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Vol.2, Issue.6, Nov-Dec. 2012 pp-4244-4255

ISSN: 2249-6645

Fixed Portal Frames

Okonkwo V. O.1, Aginam C. H.2, and Chidolue C. A.3

123

evaluating the internal stress of rigidly fixed portal frames

by the displacement method were generated. But obtaining

the equations for the internal stresses required non-scalar

or parametric inversion of the structure stiffness matrix. To

circumvent this problem, the flexibility method was used

taking advantage of the symmetrical nature of the portal

frame and the method of virtual work. These were used to

obtain the internal stresses on rigidly fixed portal frames

for different cases of external loads when axial deformation

is considered. A dimensionless constant s was used to

capture the effect of axial deformation in the equations.

When it is set to zero, the effect of axial deformation is

ignored and the equations become the same as what can be

obtained in any structural engineering textbook. These

equations were used to investigate the contribution of axial

deformation to the calculated internal stresses and how

they vary with the ratio of the flexural rigidity of the beam

and columns and the height to length ratio of the loaded

portal frames.

method, Portal frames, stiffness matrix,

I. INTRODUCTION

Structural frames are primarily responsible for

strength and rigidity of buildings. For simpler single storey

structures like warehouses, garages etc portal frames are

usually adequate. It is estimated that about 50% of the hotrolled constructional steel used in the UK is fabricated into

single-storey buildings (Graham and Alan, 2007). This

shows the increasing importance of this fundamental

structural assemblage. The analysis of portal frames are

usually done with predetermined equations obtained from

structural engineering textbooks or design manuals. The

equations in these texts were derived with an underlying

assumption that deformation of structures due to axial

forces is negligible giving rise to the need to undertake this

study. The twenty first century has seen an astronomical use

of computers in the analysis of structures (Samuelsson and

Zienkiewi, 2006) but this has not completely eliminated the

use of manual calculations form simple structures and for

easy cross-checking of computer output (Hibbeler, 2006).

Hence the need for the development of equations that

capture the contribution of axial deformation in portal

frames for different loading conditions.

the 6 degrees of freedom

The analysis of portal frames by the stiffness method

requires the determination of the structures degrees of

freedom and the development of the structures stiffness

matrix. For the structure shown in Figure 1a, the degrees of

freedom are as shown in Figure 1b. I1 and A1 are

respectively the second moment of inertia and crosssectional area of the columns while I2 and A2 are the second

moment of inertia and cross-sectional area of the beam

respectively. The stiffness coefficients for the various

degrees of freedom considering shear deformation can be

obtained from equations developed in Ghali et al (1985)

and Okonkwo (2012) and are presented below

The structures stiffness matrix can be written as:

11

21

= 31

41

51

61

12

22

32

42

52

62

13

23

33

43

53

63

14

24

34

44

54

64

15

25

35

45

55

65

16

26

36

.

46

56

66

(1)

when there is a unit displacement in coordinate (degree of

freedom) j. They are as follows:

11 =

12 = 0

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Vol.2, Issue.6, Nov-Dec. 2012 pp-4244-4255

ISSN: 2249-6645

13 =

62

1

2

3

{} =

4

5

6

14 =

121

3

15 = 0

16 =

22 =

23 =

(5)

62

2

121

3

1

2

{} = 3

4

5

6

61

2

24 = 0

25 =

(2)

(6)

with the coordinate i (McGuire et al, 2000).

26 = 0

33 =

42

34 =

41

62

44 =

22

45 = 0

46 =

55 =

62

2

121

3

= + 1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 .

122

{ }

kji ( Leet and Uang, 2002).

When there are external loads on the structure on the

structure there is need to calculate the forces in the

restrained structure Fo as a result of the external load.

The structures equilibrium equations are then written as

{} = { } + {} . . .

10

20

{ } = 30

40

50

60

. (7)

be easily obtained by writing the structures compatibility

equations given as

35 = 0

36 =

(3)

(8)

point on the frame, Mr is the internal stress at the point

under consideration in the restrained structure while Mi is

the internal stress at the point when there is a unit

displacement in coordinate i.

