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JUNIOR SCHOOL MATH CURRICULUM 2011
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Contents
1. Beliefs and values in Mathematics 2. Good mathematics practise Constructing meaning about mathematics Transferring meaning into symbols Applying with understanding 3. Mathematic Strands 4. Key concepts in the PYP : What do we want students to understand about mathematics? 5. Examples of questions that illustrate the key concepts 6. Learning objectives Data Handling Measurement Shape and space Pattern and function Number 7. Strategies for pencil and paper procedures 8. Basic layout for pen and paper procedures
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Beliefs and values in mathematics
All students deserve an opportunity to understand the power and beauty of mathematics. Principles and standards for school mathematics National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM 2000) In the PYP, mathematics is viewed primarily as a vehicle to support inquiry, providing a global language through which we make sense of the world around us. It is intended that students become competent users of the language of mathematics, and can begin to use it as a way of thinking, as opposed to seeing it as a series of facts and equations to be memorized. The power of mathematics for describing and analysing the world around us is such that it has become a highly effective tool for solving problems. It is also recognized that students can appreciate the intrinsic fascination of mathematics and explore the world through its unique perceptions. In the same way that students describe themselves as ―authors‖ or ―artists‖, a school‘s programme should also provide students with the opportunity to see themselves as ―mathematicians‖, where they enjoy and are enthusiastic when exploring and learning about mathematics. The IB learner profile is integral to teaching and learning mathematics in the PYP because it represents the qualities of effective learners and internationally minded students. The learner profile, together with the five essential elements of the programme— knowledge, concepts, skills, attitudes and action—informs planning, teaching and assessing in mathematics.
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Good mathematics practice
It is important that learners acquire mathematical understanding by constructing their own meaning through everincreasing levels of abstraction, starting with exploring their own personal experiences, understandings and knowledge. Additionally, it is fundamental to the philosophy of the PYP that, since it is to be used in reallife situations, mathematics needs to be taught in relevant, realistic contexts, rather than by attempting to impart a fixed body of knowledge directly to students. How children learn mathematics can be described using the following stages
How children learn mathematics
Applying with understanding Transferring meaning Constructing meaning It is useful to consider these stages when planning developmentally appropriate learning experiences at all ages. Schools that have local and/or national curriculum requirements in mathematics should articulate how best these can be incorporated into their planning, teaching and assessing of mathematics.
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Constructing meaning about mathematics
Learners construct meaning based on their previous experiences and understanding, and by reflecting upon their interactions with objects and ideas. Therefore, involving learners in an active learning process, where they are provided with possibilities to interact with manipulatives and to engage in conversations with others, is paramount to this stage of learning mathematics. When making sense of new ideas all learners either interpret these ideas to conform to their present understanding or they generate a new understanding that accounts for what they perceive to be occurring. This construct will continue to evolve as learners experience new situations and ideas, have an opportunity to reflect on their understandings and make connections about their learning.
Transferring meaning into symbols
Only when learners have constructed their ideas about a mathematical concept should they attempt to transfer this understanding into symbols. Symbolic notation can take the form of pictures, diagrams, modeling with concrete objects and mathematical notation. Learners should be given the opportunity to describe their understanding using their own method of symbolic notation, then learning to transfer them into conventional mathematical notation.
Applying with understanding
Applying with understanding can be viewed as the learners demonstrating and acting on their understanding. Through authentic activities, learners should independently select and use appropriate symbolic notation to process and record their thinking. These authentic activities should include a range of practical handson problemsolving activities and realistic situations that provide the opportunity to demonstrate mathematical thinking through presented or recorded formats. In this way, learners are able to apply their understanding of mathematical concepts as well as utilize mathematical skills and knowledge. As they work through these stages of learning, students and teachers use certain processes of mathematical reasoning.
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Mathematics strands
What do we want students to know?
Data handling Data handling allows us to make a summary of what we know about the world and to make inferences about what we do not know. Data can be collected, organized, represented and summarized in a variety of ways to highlight similarities, differences and trends; the chosen format should illustrate the information without bias or distortion. Probability can be expressed qualitatively by using terms such as ―unlikely‖, ―certain‖ or ―impossible‖. It can be expressed quantitatively on a numerical scale. Measurement To measure is to attach a number to a quantity using a chosen unit. Since the attributes being measured are continuous, ways must be found to deal with quantities that fall between numbers. It is important to know how accurate a measurement needs to be or can ever be. Shape and space The regions, paths and boundaries of natural space can be described by shape. An understanding of the interrelationships of shape allows us to interpret, understand and appreciate our twodimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) world. Pattern and function To identify pattern is to begin to understand how mathematics applies to the world in which we live. The repetitive features of patterns can be identified and described as generalized rules called ―functions‖. This builds a foundation for the later study of algebra. Number Our number system is a language for describing quantities and the relationships between quantities. For example, the value attributed to a digit depends on its place within a base system. Numbers are used to interpret information, make decisions and solve problems. For example, the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are related to one another and are used to process information in order to solve problems. The degree of precision needed in calculating depends on how the result will be used. Related concepts: There are many related concepts that could provide further links to the transdisciplinary programme of inquiry or further understanding of the subject area. Related concepts, such as pattern, boundaries and base systems, have been embedded into the descriptions for each of the strands above. Schools may choose to develop further related concepts.MATH CURRICULUM 2011 JUNIOR SCHOOL
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Key concepts in the PYP:
What do we want students to understand about mathematics?
Central to the philosophy of the PYP is the principle that purposeful, structured inquiry is a powerful vehicle for learning that promotes meaning and understanding, and challenges students to engage with significant ideas. Hence in the PYP there is also a commitment to a conceptdriven curriculum as a means of supporting that inquiry. There are clusters of ideas that can usefully be grouped under a set of overarching concepts, each of which has major significance within and across disciplines, regardless of time or place. These key concepts are one of the essential elements of the PYP framework. It is accepted that these are not, in any sense, the only concepts worth exploring. Taken together they form a powerful curriculum component that drives the teacher and/or studentconstructed inquiries that lie at the heart of the PYP curriculum.
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Examples of questions that illustrate the key concepts
The following table provides sample teacher/student questions that illustrate the key concepts, and that may help to structure or frame an inquiry. These examples demonstrate broad, openended questioning— requiring investigation, discussion, and a full and considered response—that is essential in an inquiryled programme.
Concept Sample teacher/student questions
Form What is it like? What is a pattern? How can we describe these shapes? What is a fraction? How can we describe time? Function How does it work? How does the scale on a graph work? What happens if we keep adding? What is each shape being used for? How can we record time? Causation Why is it like it is? Why is a block the best shape for building a tower? Why do these calculations produce patterns? What prompted people to develop a place value system? Why was the data displayed in this form? Change How is it changing? How can we convert from the 12• hour clock to the 24hour clock? How can you change one quadrilateral into another? What do all patterns have in common? What would happen to the area of something if … ?
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Connection How is it connected to other things? How can you use fractions to explain musical notation? How are 4 + 3 and 3 + 4 connected? What do you already know that helps you to read and interpret this display of data? How is area connected to perimeter? Perspective What are the points of view? Are there some different ways of explaining this? Who might be interested in, or be able to use, the results of our survey? How do people calculate in different cultures? What would make this game fair to all players? Responsibility What is our responsibility? What makes your answer reasonable? Why does the measurement need to be accurate? How have you collected all the relevant data? Reflection How do we know? How do you know that you are correct? Which way works the best? Why? What could you do differently if you repeated the survey? Why are our estimates realistic?
