, softball bats, tennis rackets, and housings for cameras and projectors. Their high strength-to-weight ratio suits magnesium alloys to use in a variety of aircraft structures, particularly helicopters. Very intricate shapes that are uneconomical to produce in other materials are often cast in magnesium, sometimes without draft. Wrought magnesium alloys are made in the form of bars, forgings, extrusions, wire, sheet, and plate. NICKEL: Nickel is the fifth most common element on planet Earth. All nickel was formed billions of years ago in supernova explosions, the only place in nature where the temperature and pressure conditions were sufficient for the nickel atom to form. Nickel is a very versatile metal with many applications in the aerospace industry. It's ability to alloy with a wide range of metals has brought it to the forefront of metallurgy. Nickel alloys possess high strength and excellent corrosion resistance, particularly in aerospace applications where elevated temperatures are present. Nickel-based Super alloys have been developed for very high temperature applications where relatively high stresses are encountered and where high surface stability is frequently

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required. Nickel Super alloys are used in the manufacture of McDonnell Douglas F15 and General Dynamics F16 fighters for combustor, flame holder, afterburner, inner liners and nozzles. Nickel is a pale silvery metal. Nickel is far less malleable than copper, gilding metal and brass. Its use was once prominent in the Jewellery industry where all the models of jewellery pieces were first made in Nickel and later released in precious metals. Nickel is good for making brooch pins and for other uses where rigidity and springiness are required. Cobalt is a strategic and critical metal used in many diverse commercial, industrial, and military applications. The largest use of cobalt in the aerospace industry is to make parts for gas turbine aircraft engines. Heat resistant alloys of nickel and cobalt are used where high temperature performance, particularly creep resistance, is required. These alloys have been typically selected for gas turbine components such as blades, turbine wheels and latter stage compressor disks, which are subjected to long term rotational stresses and high temperatures. Also used for heat treating fabrications including furnaces, retorts and fixtures, for strength at temperature and resistance to oxidation, carburization, sulfication and nitriding. The commercial forms of nickel and cobalt based alloys fall into the following categories:

Nickel polishes well and resists oxidation. Nickel can cause allergic reactions to some if worn against the skin. Nickel can also withstand very low temperatures. Nickel is rarely found in the earth in its pure form. Nickel mixes well with other metals to make many useful alloys. Nickel is malleable and ductile (can be beaten and drawn out into a wire) Nickel is rust-resistant. Nickel is magnetic, although not as strongly as iron. Nickel's name comes from the Saxon term 'Kupfernickel' or Devils' Copper, as the 15th century miners thought the ore looked red-brown like copper, and that it was too difficult to mine, and was poisoning them (actually it was arsenic doing this!). Its symbol is Ni. More than 80% of nickel is used to make alloys, as nickel adds toughness, strength, rust resistance and various other electrical, magnetic and heat resistant properties. At least 3000 nickel alloys have been created, including stainless steel. These alloys are used for many purposes such as in construction, the chemical industry, cars (crankshafts and axles), household products (kitchen sinks, cooking utensils, washing machines etc), propeller shafts, scientific and surgical equipment, pipelines and aircraft engines. Nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries, used to power mobile phones, radios, clocks and calculators. Nickel was first used for coinage in Belgium in 1860, and has been widely used since then. Australian $1 and $2 coins contain 2% nickel (with 92% copper and 6% aluminum), and our 5c, 10c, 20c and 50c coins contain 25% nickel (with 75% copper).


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To electroplate steel or brass articles - such as office furniture, bathroom fittings and motor cycles - giving them a hard, shiny surface which resists tarnishing (usually then covered with a thin chromium topcoat).

Nickel and Nickel Alloys Nickel is a white metal, similar in some respects to iron but with good oxidation and corrosion resistances. Nickel and its alloys are used in a variety of applications, usually requiring specific corrosion resistance or high strength at high temperature. Some nickel alloys exhibit very high toughness; others have very high strength. Titanium and Titanium Alloys Titanium is a gray, light metal with a better strength-to-weight ratio than any other metal at room temperature, and is used in corrosive environments or in applications that take advantage of its light weight, good strength, and nonmagnetic properties. Titanium is available commercially in many alloys, but multiple requirements can be met by a single grade of the commercially pure metal. The alloys of titanium are of three metallurgical types: alpha, alpha-beta, and beta, with these designations referring to the predominant phases present in the microstructure. Titanium has a strong affinity for hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen gases, which tend to embrittle the material; carbon is another embrittling agent. Titanium is outstanding in its resistance to strongly oxidizing acids, aqueous chloride solutions, moist chlorine gas, sodium hypochlorite, and seawater and brine solutions. Nearly all nonaircraft applications take advantage of this corrosion resistance. Its uses in aircraft engine compressors and in airframe structures are based on both its high corrosion resistance and high strength-toweight ratio. Copper-Silicon and Copper-Beryllium Alloys This copper-silicon alloy is available in five slightly different nominal compositions for applications that require high strength, good fabricating and fusing qualities, immunity to rust, free-machining and a corrosion resistance equivalent to copper. Copper-Beryllium Alloys.Alloys of copper and beryllium present health hazards. Particles produced by machining may be absorbed into the body through the skin, the mouth, the nose, or an open wound, resulting in a condition requiring immediate medical attention. Working of these alloys requires protective clothing or other shielding in a monitored environment. Copper-beryllium alloys involved in a fire give off profuse toxic fumes that must not be inhaled. These alloys contain copper, beryllium, cobalt, and silver, and fall into two groups. One group whose beryllium content is greater than one per cent is characterized by its high strength and hardness and the other, whose beryllium content is less than one per cent, by its high electrical and thermal conductivity. The alloys have many applications in the electrical and aircraft industries or wherever strength, corrosion resistance, conductivity, non-magnetic and nonsparking properties are essential. Beryllium copper is obtainable in the form of strips, rods and bars, wire, platers, bars, billets, tubes, and casting ingots. LEAD:

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Lead is an element. Properties: Very soft and very heavy. Resists corrosion by water and acid. Lead is a bluish-white metal. Lead tarnishes to a dull grey colour when exposed to air. Lead becomes shiny, silvery and chrome like when melted. Lead is a soft, malleable and very heavy metal. Lead has poor electrical conductivity. Lead is highly resistant to corrosion. Lead is poisonous. Lead will burn holes in the surface of precious metals if both metals are heated. Lead should be melted only in well ventilated area. Always wash your hands after working with lead.

Uses: Batteries, roofing and gutters.


Zinc is an element. Zinc has a blue-white colour. It is a moderately reactive metal that tranishes in moist air and burns in air with a bright bluish-green flame, giving off fumes of zinx oxide. Resistant to atmospheric corrosion. Malleable from 100 degrees C to 210 degrees C, above these temperatures it becomes brittle and will be pulverized by beating. Non magnetic. Uses: Protective coating on mild steel (galvanising). Used with other metals to form alloys, batteries.


This silvery, malleable Tin (Stannous [Sn]) is not easily oxidized in air and is used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion. The first alloy, used in large scale since 3000 BC, was bronze, an alloy of tin and copper. Extremely malleable and ductile. Resists corrosion. Because of its low toxicity, tinplated metal is also used for food packaging, giving the name to tin cans, which are made mostly of steel. Coating for mild steel (tinplate). Tin(II) fluoride is added to some dental care products[47] [48] as stannous fluoride (SnF2). Tin fluoride can be mixed with calcium abrasives while the more

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common sodium fluoride gradually becomes biologically inactive combined with calcium compounds. It has also been shown to be more effective thansodium fluoride in controlling gingivitis.

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