Augmented guitar; a study of extended guitar design and methods.

Brian Tuohy This annotated bibliography presents some of the sources of information studied when performing research on the augmented guitar. The research concentrates on answering questions about the guitar as an instrument for augmentation which include, amongst others; • • • • • Why has electric guitar been such a popular instrument for augmentation? What are the properties that make it a good choice for extended design? What has been the most popular direction for augmentation? What evidence is there that the augmentations have given improved playability? Do these augmentations address a natural issue that musicians have with the guitar or are they aspiring to simply create different possibilities?

For the purposes of this study, the topic has been broken into several sections. Firstly, the integration of existing interfaces to extend the possibilities of the guitarist’s control of audio data. This section has subsequently been broken into four sections addressing The Wiimote, The iPhone, us of the guitar in computer game control and other interfaces such as the Monome or Kaoss Pad. The second section deals with electronic modifications where artists have used micro-controllers and other wiring augmentations to afford the guitarist more control over their sound. In the third section, sources are presented that deal with the area of prepared guitars as a method of augmentation. The fourth section consists of studies that have been conducted relating to the history and evolution of the electric guitar as a system that welcomes augmentation. The final section is a series of informal notes that have been made thus-far in the study which concern issues of authority integrity, source validity and the location of information that needs to be studied in forming an opinion on the subject. Where an abstract is not applicable, an attempt has been made to include a brief background of the author and/ or their work. In some cases, such as video sources, information on the author is limited and may even mean a lack of the author’s real name. In these cases, the screen name of the author is substituted in the reference.

Integration with existing interfaces e.g. Wii, iPhone, etc. Wii
N. Bouillot, M. Wozniewski, Z. Settel, and J.R. Cooperstock, “A mobile wireless augmented guitar,” International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression, Genova, Italy, 2008. pp 189 - 192 Abstract: “We present the design of a mobile augmented guitar based on traditional playing, combined with gesturebased continuous control of audio processing. Remote sound processing is enabled through our dynamically reconfigurable low-latency high-fidelity audio streaming protocol, running on a mobile wearable platform. Initial results demonstrate the ability to stream the audio and sensor data over IEEE 802.11 to a server, which then processes this data and out- puts the resulting sound, all within a sufficiently low delay as required for mobile multimodal performance.” In this paper, the authors present several strong arguments supporting the use of instrument augmentation as a means for musicians to exploit gestural interaction in order to gain extra control over their sound. We are presented with the possibilities of using a WIFI network to transmit both audio and OSC data from a wiimote to facilitate the implementation a wireless, gesture – based control system for guitarists. Crucially, the authors address the issue of latency and offer a solution in the form of a low-latency audio streaming protocol. It could be argued that this paper is a good starting point for researchers with an interest in investigating augmented guitar systems as it presents a concise overview of the advantages in using augmented designs, while also assessing and proposing methods for manipulating modern devices, such as the wiimote, for integration into the system. N. Bouillot, M. Wozniewski, Z. Settel, and J.R. Cooperstock, (2010, October 10) Mobile Wii Augmented Guitar (McGill Shared Reality Lab). [Online]. Available: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9GBdfuzqGaI Abstract: See Above In this demonstration, the performer conveys the ideas expressed by the authors in their NIME paper. The wireless attributes of the system are evident and the video allows for a critical assessment of the success of the latency-reduction measures. A multi-instrument like interaction is presented. When analysed in tandem with the conference paper, this video presents a great advantage in assessing both the technical and aesthetic aspects of the project, allowing for a greater perception of overall effectiveness. A. Jones. (2010, October 10) Inventing The http://thephoenix.com/boston/life/82943-inventing-the-future/ Abstract: N/A Author Details: This article was written by Abigail Jones for the Boston Phoenix, an American paper that emphasizes local arts and entertainment coverage as well as lifestyle and political coverage from a liberal perspective. In this article, the author presents a thorough review of the work of Rob Morris, a Master’s student at the M.I.T. Media Lab. The article concentrates mainly on Morris’ use of a guitar-mounted wiimote as a method of controlling parameters of effects pedals. Included in the article are an interview with the developer and a video of the device being used as part of a live performance. Similar to the wii-augmented example listed above, this system implements wireless control of audio parameters via gestural interaction. This article could arguably be seen as a testament to the coverage that these kinds of augmentation projects are receiving in mainstream media and possibly to the success and acceptance of the technology. B. Alfano. (2010, October 10) Wiimote Guitar Effects Tutorial. [Online]. Available: http://www.jedineon.com/guitar_rig.php Abstract: N/A Author Details: Bruno Alfano is a computer and electronics student at the Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, University Federico II of Naples. Future. [Online]. Available:

