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BC: Tarquinius I becomes an Etruscan king of Roma 600 BC: Etruscans build the colossal tombs of Cerveteri 600 BC: the Forum is built 600 BC: oldest Latin inscriptions 578 BC: Tarquinius Priscus builds the Cloaca Maxima, the first sewer 550 BC: Servius Tullius builds city walls 494 BC: Plebeians rebel against the patricians, the beginning of the class wars 486 BC: The consul Spurius Cassius proposes land redistribution to the poor but the patricians murder him 474 BC: the Greeks defeat the Etruscans at Cuma 509 BC: the last king is expelled and Roma becomes a republic 450 BC: The Twelve Tables of the Roman law re enacted 396 BC: Roma conquers the Etruscan city of Veii 387 BC: the Gauls/Celts sack Roma 376 BC: Licinius and Sextius propose laws to appease the Plebeians but the Senate postpones them indefinitely 367 BC: Licinius' laws are finally enacted 366 BC: Lucius Sextius becomes the first plebeian consul 343 BC: Rome fights the Samnites 341 BC: Rome conquers Campania from the Samnites with its capital of Capua 340 BC: Rome fights the Latin League, including the Samnites 338 BC: Rome dissolves and annexes the Latin League 326 BC: the Circus Maximus is built 326 BC: A new war begins against the Samnites
the Anio Vetus. from a Roman naval attack 203 BC: Roma organizes the northern colonies of Placentia and Cremona in the territory of the Gauls . the Aqua Appia. is built 308 BC: Roma conquers the Etruscan city of Tarquinia 300 BC: A plebeian rises to priesthood for the first time 298 BC: Roma goes to war against the Samnites again 295 BC: Roma defeats the Samnites at Sentinum 295 BC: Roma defeats the Gauls/Celts in northern Italy 287 BC: The Lex Hortensia makes plebiscites (laws passed by the Assembly in which plebeians outnumber patricians) binding for the Senate of the patricians 283 BC: Roma establishes Gallia Cisalpina (Cisalpine Gaul) in nothern Italy 280 BC: Roma issues coins 280 BC: Roma is defeated by Pyrrhus of Epirus at Heraclea 275 BC: Roma defeats Pyrrhus and conquers most of southern Italy 272 BC: a second aqueduct. is built 272 BC: The Greek colony of Tarentum surrenders to Roma and soon all the remaining Greek colonies of southern Italy follow suit 264 BC: Roma and Carthage fight the first Punic war 264 BC: the Romans destroy the last vestiges of the Etruscan civilization (Volsinies) 232 BC: Gaius Flaminius enacts an agrarian law ceding land of Northern Italy to poorer classes of citizens 225 BC: the Gauls invade Rome 222 BC: the invading Gauls are defeated 221 BC: the Circus Flaminius 220 BC: A law forbids senators from entering into business 218 BC: Hannibal invades Italy and the Gauls of northern Italy ally with him 214 BC: War machines designed by Greek mathematician Archimedes save the city of Syracuse.321 BC: At the Battle of Caudine Forks Rome wins the Second Samnite War against the Samnites 312 BC: the Via Appia is begun 312 BC: the first aqueduct. an ally of Carthage.