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Data Handling
Data handling allows us to make a summary of what we know about the world and to make inferences about what we do not know. • Data can be collected, organized, represented and summarized in a variety of ways to highlight similarities, differences and trends; the chosen format should illustrate the information without bias or distortion. • Probability can be expressed qualitatively by using terms such as “unlikely”, “certain” or “impossible”. It can be expressed quantitatively on a numerical scale.
Phase 1
Nursery & Kindergarten Learners will develop an understanding of how the collection and organization of information helps to make sense of the world. They will sort, describe and label objects by attributes and represent information in graphs including pictographs and tally marks. The learners will discuss chance in daily events.
Phase 2
Reception & Grade 1 Learners will understand how information can be expressed as organized and structured data and that this can occur in a range of ways. They will collect and represent data in different types of graphs, interpreting the resulting information for the purpose of answering questions. The learners will develop an understanding that some events in daily life are more likely to happen than others and they will identify and describe likelihood using appropriate vocabulary.
Phase 3
Grade 2 & Grade 3 Learners will continue to collect, organize, display and analyse data, developing an understanding of how different graphs highlight different aspects of data more efficiently. They will understand that scale can represent different quantities in graphs and that mode can be used to summarize a set of data. The learners will make the connection that probability is based on experimental events and can be expressed numerically.
Phase 4
Grade 4 & Grade 5 Learners will collect, organize and display data for the purposes of valid interpretation and communication. They will be able to use the mode, median, mean and range to summarize a set of data. They will create and manipulate an electronic database for their own purposes, including setting up spreadsheets and using simple formulas to create graphs. Learners will understand that probability can be expressed on a scale (0– 1or 0%–100%) and that the probability of an event can be predicted theoretically.
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Data handling
Data handling allows us to make a summary of what we know about the world and to make inferences about what we do not know. Data can be collected, organized, represented and summarized in a variety of ways to highlight similarities, differences and trends; the chosen format should illustrate the information without bias or distortion. Probability can be expressed qualitatively by using terms such as “unlikely”, “certain” or “impossible”. It can be expressed quantitatively on a numerical scale. Learning Objective Nursery
Sort reallife objects into sets by attribute (size, shape, colour) Graph reallife objects
Notes for teachers
What things belong together? Who is/is not here today? Why do they belong together? Who has a red jumper /blue jumper? Can we sort them in another way?
Kindergarten
Sort reallife objects into sets by attribute Graph reallife objects and compare quantities
What things belong together? Why do they belong together? Can we sort them in another way? What different ways are there to show what we have done? Which has more? Which has the most? Which has the least? Can we see any patterns in the graph? How can we describe the information in these graphs? How can we use number words to describe what we see on the graph?
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Reception
Understand and describe the attributes of a sorted set of objects With support, represent data in a pictograph and compare quantities Begin to see how collecting and graphing data can answer questions Identify events which are likely and unlikely
Grade 1
Understand that data can be recorded, organised, displayed and made sense of in a variety of ways. Use manipulatives/objects to represent data and draw conclusions from the data display. Come up with questions for finding information from graphs and data displays Carry out investigations and surveys, using a variety of methods to gather information and work with others to collate, organise and communicate results Use technology, manipulatives and other methods to display data simply, clearly and accurately (eg. Bar graphs and pictographs) Conduct simple experiments involving
Can we show how these objects are the same and how they are different? How do we decide which objects to put into which sets? Can we explain how we sorted our objects? Can one object be part of two different sets? Why would we want to collect data? How can we display data? Why would we want to make a graph? How are graphs used? How are graphs the same as /different from lists and other types of diagrams? Do all these graphs give us the same information? What information can we/ can we not tell by looking at the diagram? How do we know whether or not something is likely to happen? Look at this picture, what is likely /unlikely to happen? How have these things been sorted? Could we sort these things in more than one way? What is the best way of showing this data? Are there other ways of displaying this data? What is another name for this diagram? Why would we make a graph? I have a question about this graph. Is it true or false? What information can we tell from looking at these diagrams? What information do we want to find out? Where will we look for this information? How will we put this information together? How can we best display what we have found? Is there a way we can do it so everybody understands the information easily? Could we use a picture or diagram to show our information? What can we use to help us display our information? What are these different diagrams called? What is the chance of me winning this game?
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Grade 2
chance Place outcomes in order of likelihood Communicate predictions and findings using vocabulary of probability
Grade 3
Decide how best to organise and present findings Determine and identify the mode as a way of analysing and interpreting data Interpret tables, lists and charts used in everyday life Solve problems involving data Use squared paper to represent larger quantities to scale Determine the probability of events and defend their answer
Is the game fair? What makes a fair game? What can you think of that would never happen, that it would be impossible for it to happen? Is it impossible / unlikely / likely / certain that this will happen. What are the most important things we want to show? Is this the best way to show them? What other ways could we display the information? What is this chart/table/list showing us? What information can you find in this diagram/chart/table? Would you add anything else to it? How can we fit data on this piece of squared paper when the range of numbers is so large? On what should we base our decision? Do you think this will happen /won‘t happen? Is it possible /impossible? Is it probable that it will rain today? Why do you think so? What are the most important pieces of information that we need? How best would we display this information? Which type of diagram / graph would be the most appropriate for the information we want to convey? (Venn diagram, pictogram, Carroll diagram, tables, bar graphs, pie charts) What is/are the mean / median / mode of the information shown? What is the difference between a bar graph and a pie chart? When would we use a bar graph / pie chart? If 0 means impossible and 1 means certain, where would you place unlikely/ likely/ equal chance on the line? If 0% means impossible and 100% means certain what percentages would you use to reflect unlikely / equal chance / likely? Why would you create a database?
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Grade 4
Gain information on a topic by designing a survey, processing the data and interpreting the results Determine and identify the mean, median and mode as a way of analysing and interpreting data Choose whether to display data as a bar graph or pie chart Use a probability scale from 0 to 1 or 0% to 100%to express probability Create a database to organise information
Grade 5
Determine and identify the mean, median and mode as a way of analysing and interpreting data Know that mean, median and mode are measures of average and that range is a measure of spread Recognise the difference between discrete and continuous data Draw conclusions from statistics and graphs and recognise when information is presented in a misleading way Understand that different outcomes may result from repeating an experiment Use a spreadsheet to process and display numerical information Use a probability scale from 0 to 1 or 0% to 100% to express probability Use IT to generate appropriate graphs to reflect data collected.
When would you create a database? What is the mean, median and mode of the data reflected in your graph? What do the mean, median and mode measure? (average) What does the range measure? (spread) Which graph would best display this information? Does this graph portray anything that could be misleading? Why would you set up a database? What would be a useful database to create? If we repeat an experiment will the results change? What happens the more we repeat an experiment? How many times do you think we should repeat the experiment to get the most truthful results? If 0 means impossible and 1 means certain, where would you place unlikely/ likely/ equal chance on the line? If 0% means impossible and 100% means certain what percentages would you use to reflect unlikely / equal chance / likely?
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Measurement
Phase 1
To measure is to attach a number to a quantity using a chosen unit. Since the attributes being measured are continuous, ways must be found to deal with quantities that fall between numbers. It is important to know how accurate a measurement needs to be or can ever be. Nursery & Kindergarten Learners will develop an understanding of how measurement involves the comparison of objects and the ordering and sequencing of events. They will be able to identify, compare and describe attributes of real objects as well as describe and sequence familiar events in their daily routine.
