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BO CONG NGHIEP

TRNG CAO ANG CONG NGHIEP 4


KHOA CONG NGHE THC PHAM SINH HOC MOI
TRNG

Giao trnh:

VI SINH THC
PHAM
(Lu hanh noi bo)

Thang 9 nam 2004

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


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LI M AU
Vi sinh thc pham la mot trong cac mon hoc
thuoc ve c s nganh trong chng trnh khung ao
tao nganh Cong nghe Thc pham. Tat ca cac sinh
vien hoc chuyen nganh Cong nghe Thc pham eu
bat buoc phai hoc mon nay trc khi hoc cac mon
chuyen nganh.
Vi sinh thc pham cung cap cho sinh vien nhng
kien thc c ban ve cac vi sinh vat thng gap
trong thc pham: cac vi sinh vat gay benh thng
gap trong thc pham, cac vi sinh vat gay h hong
thc pham va cac vi sinh vat lam tang them hng
vi cua thc pham.
Bao gom cac chng sau:
- Chng 0

: Mot so phng phap nh lng vi sinh


vat

- Chng mot
: Mot so loai vi sinh vat gay benh
thng gap
- Chng hai : Vi sinh vat trong che bien va bao
quan tht
- Chng ba

: Vi sinh vat trong che bien va bao


quan ca

- Chng bon
: Vi sinh vat trong tom, mc va cac
ong vat nhuyen the
- Chng nam: Vi sinh vat trong che bien va bao
quan sa
- Chng sau: Vi sinh vat trong bot va tinh bot.
- Chng bay: Vi sinh vat trong cac san pham
ng, banh, keo
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2

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


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- Chng tam: Vi sinh vat trong rau qua va cac san


pham t rau qua
Sau khi hoc xong mon hoc, sinh vien phai nam
vng cac kien thc c ban ve he vi sinh vat vi sinh
vat thng gap trong thc pham.
Trong mon hoc nay, ieu kho khan nhat oi
vi sinh vien la nh c ten cac vi sinh vat. Co
le n gian nhat la hay coi nh ay la t mi trong
mot ngon ng mi. Vay hay hoc moi ni, moi
luc co the, hay thng xuyen ghi lai e co the ghi
chnh xac ten cua vi sinh vat, hay dan danh muc
ten vi sinh vat au ging e toi toi co the
nham ten vi sinh vat. Hay ghi tng ten vi sinh vat
vao tng manh giay nho va em ra o ban be. Nh
vay co le se lam cho viec hoc tr nen thu v hn.
Con cac phan khac trong giao trnh, ngoai tr cac
nh ngha, con lai khong yeu cau sinh vien phai
thuoc long tng cau, tng ch ma ch can hieu
va tom lc lai van e mnh hieu la u. Mong cac
ban sinh vien se at c ket qua tot trong qua
trnh hoc.
Mac dau a rat co gang trong qua trnh bien
soan, tuy nhien giao trnh van cha thc s hoan
hao. Chung toi mong nhan c nhieu gop y chan
thanh e lan tai ban sau hoan chnh hn.
e hoan thanh giao trnh nay chung toi a
phai tham khao rat nhieu sach, giao trnh, tap ch,
thong tin t cac thay co, cac giao s, ong nghiep
moi ni. Xin chan thanh cam n tat ca moi s
giup nay.
Ngoai ra Xin chan thanh cam n s giup
cua Ban giam hieu trng Cao ang Cong nghiep 4
a tao ieu kien ve thi gian cung nh kinh ph cho
chung toi thc hien giao trnh.
Ban bien tap
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Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


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CHNG 0:

CAC PHNG PHAP


NH LNG VI SINH VAT

0.1.PHNG PHAP EM TRC TIEP


Cac loai vi sinh vat n bao co kch thc ln
nh nam men tao Co the nh lng trc tiep
trong buong em hong cau qua knh hien vi. Quy trnh
em trc tiep cho phep xac nh nhanh chong so
lng vi sinh vat trong mau. Tuy vay phng phap nay
co cac nhc iem sau:
- Khong phan biet c te bao song va te bao
chet
- Khong phan biet dc te bao vi sinh vat va
cac hat vat the khac lan trong mau
- Khong thch hp cho huyen phu vi sinh vat co
mat o thap.
Co ba phng phap em trc tiep:
0.1.1. em trc tiep bang buong em
hong cau
Buong em hong cau la mot dung cu bang
thuy tinh. Dien tch buong em la 1mm2, chieu cao
la 0,1mm. Dien tch 1mm2 c chia lam 400 o nho
va the tch cua 400 o nho se bang hoac 25 o
vuong ln, tng ng the tch cua o vuong ln la
1/250mm3.
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Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


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Trc khi quan sat cho them vai giot formalin


vao trong mau. Pha loang mau sao cho trong moi o
vuong nho co khoang 5 10 vi sinh vat. Muon at
c yeu cau tren can phai c lng so vi sinh
vat trong mau, hay phai lam th mot vai lan e
xac nh c cong thc pha loang toi u.
Mau c pha loang bang dung dch co thanh
phan:
Thanh phan dung dch pha loang.
- Pepton

0,1%

- Laurylsulphate

0,1%

- Methyl blue

0,01%

Cac dung dch pha loang sau khi chuan b phai


loc qua trc khi s dung.
ieu chnh knh o phong ai 400 lan roi
tien hanh em. em so lng te bao trong 5 o ln
nam tren ng cheo cua buong em.
Cach tnh so vi sinh vat. Goi x1, x2, x3, x4, x5 la so
lng vi sinh vat trong tng o ln ta co :

x1 + x 2 + x3 + x 4 + x5
5

Ta biet the tch cua 1 o ln bang 1/250 mm3


Do o so lng te bao vi sinh vat co trong 1 ml
mau se la:
So vi sinh vat (trong 1 ml mau) = X .250.1000 = X
.250000
0.1.2. em trc tiep bang ng em
Breed
Buong em Breed co dien tch 1cm2 c anh
dau. Dung bm tiem cho chnh xac 0,01ml dung dch
mau dan tren mat buong em. Say kho bang
cach h nhe tren en con bang methyl blue.
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Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


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Khi em phet mot lp dau tren be mat can


em. So lng vi sinh vat /ml c tnh theo cong
thc:
N/ml=4a.10 4 /d2
a: so lng te bao vi sinh vat trong vung em
d: ng knh cua vung em
0.1.3. em trc tiep bang knh hien vi
huynh quang:
Khi nhuom vi sinh vat bang mot so thuoc
nhuom phat huynh quang nh:
- Acridin Cam (AODC)
- 4, 6 dianidino 2 phenyl indol (DAPT)
- Fluoresecin isothio cyanate (FITC)
Mat o vi sinh vat co the xac nh trc tiep
di knh hien vi huynh quang
So em nhan c bang phng phap nay co
the cao gap 2 lan phng phap em khuan lac. S
sai khac nay do cac te bao chet hoac ton thng
khong co kha nang phat trien thanh khuan lac.
Ket qua so em vi sinh vat bang knh huynh
quang phan anh so vi sinh vat co that trong mau.
0.2. PHNG PHAP EM KHUAN LAC:
Phng phap nay cho phep xac nh so lng
te bao vi sinh vat song trong mau. Nhng te bao
song mi co kha nang phat trien thanh khuan lac
tren moi trng thch hp.
Phng phap nay cho phep nh lng chon loc vi
sinh vat tuy thuoc vao moi trng nuoi cay.
Phng phap nay thc hien nh sau:pha loang
mau sao cho so lng khuan lac xuat hien tren mot
da petri khoang 25 250. Di mc 25 se kho chnh
xac tren mc 250 rat kho phan biet cac khuan lac
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Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


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khi em. a mau vao mat thach, dung bau trang


xoa eu len toan bo dien tch cua a thach trong
ieu kien vo trung tuyet oi e tranh lan tap.
Vi moi loai vi khuan oi hoi phai co thi gian
nuoi cay toi u. Sao cho cac te bao song u thi
gian phat trien thanh khuan lac.
Ket qua thu c la so trung bnh cua 2 3 a
petri vi cung ieu kien nuoi cay.
Ket qua cung thng c trnh bay di dang
CFU (colony torming unit) thay v so te bao/ml, v rang
co nhieu te bao hnh thanh chung mot khuan lac.
Mac du co mot so nhc iem song ay van
la phng phap tot nhat e xac nh so lng te
bao vi sinh vat. Phng phap nay co o nhay cao,
nen thng c dung trong kiem nghiem vi sinh vat
trong nc, thc pham, benh pham.
Quy trnh chi tiet cua phng phap em khuan
lac: mau c pha loang theo day nong o nh sau:
10-1, 10-2, 10-3, 10-4, 10-5
V du: lay 1ml mau, pha vao 9ml dung dch, pha
loang tron eu, roi tiep tuc lay 1ml cua dung dch 1
cho vao 9ml dung dch pha loang ta c dung dch 2
vi o pha loang la 10-2.
1ml

1ml

1ml

1ml

1ml

1ml ma
u

o
pha
loa
ng

9
ml

9
ml

9
ml

9
ml

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-4

9
ml

10-5

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Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