To solve equation (8) there is need to obtain {D}. {D} can

be obtained from the inversion of [K] in equation (7).

Finding the inverse of K parametrically (i.e. without

substituting the numerical values of E, h, l etc) is a difficult

task. This problem is circumvented by using the flexibility

method to solve the same problem, taking advantage of the

symmetrical nature of the structure and the principle of

virtual work.

MODEL

The basic system or primary structure for the structure in

Figure 1a is given in Figure 2. The removed redundant

force is depicted with X1.

(4)

when the other degrees of freedom are restrained.

Figure 2: The Basic System showing the removed

redundant forces

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Vol.2, Issue.6, Nov-Dec. 2012 pp-4244-4255

ISSN: 2249-6645

The flexibility matrix of the structure can be determined

using the principle of virtual work.

By applying the unit load theorem the deflection in beams

or frames can be determined for the combined action of the

internal stresses, bending moment and axial forces with

=

1

11

121 2 1

1 1 3 +62 1 2 +241 2

33

2

22 33 23

(9)

32

and N are the real/actual internal stresses.

2

22 33 23

22

. .

= 2

31 2 (1 +22 )

2 2

3

4

2 1 +31 +2 2 +61 2

= 2

31 2 2 2

2 2

3

4

2 1 +31 +2 2 +61 2

(15a)

(15c)

1 2 22 3 +31

3

22 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

(15b)

(15d)

2

22 33 23

2000; Nash, 1998)

these are substituted into the structures force equilibrium

(superposition) equations to obtain the internal stresses at

any point.

load at j then by evaluating equation (9) the following are

obtained:

11 =

1 1 3 +62 1 2 +121 2

121 2 1

12 = 0 .

13 = 0 .

22 =

23 =

33 =

2

1

1 2

.

.

1 +2 2

(10a)

. .

31 2

. .

22 3 +31

(10b)

(10c)

(10d)

(10e)

(10f)

dji.

The structures compatibility equations can be written thus

11

21

31

11

21

31

11

21

31

10

1

2 + 20 = 0 .

3

30

i.e. + = 0 .

1 =

(12)

1 = 0

0

81

(17b)

30 =

2 (1 +62 )

241 2

(17c)

equations (12)

3 =

(18a)

2 1 2 3

22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

24 22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

(18b)

(18c)

structure using the force factors obtained in equations (18a)

(18c)

2 3 1 3 2 31

= 12

22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

= 24

22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

. .

(19)

2 3 1 2 3 2 +31

. .

(20)

(21)

33

32

2

22 33 23

23

2

22 33 23

22

2

22 33 23

2

22 33 23

(16)

(13)

(Stroud, 1995)

11

22

(11b)

20 =

2 = 4

.

10 = 0 .

.

(17a)

1 = 0 .

that point for the reduced structure, Mi is stress at that point

when the only the redundant force Xi =1 acts on the reduced

structure.

For the loaded portal frame of Figure 3, the deformations of

the reduced structure due to external loads are

(11a)

is the vector deformation d10, d20, d30 due to external load

on the basic system (Jenkins, 1990).

= 1 ( ) .

= + 1 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 .

(14)

=

=

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2 3 1 2 3 2 +31

24 22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

3 1 82 3 +2 3 1

12 4 3 2 21 + 2 +2 3 1 1 +2 2

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Vol.2, Issue.6, Nov-Dec. 2012 pp-4244-4255

ISSN: 2249-6645

2 3 1 3 2 31

. .

12 22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

(22)

30 =

61

. .

(30c)

equations (12)

For the loaded portal frame of Figure 4, the deformations of

the reduced structure due to external loads are

3 1 1 +8 2 2 1 +64 1 2

10 =

128 1 2 1

22

20 =

161

2 (1 +62 )

30 =

481 2

(23a)

(23b)

(23c)

equations (12)

1 =

3 =

32 1 1 3 +62 1 2 +24 1 2

(24a)

2 2 3 2 1

22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

3 2 2 3 2 +21 +3 3 1 1 +6 2

48 22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

2

Let = .

64

48 22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

64

2 1 1 3 +51 2 2 +241 2

(24c)

. (25)

4 1 51 +24 2

1 1 3 +62 1 2 +241 2

. .