Phase 2
Reception & Grade 1 Learners will understand that standard units allow us to have a common language to measure and describe objects and events, and that while estimation is a strategy that can be applied for approximate measurements, particular tools allow us to measure and describe attributes of objects and events with more accuracy. Learners will develop these understandings in relation to measurement involving length, mass, capacity, money, temperature and time.
Phase 3
Grade 2 & Grade 3 Learners will continue to use standard units to measure objects, in particular developing their understanding of measuring perimeter, area and volume. They will select and use appropriate tools and units of measurement, and will be able to describe measures that fall between two numbers on a scale. The learners will be given the opportunity to construct meaning about the concept of an angle as a measure of rotation.
Phase 4
Grade 4 & Grade 5 Learners will understand that a range of procedures exists to measure different attributes of objects and events, for example, the use of formulas for finding area, perimeter and volume. They will be able to decide on the level of accuracy required for measuring and using decimal and fraction notation when precise measurements are necessary. To demonstrate their understanding of angles as a measure of rotation, the learners will be able to measure and construct angles.
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Measurement
To measure is to attach a number to a quantity using a chosen unit. Since the attributes being measured are continuous, ways must be found to deal with quantities that fall between numbers. It is important to know how accurate a measurement needs to be or can ever be. Learning Objective Nursery
Directly compare attributes of objects and events
Notes for teachers
Which one is longer, taller, heavier, hotter? Can you show me which one is longer, taller? Which holds more? How do we know it is heavier? How will we know when it is time to go home? What will happen before....? What happens after ...? Why do we put our socks on before our shoes? What is your favourite part of the day and why? Which one is bigger, smaller? Which one is heavier, lighter? How will we know when it is time to go home? What will happen before....? What happens after ...? What day is it today? What happens today? When will we have snack, lunch? What month is it? What happens this month? Whose birthday is it today? When would we want to measure something?
Kindergarten
Directly compare attributes of objects Identify and sequence events in their daily lives (put in chronological order) Introduce children to using a calendar on a daily basis
Reception
Compare attributes of objects using non
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standard units Identify, compare and sequence events in their daily lives Begin to think about the need for standard units of measurement Use a calendar to determine the day, date and month of the year (daily) Identify and compare lengths of time eg. hour, day, week, year Explore telling the time to the hour (analogue) Make up amounts to 10c using 1c, 2c, 5c and 10c coins (explore to 20c)
How can we find out how long/heavy something is? How can we know if one thing is longer/heavier than other things we have measured? Why would we want to estimate the measurement of something? What tools can we use to measure? Does the measurement of the same object change when we use different measuring tools? How can we compare and describe the measurement of two objects so that other people can understand? Why do we use calendars? How can we use a calendar to find out the date? What patterns are there on the calendar? Why is it important to be able to put the days of the week and months of the year in the correct order? What language do we use to describe time? Why would we want to measure time? How do we measure time? What can you do in an hour? How do we know what a day/a week/a month begins and ends? Why is time referred to in hours? How do we record the time of day? What time is it? (on the hour) When would we want to measure something? How can we find out how long/heavy something is? How can we know if one thing is longer/heavier than other things we have measured? Why would we want to estimate the measurement of something? What tools can we use to measure? Does the measurement of the same object change when we use different measuring tools? Why did John and Jane get different results when they measured the classroom using their feet?
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Grade 1
Begin to understand why standard units of measurement are used to measure and compare Measure using the standard units of length, capacity, mass, time and temperature Make reasonable estimates of length, capacity, mass, time and temperature Identify and compare lengths of time eg. minute, hour, day, week, month, year Tell the time to the hour and explore half hour (analogue)
Understand angles as a ‗measure of turns‘, using whole turns and half turns Handle and explore money and look at coins to €1 (How many ways can we make €1?)
How can we compare and describe the measurement of two objects so that other people can understand? How could Sam and Jenny get the same result when measuring how heavy something is? What can you do in an hour/a minute/a second? What could you do in a day/a week/ a month? What time is it now? (on the hour, on the half hour) The time is now 11 o‘clock. How far has the hand turned since 10 o‘clock? (full turn) How far has the hand turned now it is half past? (half a turn) How many ways can we make €1? Is this more than 100g? Is this less than 200g? Is this more than 100g but less than 200g Where does this measurement lie? (between 100g and 200g) What is the perimeter? What is the area? What is the volume? How is area connected to perimeter? How is volume connected to 3D shapes? How much can this container hold? What do we call this? (capacity) How can we describe a measure that falls between two numbers on a scale? What unit of measurement is best used to measure this object? (cm, mm, m) How can we make up €2? I would like to buy this item, do I have enough money? Will I get change? How much will it be? What notes of money can we use to buy things? How are we going to represent measurements that fall
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Grade 2
Describe measures that fall between whole numbers on a scale (between, more than, etc) Begin to think about and compare the concepts of area and volume Begin to use standard units of measurement Distinguish between length, volume, capacity, etc and units used to measure each Distinguish between calibrations in length – mm, cm and m. Identify which calibration is appropriate to the task Read and write time to the hour and half hour (analogue) Model addition using money, explore subtraction (coins up to €2) Children should be able to recognize different notes
Grade 3
Describe measures that fall between whole
Grade 4
numbers by using smaller units Measure using the standard units for area and perimeter, using the formulae Make reasonable estimates for area and perimeter Measure, label and compare perimeter and area Model addition and subtraction using money Incorporate change as being the difference between how much you have and what is left after the purchase Solve simple addition and subtraction problems involving money Read and write time to the hour, half hour, and quarter hour (analogue) Select and use appropriate standard units of measurement when estimating, describing, comparing and measuring Use measuring tools with simple scales accurately (rulers, scales, temperature gauges) Develop procedures for finding area, perimeter and volume Estimate, measure, label and compare using formal methods and standard units of measurement and the dimensions of area, perimeter and volume Use decimal notation in measurement: 3.5 cm Introduce the right angle. Identify that it is 90º. Identify acute, obtuse and straight angles Read and write the time to the minute and second on an analogue clock Apply to the 24 hour clock Use and construct timetables using 12 and 24 hour clock Use and construct timelines
between numbers on the scale? How do we find the perimeter? How do we measure area? Do I have enough money to buy this? How much more will I need? What change will I get? What is the difference between how much I have and how much the item is? I have 50c here. What fraction is that of €1? It is quarter past 10. What part of a full turn has the hand moved?
How can we accurately measure a given object? What unit should we use? How do we choose an appropriate measuring tool? Which instrument is best for this measurement? How do we read simple scales? How do we find the perimeter? Are there shortcuts to finding perimeter? Can you find a formula that will work every time? How do we measure area? Are there shortcuts to finding area? Can you find a formula that will work every time? What will the unit of measurement be for perimeter/area? What is volume? How is volume linked to area? When we talk about volume are we looking at 2D or 3D shapes? How do we measure volume? Are there shortcuts to finding volume? Can you find a formula that will work every time? When do we need to estimate? How can we make a reasonable estimate of measurement?
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How can we test our estimate? What are all the possible dimensions? How can we deal with the part of the measurement that is left over? How can we apply our understanding of decimal notation to measurement scales? What language to we use to describe angles? How can we identify angles? What are the relationships between the different angles? Where are angles found in the immediate environment? Why are angles a useful form of measurement? What is the 24 hour clock? Why do we use the 24 hour clock? Give an example of when the 24 hour clock is useful. When do we use timetables / timelines? How do we read timetables / timelines? How do we create our own timetables / timelines?