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C tiep tuc, se co cac dung dch vi o pha


loang tang them 10 lan cho en khi tm c o pha
loang thch hp, cho phng phap em khuan lac.
Nguyen tac chung la1 phan mau +9 phan dung
dch pha loang cho nen neu la 0,1ml can bo sung
0,9ml dung dch pha loang
Chuan b moi trng thch hp tren a petri
Cach tnh ket qua :
V du: ket qua so khuan lac trung bnh t 2 a
petri thu c la 35, o pha loang 10 -4, so lng mau
a vao a petri la 0,1ml ta co: 35.10.10000
=
3500000 te bao/ml
0.3. PHNG PHAP MANG LOC:
Phng phap nay c
dung e nh lng vi sinh
vat trong cac mau nc
vi mat o vi khuan
thap. V vay phng phap
nay gom bc loc e
tap trung vi sinh vat co
trong mau nc tren
mang loc. Viec xac nh
so lng te bao vi sinh
vat da vao so khuan lac
em c. Sau khi at mang loc len tren moi
trng that co thanh phan dinh dng thch hp.
Theo nguyen ly mot khuan lac la mot te bao vi
sinh vat.
Mang loc co kch thc 0,2 0,45 m c che
tao t cac si thuy tinh hay si polypropylene.
Ngoai mang loc thong thng, ngay nay con
dung mang loc k nc. Cac vach chia o lam bang
vat lieu ngan can s moc lan cua cac khuan lac.
So vi sinh vat c tnh theo so khuan lac moc trong
cac o.
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Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


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0.4. PHNG PHAP MPN (MOST PROBABLE NUMBER)


(So co kha nang cao nhat SCKNCN)
Quy trnh nh lng theo phng phap nay nh
sau:
Cho cac ong nghiem cha moi trng dang
long thch hp vi vi sinh vat can xac nh vi 3
mc nong o 1/10, 1/100, 1/1000 moi mc 3 ong
nghiem. U nhiet o vi thi gian thch hp. Da
vao ket qua nhn thay chng minh s tang trng
cua vi sinh vat can kiem nh (thng la nhng
hien tng nh:sinh hi, oi mau, uc) ghi nhan so
lng cac ong nghiem dng tnh tng o pha
loang. S dung cac so lieu nay va da vao bang
Mac Crady suy ra mat o vi sinh vat c trnh bay
di dang MPN/100ml hay so MPN/gam.
o chnh xac cua tr so MPN phu thuoc vao so
lng ong nghiem lap lai trong moi o pha loang.
S dung moi trng BGBL 37oC co the nh
lng nhom Coliform, cung moi trng nay 45oC
cho phep nh lng Coliform trong phan.
0.5. PHNG PHAP O O UC:
Te bao vi sinh vat la mot thc the khi co trong
moi trng se lam cho moi trng tr nen uc. o
uc cua huyen phu ty le thuan vi so lng te
bao vi sinh vat co trong moi trng. Trong mot gii
han nhat nh, moi quan he gia so lng vi sinh vat
trong moi trng ty le tuyen tnh vi o uc cua
moi trng. Do o co the nh lng vi sinh vat trong
moi trng bang may o o uc hay may so mau
bc song 550 610nm. Trong trng hp nay can
xay dng bieu o tng quan tuyen tnh gia o uc
va so lng vi sinh vat co trong moi trng bang
phng phap em khuan lac trc tiep. Phng phap
tien hanh theo hai bc:

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Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


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1.

Pha loang huyen phu cha vi sinh vat can


kiem nghiem sao cho cac dung dch thu c
khi o tren may so mau bc song 610nm
c cac tr so OD gan 0,1; 0,2; 0,3; 0,4; 0,5.

Dung phng phap em trc tiep xac nh lng


te bao vi sinh vat co trong 1ml ky hieu N/ml.
Tnh gia tr log (N/ml) cho tng mc nong o pha
loang. Ve o th bieu dien log (N/ml) (truc tung) theo
cac gia tr OD at tren truc hoanh. Xac nh
khoang tuyen tnh gia log (N/ml) vi OD.
2.

Xac nh lng te bao theo o uc:


- o o uc cua huyen phu cua te bao vi
sinh vat can xac nh.
- T tr so OD o c oi chieu tren o
th tng quan gia mat o te bao va OD
e xac nh lng te bao co trong mau
nghien cu. Lu y N/ml = 10a vi a=log
(N/ml).

Phng phap xac nh mat o te bao theo o


uc co the c dung e so sanh mc o tang
trng cua hai hay nhieu chung vi sinh vat trong moi
trng long. Trong trng hp khong can thiet gia
tr tuyet oi cua te bao vi sinh vat th khong can
phai xay dng bieu o tuyen tnh gia mat o vi
sinh vat va gia tr OD.
Phng hpap nay cho ket qua nhanh, thng
c dung e theo doi hoac nghien cu ac trng
tang trng cua cac chung vi sinh vat trong phong
th nghiem hoac trong san xuat, tuy nhien khong
thch hp cho ng dung trong kiem nghiem vi sinh vat

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Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


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CHNG 1:

MOT SO LOAI VI SINH VAT


GAY BENH THNG GAP

Cac qua trnh h hong cua thc pham thng


do vi sinh vat gay nen. Trong o rat nhieu trng
hp cac vi sinh vat nay con tao ra cac oc to gay
anh hng en sc khoe con ngi. Chnh v vay
viec tm hieu ve cac vi sinh vat gay benh e t
o tm ra cac bien phap khong che chung la viec
lam can thiet.
Co 2 dang gay benh co nguon goc t vi sinh
vat:
-

Vi sinh vat tiet ra oc to va s hien dien cua


cac oc to nay trong thc pham la nguyen
nhan gay benh. V du: Clostridium botulinum tiet
ra oc to gay nen benh botulism (chng ngo
oc tht); Staphylococcus aureus gay nen benh
tu cau khuan

Vi sinh vat hien dien trong thc pham, t o


xam nhap vao c the con ngi. S hien dien
cua chung hoac cua cac san pham hnh
thanh t qua trnh phan giai cac chat trong c
the la nguyen nhan gay benh. V du:
Salmonella spp., Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia
coli,

Tuy nhien co nhieu vi sinh vat mang ac tnh


cua ca 2 dang gay benh nay. V du Clostridium
perfringens va Bacillus cereus.
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Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


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Trong chng nay, chung ta se cung tm hieu


mot so loai vi sinh vat gay benh thng gap.
1.1. COLIFORM
COLIFORM)

VA

COLIFORM

PHAN

(FECAL

ay la nhng vi sinh vat hnh que, G -, khong tao


bao t, co kha nang len men latose va sinh kh trong
qua trnh len men nay. Phat trien trong khoang
nhiet o (t 2 en 50oC), pH t 4,0 en 8.5, co the
song hieu kh hoac k kh tuy y. Sau 12 16 gi tren
moi trng thach tao ra nhng khuan lac co the
nhn thay c.
Coliform i vao thc pham t nc hoac nguyen
lieu thc pham co nhiem phan.
Cac loai tieu bieu cho Coliform: Escherichia coli va
Enterobacter aerogenes. Tuy nhien, nngoai ra con co
khoang 20 loai mang nhng tnh chat ac trng cho
Coliform, trong o bao gom ca cac Enterobacteriaceae
khac va cac loai thuoc Aeromonas.
Nhom Coliform phan la nhng Coliform co kha
nang phat trien trong moi trng co nhiet o t
44.5 450C (cac Coliform khac co t0opt=370C). ay cung
la ac iem nhan biet va phan biet Colifom phan.
Tuy nhien viec xac nh nay ch la gia tr dung
e tham khao cho viec xac nh ieu kien song
cua Coliform.
e xac nh chnh xac Coliform, Coliform phan va
ngay ca E.coli trong thc pham bat buoc phai dung
cac chat ch th.
Dui ay la mot vai tnh chat ac trng cho
viec lam h hong thc pham cua Coliform:
-

Chung co kha nang phan giai nhieu loai c


chat khac nhau: carbohydrate, cac chat hu c
sinh nang lng, cac hp chat cha nit n
gian,..

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Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


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Co kha nang tong hp hau het cac vitamin


can thiet.

Co kha nang phat trien tot trong moi trng


co nhiet o t 10 460C.

Co kha nang tao ra acid va sinh gas t ng

Sinh ra mui v h hong, kho chu


Escherichia coli:

c phat hien la vi sinh vat gay benh t


nam 1700.
E. coli thuoc ho Enterobacteriaceae, catalose (+),
oxidase (-), gram(-) , trc khuan ngan, khong tao bao
t. Kch thc phu thuoc vao ieu kien nuoi cay.
ay la nhng vi sinh vat co kha nang phat
trien nhiet o t 7 50oC. Trong o toopt=37oC,
pHopt.= 7.0 7.5, aw opt.=0.95. Phat trien manh trong moi
trng Mac Conkey, EMB
Thng song trong ruot gia cua ngi va ong
vat, theo phan i ra ngoai
Co kha nang len men nhieu loai ng, sinh hi,
kh nitrat thanh nitrit. Gay nhay nht, h hong thc
pham.
Kha nang gay benh rat a dang: gay nhiem
khuan ng tieu; vi c the yeu gay nhiem
khuan mau; gay viem mang nao tre s sinh; gay
tieu chay.
Cac chat c che s phat trien cua E.coli:
chlorin, muoi mat, brilliant green, tetrathionat natri
1.2. STAPHYLOCOCCUS:
Hien nay tm thay 31 loai. Staphylococcus co
nhng ac tnh c ban sau:
-

La cau khuan , G+, cac te bao thng lien


ket thanh hnh chum nho. Khong di ong,
khong tao bao t. Nhiet o toi u la 37oC.

