# RULES OF INFERENCE AND EQUIVALENCE

An argument is a sequence of propositions or sentences written as: F1 F2 OR (F1 F1 … Fn ) Q Fn Q The argument is said to be valid provided that if all the premises are true, then Q must also be true.

PROPOSITIONAL RULES OF INFERENCE
Rule of Inference 1. P ________ P Q P Q ________ P P Q ________ P Q P Q P ________ Q P Q Q ________ P P Q P ________ Q P Q Q R ________ P R P Q R S P R ________ Q S P Q R S Q S ________ P R [(P Q) P] Q Tautological Form P (P Q) Name Addition

2.

(P

Q)

P

Simplification

3.

Conjunction

4.

Modus Ponens

5.

[(P

Q)

Q]

P

Modus Tollens

6.

[(P

Q)

P]

Q

Disjunctive Syllogism

7.

[(P Q) (Q (P R)

R)]

Hypothetical Syllogism

8.

[(P Q) (R (Q S)

S)

(P

R)]

Constructive Dilemma

9.

[(P Q) (R ( P R)

S)

( Q

S)]

Destructive Dilemma

THE FUNDAMENTAL RULES OF LOGIC (LAWS OF EQUIVALENCE or TAUTOLOGICAL BICONDITIONALS)
Fundamental Rule 1. 2. 3. P P P (Q P) (Q P) (Q P) Name Reflexivity Double Negation Commutativity

~(~P) (P (P (P [(P [(P [(P [P [P (P (P (P (P (P (P (P (P [P [P ~(P ~(P (P (P (P (P [(P Q) Q) Q)

4.

Q) R] [P (Q R)] Q) R] [P (Q R)] Q) R] [P (Q R)] (Q (Q P) P) T) F) ~P) ~P) F) T) (P (P Q) Q) Q) Q) Q) Q) Q) F T Q)] Q)] (~P (~P (~Q (~P [(P [(P R] P P ~Q) ~Q) ~P) Q) Q) (Q Q) (~P [P (Q P)] ~Q)] R)] R)] R)] P P P P F T [(P [(P Q) Q) (P (P R)] R)]

Associativity

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Distributivity Idempotency Identity Inverse Dominance Absorption De Morgan’s Laws Contrapositive Material Implication Material Equivalence Exportation