Grade 5
Select and use appropriate standard units of measurement when estimating, describing, comparing and measuring Use measuring tools accurately Estimate and compare, using formal methods and standard units of measurement the dimensions of area, perimeter and volume Record measurements accurately with appropriate and correct standard unit Discover the formulae for finding area, perimeter and volume Accurately calculate area, perimeter and volume using correct standard unit Use decimal notation in measurement : 3.2cm, 1.47kg (Link to fractions as part of a whole) Introduce the reflex angle and rotation Accurately construct, measure and label angles
How can we accurately measure a given object? What unit should we use? How do we choose an appropriate measuring tool? Which instrument is best for this measurement? How do we read simple scales? Does everything have an area? How can we know the area of this rectangle without counting the squares? How can we calculate the area of an irregular shape? Are there short cuts to fining the perimeter of polygons? How can we find the volume of something without filling it with cubes? How do mathematicians use formulas to calculate area / perimeter / volume? Do all shapes with the same perimeter have the same area? (and vice versa)
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in degrees using a protractor Solve problems using timetables (12 and 24 hour) and timelines Read and write times in digital format Determine times worldwide
What can we know about the perimeter of a rectangle by knowing its area? How is the formula of the area of a parallelogram related to a rectangle? Why do formulae of area, perimeter and volume work? Why is a cube used to measure volume? How can we deal with the part of the measurement that is left over? How can we apply our understanding of decimal notation to measurement scales? (link to fractions) How do we measure angles accurately? What is the unit of measurement of angles? How do we use a protractor? How do we label angles? What is a digital clock? Do digital clocks use the 24 hour clock? How do we read and use timetables / timelines? What are time zones? Why are there time zones? What time is it now in your home country? Why do we need to know about time zones? How is the Greenwich meantime used to calculate time zones?
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Shape and space
Phase 1 The regions, paths and boundaries of natural space can be described by shape. An understanding of the interrelationships of shape allows us to interpret, understand and appreciate our twodimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) world.
Nursery & Kindergarten Learners will understand that shapes have characteristics that can be described and compared. They will understand and use common language to describe paths, regions and boundaries of their immediate environment.
Phase 2
Reception & Grade 1 Learners will continue to work with 2D and 3D shapes, developing the understanding that shapes are classified and named according to their properties. They will understand that examples of symmetry and transformations can be found in their immediate environment. Learners will interpret, create and use simple directions and specific vocabulary to describe paths, regions, positions and boundaries of their immediate environment.
Phase 3
Grade 2 & Grade 3 Learners will sort, describe and model regular and irregular polygons, developing an understanding of their properties. They will be able to describe and model congruency and similarity in 2D shapes. Learners will continue to develop their understanding of symmetry, in particular reflective and rotational symmetry. They will understand how geometric shapes and associated vocabulary are useful for representing and describing objects and events in realworld situations.
Phase 4
Grade 4 & Grade 5 Learners will understand the properties of regular and irregular polyhedra. They will understand the properties of 2D shapes and understand that 2D representations of 3D objects can be used to visualize and solve problems in the real world, for example, through the use of drawing and modeling. Learners will develop their understanding of the use of scale (ratio) to enlarge and reduce shapes. They will apply the language and notation of bearing to describe direction and position.
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Shape and Space
The regions, paths and boundaries of natural space can be described by shape. An understanding of the interrelationships of shape allows us to interpret, understand and appreciate our twodimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) world. Learning Objective Nursery
Be able to sort, describe and compare 2D/3D shapes according to attributes such as size or form. Begin to use Maths language for shapes Use everyday words to describe position. (Example: inside, outside, on, off) Be able to sort, describe and compare 2D/3D shapes according to attributes such as size or form. Begin to use Maths language for shapes Increase the use of everyday words to describe position. (Example: in front, behind, next to, up, down) Be introduced to simple directions using ―left‖ and ―right‖.
Notes for teachers
Can we make this shape from another shape? Is this cube (block) the best shape to use to build this tower?
Kindergarten
Can we make this shape from another shape? Is this cube (block) the best shape to use to build this tower? Does a shape change if its size changes? Does its size change if the shape changes? Does it always look the same from any side? Does it look the same if I turn it around? Have you seen a shape like this at home? Use music and movement to enhance understanding of the language – (example: The Hokey Kokey) Can we make this shape from another shape? Is this cube (block) the best shape to use to build this tower? Does a shape change if its size changes? Does its size change if the shape changes? Does it always look the same from any side? Does it look the same if I turn it around?
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Reception
Be able to sort, describe and compare 2D/3D shapes according to attributes such as size or form. Begin to use Maths language for shapes Increase the use of everyday words to describe position. (Example: in front, behind, next to, up, down) Use simple directions ―left‖ and ―right‖.
Be able to name common 2D and 3D shapes, Be able to name attributes of common 2D and 3D shapes Be able to create 2D shapes Be introduced to symmetry.
Have you seen a shape like this at home? Use music and movement to enhance understanding of the language – (example: The Hokey Kokey) Why is this a 2D shape? Why is this a 3D shape? Can we fold this 2D shape exactly in half?
Grade 1
Be able to sort, describe and compare 2D/3D shapes according to attributes such as size or form. Use Maths language for shapes Increase the use of everyday words to describe position. (Example: in front, behind, next to, up, down) Use simple directions ―left‖ and ―right‖. Be able to name common 2D and 3D shapes, Be able to name attributes of common 2D and 3D shapes Be able to create 2D shapes Understand symmetry. be able to find lines of symmetry in the world around them. Be able to create and explain simple symmetrical designs. Be able to give and follow simple directions describing paths, regions and boundaries in their immediate environment. Sort, describe and model regular and irregular polygons e.g. triangles, hexagons, trapeziums; Identify, describe and model congruency in 2D shapes; Combine and transform 2D shapes to make another shape; Create symmetrical patterns, including tessellation; Identify lines and axes of reflective and rotational
Grade 2
Can we make this shape from another shape? Is this cube (block) the best shape to use to build this tower? Does a shape change if its size changes? Does its size change if the shape changes? Does it always look the same from any side? Does it look the same if I turn it around? Have you seen a shape like this at home? Why is this a 2D shape? Why is this a 3D shape? What mathematical names do we give to these shapes? What words to mathematicians use to describe parts of shapes? What is symmetry? How do we know if something is symmetrical? How do we find a line of symmetry? Why do we need directions? When would be need to receive directions? How precise do directions need to be? What polygons can you see around the classroom? What are the properties of polygons? How are these shapes similar/different? What do these shapes have in common? How could we sort these? What rule have we used to sort these shapes? Can you find two identical shapes? What makes them identical?
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symmetry; Understand an angle as a measure of rotation by comparing and describing rotations: whole turns, half turn, quarter turn, north, south, east and west on a compass; Locate features on a grid using coordinates.
Grade 3
sort, describe and model regular and irregular polygons e.g. triangles, hexagons, trapeziums; identify, describe and model congruency in 2D shapes; combine and transform 2D shapes to make another shape; create symmetrical patterns, including tessellation; identify lines and axes of reflective and rotational symmetry; understand an angle as a measure of rotation by
When will our knowledge of shapes be useful? What happens if we flip the shape? Is it still congruent? What happens when we combine 2D shapes? What happens when we stretch the sides of a shape? What happens when we change the angles on a 2D shape? What names do mathematicians give to these new shapes? Where in the design do we see a flip (reflection), turn (rotation) slide (translation)? Do all quadrilaterals tessellate? Why? What is an axis of symmetry? How does it help us define if things are symmetrical? What happens if you place the edge of a shape against the edge of a mirror? What happens if we move the mirror further away? Which of these shapes do you think you could fold so that the two sections match up? How can we measure the size of a turn that we make? If we turn from north to south, how much of a turn do we make? How do mathematicians describe this? How can we describe the position of something? What polygons can you see around the classroom? What are the properties of polygons? How are these shapes similar/different? What do these shapes have in common? How could we sort these? What rule have we used to sort these shapes? Can you find two identical shapes? What makes them identical? When will our knowledge of shapes be useful? What happens if we flip the shape? Is it still congruent?
