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Introduction:

A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, pressure, etc. and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location. The more modern networks are bi-directional, also enabling control of sensor activity. The development of wireless sensor networks was motivated by military applications such as battlefield surveillance; today such networks are used in many industrial and consumer applications, such as industrial process monitoring and control, machine health monitoring, and so on.

Typical multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture:


The WSN is built of "nodes" from a few to several hundreds or even thousands, where each node is connected to one (or sometimes several) sensors. Each such sensor network node has typically several parts: a radio transceiver with an internal antenna or connection to an external antenna, a microcontroller, an electronic circuit for interfacing with the sensors and an energy source, usually a battery or an embedded form of energy harvesting.

Operating System:
TinyOS is a free and open source component-based operating system and platform targeting wireless sensor networks (WSNs). TinyOS is an embedded operating system. TinyOS applications are written in nesC, a dialect of the C language optimized for the memory limits of sensor networks. Its supplementary tools are mainly in the form of Java and shell script front-ends.

Working of motes
Figure 1. The Motes 1 through 13 are the children motes (all the ones in light grey), Mote 14 is the parent (in purple). The Computer (in red) can be any type of computer such as PDA, laptop, etc. as long as it is capable of accessing the internet via a specified ISP (the grey building with yellow windows).

Sensors
The mote in Figure 2 contains three types of sensors: temperature, moisture, and vibration. This is a fairly typical mote, but some motes have many more functions. There are motes that take photographs of the surroundings, sense motion, measure light intensity, and much more.

Power Source:
The power sources usually range between a couple of AA batteries the power source is connected to the mote base and provides energy required to run the sensors, electronic brain, and radio.

Radio:
The radio consists of a radio transmitter and a radio receiver. Both of these parts must exist for any mote to fully communicate with the other motes. The radio, when transmitting, receives information from the electronic brain and broadcasts the data to other motes according to the network connections.

The Electronic Brain:


The older motes brains consist of a microprocessor and some flash memory. Many of them have connectors to add other processes and sensors with ease. The MEMS motes also contain an analog-digital converter. The basic functions of the electronic brain are to make decisions and deal with collected data. The electronic brain stores collected data in its memory until enough information has been collected.

Mote base:
The mote base is simply the base on which the mote is built.

Application:
Area monitoring
Area monitoring is a common application of WSNs. In area monitoring, the WSN is deployed over a region where some phenomenon is to be monitored. A military example is the use of sensors to detect enemy intrusion; a civilian example is the geo-fencing of gas or oil pipelines. When the sensors detect the event being monitored (heat, pressure), the event is reported to one of the base stations, which then takes appropriate action (e.g., send a message on the Internet or to a satellite). Similarly, wireless sensor networks can use a range of sensors to detect the presence of vehicles ranging from motorcycles to train cars.

Air pollution monitoring:


Wireless sensor networks have been deployed in several cities (Stockholm, London or Brisbane) to monitor the concentration of dangerous gases for citizens. These can take advantage of the ad-hoc wireless links rather than wired installations, which also make them more mobile for testing readings in different areas. There are various architectures that can be used for such applications as well as different kinds of data analysis and data mining that can be conducted.

Agriculture
Using wireless sensor networks within the agricultural industry is increasingly common; using a wireless network frees the farmer from the maintenance of wiring in a difficult environment. Gravity feed water systems can be monitored using pressure transmitters to monitor water tank levels, pumps can be controlled using wireless I/O devices and water use can be measured and wirelessly transmitted back to a central control center for billing. Irrigation automation enables more efficient water use and reduces waste.

Greenhouse monitoring
Wireless sensor networks are also used to control the temperature and humidity levels inside commercial greenhouses. When the temperature and humidity drops below specific levels, the

greenhouse manager must be notified via e-mail or cell phone text message, or host systems can trigger misting systems, open vents, turn on fans, or control a wide variety of system responses.

Characteristics
The main characteristics of a WSN include Power consumption constrains for nodes using batteries or energy harvesting Ability to cope with node failures Mobility of nodes Communication failures Heterogeneity of nodes Scalability to large scale of deployment Ability to withstand harsh environmental conditions