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Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


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Chu c kho han, hi nong ( 50oC van song


c trong 30 phut). Co kha nang song c
trong nong o NaCl la 9 10%. pHopt= 6 7 ; aw opt
= 0,83 0,90
-

Co kha nang phat trien tren nhieu loai moi


trng khac nhau nhat la tren cac moi
trng cha chat hu c. Tuy nhien phai co
nit trong moi trng. Nguon nit s dung la
acidamin.

Trong ieu kien yem kh: can uracin; trong ieu


kien hieu kh can: glutamatnatri.

Trong qua trnh phat trien tao sac to t mau


trang en vang sam.

Thng song da ngi, ng ho hap,


ng tieu hoa

Staphylococcus thng tao oc to gay oc cho


ngi: Tao mun nhot, lam ong huyet tng, t o
gay nen cac benh nh viem phoi, viem mang nao,
viem c tim, viem than, viem tuy xng
Cac chat c che s phat
Staphylococcus: hexaclorophen, tm gential
Cac chat tieu
neomycine, polymycine.

diet

trien

Staphylococcus:

cua
clorit,

Staphylococcus aureus:
ac trng nhat cua loai nay la gay viem ruot
dan en benh chay mau ruot.
Mang tnh chat ac trng cua loai Staphylococcus,
ket lai vi nhau thanh dang chum nho hoac thanh
tng chuoi ngan. Phat trien tren moi trng ran
thng tao thanh cac khuan lac co mau vang hoac
chuyen dan sang mau cam, mac dau vay, trong mot
vai trng hp cung ton tai dang mau trang.
Phan ln cac Staphylococcus aureus gay ong
mau. Song trong ieu kien yem kh tuy tien, tuy
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Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


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nhien co kha nang phat trien tot hn trong moi


trng hieu kh.
Co mot vai loai Staphylococcus aureus co kha
nang chu mac rat tot (10 20% NaCl) va cung chu
c tac ong cua nitrit. Chnh v vay phai rat kiem
tra s hien dien cua Staphylococcus aureus oi vi
cac san pham tht nh: xuc xch, dam bong, lap
xng,..
Staphylococcus aureus cung phat trien tot trong
moi trng co nong o ng cao (50 60% ng).
Chung len men va phan giai ng nhng lai khong
tao mui v kho chu cho san pham.
ieu kien toi u e Staphylococcus aureus phat
trien cung tng t nh vi cac loai Staphylococci
khac.
Nguon gay nhiem Staphylococci
vao c the
ngi thng t nhng ngi b viem mui gay nen
viem xoang, t cac ung nhot, hoac cac vet thng b
nhiem trung, t da ngi tiep xuc vi ngi benh.
Staphylococci con gay nen chng viem vu bo dan
en lam nhiem sa va cac san pham t sa.
Rieng khong kh khong phai la nguon gay nhiem
ac trng tr phi trong moi trng co qua nhieu
Staphylococci.
Cac san pham thc pham thng co
Staphylococci : tht va cac san pham t tht, ca va
cac san pham t ca, sa va cac san pham t
sa, salad, pudding, cream. Neu khong c tr lanh
ung mc th Staphylococci se phat trien manh liet
va gay benh.
Lng oc to c tiet ra u e gay benh
trong ieu kien moi trng thch hp la 12h 370C, 3
ngay 180C, 7 ngay tai 90C, 4 tuan tai 4 6.70C.

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Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


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1.3. SHIGELLA:
Shigella thuoc ho Enterobacteriaceae, la vi khuan
gay benh l. Di ay la mot so ac tnh chung
tieu bieu cua Shigella:
-

La trc khuan gram(-), khong di ong, khong


sinh bao t, k kh tuy tien.

Shigella ch tao acid t ng.

Khong phat trien tren citrat, KCN thach, khong


tao H2S.

Phat trien trong khoang nhiet o t 10 40oC,


t0opt = 370C, pH = 6 8, nong o muoi 5 6%.
Nhay cam vi nhiet.

Thng nhiem vao ca, qua, rau, tht, cac loai


salad t nc hoac phan ngi.

Shigella tao oc to gay kch thch len thanh


ruot, len he than kinh trung ng, gay tieu chay, c
che hap thu ng va acid amin ruot non. Neu
tac ong len he than kinh th co the gay t vong.
Khi b nhiem Shigella, chung se tan cong lp bieu
mo niem mac ruot gia, gay hoai t, lam loet,
xuat huyet. Khi ruot gia b ton thng gay au bung
d doi, tieu chay nhieu lan, phan nhay nht, co
mau.
1.4. SALMONELLA
Neu phan loai theo mc o gay benh cua
Salmonella ta co cac loai sau:
-

Loai ch gay benh cho ngi (vd: S. typhi gay


sot thng han tai ngi)

Loai ch gay benh cho ong vat (vd: S.


typhimurium gay sot thng han tai chuot)

Loai gay benh cho ca ngi va ong vat


(chiem a so)
Mot so tnh chat cua Salmonella:

.........................................................................................................
16

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

La trc khuan gram (-), khong tao bao t, co


tien mao (tr S. gallinarum), co kch thc te
bao vao khoang 0,5 3 m.

Len men glucose, sinh kh. Khong len men lactose


va saccharose.

Phat trien manh trong moi trng Mac Conkey,


thach Brilliant green. Sau 24h 37oC co the thay
khuan lac

Giong nh nhieu loai vi khuan khac Salmonella


co kha nang phat trien trong khoang nhiet
o tng oi rong t 6 en 45.60C, tuy nhien
nhiet o phat trien toi u la 370C.

Salmonella phat trien trong khoang pH t 4.1


9.0. Trong cac mon salad co o pH khoang 5.5
5.7 khong nhan dang c s thay oi mui v
khi Salmonella phat trien.

o am toi u cho s phat trien cua Salmonella


la 0.93 0.95.

Salmonella xam nhap vao c the bang hai con


ng: t phan ngi hoac ong vat; t ngi
benh. Trong o phai ke en tac ong cua ong
vat long vu, trng cua chung va nhat la phan
cua chung a lam cho viec lan truyen Salmonella de
dang hn. Ngoai ra chuot, meo, ruoi cung la nhng
tac nhan gian tiep dan en viec Salmonella lan
rong hn khi chung truyen phan vao cac thc pham
khong c bao quan ky. Trong qua trnh giet mo
cung can phai e phong s nhiem Salmonella neu
khong thc hien ung quy trnh an toan thc pham.
1.5. YERSINIA:
Hien nay tm thay 11 loai
Mot so ac tnh chung cua Yersinia:
+ La trc khuan gram(-). Trong mot so
trng hp co kha nang chuyen ong. Thuoc
.........................................................................................................
17

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

loai k kh tuy tien, khong tao bao t, khong


sinh nha bao
+ Khoang nhiet o phat trien toi u t 25
32 C
o

+ B tieu diet 60oC trong vong 1 3 phut


ai dien tieu bieu la Yersinia enterocolitica.
Yersinia enterocolitica phat trien tren nhieu loai thc
pham khac nhau: bo, heo, dch trng, pho mat mem,
sa, ca, tom, cua, ga, au phu, Y. enterocolitica
thng gay benh ng ruot, gay viem da day tai
ngi. Sau 24 36 h sau khi s dung thc pham co
mam benh th trieu chng cua benh bat au xuat
hien nh au bung, sot, tieu chay, cac vet loet da
day hnh thanh. Neu e lau se dan en chay mau
da day.
1.6. VIBRIO:
Co khoang 28 loai. Trong o co 4 loai thng
gap nhieu trong hai san:
-

V. vulnificus

- V. alginolyticus

V. cholerae

- V. parahaemolyticus

Mot so ac iem chung:


-

La phay khuan. Phan ln thuoc gram (-). Di


ong nhanh nh n mao au. Khong sinh nha
bao, phan ng oxydase dng tnh. Thuoc loai
hieu kh tuy tien.

Vibrio la loai vi khuan a man, trong moi


trng song yeu cau co khoang 1 3% NaCl.
Co the phat trien trong moi trng co nong
o muoi en 7.0%. Nhiet o phat trien toi u
la 35 370C, tuy nhien van phat trien c
khoang nhiet o t 10 440C. Khoang pH ma
Vibrio co the phat trien t 5.0 11.0.

Thng co mat hai san, cac san pham


hai san, nc bien. Tuy nhien b tieu diet

.........................................................................................................
18

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

di tac ong cua nhiet o. Noi mot cach


khac, khi nau chn thc pham th khong phai lo
s s tac ong cua Vibrio.
-

Co kha nang gay benh dch ta, nhiem trung


mau.

1.7. CLOSTRIDIUM:
Hien nay phat hien ra hai chung gay ngo oc
thc pham:
-

Clostridium botulinum: tao oc to gay hai en


he than kinh

Clostridium perfringens: gay au bung, tieu chay


va giai phong nhieu kh. Khi vi khuan hnh
thanh bao t tao ra oc to ruot, gay ngo
oc cho ngi.
Mot so ac tnh chung:

Trc khuan gram (+), khong di ong, yem kh,


tao bao t. Bao t rat chu nhiet.

