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**Analytic Signals and Hilbert Transform Filters
**

A signal which has no negative-frequency components is called an analytic signal.4.12 Therefore, in continuous time, every analytic signal can be represented as

where

is the complex coefficient (setting the amplitude and phase) of the positive-frequency at frequency .

complex sinusoid Any real sinusoid

may be converted to a positive-frequency complex sinusoid by simply generating a phase-quadrature component to serve as the

``imaginary part'':

The phase-quadrature component can be generated from the in-phase component by a simple quarter-cycle time shift.4.13 For more complicated signals which are expressible as a sum of many sinusoids, a filter can be constructed which shifts each sinusoidal component by a quarter cycle. This is called a Hilbert transform filter. Let denote the output at time filter has magnitude and of the Hilbert-transform filter applied to the signal . Ideally, this

at all frequencies and introduces a phase shift of

at each positive frequency

at each negative frequency. When a real signal are used to form a new complex signal

and its Hilbert transform , the signal is the ,

(complex) analytic signal corresponding to the real signal the corresponding analytic signal frequencies'' of have been ``filtered out.''

. In other words, for any real signal has the property that all ``negative

To see how this works, recall that these phase shifts can be impressed on a complex sinusoid by multiplying it by particular frequency : . Consider the positive and negative frequency components at the

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Analytic Signals and Hilbert Transform Filters

https://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/mdft/Analytic_Signals_Hilbert_Trans...

Now let's apply a

degrees phase shift to the positive-frequency component, and a

degrees

phase shift to the negative-frequency component:

Adding them together gives

and sure enough, the negative frequency component is filtered out. (There is also a gain of 2 at positive frequencies.) For a concrete example, let's start with the real sinusoid

Applying the ideal phase shifts, the Hilbert transform is

The analytic signal is then

by Euler's identity. Thus, in the sum

, the negative-frequency components of

and ,

cancel out, leaving only the positive-frequency component. This happens for any real signal not just for sinusoids as in our example.

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Analytic Signals and Hilbert Transform Filters

https://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/mdft/Analytic_Signals_Hilbert_Trans...

Figure 4.16: Creation of the analytic signal from the real sinusoid and the derived phasequadrature sinusoid , viewed . b)

in the frequency domain. a) Spectrum of Spectrum of . c) Spectrum of of .

. d) Spectrum

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Analytic Signals and Hilbert Transform Filters

https://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/mdft/Analytic_Signals_Hilbert_Trans...

Figure 4.16 illustrates what is going on in the frequency domain. At the top is a graph of the spectrum of the sinusoid (since consisting of impulses at frequencies and zero at all other frequencies ). Each impulse amplitude is equal to .

(The amplitude of an impulse is its algebraic area.) Similarly, since

, the spectrum of . Multiplying

is an impulse of amplitude by results in

at

and amplitude

at

which is shown in the third plot, Fig.4.16c. Finally, adding together the first and third plots, corresponding to , we see that the two positive-frequency impulses add in phase to give a unit ), and at frequency , the two impulses, having opposite sign,

impulse (corresponding to

cancel in the sum, thus creating an analytic signal illustrates how the negative-frequency component with to produce the analytic signal

, as shown in Fig.4.16d. This sequence of operations gets filtered out by summing corresponding to the real signal , where is a slowly varying .

As a final example (and application), let amplitude envelope (slow compared with sinusoid at ``carrier frequency'' close to (if

). This is an example of amplitude modulation applied to a were constant, this would be exact), and the analytic signal is

(which is where you tune your AM radio). The Hilbert transform is very

. Note that AM demodulation4.14is now nothing more than the absolute value. I.e., . Due to this simplicity, Hilbert transforms are sometimes used in making amplitude envelope followers for narrowband signals (i.e., signals with all energy centered about a single ``carrier'' frequency). AM demodulation is one application of a narrowband envelope follower. Next | Prev | Up | Top | Index | JOS Index | JOS Pubs | JOS Home | Search [How to cite this work] [Order a printed hardcopy] [Comment on this page via email]

``Mathematics of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT), with Audio Applications --- Second Edition'', by Julius O. Smith III, W3K Publishing, 2007, ISBN 978-0-9745607-4-8. Copyright © 2012-06-01 by Julius O. Smith III Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA), Stanford University

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