Alfano provides a short web-tutorial, which goes into more detail concerning the programming aspects of wiimote integration for control of guitar effects. The on-screen annotations provide helpful background information as to the mapping of functionality. However, even with the inclusion of a demonstrative video, it is difficult not to question the integrity of the source. This page clarifies some aspects of the coding process but the video does not propose a positive argument for the accentuation of the technology to improve playability. J. A. Romero. (2010, October 10) Guitar + Gamepad & Wii Remote # SuperCollider . [Online]. Available: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=383DmSJtVic&feature=related Abstract: N/A Author Details: Juan A. Romero is a musician (guitarist) working predominantly in electronic music, live coding, and new technology. This video demonstrates a project that utilizes a wiimote and several extra buttons that have been built into a guitar in order to interact with a program written in SuperCollider. Again, annotations are provided to convey the main functions of the technology, however, no technical information is available to backup the processes that are taking place. This leads us to conclude that this source can only be used in an informal sense, as a demonstration of the technology in use and cannot justifiably be attributed any intellectual significance. D. Smith. (2010, October 10) Guitar http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b5nwnmH9GFA Abstract: N/A Author Details: None Available Here, we can see another demonstration, which can be assessed in a similar fashion to the preceding example. We are presented with a video of a guitarist who uses a wiimote attached to the headstock of his guitar to interact with Max MSP. The control of the program depends on the data received from the accelerometer and the buttons in the wiimote. The Max MSP patch is shown in the video but again we receive no information regarding the processes of the software or the design approach taken. In addition, this author has no links to any external background information so we are left unaware of his sources or any validity to his methods. Marcelovid. (2010, October 10) MacBook Pro + Wiimote + Guitar. [Online]. Available: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1ahiP8uFaqA&feature=related Abstract: N/A Author Details: None Available Almost identical to the previous source, this video demonstrates without the inclusion of written explanation or background information; direct mapping of accelerometer data from a guitar-mounted wiimote to effects parameters in a software application. In this case, the user is controlling the Hi-Pass Filter, Decay Time and Feedback level of a Flanger effect in Ableton Live. This is a simple use of data mapping which seems to have been explored in many of the projects involving the wiimote. Sense Project. [Online]. Available:

iPod Touch/ iPhone
P. Kirn. (2010, October 9) Create Digital Music - Guitar Adds IPod Touch Controls, Plays Ableton, Lovely Ambient Music. [Online]. Available: http://createdigitalmusic.com/2008/12/23/guitar-adds-ipod-touchcontrols-plays-ableton-lovely-ambient-music/ 2008

Abstract: N/A Author Details Peter Kirn is a composer/musician, media artist, educator, and technology writer, and the creator and editor of Create Digital Music. He’s the author of Real World Digital Audio from Peachpit Press, a comprehensive book on producing music with computers and digital technology. He also writes for Macworld, Make, Keyboard, and Computer Music magazines. Kirn, in this article, provides background information on guitarist Brian William Green’s use of two guitarmounted iPod touches to create generative music with Brian Eno’s Bloom application running on one device and the other device being used to control Ableton Live. The author reiterates the point made by Bouillot, Wozniewski (et all) in the first source of this bibliography in noting that “smart devices can extend the performance possibilities of a traditional instrument, in a way a rig of effects pedals and stompboxes – no matter how sophisticated – never could”. Examining this source could arguably clarify aspects relating to the practical application of similar augmentations in the creation of electroacoustic music. The Artery Magazine. (2010, October 10) Brian Green - Seeyouinsleep | Featured Artists. [Online]. Available: http://thearterymagazine.com/featured/brian-green.html Abstract: N/A Author Details : The Artery Magazine is an online collection of articles, interviews and reviews whose authors "...set out to document the next creative revolution by publishing a magazine that wasn’t founded on empty promises, misguided by politics or overrun with press releases." The Magazine documents artistic and musical innovation on the East Coast of the U.S. This interview with Brian William Green allows for a different analysis of the processes of augmentation and experimental composition. We are given details of the artist’s influences and experiences as a musician in a non-mainstream genre. From this source, we can assess the practicalities of being involved in such a field and evaluate the success of the artist and his augmentations from a more personal perspective. P. Kirn. (2010, October 9) Create Digital Music - Touch: Meet the Multitouch Guitar – Plus An Open Source, IPhone Solution, Too. [Online]. Available: http://createdigitalmusic.com/2010/02/11/touch-meetthe-multitouch-guitar-plus-an-open-source-iphone-solution-too/#more-9485 2010 Abstract: N/A Author Details: See above This article discusses the commercially released Misa Multitouch guitar for use with Ableton Live and compares it to a similar solution proposed by Jim Purbrick, which utilises a guitar-mounted iPhone as the control interface. One very helpful aspect of this source is the feedback provided by the comments after the article which gives a good insight into the general consensus of many musicians in reaction to these interface solutions. J. Purbrick. (2010, October 10) The Creation Engine No. 2: An Open Source, Guitar Mounted, Multi Touch, Wireless, OSC Interface for Ableton Live. [Online]. Available: http://jimpurbrick.com/2009/12/17/open-source-guitar-mounted-multi-touch-wireless-osc-interfaceableton-live/ Abstract: N/A Author Details: Dr Jim Purbrick has both academic and industry experience in designing and building virtual worlds. At Nottingham University he worked on the MASSIVE-3 virtual environment system and Prix Ars Electronica-winning mixed-reality games with IGDA award winners, Blast Theory. In industry Jim designed online games at Codemasters, developed networking and load balancing technology for Warhammer Online, and is currently working on scripting and networking technology for Second Life while setting up Linden Lab Brighton

Purbrick, in this article, details his experience in using an iPhone to control Ableton Live loops in a performance situation. The author uses the touch screen on the iPhone as a means of communicating with the program via OSC. In addition to an explanation of the theories of the software, Purbrick includes instructions on how to set up the application, code used and links to other software needed to gain the same control over the software as he exemplifies in the performance video on the page. This is a very useful resource in examining guitar augmentation as it facilitates the researcher in replicating the results of the author and assessing the success of the system.

Rayhan314. (2010, October 10) IPod Touch http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C_G8hwjuug0 Abstract: N/A Author Details: None Available

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MIDI

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This video demonstrates a simple application of x-y pad control of ableton using iPod touch surface. No explanation is given as to the methods used to create the interaction between the iPod and the laptop but the Ableton window is briefly shown to identify the parameters being manipulated. This is not a strong source from a pedagogical sense but can be seen as another example of the exploitation of an external interface in augmenting the performance capabilities of an electric guitar.