48 22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

3 2 2 1

3

2 1 1 +62 1 2 +24 1 2

64 1 1 3 +62 1 2 +24 1 2

2 3 2 3 2 +21 +31 1 +62

=

2

. .

20 =

121

4

81

.

.

+ 24

(32)

3 2 3 2 +121

22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

(34)

3 9 2 1 2 +52 3 2 +121 2

3 2 2 1

3

1 1 +62 1 2 +241 2

1 =

+

. .

.

.

3 2 2 1

30 = 0

(28)

+ 24

22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

(35)

2

21

.

.

(36a)

(36b)

.

.

6 2 2 1

3

2

1 1 +61 2 +24 1 2

2 = 0

(29)

the reduced structure due to external loads are

3

. .

22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

=

2

(36c)

equations (12)

64 1 1 3 +62 1 2 +24 1 2

2 3 2 3 2 +81 +31 1 +62

48 22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

10 =

(31c)

3 2 3 2 +121

+ 24

1 1 3 +62 1 2 +241 2

20 = 0 .

(33)

10 =

48 22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

3 2 3 1 1 +8 2 2 1 +641 2

(27)

3 2 3 1 1 +8 2 2 1 +641 2

(31b)

the reduced structure due to external loads are

1 1 3 +62 1 2 +24 1 2

2 3 2 3 2 +21 +31 1 +62

22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

(24b)

(26)

4 1 51 +24 2

(31a)

structure using the force factors obtained in equations (31a)

(31c)

.

=

3 2 3 2 +121

3 = 24

.

=

. .

4 2 31 +2 2

3

22 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

2 = 8

2 1 1 3 +62 1 2 +24 1 2

3 9 2 1 2 +52 3 2 +121 2

24 22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

structure using the force factors obtained in equations (24a)

(24c)

3 3 1 1 +8 2 2 1 +641 2

2 = 16

3 2 1

3

2

1 1 +62 1 +24 1 2

1 =

(30a)

3 = 0 .

.

. .

.

.

.

.

(37a)

(37b)

(37c)

structure using the force factors obtained in equations (37a)

(37c)

(30b)

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Vol.2, Issue.6, Nov-Dec. 2012 pp-4244-4255

ISSN: 2249-6645

= 1

=

3 2 2 1

3

2

1 1 +61 2 +24 1 2

3 2 2 2 1

3

2

1 1 +61 2 +24 1 2

(38)

the reduced structure due to external loads are

(39)

10 =

20 =

3 2 2 2 1

3

2

1 1 +61 2 +241 2

= 1

.

.

3

2

1 1 +61 2 +24 1 2

(41)

10 = 4

2 3

20 =

61

2

30 = 2

(42b)

(42c)

3 =

equations (12)

3 2 2 1

3

2

1 1 +62 1 +24 1 2

1 =

2 = 2

22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

1 +2 2

.

.

21 2

3 2 2 2 1

(43b)

2 22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

3 2 2 2 1

2 1 1 3 +62 1 2 +24 1 2

+2

3 2 1 2

(49b)

3 2 21 + 2 +31 1 +2 2

(49c)

2 22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

structure using the force factors obtained in equations (49a)

(49c)

2 1 1 32 +6 2 1 +21

+

(50)

2 1 1 32 +6 2 1 +21

(51)

2 1 1 32 +6 2 1 +21

2 1 1 3 +62 1 2 +24 1 2

3 2 21 +2 +31 1 +2 2

2 22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

+

. .

(52)

=

.

2 1 1 3 +62 1 2 +24 1 2

2 3 1 + 2 +31 +31 1 +2 2

2 22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

. (44)

2 2 3 2 + 2 2 +31

2 1 1 32 +6 2 1 +21

(53)

(45)

3 2 2 2 1

3

1 1 +62 1 2 +241 2

(49a)

3 2 21 +2 +31 1 +2 2

(43c)

22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

= +

2 1 1 3 +62 1 2 +24 1 2

2 2 1 3 2 +2 22 3 2 2 +31

(48c)

2 1 1 3 +62 1 2 +24 1 2

2 3 1 + 2 +31 +31 1 +2 2

2 22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

structure using the force factors obtained in equations (43a)

(43c)

1 1 3 +62 1 2 +24 1 2

2 22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

(48b)

2 1 1 32 +62 1 +21

= +

(43a)

.