202 BC: Scipio defeats Hannibal and Roma annexes Spain 196 BC: The slaves of Etruria rebel 195 BC: The Celts of Spain rebel 189 BC: Antiochus III.500 slaves ("First Servile War")) 135 BC: Second slave revolt in Sicily ("first servile war") 133 BC: Tiberius Gracchus enacts a law to redistribute land to the poor farmers but is assassinated with 300 of his supporters 133 BC: Attalus III of Pergamum wills his kingdom to Roma and the whole Mediterranean Sea is under Roman control ("mare nostrum") 128 BC: Southern France (Aquitania) becomes a provinces of Rome 126 BC: A law forbids Italians to emigrate to Roma 123 BC: Tiberius's brother Gaius Gracchus enacts populist laws . is defeated at the battle of Magnesia and surrenders his possessions in Europe and Asia Minor 185 BC: The slaves of Apulia rebel 184 BC: the Basilica Porcia 181 BC: Aquileia is founded on the head of the Adriatic 181 BC: the Gauls of northern Italy are definitely subjugated 175 BC: the Celts of Spain are subjugated 171 BC: The Third Macedonian War begins when Perseus attacks Roma 167 BC: At the end of the Third Macedonian War the romans divide Macedonia into four republics 154 BC: The tribes of Lusitania rebel against Roma 151 BC: Roman troops massacre Celts in Spain 149 BC: Roma attacks Carthage 149 BC: Roma conquers Greece after winning the battle of Corinth (and destroying Corinth) 146 BC: Macedonia becomes a province of Roma 146 BC: Roma destroys Carthage 144 BC: The first high-level aqueduct is built 139 BC: Slave revolt in Sicily with the crucifixion of 4. king of the Seleucids.
but Octavius. cornered. commits suicide and thousands of his followers are killed by the Senate 113 BC: Germanic tribes Cimbri and Teutones defeat the Romans and invade Gaul and Spain 111 BC: Roma declares war on Numidia 106 BC: the Romans led by newly elected consul Marius defeat Jugurtha. defender of the optimates and ally of Sulla. Sulla reconquers Roma.000 slaves are crucified on the Via Appea 70 BC: Crassus and Pompey are elected consuls . along with many Sulla supporters 82 BC: By winning the battle at Porta Collina. killing about 100.000 of them 101 BC: consul Gaius Marius defeats the Cimbri at Vercelli. defender of the populares. is killed by Marius when he opposes Cinna. the first time that a Roman army invades Roma 87 BC: Octavius and Cinna are elected consuls.121 BC: Gaius Gracchus. executes thousands of political enemies including 40 senators and becomes dictator establishing a reign of terror and enacting aristocratic laws 80 BC: Sulla retires to private life 74 BC: Cicero enters the senate 73 BC: Spartacus leads the revolt of the gladiators ("third servile war") 71 BC: Mithridates VI of Pontus is conquered by Roman general Lucius Lucullus 71 BC: Crassus puts down Spartacus' revolt and 6. king of Numidia 105 BC: the Teutones and the Cimbri defeat the Romans at Arausio/Orange 104 BC: Slave revolt in Sicily ("second servile war") 103 BC: Athenion leads a slave revolt in Sicily 102 BC: consul Gaius Marius defeats the Teutonic army at Aquae Sextiae/ Aix-en-Provence. killing almost all of them 101 BC: Roman troops massacre Athenion's rebels 100 BC: Lucius Saturninuns proposes Gracchian reforms but is killed by Marius' troops 98 BC: Roman troops massacre Spaniards 95 BC: The city of Roma expels all non-Roman citizens (except slaves) 90 BC: Central and Southern Italians start the "social wars" over the issue of citizenship 88 BC: Central and Southern Italians are granted full citizenship 88 BC: Sulla marches on Roma to seize power from Marius.
