You are on page 1of 24

Politecnico di MILANO Company paola.villani@polimi.

it Logo

Paola Villani
Politecnico di Milano - APAT* consultant (*Italian National Agency for Environmental Protection and Technical Services)

Logistics challenges in a volatile world - City logistics

Environment and Urban Mobility

Politecnico di MILANO Company paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

PM10 Air concentrations in Italy - annual average


MAX, min, 25 e 75 percentile

(number of stations in parenthesis)


80

70

MAX

limit value

60

microg/cubic meter

50 75 40 25 30

20

min
10

0
Source: APAT 2002

1999 (37)

2000 (54)

2001 (64)

2005

Politecnico di MILANO Company

PM10 Air concentrations in Italy - Daily averages Number of exceedences of the forthcoming limit value ( 50 mg/m3)
MAX, min, 25 e 75 percentile (number of stations in parenthesis)
250

paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

MAX
200

Number of exceedences

150

MAX number of allowed exceedences (35 in a year)


75

100

50 25

min
0
Source: APAT 2002

1999 (18)

2000 (30)

2001 (41)

2005

Politecnico di MILANO Company paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

Road accidents: social and economic costs


Photos: A4 accident 13/03/03
Total Cost 28.360

material damages, other costs

212.000 accidents year 2000 Only in recent times we start calculating all the costs connected with the road accidents which accounting for ~ 2% of EEC GNP, and refer to the losses in productive capacity, human and health costs and material damages
14.200 hospital expenses family victims permanent incapacity 2.690 4.060 Death temporary No production incapacity cost 1.880 8.630 3.430 2.100

year 2000, Million Euro

References: Rapporto FF.SS sui costi ambientali e sociali della mobilit, ISTAT, INAIL, Ministero Lavori Pubblici, Ministero Infrastrutture e Trasporti

Environmental costs

Politecnico di MILANO Company paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

In 1999 the ratio between people and cars was equal to 1,8; in the decade from 1990 to 1999 this value was indeed changed from 2,11 to 1,80 just mentioned, in consideration of a constant decrease of population which was reduced about 0,05%. In 2000 this ratio was further on reduced, standing about 1,76. These figures indicate an increase in the use of private vehicle from Italians; its enough to say that Italian families assign about 15% of their consumptions in transport expenses and its reasonable to believe that most of these charges are attributable to private transport vehicle.

Pollution in italian cities

Politecnico di MILANO Company paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

PM10 (particulate matter with dimension less than 10 micrometer) together with ozone constitutes the main air pollution problem in Italy, especially in urban and metropolitan areas. In these areas road transport is one of the leading environmental pressures concerning: air pollutant emissions - at urban level, the greatest share of PM10, NOx (nitrogen oxides), VOC (volatile organic compounds) and CO (carbon monoxide) is emitted by road vehicles; noise; land use. Moreover safety and congestion issues due to road traffic must be considered. Theory, Simulation, Field Measurements: Pollution: physical & chemical Impacts: physical: buildings, statues, Impacts: biological: plant & animal Impacts: aesthetic

Dust: leaves, windows, tiles, sellotape pH Carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide Leaf ozone spot Leaf deforestation Other factors? road surface road condition proximety of buildings soft/hard surrounds What can be done?

Noise pollution

How much noise? Cause of the noise? number type age driving

Source: APAT 2002

Air pollution in italian cities

Politecnico di MILANO Company paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

Percent increase in vehicle-km travelled in the years 1990-1999 in Italy (base year 1990 = 100)

1990 Cars Light Duty Vehicles (<3.5 t.) Heavy Duty Vehicles (>3.5 t. and buses) Mopeds and Motorcycles 3 < 50 cm Motorcycles > 50 cm Total
3

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

100 100 100 100 100 100

105 99 100 104 106 104

113 105 101 112 115 111

114 107 97 131 114 113

113 108 97 139 114 112

116 114 98 149 115 115

118 120 98 157 118 118

117 128 101 165 120 118

123 135 94 172 127 123

123 146 98 172 141 125

Source: APAT 2002

Politecnico di MILANO Company paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

Percent increase in vehicle-km travelled in the years 1990-1999 in Italy (base year 1990 = 100)
180
Cars