22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

3 = 2

. .

2 2 1 3 + 2 3 2

2 2 3 2 + 2 2 +31

1 =

2 = 2

(42a)

(48a)

equations (12)

the reduced structure due to external loads are

2

21

(40)

121 2 1

30 =

3 2 2 1

2 1 1 3 2 +6 2 1 +21

+2

2 2 3 2 + 2 2 +31

22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

(46)

table 1. The effect of axial deformation is captured by the

dimensionless constant s taken as the ratio of the end

translational stiffness to the shear stiffness of a member.

1 =

3 2 2 2 1

2 1 1 3 +62 1 2 +241 2

2 2 1 3 2 +2 22 3 2 2 +31

2 22 3 1 +312 2 +2 4 2 +61 2

(47)

2 =

121

3

122

3

12

= 2 1 .

1

12

= 2 2 .

2

(54)

(55)

1 = 0 and likewise when axial deformation in the beam is

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Vol.2, Issue.6, Nov-Dec. 2012 pp-4244-4255

ISSN: 2249-6645

ignored 2 = 0 . If axial deformation is ignored in the

whole structure, 1 = 2 = 0.

The internal stress equations enable an easy investigation

into the contribution of axial deformation to the internal

stresses of statically loaded frames for different kinds of

external loads.

For frame 1 (figure 3), the moment at A, MA is given by

equation (19). The contribution of axial deformation in the

column is given by

= (

=

.

3 1

12

19)

19 2 =0)

4 3 2 +2 3 1

3

4 2 21 + 1 +2 3 1 1 +2 2

1

21 + 2

(56)

MA as a function of h, l, I1, I2 and s

By considering the case of a portal frame of length l = 5m,

h = 4m. Equation 56 was evaluated to show how the

contribution of axial deformation varied with 1 2 . The

result is shown in Table 2. When plotted on a uniform scale

(Figure 9) the relationship between and 1 2 is seen

to be linear. This was further justified by a linear regression

analysis of the results in Table 2 which was fitted into the

2

errors (SSE), coefficient of multiple determination (R2 ) and

the root mean squared error (RMSE) gave 1.099 x 10 -7,

0.999952 and 0.0001105 respectively. From Table 2 when

1 2 = 0 , 0 and when 1 2 = 10; =

0.0479 which represent only a 5% reduction in the

calculated bending moment.

In like manner by evaluating the axial contribution in the

beam, for varying 1 2 of the portal frame, Table 3

was produced. This was plotted on a uniform scale in

Figure 10. From Figure 10 it would be observed that there

is also a linear relationship between and 1 2 . When

2

parameters sum square of errors (SSE), coefficient of

multiple determination (R2 ) and the root mean squared

error (RMSE) of 6.51 x 10-7, 0.9999 and 0.000269

respectively.

By pegging 1 2 to a constant value of 0.296 and the

variation of with respect to investigated, Table 4

was generated. A detailed plot of Table 4 was presented in

Figure 11. From Table 4 when = 0; = 3.125

(about 30% drop in calculated bending moment value)

while at > 0, dropped in magnitude exponentially

to values below 1. In like manner, when the variation of

with respect to was investigated, Table 5 was

generated. A detailed plot of Table 5 was presented in

Figure 12. From Table 5 when = 0; = 4.1667

while at > 0, dropped in magnitude exponentially

to values below 1.

V. CONCLUSION

The flexibility method was used to simplify the analysis

and a summary of the results are presented in table 1. The

equations in table 1 would enable an easy evaluation of the

internal stresses in loaded rigidly fixed portal frames

considering the effect of axial deformation.

From a detailed analysis of frame 1 (Figure 3), it was

observed that the contribution of axial deformation is

generally very small and can be neglected for reasonable

values of 1 2 . However, its contribution skyrockets at

very low values of i.e. as => 0. This depicts the

case of an encased single span beam and a complete

departure from portal frames under study. This analysis can

be extended to the other loaded frames (Figures 4 8) using

the equations in Table 1. These would enable the

determination of safe conditions for ignoring axial

deformation under different kinds of loading.

