indian .}ollmai alAnimal Sciences 69 (4) : 207-210.
Outbreaks of verminous bronchopulmonitis among
sheep and goats in Himachal Pradesh
R K ASRANI'. M K BATTN. R C KATOCH\ K P .lITHENDRAW, MAN DEEP SHARMA', S P SINGH"and V K GUPTN
Himachal Pradesh Krishi Vishva Vidyalaya, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh 1 76 062
Received: 13 February 1998; Accepted: 22 September 1998
The detailed investigations on 5 outbreaks of verminous bronchopulmonitis in peak winter among migratory (Jaddi
sheep and goats in Himachal Pradesh were described. The clinical symptoms, gmss lesions and histopathological alteratioll$
were studied. The concurrent ailments due to nematodes i .c. Dictyocalllusjilaria and Protostrongylus rujescpns and bacteria
such as E. coli, COITnebacteriulIl spp., Pasteurella huemolytica, P. mllitodela and Streptococcus pyogenes were diagnosed.
The serological cvidence of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was confirmed in 20 animals manifesting stomatitis and
Key words: Bacteria. Bronchopulmonitis, Goats, Nematodes, Sheep
Helminthic infestations and microbial infections are the
major impediments to livestock development in Himachal
Pradesh. Lung worms infestations have earlier been recognized
among migratory llocks in hilly regions (Krishna et at.
1987, Sharma et at. 1988, Sharma 1994). The present
communication records etioparllological observations
manifested in deadly outbreaks of bronc hop ulman it is affecting
5 llocks of sheep and goats in Sirmour district of Himachal
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The outbreaks and mortality were noticed in December,
1996 among migratory flocks of sheep and goats stationed at
foothills ofSirmour district in a radius of 10- I 5 km. The data
from each affected flock was collected on flock population,
morbidity, mortality and case fatality percentage (Table I).
These affected flocks were critically examined clinically and
14 animals (7 sheep and 7 goats) including young and adults
from different flocks were subjected to postmortem
examination. The specimens of lungs exhibiting gross lesions
were collected in 10% formal saline for histopatho-
morphological investigations. The nematode infestations were
noticed in trachea as well as bronchi of all the necropsied
animals and were washed thoroughly in normal saline and
fixed in 70% alcohol for taxonomic identitication.
Present address: 17 Assistant Professor, DcpartmGnt of
Veterinary Pathology,2Assistant Professor,; Associate
Profess() r. 'Professor and Head, Department of Veterinary
Microbiology Collcge of Veterinary and Animal Sciences.
'Scientist. IVRI Palampur. Himachall'raLlesh.
"Head. fkparllllent ofVet!lrinary Pathology.
The pieces of lungs were also collected aseptically for
microbiological examination. These were processed on 6%
Fig. 1. Posterior end or Illale Protostrongylus rujesce/l.l' I'rom
shecp ( I 00
ASRANI ETAL [Vol. 69, NO.4
Table I. Flocks of migratory sheep and goats showing con,:urrent lung worm and microbial infestations
Flock Flock Plock Mortality Case fatality Animal Species Secondary
No. population mOl'bility (%) (%)
L Sheep (160) 40.00 11.25 12
Goats (110) 36.36 10.90 30
2. Sheep (250) 54.40 12.40 24.60
Goats (150) 31.33 10.00 31.91
3. Sheep (200) 46.00 5.00 10.86
Goats (98) 37.75 7.14 18.91
4. Sheep (J 58) 68.99 8.86 12.84
Goats (194) 35.57 4.63 13.86
5. Sheep (436) 54.35 9.17 16.87
Goats (75) 41.33 4.00 9.65
Total Sheep ( 12(4) 52.16 9.38 17.99
Goats (627) 35.73 7.49 20.53
sheep-blood agar and the isolates were identified on the basis
of their cultural, morphological and physiological behaviour.
The sel'llm samples were also collected and tested for presence
of antibodies for Chlamydia psittaci and peste des petits
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The clinical findings were more or less similar in all these
flocks exam ined. The affected animals had mucopurulent nasal
discharge, bouts of coughing, moist rales and chronic
diarrhoea. A rise of body temperature (103°-,1 04°F), capricious
appetite, general thri11:iness, progressive emaciation and body-
weight loss were other associated symptoms. These
observations were in line with those of Krishna et af. (1987)
and Manfield et al. (1993). Both young and adult animals
were affected. Mucopurulent nasal discharge was more
pronounced in 2 of the 3 day-old kids in one flock. The oral
symptoms, viz. necrotic stomatitis and glossitis were also
observed in few animals in2 flocks. A low persistent mortality
(2-3 animalslf1ock/day) occurred more [han one month as per
anamnesis. A few abortions were also rep0l1ed from 2 flocks.
The antibiotic treatment proved ineftective and the mortality
continued as and when antibiotic cover was withdrawn.