Crassus is defeated and killed by the Parthians at Carrhae (Syria) 52 BC: Clodius.69 BC: Rome invades Tigranes' Armenian kingdom and edstroys its capital. and Octavius. is assassinated by his rival Milo 51 BC: Caesar crushes revolt of Vercingetorix in Gaul 50 BC: Roma introduces the gold coin "aureus" 49 BC: When the senate asks for his resignations. Tigranocerta 68 BC: Julius Caesar is appointed to Spain 67 BC: Pompey launches a campaign against pirates of Cilicia and is given dictatorial powers by the Senate 64 BC: Syria becomes a Roman province under general Pompey (Gnaeus Pompeius) 63 BC: Cicero thwarts Catilina's attempted coup 63 BC: Pompeus captures Jerusalem and annexes Palestine to Roma 60 BC: Crassus. the partner in Caesar's fifth consulship. Caesar's adopted son 42 BC: The religious cult of Julius Caesar is officially instituted by the Senate 36 BC: Rome tries to invade Persia 36 BC: Octavius defeats Sextus Pompey and the senate appoints him tribune for life 32 BC: Marcus Antonius divorces his wife Octavia and marries Cleopatra . 43 BC: A triumvirate is appointed with Marcus Antonius. Pompey and Caesar form a "triumvirate" 59 BC: Caesar is elected consul 57 BC: Caesar conquers all of Gaul killing tens of thousands of people 55 BC: Caesar fights German tribes and crosses the Rhine 53 BC: in the first war against Persia. calling himself "imperator" 47 BC: Ceasar invades Egypt and proclaims Cleopatra queen (ethnically a Macedonian Greek) 46 BC: Ceasar defeats an army of Pompeians and Numidians at the battle of Thapsus 45 BC: Julius Caesar employs the Egyptian astronomer Sosigenes to work out a new 12-month calendar (Julian calendar) 44 BC: Julius Caesar is killed. the main defender of the plebeians/the Pompeian party. Ceasar crosses the Rubicon and invades Roma 48 BC: Ceasar defeats Pompey at Pharsalus and becomes sole dictator of Rome.
King of the Catuvellauni.31 BC: Octavius defeats Marcus Antonius at the battle of Actium ending the civil wars 30 BC: Both Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra commit suicide and Egypt is annexed to Roma 29 BC: Octavius returns to Roma 27 BC: Octavius appoints himself "augustus" (the first emperor) and founds the Praetorian Guard 20 BC: a treaty between Roma and Persia (Parthians) fixes the boundary between the two empires along the Euphrates river (Iraq) 18 BC: Augustus enacts the "Julian law of chastity and repressing adultery" 17 BC: the theater of Marcellus 13 BC: Augustus expands the borders to the region of the Danube 12 BC: Augustus becomes pontifex maximus 6 BC: Jesus is born in Palestine 1 AD: Roma has about one million people 2 AD: The Forum of Augustus is inaugurated 2 AD: Augustus. whose sons have died. as king of Britain 5 AD: Augustus' general Tiberius submits the German tribes between the Rhine and the Elbe 6 AD: Pannonia and Dalmatia revolt 7 AD: Augustus expands the borders to the Balkans 9 AD: Gothic warlord Arminius destroys the Roman army at the Teutoburg Forest and Roma withdraws the border to the Rhine 9 AD: Augustus' general Tiberius defeats the Pannonians and Dalmatians 12 AD: The last Etruscan inscription is carved 14 AD: Augustus dies and Tiberius becomes emperor. including Caligula 23 AD: Sejanus plots to murder Tiberius' son and heir Drusus 25 AD: Agrippa builds the Pantheon . chooses Tiberius as his adopted son 5 AD: Roma acknowledges Cymbeline. appointing Sejanus chief of the Praetorian Guard 14 AD: five million people live in the Roman empire 19 AD: Tiberius' adopted son Germanicus dies and his wife Agrippina moves to Roma with her children.