Nhiet o phat trien toi u la : 43 47oC, pH t


59

B c che bi NaCl 5%, hoac NaNO3 2,5%

C.botulinum la vi khuan sinh oc to. Te bao


C.botulinum b tieu nhiet o 800C (chung A) va
900C (chung B). Trong a so trng hp C.botulinum sinh
gas va tao mui kho chu. T ac iem nay ta co
the loai bo thc pham nhiem C.botulinum mot cach
de dang. Tuy nhien can e phong mot so trng
hp ngoai le, luc nay ta khong nhan biet c
bang cam quan ve s nhiem vi khuan C.botulinum
cua thc pham, do o ngi s dung se b nhiem
oc to gay hoi chng botulism (ngo oc tht).
Trong qua trnh x ly nhiet, cac bao t cua
C.botulinum rat kho b tieu diet. e tieu diet bao
t can co s tac ong cua nhiet o theo thi gian
thch hp (Esty and Meyer 1992):
.........................................................................................................
19

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................
TT

Nhiet o (0C)

1
2
3
4
5

100
105
110
115
120

Thi gian
(phut)
360
120
36
12
4

May man la s ngo oc tht xay ra khong


thng xuyen, nhng no thng gay t vong. Theo s
phat trien cua khoa hoc, ty le t vong do botulism
ngay cang giam. V du vao nhng nam 1970 1973
chiem khoang 23%, vao nam 1899 1994 ty le nay
chiem tren 60% tai My. Theo nh thong ke cua Trung
tam kiem soat dch benh tai My, th cac san pham
c lam tai nha de b nhiem C.botulinum hn la
cac san pham san xuat trong cong nghiep.
Tuy theo tng loai C.botulinum ma trieu chng
benh xuat hien sau khi s dung thc pham cha
oc to xuat hien sau cac khoang thi gian khac
nhau (t 12 36 gi). Khi b ngo oc cac trieu
chng au tien xuat hien la: non ma, tieu chay,
met moi, chong mat va au au. Sau o la cac
trieu chng tao bon, nhn mot thanh hai. Roi cac
hien tng kho nuot, kho phat am xuat hien.
Ngi benh cam nhan c s kho mieng, kho
th, li b sng va xuat hien mang. Co the len
cn sot hoac khong. Tiep theo la c b te cng, roi
en he thong ho hap b te cng va cuoi cung la
.........................................................................................................
20

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

tim ngng ap. Ket qua la ngi b b t vong do


te liet he thong ho hap. S t vong nay thng
dien ra sau 3 6 ngay s dung thc pham nhiem oc
to.
Phng thc duy nhat e cha tr la s dung
cac chat khang oc to. Tuy nhien no ch hieu
nghiem neu s dung khi phat hien ra cac trieu
chng au tien cua benh. Con e khi cac trieu
chng ac trng xuat hien th a muon roi. Chnh v
vay viec xac nh benh la rat kho khan. Kem theo
viec s dung chat khang oc to la phai gi cho
ngi benh trang thai yen tnh, s dung phng
phap th nhan tao, tao s can bang cac chat long
trong c the,..
e ngan chan s nhiem C.botulinum vao c the
can chu y thc thi cac viec sau:
-

Nen x ly nhiet cac o hop trc khi

s dung.
-

Loai bo cac o hop co trieu chng

phong, meo mo.


-

Khong nem cac thc pham co mui kho

chu.

.........................................................................................................
21

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

Khong s dung cac thc pham a c

nau chn nhng khong c bao quan tot va


khong c ham nong.
-

Can un nong lai thc pham nghi ng

trong khoang 15 phut.


oi vi cac san pham xong khoi th can chu y
mot so iem sau:
-

San pham c gi sach, tay trc khi cam


san pham c ra sach.

Ttrong qua trnh xong khoi can gi t nhat


0

82 C trong 30 phut.
-

Lam lanh nhanh sau khi ong goi va bao quan


lanh.

Tat ca cac bao b s dung phai la loai c


bo Y te cho phep va chu lanh tot.

.........................................................................................................
22

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

CHNG 2:

VI SINH VAT TRONG


CHE BIEN VA BAO QUAN
THT

2.1. QUA TRNH NHIEM VI SINH:


Tht la mot san pham co rat nhieu chat dinh
dng, ong thi co o pH t 6 6,5 rat thch hp
cho s sinh trng va phat trien cua vi sinh vat.
ong vat co the b nhiem vi sinh vat bang con
ng noi sinh hoac ngoai sinh. Nhng du b nhiem
khuan bang con ng nao i na th cung lam
giam chat lng cua tht nhieu khi dan en khong
the s dung c. So lng vi sinh vat co tht
phan anh chat lng cua tht. Tht b coi la kem
chat lng khi tren 1 cm2 be mat cua tht hoac trong
1g tht co t 107 vi khuan tr len.
Cac gia suc khoe manh thng t b nhiem vi
sinh vat theo con ng noi sinh. Mac dau vay ta
van tm thay mot so loai vi sinh vat tai mau cua
mot so tht o nh: staphylococci, streptococci,
Clostridium, Salmonella.
Nguon gay nhiem vi sinh vat cho cac ong
vat thng la: qua trnh choc tiet, cao long,
mo. Luc nay vi sinh vat t cac thanh phan nh
long, long, phan hoac dung cu giet mo i vao
tht. Trong cong nghe giet mo hien ai giet
mo treo, s lay nhiem vi sinh vat giam xuong
.........................................................................................................
23

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

rat nhieu. Chnh v vay, e giam s lay nhiem


vi sinh vat cho tht ta can phai chu y en khau
ve sinh cua qua trnh giet mo; nhat la oi vi
dung cu, phong giet mo, ong vat giet mo,
ngi lao ong.
Do nguon lay nhiem vi sinh vat vao tht rat
rong, nen co rat nhieu loai vi sinh vat b nhiem
vao tht. Cac vi sinh vat thng gap la cac vi
sinh vat hoai sinh, bao t cua nam moc
(Penicilium, Mucor, Cladosporium,..), cac te bao
nam men (Candida, Torulopsis, Debaryomyces,..) va
oi khi la cac vi sinh vat gay benh (Micrococcus,
Pseudomonas,
Moraxella,
Bacillus,
Clostridium,
Escherichia, Salmonella,...)
2.2. CAC QUA TRNH BAO QUAN:
2.2.1. S vo khuan:
e am bao ve sinh an toan thc pham
cho cac qua trnh san xuat cac san pham t
tht, nha san xuat phai chu y en s vo
khuan cua phong, khong kh, dung cu, thiet b,
nc s dung trong giet mo va che bien; nhan
cong lam viec tong phong giet mo va che
bien.
Ngoai ra, oi vi cac san pham ti song
hoac a che bien th phng phap bao quan
trong cac bao b c hut chan khong se giup
cho cac san pham nay e c lau hn ma
van gi c hng v ac trng. Phng phap
bao quan nay giup cho san pham khong tiep
xuc trc tiep vi oxy, khong kh, nc do o
tranh c cac h hong do moi trng va vi sinh
vat t moi trng tac ong len san pham.
Vi cac vi sinh vat co san trong tht va san
pham t tht th tuy vao moi loai vi sinh vat ma
phng phap hut chan khong se co tac ong
khac nhau. oi vi cac vi sinh vat nh
staphylococci, vi khuan lactic, nam moc th s phat
.........................................................................................................
24

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

trien cua chung se b ngan chan lai trong ieu


kien chan khong. Tuy nhien, oi vi Clostridium
botulinum va cac vi khuan song k kh th khong
co tac ong.
2.2.2. Nhiet o cao:
Hau het cac san pham t tht co o acid thc
pham thap va la moi trng dinh dng rat tot
cho vi sinh vat phat trien. Do o bao quan nh the
nao e san pham co the e lau va van on nh
chat lng la ieu ma cac nha san xuat luon suy
ngh.
Cong nghe o hop la mot trong nhng cong
nghe s dung ky thuat ac biet e bao quan thc
pham khong b h hong di tac ong cua vi sinh
va moi trng trong mot thi gian dai. Co hai loai:
1. Tht c cho vao hop thiec, tiet trung
1210C, va bao quan nhiet o thng
2. San pham t tht c thanh trung va c
bao quan lanh.
Ngoai ra con nhng phng phap s dung nhiet
o cao khac nh:
Luoc s tht co the e tht c lau
hn mc d kien. Tuy nhien se lam bien mau
va lam mat mot so dng chat trong tht.
Xong khoi xuc xch: s dung nhiet o
va cac chat co trong khoi e bao quan san
pham.
Tht c che bien thanh cac dang
thanh pham va ban thanh pham se e c lau
hn.

.........................................................................................................
25

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

2.2.3. Nhiet o thap:


2.2.3.1. ong lanh:
Sau khi giet mo tht c lam lanh nhanh va
c tr lanh nhiet o (-)1.4 (+)2.2 0C. Thi
gian tr lanh oi vi tht bo co the ti 30
ngay, vi tht heo bao quan c 1 2 tuan.
Thi gian bao quan phu thuoc vao lng vi sinh
vat co tren tht, nhiet o lam lanh va tr
lanh, o am cua phong tr lanh.
Thi gian bao quan se lau hn neu phong bao
quan c bm CO2 hoac ozon. Tuy viec thay the
khong kh trong phong bao quan bang CO2 khien
cho vi sinh vat khong phat trien c dan en
viec tht bao quan c lau (gap oi thi gian),
nhng no cung lam thay oi mau cua tht, lam
mat i sac hong cua tht. Chnh v vay, theo kinh
nghiem, ngi ta khuyen cao rang lng CO2 a
vao tot nhat nam trong khoang 10 30 % so vi
lng khong kh trong cac ohong bao quan tht
va 100% trong phong bao quan jambon.
Thi gian bao quan tht cung se tang khi
co khoang 2.5 3ppm ozon trong phong bao
quan. Tht co the e c ti 60 ngay 2.2 0C,
o am 92%. Ozon la chat co hoat tnh oxy hoa
cao chnh v vay no co kha nang diet vi sinh vat
cao, tuy nhien ozon cung khien cho tht b nhat
mau.
Vi sinh vat gap trong cac san pham tht
ong lanh thng la cac vi khuan a lanh thuoc
chung Pseudomonas, mac dau vay cac vi khuan
nh Acinetobacter, Moraxella, Alcaligenes, Micrococcus,
Lactobacillus, Sterptococcus, Leuconostoc, Pedicoccus,
Flavobacterium, Proteus va cac nam men, nam
moc van co the phat trien tren tht nhiet
o thap.