The trachea and bronchi of all necropsied animals were
congested and full of mucopurulent and frothy exudate along
with abundant lung worms. Two different types ofnematodes
were noticed from tracheal and bronchial lavage. These were
identified as Dictyocaulus filaria in 6 animals, and
rrotostrongylus rujescf::l1s in 5 animals (Fig. I ) and mixed
necropsied oflungworm complications
D,P Corynebacterium spp. (I)
3 D,P E. coli (I)
P. multicida (I )
Streptococcus pyotenes (2)
D,P Streptococcus pyogenes (I)
P. haemo/ylica ( I )
D Pesle des ruminants
Streptococcus pyogenes (I)
3 D PPR E.culi (I),
infections of both in 3 animals. The pleura appeared thick and
cloudy. In 3 animals pleural adhesions with thoracic cavity
and diaphragmatic wall were also evident and are in conformity
with observations of Vale co et al. (1992). The lung parenchyma
had focal and diffuse cream ish white patches of consolidation.
A mild pericarditis, hydrothorax and hydropericardium were
other accompanied consistent observations. A mile! catarrhal
enteritis was also recorded. No gross lesions were perceivable
in other visceral organs. Dhar and Dash (1982) reported the
prevalence of lung worm infestations in sheep in the Kullu
valley. The animals showed either D. filaria infestations or
mixed infestations of Protostrongylus spp. and Varre
strongylus spp. or of D. filaria in association with the other
The microscopic changes were typical of bronchop-
neumonia. The pleura was thickened due to accumulation of
fibrinous exudate and leukocytes chiefly the neutrophils. At
some places parasitic larvae were also seen in the thickened
pleural layer (Fig.2). The changes were more pronounced in
the pneumo parenchyma involving both alveoli and bronchi-
oles. The lumens of alveoli had both larvae and parasitic ova
alongwith abundant of neutrophils (Fig.3). Two types of
parasitic eggs were clearly identified in the alveoli. At certain
places interalveolar septate were also thickened due to
leukocytic infiltration (neutrophils and eosinophils) and
proliferation of alveolar lining cells. The patches of congestion
and haemorrhages were almost present in the lung
parenchyma. At some places alveoli appeared
emphysematous. The bronchioles contained aggregates
ofneutrophils, parasitic ova and larvae in their lumen. A
few cross sections of parasites were also seen in the
VERMINOUS BRONCHOPULMONITIS AMONG SHEEP AND GOAT 209
I'igs 2-),2,1'lw[llillicrograph ()rillng showing thickening of pleura owing to fibrin depositioll. lcu!.;m;Yks <Jnd parasilic h'il ,,,: I, II ;lllei I 33).
3,Photomicrograph showing neutrophils, parasitic ova and larvae in the lumen of alveoli ( I-I and E x 33), 4,Photomicrograph showing lung
worms in the bronchiole (1-1 and E x 33),5,Photomicrograph showing neutrophils in the lumen of broil chi ole ( 1-1 and E .x 132),
lumen of bronchioles at few places (FigA). The
bronchiolar epithelium appeared hyperplastic alongwith
a moderate increase in the goblet cells, There was
extensive epithelial cell debris alongwith inflammatory
cells in the lumen of bronchioles (Fig. 5). The
histopathological changes in bronchi were more or less
similar to those observed in bronchioles. The bronchial
epithelial hyperplasia, neutrophil aggregations and cross
sections of parasites were seen in the lumen of bronchi.
These pathological changes are in agreement with Krishna
et al. (1987) and Valeco et at. (1992).
The lung pieces from affected animals invariably led to the
bacterial isolation (Table 1) and were identified as Escherichia
coli (2), Corynebacterium spp. (2), Pasteurella haemo(ytica
(I), Pasteurella multocida (1) and Streptococcus pyogenes
(4). The isolation of these pathogenic bacteria from verm inous
lungs indicates secondary complications due to these
organisms. These findings are in line with those of Krishna
et al. (1987). Serum samples (20) collected from 3 flocks
showing lesions of stomatitis and glossitis were confirmed
for peste des petits ruminants (PPR) by Pirbright Laboratory,
UK. It is, however, not clear whether these animals had recent
exposure to the virus or some previolls exposure since the
titres were not available. However, the lung lesions typical of
PPR were not observed on gross and histopathological
examination. The overall percentage of morbidity in sheep
and goats in 5 flocks was 52,16 and 35.73 while mortality
percentage was 9,38 and 7.49 among sheep and goats
respectively, The case fatality rate had reverse trend ie
17.99 % and 20.53 % in sheep and goats respectively.
Authors thank the Dean, College and Animal
Sciences, HPKY, Palampur, for providing necessary tllCilities.
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infections in sheep in the Kullu valicy (Himachal Pradesh).lrldia(j
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