while Spanish governor Galba is pronounced the new emperor 69 AD: Galba is murdered by the Praetorian Guard that has been bribed by Otho but the general of the German legions. daughter of Agrippina. the only surviving son of Agrippina 39 AD: Caligula's sisters Agrippina and Livilla plot to murder him but fail and are exiled 41 AD: Caligula is assassinated and the Praetorian Guard appoints Claudius as emperor. who is beheaded. Vitellius. Claudius 50 AD: the Romans found Londinium in Britain 54 AD: Claudius is assassinated by Agrippina and is succeeded by Agrippina's son Nero 58 AD: the Romans conquer Armenia 59 AD: Nero orders the assassination of his mother Agrippina 62 AD: The childless Nero divorces his loyal wife Octavia. invades Italy and claims the empire 70 AD: Vitellius and his followers are defeated by Vespasian. Iran. Egypt. Germanicus' brother and Agrippina's brother-in-law. Arabia. Iraq. Spain and Greece 77 AD: the Romans conquer Wales 79 AD: Vespasianus dies and is succeeded by his son Titus Flavius Vespasianus 79 AD: the Vesuvius erupts and Pompeii is buried under ash . so Agrippina can return to Roma 43 AD: Claudius invades Britain 46 AD: Thracia becomes a Roman province 48 AD: Claudius' wife Messalina is executed for conspiring to overthrow her husband and Claudius marries his niece Agrippina the Younger. and marries the pregnant Poppaea while establishing a reign of terror 64 AD: Nero sets fire to Roma and blames the Christians for it 68 AD: Gaul and Spain rebel against Nero and Nero commits suicide rather than falling into their hands. the general of the Egyptian legions. leaving Sejanus de facto running the empire 31 AD: Tiberius survives a plot by Sejanus who is killed 37 AD: Tiberius is murdered and the mad Caligula succeeds him.26 AD: Tiberius leaves Roma. who is actually the lover of his advisor Pallas 49 AD: Agrippina and Pallas establish a reign of terror behind the back of the nominal emperor. who becomes the new emperor 70 AD: Titus destroys Jerusalem and Jews spread in Armenia. Italy.
a philosopher.79 AD: the Colosseum is completed 80 AD: the Romans invade Caledonia (Scotland) 81 AD: the Arch of Titus is erected 81 AD: Titus dies and is succeeded by his brother Domitian 84 AD: British rebels are defeated by the Romans at the battle of Mons Graupius 96 AD: Domitian is assassinated and the senate replaces him with the old Nerva. thus terminating the principle of heredity (for a century) 97 AD: Rome forbids human sacrifice throughout the Roman empire 97 AD: Chinese general Pan Chao sends an embassy to the Roman Empire 98 AD: Nerva dies and his designated heir Trajan becomes emperor 100: the city of Roma has one million inhabitants 106: Trajan defeats Dacia that becomes a Roman province 106: Trajan captures the Nabataean capital Petra (Jordan) and turns Nabataea into the province of Arabia 107: The Roman Empire sends an embassy to India 110: the Basilica of Trajano is completed 112: the Forum of Trajanus 113: The Colonna Traiana is erected 116: Trajan conquers Mesopotamia and the Parthian capital Ctesiphon 117: Trajan dies on his way to the Persian Gulf and Hadrian. the first time that Roma is ruled by two emperors . forbids Jews from ever entering Jerusalem. led by Bar-Cochba. revolt against Roma 134: The Villa Hadriana opens 136: Hadrian definitely crushes the Jewish resistance. his wife's lover. becomes Roman emperor with Lucius Verus as co-emperor. whom some identify as the Messiah. and changes the name of the city to Aelia Capitolina 138: Hadrian is succeeded by Antoninus Pius. becomes emperor 122: Hadrian's Wall is built along the northern frontier to protect from the Barbarians 132: Jews. who repeals Hadrian's anti-Jewish laws 139: Hadrian's mausoleum (Castel Sant'Angelo) is built 161: Antoninus dies and his heir designate Marcus Aurelius.
and Parthia declares war on Roma 164: The plague spreads throughout the Roman empire ("Antonine plague") 166: Lucius defeats the Parthians and destroys its capital Ctesiphon 167: the Roman empire is attacked for the first time by barbarians (the German Quadi and Marcomanni) 169: the Roman empire is invaded by northern Germans 175: Aurelius defeats the German barbarians 177: Aurelius orders the persecution of sects like the Christians and the slave girl Blandina is tortured to death 178: Aurelius and his son Commodus fight the Third Marcomannic War against the German barbarians 180: Aurelius dies and his teenager son Commodus succeeds him. thus restoring the heredity rule 182: Upon discovering a conspiracy against him.162: The British Celts revolt. marries Julia Domna. who was raised in a Phoenician family and studied philosophy in Athens. Commodus establishes a new reign of terror 185: The freed slave Cleander is the de facto ruler of Commodus' empire 187: The Libyan-born the general of the Pannonian legions. a descendant of the high kings of the temple of Baal in Syria 190: In another round of executions Commodus has Cleander himself killed 192: the Praetorian Guard kills emperor Commodus 193: Septimius Severus seizes power. confiscates huge lands from the Italian aristocracy. executes scores of senators. and turns Roma into a military dictatorship 194: Rome annexes Palmyra to the province of Syria 197: Septimius Severus wins the civil war at the Battle of Lugdunum and reforms the Praetorian Guard with non-Italians 198: Septimius Severus enters the Parthian capital Ctesiphon and annexes the northern half of Mesopotamia 202: Septimius Severus expands the southern frontier of African Roma 203: Christians are massacred in Carthage 208: Septimius Severus begins a campaign in Britain 211: Septimius Severus dies in Britain and is succeeded by his sons Lucius Septimius Bassianus (Caracalla) and Geta . Septimius Severus.