.........................................................................................................
26

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

2.2.3.2. Cap ong:


Tht va cac san pham t tht c ong
lanh ot ngot xuong ()400C roi c tr lanh t
()12.2 en ()28.90C.
Qua trnh cap ong tieu diet khoang lng vi
sinh vat co trong tht, lng con lai b giam dan
trong qua trnh tr ong. Ch con mot so t vi
sinh vat ton tai nhng khong phat trien nh:
Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Moraxella, Alcaligenes,
Micrococcus, Lactobacillus, Flavobacterium, Proteus.
Cac vi sinh vat nay ch phat trien tr lai khi
tht c ra ong.
2.2.4. Tia chieu xa:
Neu s dung tia t ngoai trong qua trnh ong
lanh se keo dai thi gian bao quan. Thng c
s dung khi can bao quan cac tang tht co kch
thc ln. Cac tia chieu xa tieu diet hoac c che
mot lng ln vi sinh vat co trong khong kh va tren
be mat tht ngay lap tc, tieu diet cac vi sinh vat
co tren be mat cua cac thiet b dung cu trong
phong (vi ieu kien cac thiet b, dung cu nay
nam lo thien tiep xuc trc tiep vi cac tia chieu
xa).
Mot so qua trnh oxy hoa va hydro hoa chat
beo co the xay ra trong qua trnh chieu xa.
Trong qua trnh chieu xa ngi ta dung tia Gamma
co gii han. Neu can tiet trung ta s dung mc
20 70KiloGray. mc nay se khong lam thay
oi mui v va mau sac cua san pham.
2.2.5. Say kho:
Say kho la phng phap bao quan truyen
thong oi vi tht va cac san pham t tht. Co
cac dang nh tht va cac san pham cua tht c
phi kho hoac say kho. oi khi s dung ca cac phu
.........................................................................................................
27

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

gia nh nitrat, nitrit va s dung phng phap xong


khoi e x ly cac san pham t tht.
Nh vao o am thap ma lng vi sinh vat
giam thieu i rat nhieu. Them vao o la cac chat
ho tr qua trnh diet khuan giup cho viec bao quan
c tot hn.
Cac san pham say kho khong can bao quan
lanh.
2.2.5. Chat bao quan:
Trong rat nhieu san pham tht s dung hon
hp: NaCl, ng, nitrit. Tac dung cua chung nh sau:
NaCl: con goi la muoi an, la chat bao
quan va chat tao v. Neu tron lan san pham
thng cha khoang 15% NaCl. Neu dung dung
dch NaCl tiem vao san pham hoac ngam, s
dung khoang 24%. Muc ch lam giam ham lng
nc trong san pham.
ng: la chat tao v. Ngoai ra con
c s dung lam nguon nang lng cho cac vi
khuan phan giai nitrat s dung (cho cac san
pham len men).
Natri nitrit: c dung e tao thanh NO,
chat nay tac ong len tht tao thanh mau ac
trng cho tht. Ngoai ra con co tac dung diet
mot so loai vi khuan bi tnh acid.

.........................................................................................................
28

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

MYOGLOBIN
(hi ota) Fe2+
NO

NITRIC OXID
MY OGLOBIN*
(o
) Fe2+

Soxy ho
a
Skh
Qu
atr
nh
oxy
Qu
atr
ho
nh
a
k h

Soxy ho
a
NO +Skh

OXYMY OGLOBIN
(oti) Fe2+
Soxy ho
a
Soxy ho
a
+
(nitrit)
Skh

METMY OGLOBIN
(na
u) Fe3+
Bie
n tnh
protein
(nhie
t)

Bie
n tnh
protein
(nhie
t)

NITROSY L
HEMOCHROME
(ho
ng) Fe5+

Soxy ho
a
NO +Skh

DENATURED
METMY OGLOBIN
(na
u) Fe3+

* : mau yeu cau oi vi san pham


Phan ln cac san pham sau khi cho chat bao
quan eu c em i xong khoi. Cac thanh
phan co trong khoi co kha nang tieu diet va
ngan chan khong cho vi sinh vat phat trien,
giup cho san pham e c lau hn.
Ngoai ra, oi vi cac san pham len men con
c tron them acid lactic hoac vi khuan lactic e
tao hng v ac trng cho san pham. Tai Viet
Nam cac san pham len men thng c e cho
len men t nhien di tac ong cua vi khuan
lactic.
Ngoai ra cung co mot so san pham c
ngam dam. Cac san pham nay thng c cho
vao lo. Acid ngoai tao hng v con giup cho san
pham e c lau hn.
Cac vi sinh vat thng gap:
Xuc xch: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, vi
khuan lactic, Streptococci, Pedicocci, Micrococci, nam
men.
.........................................................................................................
29

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

Jambon: Lactobacilli, Micrococci, Enterococci,


Stereptococci, Leuconostoc, Pedicocci.

2.3. CAC DANG H HONG CUA THT:


2.3.1. Hoa nhay:
Hien tng nay thng thay be mat tht
p lanh khi bao quan o am tng oi cua
khong kh (cao hn 90%). Qua trnh tao thanh mang
nhay nay con phu thuoc vao nhiet o bao quan.
Trong ieu kien 0oC, o am khoang 85 90% tht
co the bao quan c khoang 2 tuan. Hien tng
hoa nhay c coi la giai oan au cua qua trnh h
hong tht.
Cac vi khuan thng thay lp nhay:
Micrococcus albus, M. liquefaciens, M. aureus, M. candidus,
Streptococcus liquefaciens, E. coli, Bact. aerogenes, Bact.
alcaligenes,
Bac.
mycoides,
Bac.
mesentericus,
Pseudomonas, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, . va mot so
loai nam men.
2.3.2. Len men chua:
Tht b len men chua la do vi khuan lactic va
nam men; sau o vi khuan gay thoi va nam
moc tiep tuc phat trien tren moi trng o.
Thong thng cac loai tht cha nhieu glycogen
thng len men chua, tao thanh nhieu acid hu
c. moi trng acid vi khuan gay thoi b c
che, tuy nhien nam moc lai phat trien. Nam
moc hoat ong va tao thanh NH3 va kiem nitrua
co tac dung trung hoa acid tao ieu kien cho cac
vi khuan gay thoi phat trien.
2.3.3.S thoi ra:
Tht b thoi ra thng do hai qua trnh phan
huy cua vi khuan k kh va hieu kh gay nen. Vi
khuan gay thoi hieu kh la: Proteus vulgaris,
Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus mesentericus, Bacillus
.........................................................................................................
30

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

megatherium, Vi khuan gay thoi k kh la:


Clostridium perfringens, Clost. putrificum, Clost.
sporogens,.. Cac vi khuan nay cha nhieu
protease phan giai protein thanh NH3, H2S, scatola,
acid butiric va cac chat co mui kho chu
Qua trnh thoi ra hieu kh thng bat au
t be mat cua tht, lam cho tht b thay oi
dan dan. Trong giai oan au be mat cua tht
b mem dan, tht b thay oi ve mau sac va
mui, phan ng cua tht nga sang kiem, tuy
nhien ben trong van con tot. Sau o vi khuan
phat trien manh trong tht se lam cac mo lien
ket b t va protein b phan huy.
Qua trnh thoi ra k kh do cac vi khuan k
kh gay nen. Cac vi khuan nay nhiem vao trong
tht t ng ruot. San pham tao thanh t
qua trnh nay la NH3, cac acid beo, cac chat co
mui thoi.
2.3.4. S bien oi sac to cua tht:
Tht b bien oi t mau o sang mau xam,
nau, hoac xanh luc di tac dung cua vi khuan.
Neu mui cua tht van bnh thng va khong tm
thay oc tnh, th ch can loai bo cac vet mau la
tht van s dung bnh thng. Vi khuan thng lam
cho xuc xch, lap xng co mau xam la mot so
loai vi khuan lactic nh: Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc.
2.3.5. S phat sang:
khi tht b bao quan chung vi ca th se xuat
hien tren be mat cua tht vi khuan Photobacterium,
vi khuan nay gay nen s phat sang tht. Qua
trnh nay khong kem theo s thoi ra.
2.3.6. S oi :
mot so loai vi khuan co kha nang oxy hoa m
cha trong tht nh: Pseudomonas, Achromobacter,..
.........................................................................................................
31

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

2.3.7. S moc:
Qua trnh nay thng xay ra do Mucor, Penicillium,
Aspergillus, phat trien tren be mat cua tht. Trc
tien moc moc tren be mat, sau an sau dan vao
trong ti 2 5 mm.
2.3.8. S hnh thanh vet mau:
Tuy vao loai vi khuan hieu kh khac nhau ma
tren be mat tht se xuat hien cac vet mau khac
nhau:
-