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comparing and describing rotations: whole turns, half turn, quarter turn to north, south, east and west on a compass; Discuss half way between N and E, N and W, S and W, and S and E. (NE, NW, SW, SE) locate features on a grid using coordinates. Model 3D shapes. Discuss 3D vocabulary (edge, parallel, vertex, face Introduce features of circles (centre, radius, circumference, diameter) 
Grade 4
Use the geometric vocabulary of 2D and 3D shapes: parallel, edge, vertex, congruent. Understand and use the vocabulary of lines, rays and segments: parallel, perpendicular; Understand and use the vocabulary of types of angles: obtuse, acute, straight, reflex, right; Understand and use geometric vocabulary for circles: diameter, radius, circumference, chord, arc; Classify, sort and label all types of triangles and quadrilaterals: scalene, isosceles, equilateral, right angled, rhombus, trapezium, parallelogram, kite, square, rectangle; Describe, classify and model 3D shapes; Turn a 2D net into a 3D shape and vice versa; Find and use scale (ratios) to enlarge and reduce
What happens when we combine 2D shapes? What happens when we stretch the sides of a shape? What happens when we change the angles on a 2D shape? What names do mathematicians give to these new shapes? Where in the design do we see a flip (reflection), turn (rotation) slide (translation)? Do all quadrilaterals tessellate? Why? What is an axis of symmetry? How does it help us define if things are symmetrical? What happens if you place the edge of a shape against the edge of a mirror? What happens if we move the mirror further away? Which of these shapes do you think you could fold so that the two sections match up? How can we measure the size of a turn that we make? If we turn from north to south, how much of a turn do we make? How do mathematicians describe this? How can we describe the position of something? What happens when we change the angles on a 2D shape? What names do mathematicians give to these new shapes? Where in the design do we see a flip (reflection), turn (rotation) slide (translation)? Do all quadrilaterals tessellate? Why? What is an axis of symmetry? How does it help us define if things are symmetrical? What happens if you place the edge of a shape against the edge of a mirror? What happens if we move the mirror further away? Which of these shapes do you think you could fold so that the two sections match up? How can we measure the size of a turn that we make? If we turn from north to south, how much of a turn do we
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shapes; Use the language and compass points to describe position; Read and plot coordinates in one quadrant.
make? How do mathematicians describe this? How can we describe the position of something? What features to 2D shapes have in common? What features to 3D shapes have in common? What is an edge? What is a vertex? What are lines, rays and segments? When are two lines parallel? Where do you find parallel lines? What words to mathematicians use to describe the different types of angles? How are these angles connect to one another? Where can we find examples of circles in our environment? How does the name relate to the shape? What does 3D mean? Why are 3D shapes named as they are? Where does the name polyhedral originate? What is a net? How is a net created? What is a scale? What is a ratio? Why would we reduce or enlarge a shape? How is scale used in real life? How is a ratio interpreted? Why do plans and maps use scale? What is the notation used to describe position? What is a quadrant? In what circumstances can we use coordinates to describe position or location?
Grade 5
Understand and use geometric vocabulary for circles: diameter, radius, circumference, chord, arc; Classify, sort and label all types of triangles and quadrilaterals: scalene, isosceles, equilateral, right
What features to 2D shapes have in common? What features to 3D shapes have in common? What is an edge? What is a vertex? What are lines, rays and segments?
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angled, rhombus, trapezium, parallelogram, kite, square, rectangle; Know the features of different triangles and quadrilaterals Describe, classify and model 3D shapes; Turn a 2D net into a 3D shape and vice versa; Find and use scale (ratios) to enlarge and reduce shapes; Use the language and compass points to describe position; Read and plot coordinates in four quadrants. Identify, sketch and measure acute, right, obtuse and reflex angels; Use a pair of compasses; Use the language and notation of compass points to describe position;
When are two lines parallel? Where do you find parallel lines? What words to mathematicians use to describe the different types of angles? How are these angles connected to one another? Where can we find examples of circles in our environment? How does the name relate to the shape? When is a triangle called a scalene triangle? Why is this shape a rhombus? What does 3D mean? Why are 3D shapes named as they are? Where does the name polyhedral originate? What is a net? How is a net created? What is a scale? What is a ratio? Why would we reduce or enlarge a shape? How is scale used in real life? How is a ratio interpreted? Why do plans and maps use scale? What is the notation used to describe position? What is a quadrant? In what circumstances can we use coordinates to describe position or location? What skills are needed to accurately draw angles? How do you move a protractor to measure an angle? What would happen if you intersected two lines? When, why and how do you use a pair of compasses? How are angles used to describe a compass point? What is the notation used to described position?
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Pattern and function
Phase 1 To identify pattern is to begin to understand how mathematics applies to the world in which we live. The repetitive features of patterns can be identified and described as generalized rules called “functions”. This builds a foundation for the later study of algebra.
Nursery & Kindergarten Learners will understand that patterns and sequences occur in everyday situations. They will be able to identify, describe, extend and create patterns in various ways.
Phase 2
Reception & Grade 1 Learners will understand that whole numbers exhibit patterns and relationships that can be observed and described, and that the patterns can be represented using numbers and other symbols. As a result, learners will understand the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction, and the associative and commutative properties of addition. They will be able to use their understanding of pattern to represent and make sense of reallife situations and, where appropriate, to solve problems involving addition and subtraction.
Phase 3
Grade 2 & Grade 3 Learners will analyse patterns and identify rules for patterns, developing the understanding that functions describe the relationship or rules that uniquely associate members of one set with members of another set. They will understand the inverse relationship between multiplication and division, and the associative and commutative properties of multiplication. They will be able to use their understanding of pattern and function to represent and make sense of reallife situations and, where appropriate, to solve problems involving the four operations.
Phase 4
Grade 4 & Grade 5 Learners will understand that patterns can be represented, analysed and generalized using algebraic expressions, equations or functions. They will use words, tables, graphs and, where possible, symbolic rules to analyse and represent patterns. They will develop an understanding of exponential notation as a way to express repeated products, and of the inverse relationship that exists between exponents and roots. The students will continue to use their understanding of pattern and function to represent and make sense of reallife situations and to solve problems involving the four operations.
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Pattern and Function
To identify pattern is to begin to understand how mathematics applies to the world in which we live. The repetitive features of patterns can be identified and described as generalized rules called “functions”. This builds a foundation for the later study of algebra. Learning Objectives Nursery
Find and describe simple patterns. Create simple patterns using real objects.
Teacher notes
What is a pattern? Can we describe these patterns? Is there another way to describe this pattern? What patterns can we see? What patterns can we make with these? Identify patterns in music. What is the pattern in this piece of music? What is a pattern? Can we describe these patterns? Is there another way to describe this pattern? What patterns can we see? What patterns can we make with these? Identify patterns in music. What is the pattern in this piece of music? Can we make a rhythm using our hands and feet. Where do we find patterns? What do you know about patterns? How can patterns help us? In what ways are these patterns similar and/or different? What can go in the missing space? How many different ways can you describe this patter? What patterns do you notice in the numbers you know?
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Kindergarten
Predict the next step in a pattern. Identify similarities and differences in a pattern. Create a rhythm pattern using clapping and stamping feet.