000 of Geta's followers 212: Caracalla grants Roman citizenship on all free people who live in the Roman Empire. accompanied by his mother Julia. leads a Syrian army that defeats the imperial army and installs her teenager grandson Varius Avitus (Elagabalus). while the senate declares Maximus the new emperor. restores the power of the senate. and another teenager. most of the others being murdered by the Praetorian Guard or the soldiers and all of them reigning an average of three years 212: Caracalla murders his brother Geta and sentences to death 20. also a grandson of Maesa's. but only to subject them to the same taxes 214: Caracalla murders King Abgar IX of Edessa and declares Edessa a Roman colony 215: Caracalla massacres the inhabitants of Alexandria 217: The Baths of Caracalla are inaugurated 217: Caracalla. begins a campaign against the Parthians but is murdered in Edessa by his soldiers. but Maesa is the de facto ruler while Elagabalus worships a conical black stone representing Baal as the supreme god 222: The Praetorian Guard murders Elagabalus and installs as emperor Elagabalus' cousin Alexianus (Alexander Severus). but he is in turn promptly assassinated by the Praetorian Guard that appoints the ten-year old Gordian III 244: Shapur I becomes king of the Sassanids and attacks Roma . who restores Jupiter as supreme Roman god. Julia Domna's sister. and Gordian is assassinated by his soldiers while fighting that war 249: The emperor Philip the Arab is killed in battle by a rebel king. general of the Pannonian legions. and restores morality by banning homosexuals and prostitutes 230: The Sassanids invade Mesopotamia 233: Alexander defeats the Sassanids 235: Alexander is assassinated by soldiers loyal to Julius Maximinus. while the head of the Praetorian Guard appoints himself emperor 219: Julia Maesa. as emperor.211: Septimius Severus is the last emperor to die of natural causes until 284. the beginning of a 50-year civil war 238: Maximinus is assassinated by his own soldiers and dies without ever having visited Roma. with real power in the hands of his mother Julia Mamaea. Decius 250: The emperor Decius orders the first empire-wide persecution of Christians that also kills the bishop of Roma 251: Decius is killed in battle by the Goths 253: Both the emperor Gallus and his successor Aemilianus are killed by their soldiers and are succeeded by the old Valerian who appoints his son Gallienus as co-emperor in the west . a Syrian priest of Baal.