Game Control
D. Hindman and E. Drummond. (2010, October 10) Modal Kombat. [Online]. Available: http://www.modalkombat.com/ Abstract: N/A Author Details : Formed by Yale School of Music graduates David Hindman and Evan Drummond, this forward-thinking ensemble has developed technology that allows classical-electric guitars to control the characters in console video games. Modal Kombat lies at the intersection between music, visual arts, and digital media that results in the defining of a new genre of audio-visual performance: the public guitarcontrolled video game battle. Modal Kombat delivers an interdisciplinary performance concerned with the mediums of modern classical performance, emerging technologies, and popular culture, by having its foundation in fields ranging from composition, performance, lighting design, computer programming, and circuit design. Modal kombat is the mapping of the output signal of a pair of acoustic guitars to the control parameters of an established video game. In this case, Hindman and Drummond, both classically trained guitarists, use their guitars live to engage in a gaming dual. This shows a an example of the use of sound analysis to replace pre-existing physical control interfaces, in this case the computer keyboard or game controller, in order to facilitate the musician with more control and expressive capabilities. This website is a strong source as it clarifies many aspects of the augmentation that cannot be identified from a visual demonstration alone. D. Hindman and E. Drummond, “GuitarioKart!,” Proceedings of the 7th international conference on New interfaces for musical expression, 2007, p. 475. Abstract: “GuitarioKart! is a live guitar battle channeled through the classic Nintendo game MarioKart. Audio from two classical guitars controls movements of characters in the game- acoustic-electric instruments have replaced the typical video game controller. The Modal Kombat ensemble has developed unique means of mapping pitch, pitch sequences, and volume to corresponding actions of a video game character. In the case of GuitarioKart, pitch information corresponds to actions of the racer, creating a mix between creative choreography and intense competition. GuitarioKart! delivers an engaging combination of music, competition, and Nintendo combat racing.” The same authors as mentioned above presented a performance at the NIME conference in 2007 where they mapped their output sound to the controls of Mario Kart. The video of the performance can be viewed online, which, along with the above abstract, give an indication of how this application succeeds in a live

environment. P. Kirn. (2010, October 9) Create Digital Music - Handmade Music NY 8/29: Meet the Musical Inventors, Pong to Dodecahedrons. [Online]. Available: http://createdigitalmusic.com/2010/08/26/handmade-musicny-829-meet-the-musical-inventors-pong-to-dodecahedrons/#more-13016 2010 Abstract: N/A Author Details: See above Kirn, in this article presents a review of Hindman and Drummond’s game-controlling performances in addition to an overview of several other practicing artists who have implemented game controllers as an additional interface in their performances. This article provides a critical evaluation of the interface, which is lacking in the artist-written NIME paper and website.

Other
P. Kirn. (2010, October 9) Create Digital Music - Monster Hybrid Kaoss Pad 3 Electric Guitar; Zoybar Modular Hardware Platform. [Online]. Available: http://createdigitalmusic.com/2008/11/24/monsterhybrid-kaoss-pad-3-electric-guitar-zoybar-modular-hardware-platform/ Abstract: N/A Author Details: See above Zoybar is a modular hardware platform for creating custom electric string instruments and effects. The  basic Zoybar kits enable the user to assemble a variety of electric string instruments that could be mounted with different sound effects. This article proposes a suggestion made by the instrument’s designer, Ziv Bar Ilan, to integrate a Kaoss Pad into the system allowing for control of loops and different sound parameters using a touch interface. The article includes a video, which demonstrates the instrument being used. This allows us to assess the playability of the augmentation and provides inspiration for further development. J. Cambeul. (2010, October 10) http://www.joncambeul.com/wp/wacom_guitar/ Abstract: N/A Author Details: None Available This page from the artist’s website outlines the method behind his Wacom Speech Guitar, designed with the idea of performance of improvisational digital speech synthesis in mind, it’s look and name suggested perhaps more toward a heavy metal genre. With this, the performer appears as a guitarist juxtaposed between the Aesthetics of Rock and that of digital music performance. Although we are not provided with the extent of detail that would make an academic paper more desirable, this source does show sketches of the idea’s prototypes and gives background information relating to it’s inception. B. Brown. (2010, October 9) Guitarnome - There's Something by Ben Brown. [Online]. Available: http://vimeo.com/7071805 Abstract: N/A Author Details: Ben Brown is a software engineer at Telestream, a video transcoding company dealing in Mac Os X and iOS. Wacom Guitar. [Online]. Available:

The project presented in this video is the GuitarNome, an amalgamation of an electric guitar and a monome, which allows for extra control of playback parameters with the inclusion of another interface. The description of this video and the comments that follow it offer an explanation of the basic theories of the augmentation but little that concerns specific programming requirements. An informal evaluation of the audio content may question the success of the system or perhaps conclude this particular demonstration to be a poor practical application of the technology,