Reception
Extend different number patterns. Complete patterns filling in missing spaces. Find different patterns on the 100 square. Recognise, describe and extend patterns in numbers: odd, even, skip counting. 2s, 5s, 10s. Indentify patterns and rules for addition 4 + 3 = 7, 3 + 4 = 7 (commutative property); Identify patterns and rules for subtraction:
7 – 3 = 4, 7 – 4 = 3 Model, with manipulatives, the relationship between addition and subtraction. 3 + 4 = 7, 7–3=4
How are 4 + 3 and 3 + 4 connected? In what ways are 3 + 4 and 4 + 3 the same/different? Why does the sum remain the same even if the addends appear in a different order? How are 7  3 and 7  4 connected? In what ways are 7  3 and 7  4 the same/different? Why is the order of numbers in subtraction so important? What effect does the order of numbers have on the difference? How are addition and subtraction connected? What do you know about addition that can help you with subtraction? Where do we find patterns? What do you know about patterns? How can patterns help us? In what ways are these patterns similar and/or different? What patterns can you find on the 100 square? What can go in the missing space? How many different ways can you describe this pattern? What patterns do you notice in the numbers you know? How are 4 + 3 and 3 + 4 connected? In what ways are 3 + 4 and 4 + 3 the same/different? Why does the sum remain the same even if the addends appear in a different order? How are 7  3 and 7  4 connected? In what ways are 7  3 and 7  4 the same/different? Why is the order of numbers in subtraction so important? What effect does the order of numbers have on the difference? How are addition and subtraction connected? What do you know about addition that can help you
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Grade 1
Extend different number patterns Complete patterns filling in missing spaces Find different patterns on the 100 square Analyse patterns in number systems to 100 Model and explain number patterns Recognise, describe and extend patterns in numbers: odd, even, skip counting. 2s, 5s, 10s Indentify patterns and rules for addition 4 + 3 = 7, 3 + 4 = 7 (commutative property) Identify patterns and rules for subtraction: 7 – 3 = 4, 7 – 4 = 3 Model, with manipulatives, the relationship between addition and subtraction. 3 + 4 = 7, 7 – 3 = 4
with subtraction?
Grade 2
Analyse patterns in the 1, 2, 5 and 10 times tables Model and explain number patterns; Identify patterns and rules for multiplication Model, with manipulatives the relationship between multiplication and addition (repeated addition) Model multiplication as an array; Understand and use number patterns to solve problems (missing numbers).
What patterns can you in these times tables? What are the features of the pattern? What will be the next items in the pattern? What do you think a growing pattern would look like? How can patterns help use remember our multiplication tables? How are multiplication and division connected? How does the way in which numbers are grouped affect the product? How are division and subtraction related? Who can we model a multiplication equation? Which products can be represented as squares and which as rectangles? What symbols do mathematicians use to represent unknown numbers? What will be the next items in the pattern? What do you think a growing pattern would look like? What patterns are in a row of a multiplication table? How can patterns help use remember our multiplication tables? How are multiplication and division connected? How does the way in which numbers are grouped affect the product? How are division and subtraction related? Who can we model a multiplication equation? Which products can be represented as squares and which as rectangles? What symbols do mathematicians use to represent unknown numbers?
Grade 3
Revise patterns for times tables Revise patterns and rules for multiplication Revise the relationship between multiplication and addition (repeated addition) Identify patterns and rules for division Model, with manipulatives, the relationship between division and subtraction (repeated subtraction) Model, with manipulatives the relationship between multiplication and division; Model, with manipulatives, the relationship between division and subtraction (repeated subtraction) Model multiplication as an array Understand and use number patterns to solve problems (missing numbers) including use of multiplication and division within tables.
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Grade 4
Grade 5
Identify, extend and create patterns that identify changes in terms of two variables e.g. 1,2,4,5,7 (i.e. +1, +2) Investigate where number patterns can be found in reallife situations e.g. Fibonnacci sequences Use reallife problems to creat a number pattern following a rule; Introduce the relationship between multiplication and division. (inverse function/operation) Model exponents as repeated multiplication. Model and explain number and geometric patterns; Use reallife problems to create a number pattern following a rule; Model simple algebraic formulas in more complex equations: x + 1 = y where y is any even whole number; Understand and use the order of operations (BODMAS) Model squared and cubed numbers using concrete materials.
What is the relationship between the numbers? How can you explain what the next number in this pattern will be? How can an array relate to a function? How can functions help us to describe reallife problems? What patterns and relationships are there? How are multiplication and division related? What is an exponent? How does an exponent relate to a given digit? How does an exponent relate to repeated multiplication? How can functions help us to describe reallife problems? What patterns and relationships are there? How is multiplication repeated addition? How do we determine a missing quantity? What relationships can we see between algebraic formulas and the four processes? BODMAS = Brackets, Of/exponents (Of= multiplication), Division, Multiplication, Addition and Subtraction.
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Number
Phase 1
Our number system is a language for describing quantities and the relationships between quantities. For example, the value attributed to a digit depends on its place within a base system. Numbers are used to interpret information, make decisions and solve problems. For example, the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are related to one another and are used to process information in order to solve problems. The degree of precision needed in calculating depends on how the result will be used.
Nursery & Kindergarten Learners will understand that numbers are used for many different purposes in the real world. They will develop an understanding of onetoone correspondence and conservation of number, and be able to count and use number words and numerals to represent quantities.
Phase 2
Reception & Grade 1 Learners will develop their understanding of the base 10 place value system and will model, read, write, estimate, compare and order numbers to hundreds or beyond. They will have automatic recall of addition and subtraction facts and be able to model addition and subtraction of whole numbers using the appropriate mathematical language to describe their mental and written strategies. Learners will have an understanding of fractions as representations of wholepart relationships and will be able to model fractions and use fraction names in reallife situations.
Phase 3
Grade 2 & Grade 3 Learners will develop the understanding that fractions and decimals are ways of representing wholepart relationships and will demonstrate this understanding by modeling equivalent fractions and decimal fractions to hundredths or beyond. They will be able to model, read, write, compare and order fractions, and use them in reallife situations. Learners will have automatic recall of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division facts. They will select, use and describe a range of strategies to solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, using estimation strategies to check the reasonableness of their answers.
Phase 4
Grade 4 & Grade 5 Learners will understand that the base 10 place value system extends infinitely in two directions and will be able to model, compare, read, write and order numbers to millions or beyond, as well as model integers. They will develop an understanding of ratios. They will understand that fractions, decimals and percentages are ways of representing wholepart relationships and will work towards modeling, comparing, reading, writing, ordering and converting fractions, decimals and percentages. They will use mental and written strategies to solve problems involving whole numbers, fractions and decimals in reallife situations, using a range of strategies to evaluate reasonableness of answers.
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Number
Our number system is a language for describing quantities and the relationships between quantities. For example, the value attributed to a digit depends on its place within a base system. Numbers are used to interpret information, make decisions and solve problems. For example, the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are related to one another and are used to process information in order to solve problems. The degree of precision needed in calculating depends on how the result will be used. Learning Objective Nursery
Know the language and meaning of numbers 0 to 5 Count reliably from 0 to 10 Order and recognise numbers from 0 to 5 Use 1:1 correspondence for numbers 1 to 5 in their daily activities and routines Develop a sense of size and amount by observing, exploring and discussing Explore counting and ordering numbers to 10 Order and write numbers 0 to 10 Count reliably from 0 to 20 Use 1:1 correspondence for numbers 1 to 10 in their daily activities and routines Understand that numbers represent quantities and use them to count, create sequences and describe order (0 to 10) Count forwards to 10 and backwards from 10 Explore number relationships to 10 (preparing for addition) Begin to use ordinal numbers for 1st, 2nd and last
Notes for teachers
What number names do we know? Where do we find numbers? How can we find out how many things are here? What number comes next? What was the number before that? Do we have enough plates/crayons/ balls? How can we be sure we have enough plates/crayons/balls? How can we find out home many things are here? What number comes next? What was the number before this one? What number is 1 less than 5? What number is 1 more than 6? How do we know if we have enough cups and plates? How many people are there? How many shoes are there? Who is the first in line? Who wants to be second in line? Where shall I go….. last?