Bacterium prodigiosum hoac Serratia marcerans :


tht co cac vet o

Pseudomonas pyocyanes

: tao vet xanh

Pseudomonas fluorescens

: tao vet xanh luc

Chromobacterium
nhat, nau en

tao

vet

xam

Micrococcus
vang

tao

vet

mau

Neu tht van co mui bnh thng va khong tm


thay cac oc to th sau khi tay sach cac vet
mau th van co the s dung c bnh thng.
2.4. VI SINH VAT TRONG MOT SO SAN
PHAM T THT:
2.4.1. Tht muoi:
tht muoi thng cha NaCl, KNO2, KNO3, ng,
gia v. Trong tht muoi khong phai ch co cac vi
sinh vat a chet hoac khong phat trien, ma
van ton tai mot so loai vi sinh vat co kha
nang song trong moi trng co nong o muoi
cao. V nh: Salmonella ch b chet trong nong o
muoi 19% sau 75 80 ngay. Cac loai cau khuan
th chet nong o muoi 15%, tu cau vang
chet nong o muoi 20 25%. e lam tang
kha nang c che hoat ong cua vi sinh vat
cung nh keo dai thi gian bao quan, ngi ta
.........................................................................................................
32

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

thng gi tht muoi ieu kien nhiet o


lanh xuong khoang 2 50C hoac em xong khoi.
2.4.2. Tht bao quan lanh:
Tht bao quan lanh thng hai dang : p
lanh va lanh ong.
- oi vi tht p lanh, tht c bao quan
nhiet o t 1 ( 3)0C vi o am tng oi la
90 92%; cac loai vi sinh vat a lanh thng gap
la: Pseudomonas, Achromobacter, Flavobacterium,
Alcaligenes, Aerobacterium, Micrococcus, Lactobacillus,
Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Proteus; thi gian bao
quan t 15 30 ngay tuy loai tht va pham
chat cua tht.
- oi vi tht ong lanh th tht c bao quan
trong thi gian dai, hien nay thng ngi ta lam
cap ong xuong di ( 18)0C luc nay ch con
mot so rat t vi sinh vat con co kha nang ton
tai.
2.4.3. Tht hop:
thong thng tht c cha trong cac hop kn
va c tiet trung nhiet o cao. Trong qua
trnh tiet trung hau het vi sinh vat b tieu diet,
tuy nhien can phai e phong mot so loai
bao t cua vi khuan van co kha nang ton tai, nh:
Bacillus
subtilis,
Bacillus
mesentericus,
Clostridium
botulinum. Chnh v vay sau khi tiet trung can kiem tra
lai.

.........................................................................................................
33

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

Hnh 1: Trc khuan k kh Clostridium perfringens.


2.4.4. Xuc xch, gio, lap xng:
ay la cac san pham s dung trc tiep, chnh v
vay yeu cau ve sinh cung cao. Tht dung cho cac
san pham loai nay phai la tht loai tot, ong thi
chat lng cua cac gia v cung nh phu gia them
vao cung can c lu y en. Cac vi khuan sinh
bao t co the uc tm thay cac san pham
dang nay nh: B. subtilis, B. mesentericus, B. mycoides, E.
coli, Proteus vulgaris,..
2.4.5.Cac san pham che bien khong qua
nhiet o cao:
Cac san pham nh nem, tai neu s dung
nguyen lieu khong c kiem tra ky. Ngi tieu
dung co the nhiem mot so ky sinh trung nh:
-San dai heo ( Taenia solium)
-San dai bo(Taenia saginata).

.........................................................................................................
34

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

Hnh 2: Vong i cua san dai bo.

.........................................................................................................
35

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

Hnh 3 : Vong i cua san dai heo.

.........................................................................................................
36

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

CHNG 3:

VI SINH VAT TRONG


CHE BIEN VA BAO QUAN
CA

3.1. QUA TRNH NHIEM VI SINH:


Ca la mot san pham co rat nhieu chat dinh
dng, ong thi la loai ong vat mau lanh tren
da ca co mot lp nht giau protein, trong mang ca
cha nhieu dng chat nen ca la mot moi trng
dinh dng rat thch hp cho cac loai vi sinh vat phat
trien
Ca co thanh phan dinh dng tng t nh
thanh phan dinh dng cua tht. Tuy nhien, do cau
truc khong chat che bang tht, va do moi trng
song cua ca la nc nen de dang b o nhiem vi
sinh vat hn tht. V the cac qua trnh bien oi va
nguyen nhan gay bien oi tht ca cung xay ra
giong nh tht. Vi sinh vat co the xam nhap vao
ca bang nhng con ng sau:
-

Xam nhap qua ng ruot: Khi ca chet cac


men phan huy protein thanh ruot tao ieu kien
xam nhap cho vi sinh vat t he thong tieu
hoa vao ca.

.........................................................................................................
37

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

Xam nhap t niem dch bieu b: Tuyen da ca


tiet ra chat dch, ay la moi trng tot cho vi
sinh vat phat trien va xam nhap vao tht ca.

Xam nhap t mang ca: Do thong b mau


khi chet, ay la moi trng thch hp cho vi sinh
vat phat trien va xam nhap vao tht ca.

Xam nhap qua vet thng c tao ra trong qua


trnh anh bat.

Ngoai ra, trong qua trnh che bien neu nguon


nc b o nhiem cung la nguyen nhan nhiem vi
sinh vat vao tht ca.
Trong ruot va tren da ca thng co nhng vi sinh
vat
thuoc
giong
Pseudomonas,
Moraxella,
Achromobacter, Flavobacterrium, Vibrio con cac vi khuan
nh Micrococcus, Bacillus, Clostridium vi so lng t. S
tang trng cua nhng vi sinh vat nay gay nen s
h hong cua san pham.
Colifroms co the khong co hoac rat t, khong
co mat Salmonella, Shigella va nhng vi khuan ng
ruot khac. S co mat nhng vi khuan nay chng
to co s nhiem khuan t moi trng anh bat va
che bien b o nhiem. Trong qua trnh che bien con
co the nhiem Clostridiun botulinum (ca hop).
Ngoai ra, ca con b nhiem mot so loai ky
sinh trung nh san bao gom cac loai sau:
-San liet au (Diphyllobothrium latum).
-San hat hong (Clonorchis sinesis).
-San hat meo (Opithorchis felineus).
-San d hnh (Heterophyes heterophyes)
-San Yokogawai (Metagonimus yokogawai).

.........................................................................................................
38

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

Hnh 4: Vong i cua san liet au (Diphyllobothrium


latum).

.........................................................................................................
39

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

Hnh 5: Mot so loai san thng b nhiem bi cac loai


thuy sinh.
.........................................................................................................
40

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

Hnh 6: Vong i cua san hat hong(Clonorchis sinesis)

3.2. CAC QUA TRNH BAO QUAN:


Ca thng c s dung dang ca song, ca ti
(mi chet), ca p a, ca kho, p muoi va cac
dang che bien vi muc ch bao quan bang cong
nghe phc tap (ong hop, xong khoi, cha bong)
Cac qua trnh bao quan ca cung nh bao quan
tht. e bao am tnh an toan cua san pham can
lu y en cac yeu to dan en o nhiemvi sinh vat
vao san pham. Mot trong nhng nguyen nhan gay
nhiem vi sinh vat vao san pham la nc dung trong
cac qua trnh. V vay, nguon nc can phai c
x ly tot. Va nguyen lieu ca can phai c
tuyen chon ky lng.
.........................................................................................................
41

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

3.3. CAC DANG H HONG CUA CA:


Cac dang h hong cua ca thng do s phat
trien cua vi sinh vat gay nen. Cac san pham a
qua che bien cung co nhng dang h hong giong
nh cac h hong cua tht. Tuy nhien, do ban chat
cau truc cua ca nen chung ta xem xet nhng dang
h hong cua tht ca da tren nguyen lieu ca cha
che bien e quyet nh cac bc che bien khac
nhau tuy vao trang thai cua nguyen lieu. Mc o
ti cua ca c chia thanh ba dang: ti (dung e
che bien hoac e an); kem ti (ch dung e an
ch khong dung cho cac qua trnh che bien); Ca
n (khong dung lam thc pham c).
Bo phan
Than ca

Mat

Mieng

Ca ti
Co cng

Ca kem
ti

Ca n

Co
dau
hieu phan
giai, than
oan
de
dang

Len
men
thoi, than
ca oan de
dang

Loi,
trong, Khong loi, Lom, kho,
giac
mac nhan nheo nhan hoac
an hoi
va hi uc rach
Ngam cng

Hi m

M han

Mang

Bam
chat Dan
hoa
khe, khong
khong nht chat, mau
va hoi
xam,
co
nht
va
mui hoi

H
hoa
nau
xam,
ban,
thoi

khoi
khe,
en
nht
mui

Vay

Ong
anh, Khong
dnh
chat ong anh,
than, khong con
dnh,
hoac t nien niem dch

M,
long
leo,
co
niem dch
ban va co

.........................................................................................................
42

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

Bo phan

Bung va
hau mon
Tht ca

Th giay
quy
Th
nghiem
H2S
Ham
lng

Ca ti

Ca kem
ti

Ca n

dch
trong, uc
khong mui

mui
hoi

Khong phnh,
hau
mon
thut
vao,
trang nhat

Hi
phnh,
hau mon
loi va hi
hong

Bung phnh,
hau
mon
loi va o
bam

Ran
chac,
an
hoi,
dnh
chat
vao xng

Mem, an
hoi cham,
con
dnh
vao xng

Mem nhun,
khong dai
hoi,
tach
khoi xng
de dang

Axit

Axit

Kiem

Am tnh

Am hoac Dng tnh


dng tnh

<22

<35

>40

NH3 / 100 g
3.4. VI SINH VAT TRONG MOT SO SAN PHAM
T CA:
3.4.1.San pham che bien co them gia
v:
Nhng san pham trong qua trnh che bien co
them gia v thng thay co nhng vi khuan ma ac
biet la Salmonella, Staphylococus, va ca Coliforms gay
tac hai en sc khoe ngi tieu dung. Nhng vi
sinh vat nay chu yeu nhiem vao san pham t
nhng gia v cho them vao.