Electronic Modifications
E. Guaus, T. Ozaslan, E. Palacios, and J. Arcos, “A left hand gesture caption system for guitar based on capacitive sensors,” Proceedings of NIME, 2010, pp. 238–243. Abstract: “In this paper, we present our research on the acquisition of gesture information for the study of the expressiveness in guitar performances. For that purpose, we design a sensor system, which is able to gather the movements from left hand fingers. Our effort is focused on a design that is (1) non-intrusive to the performer and (2) able to detect from strong movements of the left hand to subtle movements of the fingers. The proposed system is based on capacitive sensors mounted on the fingerboard of the guitar. We present the setup of the sensor system and analyze its response to several finger movements.” This paper gives a detailed analysis of the possibilities afforded by the use of gesture capturing-technology applied to the left hand of the guitarist. This is a non-intrusive way of extending the possibilities of control for the performer, although it is not the main aim of the project. This design sets out to evaluate left hand gesture of guitarists and to gather comparative data but the artistic possibilities of the project are easily distinguishable. This paper provides all the information necessary to assist further research into similar ideas mapped to an artistic framework. T. Ciufo, "Design Concepts and Control Strategies for Interactive Improvisational Music Systems," Proceedings of the MAXIS International Festival / Symposium of Sound and Experimental Music Festival 2003 Abstract: “This paper will focus on two important and under explored areas pertinent to interactive, improvisational performance. First, an overview of basic control strategies will be outlined. Next, techniques for acquiring control data from a real-time audio stream, and approaches to mapping this data to interactive digital signal processing functions, will be explored. Examples from a current work by the author (Eighth Nerve for prepared electric guitar and computer) will be referenced. This piece uses a combination of audio analysis techniques and direct control from sensors (built into a custom hybrid guitar) to drive real-time, interactive sound transformations.” With the Eighth Nerve Guitar, Ciufo proposes a system which controls output parameters using both audio analysis and the manipulation of additional controls mounted on the guitar. This is a system that permits much greater control of the eventual sound. This paper successfully communicates the ideas and approaches of the technology in a simple, concise work. P. Clarke, "Guitarduino - Digital Composition and Performance," Masters Thesis, University of Edinburgh, 2009. http://vimeo.com/7135694 Abstract: ---Author Details: None Available

This paper is a Masters Thesis based around the implementation of further control of parameters using accelerometers and an arduino built into the instrument. The intention of the project was to eliminate the need for midi controllers to supplement the artist’s performance. The paper provides a level of detail for critical analysis that is not available with many other sources and importantly, the artist has engaged with the interface by composing a piece specifically for it which can be evaluated by viewing the Vimeo link included. L. Kessous, J. Castet, and D. Arfib, “'GXtar', an interface using guitar techniques,” Proceedings of the 2006 conference on New interfaces for musical expression, 2006, pp. 192–195. Abstract: “In this paper we describe a new guitar-like musical controller. The 'GXtar' is an instrument which takes as a starting point a guitar but his role is to bring different and new musical possibilities while preserving the spirit and techniques of guitar. Therefore, it was conceived and carried out starting from the body of an electric guitar. The fingerboard of this guitar was equipped with two lines of sensors: linear position sensors, and tactile pressure sensors. These two lines of sensors are used as two virtual strings. Their two ends are the bridge and the nut of the guitar. The design of the instrument is made in a way that the position of a finger, on one of these virtual strings, corresponds to the note, which would have been played on a real and vibrating string. On the soundboard of the guitar, a controller, with 3 degrees of freedom, allows to drive other synthesis parameters. We then describe how this interface is integrated in a musical audio system and serves as a musical instrument.” This instrument is more an alternative instrument inspired by the guitar than an augmented guitar; it replaces the strings with sensors and implements other control measures that would not be possible on a guitar. However, it does build upon established playing techniques and seeks to give new possibilities to performers who have already developed skills in guitar playing and that is the reason for its inclusion in this study. A. Freed. (2010, October 10) Many and Duo Touch Guitar Prototype. [Online]. Available: http://cnmat.berkeley.edu/user/adrian_freed/blog/2009/05/09/AugmentedGuitar Abstract: N/A Author Details: Adrian Freed is Research Director of UC Berkeley's Center for New Music and Audio Technologies (CNMAT) and visiting scholar at Concordia University Montréal. This augmentation proposes the use of multiple touch sensors mounted to the surface of the guitar in order to manipulate the sound. Little information is provided as to he functionality of the device but we can ascertain that the sensors are designed to measure force from the right arm and hand while playing and the left hand. This source is useful more for ideas on augmentation than as a topic of study as it does not provide sufficient information on the system. A. Martin, S. Ferguson, and K. Beilharz, “Mechanisms for Controlling Complex Sound Sources: Applications to Guitar Feedback Control.” Proceedings of the 2010 Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME 2010), Sydney, Australia Abstract: “Many musical instruments have interfaces which emphasise the pitch of the sound produced over other perceptual characteristics, such as its timbre. This is at odds with the musical developments of the last century. In this paper, we introduce a method for replacing the interface of musical instruments (both conventional and unconventional) with a more flexible interface, which can present the instrument’s available sounds according to variety of different perceptual characteristics, such as their brightness or roughness. We apply this method to an instrument of our own design which comprises an electromechanically controlled electric guitar and amplifier configured to produce feedback tones.” This study steps outside the boundaries of guitar augmentation by disconnecting the musician from the instrument and instead making it a remotely controlled interface. This places the musician at a graphical

interface, where they select certain notes from a list of tonal possibilities and this will send a message to the guitar system which is equipped with an automated slide system to change the pitch of the instrument and a series of dampers, one on each string so that only the desired string will be played. This is an interesting source as it not only augments the instrument but also radically alters the way in which it is acted upon by the musician.