170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80


Total Light Duty Vehicles (<3.5 t.) Heavy Duty Vehicles (>3.5 t. and buses) Mopeds and Motorcycles < 50cm3 Motorcycles > 50cm3

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

2000

Politecnico di MILANO Company paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

Composition (%) of road vehicles fleet in Italy (2001)

Totale

3.029.983

30.741.953

84.177

3.169.538

100%

> 8 years
80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Motorcycles Cars Buses L.& H.Duty Vehicles

8 years 7 years 6 years 5 years 4 years 3 years 2 years 1 year < 1 year old

According to the economic theory there is a cumulative and circular causal relation between local development and increase in the network of transportation: in particular, development means major attractiveness for the local system, both the enterprises and the families, which increases the mobility demand and the building of new networks, and the process start again.

Some theoretical subject New enterprises and new families Attractiveness Mobility demand

Politecnico di MILANO Company paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

new networks trasportation


Local development Network of transportation Congestion
The number of movements increases

Public pressures to increase capacity

The average lenght of movement increases

Movements are more easy Urban sprawl favored

Modal Split
Main Modes Used for Commuting in Italy company Omnitel Vodafone, 2001

Lenght and m odal split OMNITEL-VODAFONE Italy w alk tram metrorail

Politecnico di MILANO Company paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

< 2 km 2 - 4 km 4 - 6 km

Modal Split

rail bus bike motorcycle car


500 1.000 1.500 2.000 2.500 3.000

6 - 8 km 10 - 2 0 km > 2 0 km

Employers

Politecnico di MILANO Company

Population density in cities - 1998

paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

Politecnico di MILANO Company paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

Politecnico di MILANO Company

200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

Relationships infrastructural equipment and circulating vehicles Analysis Italian regions and geographic macro-areas Rapporti infrastrutture / mobilit

paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

Umbria

Emilia Romagna

Abruzzo

Italia Settentrionale

Italia Meridionale

Lombardia

Campania

Piemonte

Marche

Lazio

Friuli Venezia Giulia

Italia Centrale

Molise

Basilicata

Trentino Alto Adige

Valle d' Aosta

Rapporto rete road stradale / veicoli circolantivehicles (*10000)(*10.000) Relationship network / circulating

Relationship network / circulating vehicles Rapporto rete highway autostradale / veicoli circolanti(*10000) (*10.000)

Sardegna

Veneto

Liguria

Toscana

Puglia

Calabria

Sicilia

Italia

Pollution and Traffic jam

Politecnico di MILANO Company paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

Correlation Speed - Polluting Emissions

Coefficient Correlation Speed

Speed (km/h)

Politecnico di MILANO Company

Performance by Urban Transport Mode

paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

Performance Index
0 1/3 full light rail/metro Full light rail/metro 1/3 full bus Full bus Car with 1 person Fully occupied car Cyclist Pedestrian 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16

Space required per person (in sqr m) Speed (km/hr) Performance index 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Paris, 2.152.000 inhabitants


Traffic restrictions for

Politecnico di MILANO Company paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

dimension

of

vehicle and time bands : - always authorized until to 16 mq - authorized in some time bands all vehicles with surface between the 16 and 24 mq - authorize during the evening / night windows all vehicles with surface > 24 mq

Milano, 1.100.000 inhabitants

Politecnico di MILANO Company paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

Traffic restrictions for vehicle dimension: - heavy duty vehicles authorized in Milano center (in yellow) only at 19.30 - 7.30 - city center ring named Cerchia dei Bastioni: pickup and delivery time requirements - city center ring named Cerchia dei Navigli: authorized vehicles until <7 mt.