Ca muoi:

.........................................................................................................
43

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

Tng t nh oi vi tht muoi, van con nhng vi


sinh vat ton tai c di dang tiem sinh trong
nong o muoi cao. Chnh v vay can chu y ti
ve sinh thc pham trong qua trnh x ly ca. Neu
thay xuat hien cac nam mau nau, th coi nh ca
muoi a b hong.
Cac vi khuan nh Clostridium botulinum, Salmonella
b ngng phat trien trong moi trng co nong
o muoi tng oi thap, tuy nhien khong chet
ma van con co kha nang ton tai trong mot
thi gian dai. Vi Clostridium botulinum, khi a
sinh oc to th du nong o muoi cao cung
khong pha huy c oc to nay.
Trong ca con ton tai nhng vi khuan co kha
nang thch ng dan vi moi trng muoi hoac
nhng vi sinh vat a muoi nh: Serracia salinaria,
Torula wemeri, Micrococcus rocus, Khi cac vi sinh
vat nay phat trien se lam cho ca co mot
lp mau hoac b vet o, dan dan ca se b
mem, b nht. Cac protein cua ca b phan
huy thanh NH3, indola, scatola,.. e giam bt
hien tng nay can ra sach cac vet mau
hnh thanh, sau o ngam ca vao dung dch co
nong o muoi cao co pha 3 5% acid acetic. Hon
hp nay co tac dung lam cng ca, lam chet
hoac lam vi sinh vat ngng phat trien
Trong qua trnh muoi ca mot so bien oi hoa
sinh xay ra di s hoat ong cua vi sinh vat
co trong ca cung lam cho san pham ca muoi
tr nen mem, thm du. Cac san pham ca
muoi loai nay co the an trc tiep ma khong
can nau.

Ca ngam chat bao quan: co the s dung acid


acetic 4 6% e ngam ca (trong tht ca se at
c vao khoang 0,8 1,2%). Ngoai ra con can
s dung them natribenzoat (1g/kg ca) hoac mot
so loai chat khang khuan khac nh: acid salixilic

.........................................................................................................
44

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

(0,03 0,05%), acid benzoic (0,25%), acid


(0,15%), hydroperoxyt (0,1 0,2%), acid formic
0,2%). Ben canh o co the s dung cac
khang sinh nh: oreomixin, biomixin, vi
lng thap e bao quan ca.

boric
(0,1
chat
ham

Ca kho: ca trc khi c lam kho co the


c ngam muoi 5 7%. o am cang thap th
cang han che s phat trien cua vi sinh vat;
vi vi khuan, o am can di 30%, vi nam
moc o am can di 15%.

3.4.2.Cac san pham che bien co qua


qua trnh nhiet:
Nhng san pham che bien co qua qua trnh nhiet
neu khong bao am ngiem ngat co the nhiem
mot so loai vi sinh vat nh: Bacillus, Pseudomonas,
Staphylococus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Nhng vi sinh
vat nay co trong nguyen lieu cha b tieu diet het
va tai phat trien khi gap ieu kien thuan li.

Ca p lanh: ca c bao quan nhiet o


t ( 2) ( 5)0C vi o am tng oi la 90
92%. Cac loai vi sinh vat a lanh thng gap la:
Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bact. putrifaciens, Mucor
stolonifer, Mucor mucedo, Aspergilus niger, Penicilium
glacum, Rhizopus. Cac dung cu thiet b s dung
trong qua trnh chuyen ch, cha ng va x
ly ca nhat thiet phai c lam ve sinh sach
se va c sat trung trc khi s dung.

Ca ong lanh: thng c bao quan ( 18)


( 20)0C. Trong giai oan au phan ln vi sinh vat
b chet, tuy nhien van con ton tai nhieu loai
dang tiem sinh, nh:
Sarcina, Micrococcus
aurantiacus, M. flavus, M.roseus, Bac. subtilis, Bac.
mesentericus,
Pseudomonas,
E.coli,
Aspergillus,
Penicillium, Mucor,..

Ca hop: thong thng ca c che bien va


c cha trong cac hop kn va c tiet trung

.........................................................................................................
45

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

nhiet o cao. Trong qua trnh tiet trung hau


het vi sinh vat b tieu diet, tuy nhien can phai
e phong mot so loai bao t cua vi khuan
van co kha nang ton tai, nh: Bacillus subtilis,
Bacillus mesentericus, Clostridium botulinum. Chnh v
vay sau khi tiet trung can kiem tra lai.

Cac san pham o hop ca thng la: ca


ngam dau, ca co muoi, ca ngam nc sot,
ca sot ca chua, Ngi ta nhan thay rang,
moi trng acid bao t cua vi khuan se kem
ben, trong moi trng co dau m th o ben
vi nhiet lai tang. Do o trong dang o hop
co nc sot at pH 4,5 th vi khuan Clostridium
botulinum khong phat trien c. Con trong cac
san pham o hop co chat beo va protein th
se lam tang o chu nhiet cua vi sinh vat. Do
o nhieu o hop sau khi gia nhiet van co kha
nang con ton tai cac vi sinh vat nh : Bacillus
subtilis, Bacillus mesentericus, Bacillus thermophylus,
cac dang bao t cua Clostridium sporongenes,
Clostridium botulinum,. ay thng la cac vi
sinh vat k kh do o neu trong san pham con
ton tai loai vi sinh vat nay th mot thi gian sau
trong o hop se xuat hien cac kh H 2S, CO2 lam
cho o hop phong len.
3.4.3. Cac san pham xong khoi:

Tren cac san pham xong khoi thng co


cac vi sinh vat nh Gram (+) nh Micrococcus, Bacillus ,
nam men va mot so vi khuan Gram am. Bao t
nam moc thay nhieu tren ca hun khoi.
Salmonella va Staphyloccos cung thay co trong san
pham ca xong khoi. Ngoai ra trong sam pham ca
xong khoi con phat hien b nhiem Clostrdium
botulinum
3.4.4. Bot ca:
Trong san pham bot ca ac iem cua cong
nghe nen trong chung co the cha E.coli gay
.........................................................................................................
46

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

benh va Salmonella la nhng vi sinh vat co tac


hai cho ngi s dung.
3.4.5. Cac san pham ca an ti, song:
Nhng ngi co thoi quen an ca song (goi
ca) co the b nhiem mot so benh do nguyen
lieu b nhiem nh: Thng han, ta, san. Trong
nhng trng hp co giai oan che bien nhiet
nhng khong ky. Ngi s dung cung co the
nhiem mot so vi sinh vat do ban than nguyen
lieu mang hoac do o nhiem trong qua trnh che
bien.

CHNG 4:

VI SINH VAT TRONG


TOM, MC VA CAC ONG
VAT NHUYEN THE

4.1. QUA TRNH NHIEM VI SINH:


Tom, mc va cac loai nhuyen the do song
trong moi trng nc v the qua trnh nhiem vi sinh
vat chu yeu t moi trng song. Cac vi sinh vat
thng thay trong moi trng nc eu co the
nhiem vao nhng loai ong vat tren. Ngoai ra do
thoi quen an tao co cha chat oc cua mot so
loai nhuyen the dan en cac loai nhuyen the nay
cung cha chat oc anh hng en ngi s
.........................................................................................................
47

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

dung. Mot so loai con la vat trung gian truyen mot


so ky sinh trung cho ngi.
Do cau truc c the khong chat che nen khi
nhiem vi sinh vat cac loai ong vat nay co toc o
phan huy rat nhanh.
Cac vi sinh vat thng thay trong tom, mc va
nhuyen the nh: Salmonella, Vibrio, ca vi khuan ng
ruot gay benh va mot so virut gay benh cho tom
do nguon nc b o nhiem hoac do ban than con
giong trong nuoi trong mang benh lay truyen cho
nhau. Ngoai ra trong mot so loai so con cha chat
oc cua tao c tiet ra khi chung an loai tao nay.
4.2. CAC QUA TRNH BAO QUAN:
Tom, Mc, va nhuyen the thng c s dung
dang ti. Ngay nay do nhu cau xuat khau va
cuoc song cong nghiep nen xuat hien them mot
so qua trnh che bien nh sau:
4.2.1. Dung nhiet o thap:
Nham muc ch bao quan san pham dang nguyen
lieu cho cac qua trnh che bien tiep theo. Co the
dung a e p trong thi gian ngan (Van chuyen
t ni anh bat vao b, chuyen en ni tieu thu
tren th trng trong nc). ong lanh vi muc ch
bao quan thi gian lau (van chuyen en th trng
xa hoac tr hang cho thi gian ti).
4.2.2. Say kho:
S dung cac nguon nhiet lay i phan ln lng
am trong nguyen lieu vi muc ch bao quan san
pham. Tuy nhien cac bao quan nay thng dung
cho tom va mc, con nguyen lieu t nhng loai
nhuyen the t dung cach nay.