REFERENCES

[1]

Unified Classical and Matrix Approach (3rd Edition)

Chapman & Hall London

[2] Graham R, Alan P.(2007). Single Storey Buildings:

Steel Designers Manual Sixth Edition, Blackwell

Science Ltd, United Kingdom

[3] Hibbeler, R. C.(2006). Structural Analysis. Sixth

Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey

[4] Leet, K. M., Uang, C.,(2002). Fundamental of

Structural Analysis. McGraw-Hill ,New York

[5] McGuire, W., Gallagher R. H., Ziemian, R.

D.(2000). Matrix Structural Analysis,Second

Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York

[6] Nash, W.,(1998). Schaums Outline of Theory and

Problems of Strength of Materials. Fourth Edition,

McGraw-Hill Companies, New York

[7] Okonkwo V. O (2012). Computer-aided Analysis of

Multi-storey Steel Frames. M. Eng. Thesis,

Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria.

[8] Reynolds, C. E.,and Steedman J. C. (2001).

Reinforced Concrete Designers Handbook, 10th

Edition) E&FN Spon, Taylor & Francis Group,

London

[9] Samuelsson A., and Zienkiewicz O. C.(2006),

Review: History of the Stiffness Method.

International Journal for Numerical Methods in

Engineering. Vol. 67: 149 157

[10] Stroud K. A.,(1995). Engineering Mathematics.

Fourth Edition, Macmillan Press Ltd, London.

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Vol.2, Issue.6, Nov-Dec. 2012 pp-4244-4255

ISSN: 2249-6645

S/No

LOADED FRAME

REMARKS

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Vol.2, Issue.6, Nov-Dec. 2012 pp-4244-4255