one of the seven wonders 266: Odenathus is assassinated and his wife Zenobia becomes the new ruler of Syria 267: Goths raid the Greek cities 268: Gallienus is assassinated by his own officers 269: The Goths raid the Greek cities for a second time but are defeated by Roman emperor Claudius II 269: Zenobia conquers Egypt expelling the Roman goernor 270: Claudius II dies of the plague and the army chooses Aurelian as the new emperor 271: The emperor Aurelian defeats the invading Germans 273: The emperor Aurelian destroys the rebellious city of Palmyra in Zenobia's kingdom 274: The emperor Aurelian defeats Zenobia and brings her as a hostage to Roma. Dalmatia and Asia Minor 256: the Persians/Sassanids defeat the Romans and conquer Dura Europus in Mesopotamia 257: Valerian reconquers Syria from the Sassanids 258: The Sassanids conquer Armenia 258: Valerian persecutes Christians and even the pope. is executed 258: Postumus declares the independence of Gaul 260: Valerian is captured by the Sassanid king Shapur I after the Battle of Edessa. Sixtus II. defeats the Sassanids on behalf of Roma.253: Gallienus becomes emperor but 30 "tyrants" carved out their own kingdoms around the empire 255: The Goths invade Macedonia. decimating its population 261: Gallienus forbids aristocrats from serving in the army and relaxes the laws against Christianity 261: The king of Palmyra. reuniting the eastern empire 274: The emperor Aurelian defeats the rebellious Gauls 275: Aurelian is killed by his officers and is succeeded by the old Tacitus who dies within months 276: Probus restores peace by repelling the last barbarians on Roman soil 282: Probus is assassinated by his soldiers . Odenathus. Anatolia and Armenia 263: The Goths raid Ephesus and destroy the Temple of Arthemis. annexing Arabia. the first Roman emperor to become a prisoner of war 260: The plague spreads thoughout the Roman empire.
proclaiming himself the human manifestation of Jupiter. Constantinople (Byzantium) 326: Constantine has his son Crispus and his wife Fausta Flavia Maxima executed . but civil war erupts again 306: Constantius dies and his son Flavius Valerius Constantinus (Constantine) is acclaimed by the troops as new vice-emperor of Galerius. reunites the empire and ends the 50-year civil war 286: Diocletian appoints Maximian to rule the West. becomes emperor of the West and disbands the Praetorian Guard 313: Constantine's ally Licinius defeats Maxentius' ally Maximinus and becomes co-emperor in the East 313: Constantine ends the persecution of the Christians (edict of Milano) 313: the Basilica of Maxentius is completed 314: Constantine defeats Licinius and obtains all Roman Europe except Thracia. Georgia and Upper Mesopotamia 300: the population of the Roman Empire is 60 million (about 15 million Christians) 303: Diocletian and Maximian order a general persecution of the Christians. with capital in Milano 293: Diocletian institutes the "tetrarchy" under which each emperor choose his successor ahead of time. Licinius 311: Galerius relaxes the ban on Christianity 311: Galerius dies leaving Maxentius and Constantine to fight for the throne of the West 312: Constantine defeats Maxentius. while the Praetorian Guard appoints Maximian's son Maxentius emperor instead of Galerius' choice Severus 308: Galerius appoints another emperor. the son of a Dalmatian slave. becomes emperor but rules from Nicomedia in the East 285: Diocletian. while Licinius keeps Africa and Asia 323: Constantine defeats Licinius again and becomes the sole emperor 324: Constantine I founds a new city.500 Christians will be killed in eight years) 303: the thermae of Diocletian are built 305: Diocletian and Maximian abdicate in favor of Galerius and Constantius. who annexes Armenia. including the destruction of all churches (1. and Diocletian chooses Galerius while Maximian chooses Constantius Chlorus 295: The Sassanids invade the Eastern empire again 299: The Sassanids surrender to Roman emperor Galerius.284: Diocletian.