Politecnico di MILANO Company

Transport Infrastructure and Activity Location


M ro et

paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

Space / Time Relationships and Modal Choice


High Density Low

hw ay s

Mixed

d an e ss pa

H ig

High

y nc de en ep D ar C

Worst case

TIME

Freight based

Population based

B us

Mixed

-t

ra m

Best case

Concentrated

SPACE

Dispersed

References: Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Urban Trasportation, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University, Hempstead, 2003

Congestion Low

e ng rr l ai

ed ix M

ds oa R

t si an Tr

Politecnico di MILANO Company

Largest Subway Systems in the World by Annual Ridership and Metropolitan Population, 2000
0
Milano Sao Paulo London Hong Kong Osaka Paris New York City Seoul Mexico City Tokyo Moscow

paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

Subway Ridership (billions)


3 3,5

0,5

1,5

2,5

Population Ridership

10

15

20

25

30

Metropolitan Population (millions)

Recurring Congestion
society, and tend to be concentrated into short time periods, such as "rush hours".

Politecnico di MILANO Company paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

Recurring congestion is primarily a product of transportation demand related to the activity patterns of

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 1

Traffic Congestion Capacity

3 2 1 0 -1

Unused Capacity
4.000 3.500 3.000 2.500 2.000 1.500 1.000 500
1.00 3.00

-2
MI_Serravalle Stazione 201 Milano Ovest
giorno feriale tipo (16.05.01)

-3 -4
Dir. NORD Dir. SUD

-5 -6

5.00

7.00

9.00

11.00

13.00

15.00

17.00

19.00

21.00

23.00

-7

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23

City-freighter fleet management

Politecnico di MILANO Company paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

Transportation problem for moving empty or laden container for a logistic company. Studies show, for example, low average load factors for freight vehicles operating within city limits, as well as high volumes of empty vehicles. Solution? Drastic reductions in empty vehicle-km, and improvements in the efficiency of loaded movements (through, for example, higher average load factors). An example: Logistics Data Platform for the control of the empty travels, entrusted plan to CAP Gemini Ernst & Young from FederLazio, CCIAA Frosinone.

The efficiency of company of the Frusinate (Lazio): average load factors

Traffic management

Politecnico di MILANO Company paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

Need? Lifestyle? Private v public. Attitudes survey Location of services and city layout. Park & ride. Where can I park? Pedestrianisation Urban transport priorities, Accessibility to all To promote local public transport in order to contract the times of the infrastructural system.
without public transport system Time transfer door to door with a public transport system

Saturation index

References

Politecnico di MILANO Company paola.villani@polimi.it Logo

Bill Chambers Global Issues in Environmental Education: Theory into Practice NAFSO, Norwich, January 1999 Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Urban Trasportation, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University, Hempstead, 2003 ACI, Annuario statistico, Roma, 2002 ACI, Rapporto annuale, Roma, 2002 Centro Studi Confetra, Profili dell'autotrasporto di cose in Italia Quaderno n 87/4 - gennaio 2001 European Commission, Towards Trans-European Networks. Bruxelles, 1992 European Commission, Auto-Oil II Cost-effectiveness Study, 1999 Eurostat, Statistics Transport infrastructure in the European Union and Central European Countries 1990-1999, European Communities, aprile 2002 Isfort Culture, behaviours, inclinations of Italians who move. Auditel of mobility, Roma, 2002 Istat, Import ed export per modo di trasporto, Roma, 2002 Istituto G. Tagliacarne, La dotazione delle infrastrutture per lo sviluppo delle imprese nelle 103 province, Unioncamere, 1999 Leonida G., Infrastrutture e logistica urbana, in Euromerci, n.1-2, 1997 Siiv, Libro bianco sulle criticit del sistema infrastrutturale italiano, 2001 Villani P.,"Scenari insediativi e di domanda di trasporto al 2010: una metodologia e unapplicazione in una regione italiana", con R.Camagni, R.Capello, A.Faggian Progetto Finalizzato Trasporti 2 CNR, Napoli, 1999 Villani P.,"Scenari di sviluppo dell'economia e del sistema insediativo" con R.Camagni, Quaderni di Urbanistica n.2 - 2000 pagg 117-125 Villani P.,"La mobilit nell'area milanese. Il traffico merci" in Logistica Management, Edizioni Ritman, Milano, settembre 2002 Villani P., Modello costi-benefici per la valutazione dei progetti di investimento nei sistemi di trasporto pubblico e nelle infrastrutture stradali, ANPA, Roma, 2002 WEBSITE http://www.fr.camcom.it/documenti/2002/06_trasp/Studio_Piattaforma_Telematica.pdf