ISSN: 2249-6645

3 1 4 3 2 2 3 1

= = 12 4 3

3

2 21 + 2 +2 1 1 +2 2

= = 12 4 3

3 1 82 3 +2 3 1

3

2 21 + 2 +2 1 1 +22

= =

2 3 1 2

= = 4 3

3

2 21 + 2 +2 1 1 +22

2 4 3 2 3 2 +81 + 3 1 1 1 +62 2

48 4 3 2 21 + 2 +2 3 1 +22

= 64

=

=

=

4 51 +242

2 1 +6 2 2 +21 3 2

31 3 +242 2 +161 3 2

64 1 3 +62 2 +21 3 2

4 5 1 +24 2

64 2 1 +6 2 2 +21 3 2

2 4 3 2 3 2 +21 +2 3 1 1 +6 2

48 4 3 2 2 1 + 2 +2 3 1 1 +22

2 4 3 2 3 2 +21 +2 3 1 1 +62

48 4 3 2 2 1 + 2 +2 3 1 1 +2 2

2 4 3 2 3 2 +81 + 3 1 1 1 +62 2

48 4 3 2 21 + 2 +2 3 1 +22

3 3 1 +24 2 2 +161 3 2

32 3 1 +6 2 2 +21 3 2

= = 2 4 3

31 3 +242 2 +161 3 2

64 1 3 +62 2 +21 3 2

2 3 1 2

3

2 21 + 2 +2 1 +22

2 1 3 +5 2 2 +22 3 2

=

= 2

2 1 3 +6 2 2 +21 3 2

3 2 2

1 3 +6 2 2 +21 3 2

= 2

=

3

2 21 + 2 +2 1 1 +2 2

3 2 4 3 2 +2 3 1

3

2 21 + 2 +2 1 1 +2 2

+ 6 4 3

3 2 2

1 3 +6 2 2 +21 3 2

3 2 2

2 1 3 +6 2 2 +21 3 2

= =

3 2 9 2 1 +5 3 2 +2 3 1

+ 6 4 3

+ 6 4 3

3 2 4 3 2 +2 3 1

3

2 2 1 + 2 +2 1 1 +22

3 2 9 2 1 +5 3 2 +2 3 1

6 4 3 2 21 + 2 +2 3 1 1 +2 2

3 2

3

2

3

1 +62 +21 2

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ISSN: 2249-6645

=

4 2 31 +22

2 4 3 2 21 + 2 +2 3 1 1 +2 2

3 2 2

3

2

3

1 +6 2 +21 2

3 2 2 2

3

2

3

1 +6 2 +21 2

= 1

=

3 2 2 2 1

= 1

3

2

1 1 +61 2 +241 2

3

2

3

1 +6 2 +21 2

6 2 2

= = 3

HD

3 2 2

= =

2

3

1 +6 2 +21 2

= + 2

= 2

3 2 2 2

1 3 +6 2 2 +21 3 2

= 2

=

2 41 2 3 +2 8 3 2 4 3 2 +2 3 1

2 4 3 2 21 + 2 +2 3 1 1 +22

2 2 4 3 2 +4 2 2 +2 3 1

3

2 21 + 2 +2 1 1 +2 2

+ 2 4 3

3 2 2 2

1 3 +6 2 2 +21 3 2

3 2 2 2

2 1 3 +6 2 2 +21 3 2

= =

=

3 2 2 2

1 3 +6 2 2 +21 3 2

2 2 4 3 2 +4 2 2 +2 3 1

3

2 2 1 + 2 +2 1 1 +22

+ 2 4 3

+

2 41 2 3 +2 8 3 2 4 3 2 +2 3 1

2 4 3 2 21 + 2 +2 3 1 1 +2 2

3 2 2

3 1 +6 2 2 +21 3 2

2 2 2 1 3 +2 3 2

4 3 2 21 +2 3 1 1 +22

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ISSN: 2249-6645

= +

= +

=

2 1 32 + 2 6 +1 2

2 1 3 +6 2 2 +21 3 2

2 1 3 +6 2 2 +21 3 2

2 1 32 + 2 6 +1 2

2 1 3 +6 2 2 +21 3 2

2 1 32 +62 +1 3 2

4 3 2 1 +2 +31 +2 3 1 1 +22

2 4 3 2 21 +2 +2 3 1 1 +22

4 3 2 21 + 2 +2 3 1 1 +2 2

2 4 3 2 21 + 2 +2 3 1 1 +2 2

4 3 2 21 + 2 +2 3 1 1 +2 2

2 4 3 2 21 + 2 +2 3 1 1 +2 2

4 3 2 1 + 2 +31 +2 3 1 1 +22

2 4 3 2 21 + 2 +2 3 1 1 +2 2

3 1 +6 2 2 +21 3 2

= =

2 1 3 +6 2 2 +21 3 2

2 1 32 + 2 6 +1 2

=

=

2 1 32 +2 6 +1 2

6 2 1 2

4 3 2 21 + 2 +2 3 1 1 +2 2

Table 2: Axial deformation contribution for different values of

w =1kN/m L = 5m H = 0.4m h = 4m

-0.0045

-0.0095

-0.0144

-0.0192

-0.0241

10

-0.0289

-0.0337

-0.0384

-0.0432

-0.0479

w =1kN/m L = 5m H = 0.4m h = 4m

-0.0066

-0.0135

-0.0201

-0.0267

-0.0332

10

-0.0396

-0.0460

-0.0524

-0.0587

-0.0651

w =1kN/m L = 5m

2 = 0.296

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

-3.1250

-0.5409

-0.0823

-0.0239

-0.0096

-0.0047

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

-0.0026

-0.0015

-0.0010

-0.0006

-0.0004

www.ijmer.com

4253 | Page

www.ijmer.com

Vol.2, Issue.6, Nov-Dec. 2012 pp-4244-4255

ISSN: 2249-6645

w =1kN/m L = 5m

2 = 0.296

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

-4.1667

-0.7668

-0.1208

-0.0359

-0.0146

-0.0072

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

-0.0040

-0.0024

-0.0015

-0.0010

-0.0007

www.ijmer.com

4254 | Page

www.ijmer.com

Vol.2, Issue.6, Nov-Dec. 2012 pp-4244-4255

ISSN: 2249-6645

www.ijmer.com

4255 | Page

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