G. Mone. (2010, October 10) Homemade Guitar Hero | Popular Science. [Online]. Available: http://www.popsci.com/entertainment-amp-gaming/article/2009-03/homemade-guitar-hero Abstract: N/A Author Details: Popular Science is an American monthly magazine founded in 1872 carrying articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects. This article looks at a project designed by Keith Baxter, which integrates a series of servo motors into a guitar in order to control the pitch. The guitar has only three strings. Rather than manipulating them on its neck, Baxter selects the chords he wants to play with a numeric keyboard attached to the side, which sends a command to his PC, via a USB cable, when he presses a button. He wrote software that matches each number to the string tensions corresponding to a given chord. The software routes these settings back to the guitar through a circuit board, and the motors instantly adjust the tension of the strings accordingly. In the future, he hopes to replace the setup with an onboard computer. The advantage of the system is that it allows for the user to program chords that would not be possibly to play on a regular instrument. This project provides a bridge for the gap between pianists and guitarists in their control of audio interfaces. L. Reboursiere, C. Frisson, O. Lähdeoja, J.A. Mills III, C. Picard, and T. Todoroff, “Multimodal Guitar: A Toolbox For Augmented Guitar Performances.” Abstract: “This project aims at studying how recent interactive and interactions technologies would help extend how we play the guitar, thus defining the “multimodal guitar”. Our contributions target three main axes: audio analysis, gestural control and audio synthesis. For this purpose, we designed and developed a freelyavailable toolbox for augmented guitar performances, compliant with the PureData and Max/MSP environments, gathering tools for: polyphonic pitch estimation, fretboard visualization and grouping, pressure sensing, modal synthesis, infinite sustain, rearranging looping and “smart” harmonizing.” This project approaches the design of a multi-purpose toolbox for modular environments to assist the implementation of sensor-based guitar augmentations. The paper acknowledges the technology that has afforded recent developments in instrument augmentation and bases the direction of the software on these requirements. This software is also openly offered to the user so that this kind of augmentation can be encouraged and explored further. R. Vanegas, “The MIDI pick: trigger serial data, samples, and MIDI from a guitar pick,” Proceedings of the 7th international conference on New interfaces for musical expression, 2007, p. 332. Abstract: “The guitar pick has traditionally been used to strike or rake the strings of a guitar or bass, and in rarer instances, a shamisen, lute, or other stringed instrument. The pressure exerted on it, however, has until now been ignored. The MIDI Pick, an enhanced guitar pick, embraces this dimension, acting as a trigger for serial data, audio samples, MIDI messages 1, Max/MSP patches, and on/off messages. This added scope expands greatly the stringed instrument player’s musical dynamic in the studio or on stage.” With the MIDI pick, the authors of this paper approach guitar augmentation from a different perspective; by augmenting the user’s interaction with the instrument while leaving the instrument unchanged. This project affords control over a number of effects parameters with the use of the right hand for dual purposes. The source examines many possibilities of the application of this technology including everything from stage lighting to hand-held wah-wah effect triggering.

A.M. Burns and M.M. Wanderley, “Visual methods for the retrieval of guitarist fingering,” Proceedings of the 2006 conference on New interfaces for musical expression, 2006, pp. 196–199. Abstract: “This article presents a method to visually detect and recognize fingering gestures of the left hand of a guitarist. This method has been developed following preliminary manual and automated analysis of video recordings. These first analyses led to some important findings about the design methodology of a vision system for guitarist fingering, namely the focus on the effective gesture, the consideration of the action of each individual finger, and a recognition system not relying on comparison against a knowledge base of previously learned fingering positions. Motivated by these results, studies on three aspects of a complete fingering system were conducted: the first on finger tracking; the second on strings and frets detection; and the last one on movement segmentation. Finally, these concepts were integrated into a prototype and a system for left hand fingering detection was developed.” The authors examine the possibilities of tracking a guitarist’s left-hand movements with a webcam and translating this information into data, which can be displayed on-screen. The suggested uses for such technology are automatic chord transcription, music education, automatic music generation but it is also possible to see opportunity to map this data to other parameters which could be used to augment the output of a performance. C. Traube, P. Depalle, and M. Wanderley, "Indirect Acquisition of Instrumental Gesture Based on Signal, Physical and Perceptual Information," Proceedings of the 2003 conference on New interfaces for musical expression, 2003, pp. 42 - 47. Abstract: “In this paper, we describe a multi-level approach for the extraction of instrumental gesture parameters taken from the characteristics of the signal captured by a microphone and based on the knowledge of physical mechanisms taking place on the instrument. We also explore the relationships between some features of timbre and gesture parameters, taking as a starting point for the exploration the timbre descriptors commonly used by professional musicians when they verbally describe the sounds they produce with their instrument. Finally, we present how this multi-level approach can be applied to the study of the timbre space of the classical guitar.” This works finds applications in the context of hybrid instruments, generating control parameters for physical model based synthesizers and automatic tablature generation. The authors examine the relationship between certain established playing techniques of classical guitar and their effect of the timbre of the sound. The identification of this correlation can allow for direct mapping of these techniques to other, more technical aspects of a sound such as parameters within the digital signal processing chain. The authors present a detailed study of these methods which provides useful information for the augmented-instrument designer. N. Rosenfeld. (2010, October 10) Electric Pick Synth-New for Guitar-Circuit Bent-Theremin . [Online]. Available: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Mj8cTXL4tnA&feature=related Abstract: N/A Author Details: Neal Rosenfeld is an electronic musician involved with Music Soluble Solutions Labs who deals mostly in film scores. The Electric Pick Synth is an electronic unit that is mounted near the tail of the guitar, which utilizes the natural picking style to send out two different audio signals: 1- The pick itself is a passive circuit that has a percussive attack at the output. This signal can be routed to any pedal or effect for interesting results. This signal can also trigger MIDI notes through devices with CV input2- The Synth is a light sensitive oscillator circuit that is controlled by the pick with a photo-cell and contact to the guitar. It has a switchable range capable of "low creaks" sweeping to "high screams". It runs on a 9volt battery and has a built in speaker. This augmentation deals with the use of electronic circuits to manipulate synthesized sounds in tandem

