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# CMSC 56: DISCRETE MATHEMATICAL STRUCTURES IN COMPUTER SCIENCE I SYNTAX AND SEMANTICS OF PROPOSITIONAL LOGIC

A PROPOSITION is a part of logic that deals with sentences that are either true or false but not both. It is also a declarative sentence of which the truth value is definitely known or can be validly determined. Convention: T = true F = false Propositions: P, Q, R Assumptions: Law of Excluded Middle: for every proposition P, either P is true or P is false. Law of Contradiction: for every proposition P, it is not the case that P is both true and false. SYNTAX – structures of sentences in propositional logic. LOGICAL CONNECTIVES

Name Symbol Syntax Verbal Form not P Equivalent Term Other Keywords “the denial of P”; “it is not the case that P” “both P and Q”; “but”; “while” “either P or Q”; “at least one of…” “Q if P”; “P only if Q”; “Q when P”; “Q provided the P”; “P is a sufficient condition for Q”; “Q is a necessary condition for P” “P is equivalent to Q”

**SEMANTICS – assignment of truth value to a sentence SEMANTICS RULES FOR BASIC COMPOUND PROPOSITIONS
**

Rule not rule and rule or rule if-then rule if-and-onlyif rule Compound Proposition ~P P∧Q P∨Q P→Q P↔Q True whenever… P is false both P and Q are true at least one of P and Q is true either P is false or Q is true both P and Q have the same truth values False whenever… P is true At least one of P and Q is false Both P and Q are false P is true and Q is false P and Q have different truth values

KINDS OF PROPOSITIONAL STATEMENTS Contingency– a sentence that is true for some interpretation; Contradiction– a sentence that is false for every interpretation; also called an absurdity Tautology – a sentence that is true for every interpretation; also called a valid sentence TRUTH TABLE - used to determine if a sentence is a contingency, a contradiction or a tautology Steps in constructing a truth table: 1. The first n columns are labeled by the component propositional variables. Further columns are constructed for all intermediate combinations of statements. n 2. Under each of the first n headings, list all the 2 combinations of truth values for the propositional variables. Each combination is listed on a separate row. 3. For each row, compute all the remaining truth values. The sentence is a contingency if the last column contains some entries which are true; a contradiction if all entries are false; and a tautology if all entries are true.

not

~ ∧ ∨

~P

Negation

and

P∧Q

P and Q

Conjunction

or

P∨Q

P or Q

Disjunction

if-then

→

P→Q

if P then Q; P implies Q

Implication; conditional

if-andonly-if

↔

P↔Q

P if and only if Q

Equivalence; biconditional

PRECEDENCE RULES

if the compound propositions are not grouped, they are evaluated in the ff order: ~, ∧, ∨, →, ↔