and his sons split the empire: Constantine II (Spain. Achaea) and Constantius II (the East) 356: Roma has 28 libraries. Constans I (Italy. the first Roman emperor to be crowned by a religious leader (the patriarch of Constantinople) 452: the Huns invade Italy . which recaptures Nisibis and Armenia. Macedon. 10 basilicas. 11 public baths.330: Constantine I moves the capital of the Roman empire to Constantinople (Byzantium) 337: Constantine dies.602 insulae (city blocks) 359: Constantinople becomes the capital of the Roman empire 360: pagan (Mithraist) general Julian (the "apostate") defeats an invasion of Barbarians and is declared emperor by his German troops 363: Julian dies attempting to invade the Sassanid kingdom of Persia. Africa. two amphitheaters. Britain. with Milano and Constantinople as their capitals 402: the western Roman empire moves the capital from Milano to Ravenna 406: Barbarians invade France from the north 410: the Visigots sack Roma 410: Roma withdraws from Britannia 418: the emperor grants Wallia's Visigoths to settle in Aquitaine (Atlantic coast of France) 425: the eastern emperor Theodosius II installs Valentinian III as emperor of the west 427: Gensenric's Vandals crosses the strait of Gibraltar and lands in Africa 443: the emperor grants Burgundi to settle in Savoy 450: Theodosius II dies and Marcian succeeds him. three theaters. 1. 19 aqueducts.352 fountains. 11 squares. two circuses. 46. Gaul). and general Valentinian becomes emperor 363: an earthquake destroys Petra 364: Valentinian delegates Valens as emperor of the East 376: Valens allows Visigoths to settle within the empire 378: The Visigoths defeat the Roman army at Hadrianopolis/Adrianople 380: Theodosius I proclaims Christianity as the sole religion of the Roman Empire 393: Theodosius forbids the Olympic Games because pagans and shuts down the temple of Zeus at Olympia 395: Theodosius divides the Roman empire in the Western and Eastern Empires. Illyricum.
000 people and almost dethrone Justinian 533: Justinian's code of law ("Corpus Juri Civilis") is published 534: Justinian's general Belisarius destroys the Arian kingdom of the Vandals and reconquers southern Spain and northern Africa 536: the Ostrogoths surrender and Belisarius reconquers Rome (beginning of the Barbar wars in Italy) 537: Justinian's general Belisarius deposes pope Silverius and replaces him with pope Vigilius 537: Justinian builds the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople 540: Justinian's general Belisarius takes Ravenna from the last Ostrogothic resistance and thus reconquers Italy to the empire 542: the plague decimates the Empire 546: Visigothic rebels led by Totila sack Roma 551: imperial troops reconquer Rome 552: Nestorian monks smuggle silkworm eggs from China to Byzanthium 552: End of Ostrogothic resistance in Italy 554: Rome is reduced to a camp of about 30. a mercenary in the service of Roma. leader of the Germanic soldiers in the Roman army. accepts the emperor's sovereignity over Spain 554: the empire reorganizes Italy as an imperial province (end of the Barbar wars) . while Constantinople has about one million people 554: the new king of the Visigoths.455: the Vandals sack Roma 476: Odoacer. deposes the western Roman emperor and thereby terminates the western Roman empire 488: emperor Zeno sends Theodoric's Ostrogoths (still settled in Pannonia) to conquer Italy 493: the Ostrogoths led by Theodoric conquer Italy 500: Roma's population has declined to less than 100. Athanagild.000 people 526: Antioch in Syria is destroyed by an earthquake 527: Justinian becomes eastern Roman emperor and decides to reconquer Italy 527: Byzantium enforces anti-Jewish laws and the Jews all but disappear from the eastern Roman Empire 529: Roman emperor Justinian shuts down the Academia of Plato 532: Riots in Constantinople kill 30.000 people.
is crowned emperor by Pope Leo III and founds the Holy Roman Empire 811: the eastern Roman emperor recognized Charlemagne as emperor of Roma 812: a peace treaty between Charlemagne and the Eastern Roman Empire surrenders Venezia to the Eastern empire but grants Venezia the right to trade with the Holy Roman Empire 813: an Armenian general becomes eastern Roman emperor Leo V 840: Basil's fleet retakes Bari from the Muslims .565: Justinian dies 568: Alboin's Lombards invade northern Italy 600: Constantinople has 500. becomes emperor and establishes Greek as the official language 614: the Persians (Sassanids) raid Jerusalem and destroy its churches 619: the Persians capture Egypt 621: the Visigoths reconquer all of Spain from the Roman empire 626: the Sassanids besiege Constantinople 627: the Sassanid king Khusrau II is defeated by Roman emperor Heraclius at Niniveh 628: the Romans retake Syria from the Sassanids 636: Arabs invade Syria and Palestine 639: the Arabs invade the southern provinces of the Empire 673: the Arabs besiege Constantinople 714: the Arabs besiege Constantinople again 717: Leo III becomes emperor 718: Leo III defeats the Arabs that are besieging Constantinople 726: Emperor Leo III orders the destruction of all icons (iconoclasm) 730: Germanus is deposed and replaced by the iconoclast Athanasius 739: emperor Leo III issues the Ecloga that introduces Christian principles into law 800: Charlemagne. king of the Franks.000 inhabitants 602: the Persians (Sassanids) attack the eastern Roman empire in Asia Minor 610: Heraclius I (son of the Orthodox bishop of Africa) overthrows the tyrant Phocas.