with the creation of guitar sounds in the traditional style. The video provides a good overview of the device with an included description of its functionality. U. Nieto and J. Salamon. (2010, October 10) G-Tar - The Gesture Enhanced Guitar. [Online]. Available: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RPHAXM7az1Q Abstract: N/A Author Details: This project was presented in the Advanced Interface Designs course in UPF, Barcelona. The G-Tar uses an accelerometer mounted on the headstock of the guitar to measure orientation and acceleration information, which is then mapped to the control parameters of several effects in Max MSP. This video, although not supported by any written description of the system and how it has been configured, does display a practical application of accelerometer data in manipulating sound for live performances. Defzeppardica. (2010, October 10) Touch Strip Volume Control Guitar Mod. [Online]. Available: http://www.youtube.com/user/defzeppardica#p/u/14/5Rq8nXGc1BQ Abstract: N/A Author Details: None Available This source complies with many of the YouTube demonstrations, which seem to include minimal information and maximum face-time. Essentially the user is has added a SoftPot to the guitar and wired it so he can switch between the normal volume knob and the soft pot. This allows for touch-sensitive control of the volume along a linear surface, similar to a slider in Max MSP. This application touches on interesting results and could be further explored as a method of controlling several parameters but this source does not include any information regarding how the device works.

H. Tammen. (2010, October 10) Endangered Guitar. [Online]. Available: http://www.tammen.org ABSTRACT: N/A Author Details: Hans Tammen’s projects include site-specific performances and collaborative efforts with dance, light, video, and theatre, utilizing technology from planetarium projectors to guitar robots and disklavier pianos. He received a Fellowship from the New York Foundation of the Arts (NYFA) in the category Digital/Electronic Arts in 2009 for the ENDANGERED GUITAR - a hybrid guitar/software instrument used to control interactive live sound processing. Tammen’s website is useful in that it describes most of the processes involved in creating his guitar augmentation and how the information is mapped in a live performance. The guitar is the only sound source, but the same sound is also used to control the software. Sounds of the guitar are processed in realtime, pitch and various other parameters of the actual playing serve as control source of the processing. A proximity sensor situated on the guitar allows me to create a third voice when my hands are already busy playing two voices. He also added the iPhone to the mix, to control various parameters of the software while tormenting the strings with the metal case of the device. This source provides invaluable insight into the practical use that the artist has made of his project. Included below is a reference to Hammen’s performance with the instrument at the NIME conference in 2007. H. Tammen, “Endangered guitar,” Proceedings of the 7th international conference on New interfaces for

musical expression, 2007, p. 482. Abstract: “The Endangered Guitar is a journey through the land of unending sonic operations and an infinite index of metals. A mix of formal awareness and improvisation produces rapid-fire juxtapositions of radically contrastive and fascinating sounds. Like yanked out tape measures violently squished against the strings to turn out tortured noise scrapings and bizarre textures; but also spectral processing to create quiet pulses and gentle atmospheres.” Author Details: See Above

*J. Carrascal. (2010, October http://jpcarrascal.com/blog/?p=202 Abstract: N/A

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Author Details: Juan Pablo Carrascal is a Masters Graduate from Universitat Pompeu Fabra in Barcelona. His work mostly concerns composing (diverse genres, specially rock and electronic), sound design and electronic engineering. Regardless of the questionable title, this source exhibits a significant amount of information regarding the author’s design of a wireless guitar system equipped with a built in accelerometer. The system uses arduino to communicate with the computer over a wifi network and send OSC data to manipulate Max patches. The page provides step by step information on how the project was developed from an integration with a wiimote and brought to completion using arduino and hardware alterations. Tomassio22. (2010, October 10) http://www.youtube.com/user/tomassio22 Abstract: N/A Author Details: None Available This channel exhibits many examples of guitars that have been augmented with modifications such as builtin fuzz circuits, kaoss pads and several other effects. The videos act as an advertisement, demonstrating the capabilities of the instruments but not providing any information on how the augmentations have been implemented. This source is useful for inspiration regarding research areas when attempting to augment guitars but provides little intellectual content. Tomassio22's Channel. [Online]. Available:

Prepared/ Extended Guitar
Wikimedia Foundation. (2010, October 9) Wikipedia - Glenn Branca. [Online]. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glenn_Branca Abstract: N/A Author Details: N/A This article looks at the work of Glenn Branca, a highly influential avant-garde composer and guitarist known for his use of volume, alternative guitar tunings, repetition, droning, and the harmonic series. Branca was an early innovator of prepared guitar playing, where the guitar would be augmented by adding objects to the strings or recreating the body in order to achieve different timbral qualities. In particular, Branca is noted for his use of a dual body guitar which is joined by one neck in the middle, essentially replacing the headstock of the guitar with another, backwards guitar. It could be concluded that this field is an important addition to the study of augmented guitar as it examines the use of physical rather than electronic methods to manipulate the sound of the instrument.