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Kindergarten
Reception
Count reliably from 0 to 100 Order and write numbers 0 to 20 Use 1:1 correspondence for numbers 1 to 20 in their daily activities and routines Understand that numbers represent quantities and use them to count, create sequences and describe order (0 to 10) Count reliably forwards and backwards to 20 Read, write and model addition to 10 using a variety of manipulatives Write addition number sentences to 10 Memorise number bonds to 10 Read, write and model subtraction of numbers from 10 using a variety of manipulatives (explore writing subtraction number sentences) Count in multiples of 10 and 5 to 100
What number comes after 81? What number comes before100? Do you think we have enough blocks? How do you know? I have 3 apples and Sam gives me 4 applies how many do I have altogether? Lets use the blocks to illustrate the story? I have 4 blocks. I need 10 blocks. How many must I add to my collection? I had 10 sweets. I ate 3. How many do I have left? How would we write this story in a number sentence? Show me what this number sentence means?
Grade 1
Recognise numbers (numerals) to 100 Compare and order numbers to 100 (using <,> to compare) Write numbers in words to 10 (explore to 20) Count forwards in 1s, 5s and 10s to 100 Count forwards to 20 and backwards from 20 in steps of 2. Count forwards in steps of 1 and 10 from random numbers to 100 Count using ordinal numbers from 1st to 31st (calendar) Identify even and odd numbers Write addition number sentences to 20 Memorise number bonds to 20 Write subtraction number sentences, taking away amounts from 20 Model and explore different strategies for solving an addition or subtraction problem with amounts
Is 87 greater than or smaller than 76? Why do you say it is greater? If I count 20, 18, 16, 14 …. What number comes next? You continue. Starting at 73… count to 100. What day of the month were you born? Who is third in line? Who is seventh? When is a number even? When is a number odd? What patterns do you notice between even and odd numbers on the 100 chart? I had 20 balls. I lost 5 in the woods. How many do I have left? Write a number sentence to show this story. Write a number sentence to show twenty take away 7. What is the answer? What is left. What do you think would be the best way to solve this problem? Do we need to add or subtract?
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up to 20 (explore to 30) Use mathematical vocabulary and symbols for addition, subtraction and equals Recognise that the position of a digit gives its value and state place value of any digit in a 2 digit number Estimate quantities to 100 Introduce fraction names for a half (explore )
What does the sentence equal? In the number 14 what does the 1 represent or mean? And the 4? Why is it important to know the different place values? What does estimate mean? Why is it important to estimate? Here is a pizza. Share it with your friends. You must have the same amount of pizza each. How are you going to divide the whole pizza? How many units do we have in this number? How many tens do we have in this number? How many units to we have in this number? Where is the nearest multiple of ten to this number? Where is the nearest hundred to this number? If we add 3 + 3, how many groups of 3 do we have? Make two groups of three. How many blocks do we have? We have two groups of three, have we doubled the number 3? Look at the multiples of 2, what pattern do you see? What do you estimate the answer of 2 x 4 will be? How did you decide on that estimate? If I start at 63 and add on 15, where will I end up? On this number lines what is the difference between 57 and 65? Use the 100 square grid to answer questions? Start at 15 and add 10… where do you end up? Where is this in relation to where you started? (1 row up) Use the 100 square grid to answer questions? Start at 35 and subtract 10… where do you end up? Where is this in relation to where you started? (1 row down) Two people want to share a pizza equally. What fraction of the pizza will each person get? Will anyone get the whole pizza? What will they get of
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Grade 2
Count, compare and order numbers to 999 Read and write numbers (numerals) up to 999 Write numbers in words from 0 to 20, multiples of 10 to 100 and multiples of 100 to 900 Round numbers to the nearest multiple of 10 and 100 Count forwards and backwards in intervals of 1, 2, 5, 10 and 100 (explore counting in other intervals) Know number bonds to 10, 20 and 100 mentally (quick recall) Use arrays to explore multiplication facts Use and understand x symbol and appropriate vocabulary for multiplication (multiplication, multiply, groups of, lots of, times, product) Know 0, 1, 2, 5 and 10 times tables until 12 x Explore 3 digit numbers using manipulatives Recognise that the position of a digit gives its value and state place value of any digit in a 3 digit number Use empty number lines to add TU + TU and HTU + TU, by counting on Use an empty number line for subtraction TU – TU and HTU – TU, by finding the difference Estimate quantities to 1000
Revisit a half and as a portion of a whole Introduce thirds ( and ) Compare halves, thirds and quarters using manipulatives Introduce equivalent fractions visually (include = and 1 whole = = = ) Introduce mathematical vocabulary of fraction, numerator, denominator, equivalent and whole number Model addition of fractions with the same denominator using manipulatives (pizza slices, Cuisenaire rods) and on board + =
the pizza? (part of the whole) How many halves make a whole? How many quarters make a whole? How many quarters make a half? What if three people wanted to share the pizza and each have the same amount? What would we call each piece? How many thirds make a whole? If we divide the pizza into quarters and you eat one quarter and I eat two quarters how much of the pizza have we eaten? Have we eaten the whole pizza? Is there any left?
Grade 3
Count, compare and order numbers to 9999 Read and write numbers (numerals) up to 9999 Write numbers in words from 0 to 100, multiples of 100 to 1000 Round numbers to the nearest multiple of 10, 100 and 1000 Count forwards and backwards in intervals of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and multiples of 10 (revise from 0 and introduce counting in intervals of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 from random numbers) Revise number bonds to 20, 50 and 100 mentally (quick recall) Use arrays to explore multiplication facts Know all times tables until 12 x 12 Multiply and divide by single digit numbers Explore 4 digit numbers using manipulatives Recognise that the position of a digit gives its value and state place value of any digit in a 4 digit number (explore to 5 digit) Use empty number lines to add TU + TU, HTU + TU and HTU + HTU, by counting on Use an empty number line for subtraction
Put these numbers into order from smallest to biggest. Put these numbers into order from biggest to smallest. What is the nearest 10 / 100 / 1000 to this number? Why is 875 rounded to 900 and not 800? Why is 875 rounded to 880 and not 870? What patterns do you notice in the times tables? Are any tables repeated? Which ones? ( e.g. 7 x 8 and 8 x 7) In the number 769 what is the tens digit / hundreds digit / units digit? Look at the fractions one fifth, one tenth, one sixth, one twelfth and one eighth. What do you notice about the size of each fraction in relation to the denominators? (The larger the denominator the smaller the size of the fraction.) What is + ? Is this fraction equivalent to any other fraction?