000 inhabitants 860: the Rus attack Constantinople 867: Basil I becomes the Byzantine emperor and founds the Macedonian dynasty 879: Basil I defeats the Arabs and reconquers Cappadocia 896: Symeon of Bulgaria defeats the Byzantine army for the first time 913: Alexander II dies and is succeeded by his seven-year old nephew Constantine VII but real power is wielded by empress mother Zoe 919: Admiral Romanos Lekapenos/ Romanus Lacapenus seizes power and marries his daughter Helen to the 14-year old Constantine VII. who devotes himself to literature and art 922: Symeon of Bulgaria defeats the Byzantine army for the fourth and last time 934: Magyars raid Constantinople 945: Romanos Lekapenos is deposed by his own children and Constantine VII assumes real power 968: Nicephorus II defeats the Arabs and reconquers Syria 969: Nicephorus II defeats the Bulgars 976: Basil II becomes the Byzantine emperor 1018: Basil II annexes Bulgaria and the Byzantine empire reaches its zenith 1025: Basil II dies 1054: The patriarch of Constantinople and the pope in Roma excommunicate each other (the Great Schism) 1057: end of the Macedonian dynasty 1064: the Seljuks invade Armenia 1071: the Byzantine army of Romanus IV Diogenes is defeated by the Seljuks at Manzikert in Armenia. who establish a sultanate in Anatolia 1071: Normans led by Robert Guiscard conquer southern Italy from the eastern Roman empire 1081: Alexius I Komnenos establishes the Komnenos dynasty 1099: the first Crusade captures Jerusalem 1187: Saladin defeats the crusaders 1195: Alexius III deposes his brother and becomes the new emperor .843: Empress Theodora allows the worship of icons to be restored 846: the city of Roma has 17.
flees from Constantinople to Nicaea (Bithynia). led by the Doge of Venezia. whereas Alexius founds the empire of Trebizond further east 1208: Theodore I Lascaris is crowned emperor by the patriarch and Nicaea becomes a rival to Constantinople for legitimate capital of the empire 1211: Nicaea emperor Theodore I Lascaris conquers most of Anatolia after defeating an alliance of Seljuqs of Rum and Latin kingdom of Constantinople near Antioch 1261: Constantinople is liberated by the Nicaean emperor Michael VIII Paleologus and Greek becomes the official language of the ever smaller eastern Roman empire 1291: the Moslems expel the Crusaders from the Middle East 1345: Serbia defeats the eastern Roman empire and annexes Macedonia and Thrace 1347: the plague (Black Death) strikes Constantinople and it will kill half the population of the city 1348: Serbia defeats the eastern Roman empire and annexes Thessaly and Epirus 1453: the Ottoman Turks under Mehmet II capture Constantinople 1461: the Ottomans conquer the empire of Trebizond. led by Baldwin I of the Flanders.1197: Alexius III imposes taxes and melts the gold of the imperial tombs to pay the tribute to Frederick Barbarossa. son-in-law od Alexius III. expel the Greek emperor Alexius III and set up a Latin kingdom. and Venezia acquires territories in the Mediterranean and Black Seas 1204: Theodore I Lascaris. sack Constantinople. causing anger against the Latin dynasty among the Greek population 1204: the Crusaders. the last Greek state . where he founds a the empire.
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