C. Gagne. (2010, October 10) Grove Music Online: Branca, Glenn. [Online]. Available: http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com.proxy.lib.ul.ie/subscriber/article/grove/music/42732?q=glenn+branca& search=quick&pos=1&_start=1 Abstract: N/A Author Details: N/A This is a less extensive but perhaps more reputable source of information that addresses similar content to the previous listing. This article gives a brief background to the career of Glenn Branca which can provide an insight into the practical applications of prepared guitar augmentations and how they relate in a real world performance situation. *B. Duguid. (2010, October 10) EST Magazine - Glenn Branca Interview. [Online]. Available: http://media.hyperreal.org/zines/est/intervs/branca.html Abstract: N/A Author Details: Brian Duguid started EST in 1991 after a couple of years of growing fascination for unusual, underground music, matched by a growing annoyance at the lack of information on it. The seventh and final issue of EST was published in June 1996. Since then, he has contributed a couple of articles and many reviews to The Wire magazine. This interview with Glenn Branca examines compositional aspects of his work and how he integrated prepared guitars into orchestral pieces. The interview is useful in its delivery of the artist’s perspective and provides a more clear view of his intentions which clarifies the reasoning behind his techniques in guitar preparation. Y. Landman. (2010, October 10) How to http://www.hypercustom.com/howtoprepareaguitar.html Abstract: N/A Author Details: Yuri Landman is a Dutch experimental luthier and musicologist who has made several experimental electric string instruments for a list of artists including Lee Ranaldo of Sonic Youth, Liars, Jad Fair of Half Japanese and Liam Finn In this article, Landman gives an extensive background on prepared guitar techniques. The author also provides lessons in how to prepare guitars and examines techniques such as additional bridges, buzzing objects, clasping objects and motors. This source represents a thorough introduction and guide to experimenting with prepared guitar techniques and suggests guitar augmentation as an area open to all guitarists. B. W. Green. (2010, October 9) See You In Sleep - Bowed Guitar Prepared with Matches. [Online]. Available: http://seeyouinsleep.com/blog/2009/10/7/bowed-guitar-prepared-with-matches.html Abstract: N/A Author Details: Brian William Green is a performing artist whose work mainly focuses on field recording, generative synthesis, abandoned spaces/natural ambiance, environmental/nature sounds, industrial spaces, machines, drones and the exploration and documentation of different places and spaces. His work also deals heavily with technology using computers as well as other equipment to capture, process and create his work. This video demonstrates the use of matches attached to the guitar strings to manipulate the sound when the guitar is played with a violin bow. This source can be argued to demonstrate a very simple augmentation Prepare a Guitar. [Online]. Available:

but it represents a significant change in the resulting sound. Little description is included with the video but the researcher can assess the sonic effects that the augmentation has on the instrument and easily implement the same augmentations to measure the results. B. W. Green. (2010, October 9) See You In Sleep - Prepared Guitar W/ Alligator Clips & Motors + Ableton Live. [Online]. Available: http://seeyouinsleep.com/blog/2009/6/4/prepared-guitar-w-alligatorclips-motors-ableton-live.html Abstract: N/A Author Details: See Above In this example, Green again prepares the guitar with a simple augmentation; alligator clips and a small battery-powered motor control the vibration of the strings. The video is overlaid by a separately recorded audio track, making it difficult to determine the exact results of the augmentation. This source does not constitute an example of useful information but rather another step in the process of discovering prepared guitar augmentations and encouraging simple research tests.

Studies on Guitar Evolution and Augmentation
B. Bongers, “Electronic musical Instruments: Experiences of a new Luthier,” Leonardo Music Journal, 2007, pp. 9–16. Abstract: “The author reflects on his experiences as a designer of new electronic musical instruments, which have led to further insights and applications in other domains such as video performance, architectural design and knowledge applied in the general field of human- computer interaction.” The author explores the development of musical instruments and their use as interactive systems. He examines instrument augmentations, including those involving guitar, and presents reasoning and methodology behind the evolution of certain designs.. *A. Freed, "The Fingerboard Instruments: Reframing Lutherie Without Strings," Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Music And Gesture, 2010. Abstract: N/A Author Details: See Above In this short paper, Freed examines the aesthetics of string instruments with regard to augmentation. In particular, he looks at the use of gestural interaction and how new devices can be used to built upon recognized performance techniques, such as those held by guitarists, rather than attempting to replace their input method. The overview given in this paper can provide a strong basis for research into the interaction between gesture-based technologies and traditional instrumentation. G. Carfoot, “Acoustic, Electric and Virtual Noise: The Cultural Identity of the Guitar,” Leonardo music journal, 2006, pp. 35–39. Abstract: “Guitar technology underwent significant changes in the 20th century in the move from acoustic to electric instruments. In the first part of the 21st century, the guitar continues to develop through its interaction with digital technologies. Such changes in guitar technology are usually grounded in what we might call the “cultural identity” of the instrument: that is, the various ways that the guitar is used to enact, influence and