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TU – TU, HTU – TU, HTU  HTU by finding the difference Estimate quantities to 1000 Revise , , and as a portions of a whole Revise equivalent fractions ( = and 1 whole = = = ) Introduce , , , and Model addition and subtraction of fractions with the same denominator Continuous practice of times tables to 12 x 12 Know number facts (doubles, halves, number bonds) to 1000 Introduce decimals to hundredths Link decimals with fractions (part of a whole) Understand place value from thousands to thousandths Understand inverse operations Add and subtract four digit numbers (extend to 5 digits) Multiply and divide by two digit numbers Multiply and divide by 10s and 100s Read, write and model fractions and mixed numbers Read, write and model addition and subtraction of fractions with related denominators Compare and order fractions and decimals Simplify common fractions ( = ) for half, quarter and three quarters Discuss language of fractions Round decimals to nearest whole number / tenth Investigate where decimals are used Add and subtract decimals to hundredths using mental and written strategies Multiply and divide a decimal by a whole number
Grade 4
We can write fractions as a decimal. E.g. 1.65 m is my height? Have you seen this type of number before? Where have you see it? Why do we use decimals? (Illicit everyday examples e.g. height, measuring things, money, mass) After the decimal point we have tenths and hundredths. How many tenths do you think make one whole? How many hundredths do you think make one whole? What is the inverse operation of addition / subtraction? What is the inverse operation of multiplication / division? Arrange these fractions / decimals in ascending / descending order. What is a mixed number? How many quarters are there in 5 ? Multiply this decimal by 10. What happens to the decimal point? When adding, subtracting and dividing decimals the decimal point remains in the same position. When multiplying decimals, remove the point, multiply as usual and replace the point so that there are the combined number of places after the point e.g. 1.5 x 5 = 7.5 or 2.45 x 1.5 =3.675 What happens to the numerator and the
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Grade 5
Introduce percent and percentages Read, write and model multiples of 2, 5 and 10 as percentages e.g. 25%, 40% 60% Interchange fractions, percentages and decimals for whole, half, quarter, fifth, three quarters and tenths Solve world problems using knowledge learnt. Automatic recall of times tables to 12 x 12 Practise recall of number facts to 1000 State place value of any digit in a seven digit number State place value of any digit up to 3 decimal places Mentally divide two digit numbers by one digit divisors Know mathematical vocabulary for four basic operations: sum, add, subtract, difference, multiply, product, divide, quotient, divisor Add and subtract 3 digit numbers using standard algorithms Multiply and three digit number by two digit number using standard algorithms Divide four digit number by two digit divisor using standard long division algorithm Understand factors and multiples and how to find them Explore sevenths, eighths and ninths Introduce Lowest Common Multiple, Highest Common Factor, Introduce Lowest Common Denominator and link to LCM. Simplify fractions and improper fractions Add and subtract fractions with different denominators Add and subtract simple mixed numbers Round decimals to a given place or whole number
denominator when you simplify fractions When do we use percentages? Why is it useful to use percentages?
What are the place values for a seven digit number? What are the place values for three decimal places? Look at the number 7 465 357. What does the 6 represent? How many thousands are there? Look at 7.243. Which digit represents hundredths / thousandths / tenths? Divide 75 by 5 in your head. What strategy did you use? How is your strategy different to others? Does their strategy seem easier? Why? Which would you rather use? What is the difference between a multiple and a factor of a number? How any factors does a number have? What is the Lowest Common Multiple (LCM) of 6, 12 and 24? Is the number a factor of itself? How do we know this? What multiplied by the number equals the number itself? What is the Highest Common Factor (HCF) of 8, 24 and 36? What is a mixed number? What is the relationship between mixed numbers and improper fractions? What must we remember when we add / subtract decimals? The Maths test was out of 50. I got 75%. How many marks out of 50 did I get? What does mean?
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Accurately read, write and apply addition and subtraction of decimals to the thousandths Interchange between fractions, decimals and percentages Find common percentages of whole numbers (10%, 20%, 25%, 50%, 75%) Introduce exponents (squared, cubed, to the power of) Introduce integers. Use number line with 0 in centre Use temperature gauge to illustrate integers Introduce order of operations: BEDMAS Introduce equations. Finding unknown number (x, n) Solve simple equations n + 15 = 25 Identify that 4n = 4 x n Solve word problems using knowledge.
What do we call the 3 / what do we call the 2.? How do we read ? What happens to the left of 0 on a number line? Where in real life can we find negative numbers? What do they measure? What do you do first to solve this equation? 3 + (4 1) What is x? How do we find x?
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STRATEGIES FOR PENCIL AND PAPER PROCEDURES
Notes: Begin in Grade 1 when appropriate. Children are introduced to next strategy only when they are fully confident with the strategy they are using. Introduce strategies in this order.
ADDITION
56 + 34 STRATEGY 1 Counting Up 56 +4 60 +30 90 = 90
STRATEGY 2 Partitioning 56 + 34 Add the units first.
56 +34
50 30 80
+ + +
6 4 10 = 90
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STRATEGY 3 Compact Method Add the units first T 1 5 + 3 9 U 6 4 0
56 + 34
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SUBTRACTION
97  34 STRATEGY 1 Counting Up 34 +6 40 +50 90 +7 97 = 63
STRATEGY 2 Partitioning Example (a) 97  34 (Units first)
97 34 Example (b) 392  173 392 173 300 100 300 100 200
90  30 60
(+) (+) (+)
7 4 3 = 63
+ + + + +
90 70 80 70 10
+ + + + +
2 3 12 3 9 = 219
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STRATEGY 3 Compact Method
Example (a)
97  34 T 9
(Units first) U 7 4 3

3 6
Example (b) 392  173 H 3 T 8 9 7 1 U 12 2 3 9

1 2
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MULTIPLICATION
Example (a) 12 x 3 x Grid method 3 10 30 2 6 = = 30 + 6 36
STRATEGY 1
Example (b) 35 x 15 x 10 5 30 300 150 5 50 25 = = = 350 + 175 525
STRATEGY 2 Partitioning Example (a) 12 x 3 T 1 U 2 3 6 3 3 0 6
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x
2x 3 10x3
Example (b) 35 x 15 H T 3 1 2 5 5 0 2 U 5 5 5 0 0 0 5 (5x5) (30 x 5) (5 x 10) (30 x 10)
x 1 1 + 3 5
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STRATEGY 3 Compact Method
Example (a)
35 x 15 H T +2 3
(Units first) U 5 5 5 0 5
x
1
1 7 5 2
+
3 5
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DIVISION
Example (a) STRATEGY 1 75 ÷ 5 Partitioning 5 T 1 7 5 2 2 U 5 5 0 5 5 5 X 10 5X5 15
STRATEGY 2 Example (a) Compact Method Expanded 7 2 2 256 ÷ 7 H T 3 5 1 4 4 U 6 6 6 2 4 r 4
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STRATEGY 3 Compact Method
Example (a) 256 ÷ 7 H 7 2 T 3 5 U 6 6 r 4
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LAYOUT OF MATHEMATICS FOR PEN AND PAPER PROCEDURES
1
Margin on left of page. (One large block, 2 smaller blocks)
4 All calculations to have place value heading written.
1
1
T
U
H
T
U
(Number of problem to be written in the margin.)
5 Leave at least two block next to the margin before
writing T, U or H, T, U to allow space for operation sign and possibility of next place value column.
2 3
Date and Heading to be written and underlined.
Margin on the right for working out. (3 blocks)
6 Leave a line under T,U and H, T, U before writing first
number
1
...
T
...
U 4
H
T
U
3
7
1
5
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7 8
One digit per block (as above)
Operation sign must be written just to left of T, U or H, T, H column in line with last number.
H
T
U
T
U
+
1 3
7
1
4 8
5 2
3 4
5 + 5
9
4 5 9
All lines to be ruled with a ruler. Note two lines to be ruled for the answer.
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