challenge sociocultural and musical discourses. Often, these different uses of the guitar can be seen to reflect a conflict between the changing concepts of “noise” and “musical sound.”” This article examines the shift in musical direction and popular perception of innovative genres that accompanies a radical change in musical technology. In particular, the progression of the acoustic guitar to electric guitar and now to digital guitar is noted. The author attempts to define links between new musical technologies and approaches and the effects that they have on the musical output and it’s perception by the public. This source is useful in it’s examination of the effects that new interfaces and augmentations are having and how technology can change social perceptions of music. O. Lähdeoja, “An approach to instrument augmentation: the electric guitar,” Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME08), 2008. Abstract: “In this paper we describe an ongoing research on augmented instruments, based on the specific case study of the electric guitar. The key question of the relationship between gesture, instrument and sound is approached via an analysis of the electric guitar’s design, playing technique and interface characteristics. The study points out some inherent defaults in the guitar’s current forms of acoustic-electric hybridation, as well as new perspectives for a better integration of the relationship between instrumental gesture and signal processing. These considerations motivate an augmented guitar project at the CICM, in which a gestural approach to augmentation is developed, emphasising the role of the instrumentist’s repertoire of body movements as a source for new gesture-sound « contact points » in the guitar playing technique.” In this paper, the authors conduct a study into the evolution of the electric guitar and the reasoning behind the popular use of the instrument as a source for augmentation. In addition to the study of previous augmentations, the authors present an augmented solution they have designed which integrates gestural input, extra sensors and left hand control of parameters. The project seems predominantly theoretical at the time of publication but approaches some interesting topics concerning integration of multi-sensory control methods. N. Collins. (2010, October 9) A Brief History of the Backwards Electric Guitar. [Online]. Available: http://www.nicolascollins.com/texts/BackwardsElectricGuitar.pdf Abstract: N/A Author Details: In this article, Collins details the history of his experience with non-traditional electric guitar playing and design. We are presented with information regarding the design of the Backwards Hawaiian Guitar and the Level Guitar, both unconventional augmentations of a lap guitar design. These guitars eliminate the traditional right hand techniques of guitarist and replace them with the use of relay coils to generate string vibrations. This source is useful in identifying the main ideas and methods behind the design of augmented lap guitars for a digital age. *P. Cook, “Principles for designing computer music controllers,” Proceedings of the 2001 conference on New interfaces for musical expression, 2001, pp. 1–4. Abstract: “This paper will present observations on the design, artistic, and human factors of creating digital music controllers. Specific projects will be presented, and a set of design principles will be supported from those examples.” This paper does not concentrate on guitar augmentation but rather focuses on the broader topic of instrument design and augmentation. Cook presents o list of Principles which should be considered when designing or altering instruments and examines examples of previous implementations that have succeeded. Many of the ideas that he proposes are simple but would seem very effective in the design process.

W.A. Schloss, “Using contemporary technology in live performance: The dilemma of the performer,” Journal of New Music Research, vol. 32, 2003, pp. 239–242. Abstract: “The use of computers in live performance has resulted in a situation in which cause-and-effect has effectively disappeared, for the first time since music began. Once we started to use computers in live performance – to interpret abstract gestures and generate sound as a result – the age-old relationship between gesture and result became so blurred as to be often imperceptible. In historical terms, this problem is extremely recent, involving only the last few decades of musical practice preceded by at least thirty thousand years of music-making by conventional (acoustic) means. The aim of this paper is to show how this affects contemporary performance and the relationship between the performer and the audience.” In a paper that seems essential in the study of instrument augmentation, Schloss examines the results of the reduction in visible causality that occurs with the use of new interactive systems for the creation of music. Particularly important in this paper are his conclusions which act as a list of principles similar to those presented by Perry Cook in the previous example. These conclusions give the designer direction so they will not lose the connection with the audience that is essential during live performance. J. Kanebako, J. Gibson, and D. L. Mignonneau, "Mountain Guitar: a Musical Instrument for Everyone," Proceedings of the 2007 Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME07), New York, NY, USA, 2007, pp 396 - 397 Abstract: “This instrument is a part of the “Gangu Project” at IAMAS, which aim to develop digital toys for improving children’s social behavior in the future. It was further developed as part of the IAMAS-Interface Cultures exchange program. “Mountain Guitar” is a new musical instrument that enables musical expression through a custom-made sensor technology, which captures and transforms the height at which the instrument is held to the musical outcome during the playing session. One of the goals of “Mountain Guitar” is to let untrained users easily and intuitively play guitar through their body movements. In addition to capturing the users’ body movements, “Mountain Guitar” also simulates standard guitar playing techniques such as vibrato, choking, and mute. “Mountain Guitar’s” goal is to provide playing pleasure for guitar training sessions. This poster describes the “Mountain Guitar’s” fundamental principles and its mode of operation.” With The Mountain Guitar, the authors present an opportunity to use sensor technology to design a musical system that is easy to use, even for the untrained musician. By focusing this project on children and their interaction with the instrument, the authors have been able to assess the usability of such an interface without the problem of preconceived ideas that musicians may have of the proper ways to control an instrument. The mountain guitar takes a similar form to the Guitar Hero controller but instead uses photo sensors to track finger movements. This paper is useful in studying an approach to guitar design that is not limited to the capabilities of an initial instrument or the methods used to interact with it; this project uses body movements as an input method.

NOTES: 1. In this field of research, informal sources must be examined in order to assess the playability and success of involvement in the area. Blogs, videos and forums can be addressed but must not be regarded in a pedagogical sense, rather in an informal forming of opinion. Many videos demonstrate the device in use which exemplifies the playability and aesthetics of the augmentation. A noticeable problem with a lot of these “garage projects” is that they are largely based around a desire to design a system that will allow the creator to gain attention. Many of the videos that demonstrate these augmentations show a musician that has put more emphasis on the poses held while playing the instrument than performing a critical analysis of the playability and aesthetic success of the alterations. Often, with video sources, brief annotations are provided instead of verbal or written descriptions. This fortifies the perception of the videos as mere exhibitions rather than valid projects which are intended for critical analysis. The videos seldom have links to written descriptions or external links that support their augmentations. Many of the projects shown on YouTube seem to avoid sharing the sources that they have used to create the augmentation which can be seen as going against the ethos of the internet as a location for sharing information. It can be difficult to assess the motives of an artist who does not present a description of their work like some of these videos and hence it is impossible to derive a conclusion as to the success of the augmentation. Some systems have been examined that use methods to study the interaction between the musician and the guitar but do not apply this information to any manipulative processes. These works are useful for inspiring mapping of essential playing data to different control parameters such as in the case of left-hand gesture tracking.

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