.........................................................................................................
48

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

4.2.3. Bao quan bang muoi ham lng


cao:
Mot so tom nho (tep) c dung lam mam
ay la mot qua trnh che bien nhng co muc ch
bao quan. Tuy nhien, san pham nay co th trng
khong ln (chu yeu th trng trong nc) nen
lng s dung khong nhieu.
4.3. CAC DANG H HONG CUA TOM, MC VA
CAC LOAI NHUYEN THE:
Cac san pham tom, mc, nhuyen the thng
s dung chu yeu dang ti nen van e bao
quan san pham luon ti la mot yeu to rat quan
trong. Hien tng h hong cua tom, mc, va cac
loai nhuyen the chu yeu do vi sinh vat phat trien
gay nen:
-

Khi tom mi chet tht tom mem sau o do


qua trnh phat trien cua vi sinh vat mang tom
tach ra va de dang rung au, tiet dch co
mui hoi vo tom sam mau. Mat tom co mau
xam uc do nhng vi sinh vat len men thoi sinh
ra. ay la dau hieu tom a b h hong qua
mc. Vay khi tht tom co mau toi sam, mui
v n thoi, tht b la tom n khong nen
dung.

+ S bien o cua tom:


Qua trnh bien o cua tom xay ra khi tom
ti gia nhiet, tom c bao quan trong moi
trng acid hoac khi ngam tom trong ru.
C che cua s bien oi xay ra nh sau:
trong vo va tht cua tom ti co cha
astaxanthin co mau xanh tm, chat nay tao phc
vi protein. Trong ieu kien nhat nh astaxanthin
b tach ra va b oxy hoa thanh astanxin mau
o gach.

.........................................................................................................
49

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

Vi tom e lau khoang 8 12h sau khi


anh bat nhiet o 30 400C, di tac dung
cua cac vi sinh vat nh: Pseudomonas,
Lactobacillus, Coryneformes astaxanthin se b tach
ra khoi tom va b oxy hoa lam cho tom b
bien o. i kem qua trnh nay la s phan giai
cua protein gay nen qua trnh thoi ra.
+ S bien en cua tom bien:
Hien nay van con nhieu y kien khac nhau ve
hien tng nay.
Co tac gia cho rang hien tng bien en
tom do cac vi khuan lay nhiem vao gay nen.
Co tac gia lai cho rang hien tng nay xay ra
la do tyrozin co trong tom b oxy hoa di tac
dung cua tyrozinase, cac chat mau toi nh
melanin hnh thanh tch lai dan roi tao thanh
om en tren tom.
Co ngi lai cho rang ay la do phenylalanin
tham gia vao qua trnh oxy hoa tao thanh cac
si, cac si nay tap hp lai thanh cac chat
mau toi.
Hien tng bien en lam giam gia tr cam
quan tom, tuy nhien van co the s dung
tom loai nay bnh thng.
-

Mc do co cau truc c the chac hn tom va


nhuyen the nen thi gian h hong lau hn. Tuy
nhien, cac qua trnh h hong do ly do sinh hoc
va do tac ong cua vi sinh vat xay ra cung
gay nen hien tng n thoi san pham.

Cac loai nhuyen the do chung luon gi mot


lng nc ngoai moi trng song trong c
the, nen khi chet chung rat de dang b phan
huy do s phat trien cua vi sinh vat. Chnh v
the, cac loai nhien the neu khong co bien

.........................................................................................................
50

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

phap bao quan b chet khong c dung e


che bien.
4.4. VI SINH VAT TRONG MOT SO SAN PHAM
T TOM, MC VA CAC LOAI NHUYEN
THE:
4.4.1.Cac san pham s dung khong qua
che bien nhiet:
Trong nhng san pham nh goi, tai co the
mang cac loai vi sinh vat nh Salmonella, Vibrio, mot so
vi khuan ng ruot va mot vai loai ky sinh trung
co vat trung gian truyen benh la so, oc.
4.4.2.Cac san pham ong hop:
Do qua trnh x ly khong at trong san pham
ong hop co the cha Clostridium gay ngo oc cho
ngi s dung.
4.4.3.Cac san pham kho:
Cac san pham kho co the nhiem vi khuan do
qua trnh say khong at hoac do nguyen lieu a
vao che bien a b nhiem. Ngoai ra nhng san
pham mac du a c say tot nhng trong thi gian
bao quan vi ieu kien khong tot se b tai nhiem
vi sinh vat va cac loai nam moc.

.........................................................................................................
51

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

CHNG 5:

VI SINH VAT TRONG


CHE BIEN VA BAO QUAN
SA

4.1. QUA TRNH NHIEM VI SINH:


Sa la mot san pham thu nhan t mot so
ong vat co vu nh bo, nga, de. ay la mot
chat dch c the co thanh phan dinh dng cao.
Chnh v the ay cung la moi trng thch hp e vi
sinh vat phat trien. Qua trnh nhiem vi sinh vat co
the t moi trng hoac t ban than ong vat b
nhiem benh.

Cac vi khuan gay ang:

Streptococcus liquefaciens: co nhieu tnh chat gan


giong Streptococcus lactis, phat trien tot 300C,
co kha nang tao enzym lam ong tu sa. S.
liquefaciens gay nen qua trnh pepton hoa tao ra
san pham co v ang kho chu.

Trc khuan ng ruot: Cac vi khuan thuoc


nhom nay nhiem vao sa t phan chuong
ti, a so khong lam ong sa, ch mot so t
loai lam ong sa cham. ai dien cho nhom
nay la E.coli, co kha nang lan men glucid va
anbumin, sinh kh tao cac sa ong co ranh.

.........................................................................................................
52

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

Vi khuan buttiric: thuoc nhom Clostridium. Xam


nhap vao sa t thc an ong vat, t rm,
ra, phan,, do vat sa khong ung ve sinh.
Neu sa b nhiem vi khuan loai nay th rat
kho loai bo, do thanh trung Pasteur khong diet
c bao t cua chung. Trong moi trng sa
cac vi khuan nay bien oi acid lactic thanh cac
acid bay hi, acid butiric, hydro, va cacbonic. Acid
butiric gay mui kho chu cho sa. Khi phat hien
ra s co mat Clostridium th sa a hong.

Vi khuan gay thoi: khong gay len men ng


sa, a so thuoc nhom vi khuan sinh bao t,
co kha nang tao enzym phan giai protein thanh
pepton, acid amin t do va NH3. Pepton gay vi
ang cho sa. Gom cac loai:

Cac vi khuan hieu kh: nh Bacterium fluorescen,


Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus subtilis, Bacilus mesentericus.

Cac vi khuan k kh nh: Bacillus putrificus, Bacillus


botulinus.

Vi khuan hoai sinh: a so la nhng loai sinh bao


t chu nhiet cao, co hai trong viec bao quan
sa. Mot so loai thng gap: Staphylococus,
Tetracoccus, Bacillus megatherium, Bacillus mycoides,
Bacillus sporogenes

Nam men: mot so nam men thuoc ho


Mycoderma co kha nang tao enzym phan huy
protein va lipid, tao nen cac san pham gay v
ang kho chu cho sa.

Nam moc: nhieu loai nam moc co kha nang


tao enzym phan huy protein va lipid, tao nen
cac san pham gay v ang kho chu cho sa.
Nam moc thng phat trien sau nam men nen
ta thng tm thay chung trong sa b h hong
nang hoac tren phomat mem. Cac loai thng
gap:
Endomyces
lactis,
Mucor,
Aspergillus,
Penicillium, Oidium.

.........................................................................................................
53

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

Ngoai ra trong thien nhien con co nhieu dang vi sinh


vat khac nhau co the gay h hong sa neu b
nhiem vao sa. Co nhng vi sinh vat lam cho sa
tr nen nht, lay nhay nh: Bacterium lactia viscosum,
Bacillus lactorubefaciens,.. Hoac tao mau khac thng
sa nh: Pseudomonas cyanogeces, Bacillus cyanogenes
tao nhng cham xanh sam tren be mat sa;
Pseudomonas synatha, Bacterium synxanthum sinh mau
vang kim loai khi khong co mat vi khuan lactic;
Sarcina tao mau vang; Serratia marcescens tao mau
o,
Cac loai vi sinh vat thng nhiem vao sa nh sau:
4.1.1. Brucella
La cau trc trung Gram (-), co ba loai Brucella c
cho la gay benh cho ngi la B. abortus; B. suis;
B.melitenis co trong sa ong vat nhai lai, de va
cu. Khi b nhiem vi khuan nay trieu chng sot, ue
oai, au nhc c the se xuat hien sau 1 3 tuan
benh.
4.1.2. Mycobacteria:
La vi khuan Gr(+), va la vi khuan khang con
khang axit. Co ba loai Mycobacteria gay benh la M.
tuberculosis; M.avium va M. bovis. Loai Mycobacteria c
cho la b nhiem vao sa bo t nhng con bo b
nhiem vi khuan nay.
4.1.3. Vi khuan Streptococcus huyet giai
La loai cau trung Gr(+) xap xep dang chuoi. Loai
Streptococcus thng nhiem vao sa la S. pyogenes.
S xam nhap vi khuan nay vao sa do cac vat
cha sa.
4.1.4. Corynebacter
La trc khuan Gr(+) khong di ong, khong sinh
bao t. Loai C. diphtheriae c thay nhiem vao sa.
S xam nhap vi khuan vao sa dot moi trng
.........................................................................................................
54

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

hoac t nhng nhng vet loet cua ngi lam viec


trong trang trai mang vi khuan nay tren.
Ngoai ra sa con la moi trng tot cho cac vi
sinh vat khac phat trien neu khong bao am ieu
kien ve sinh tot hoac khong c thanh trung tot.
4.2. CAC QUA TRNH BAO QUAN:
4.2.1.Thanh trung:

Hnh 7: S o he thong tiet trung UHT gian tiep bang


cach un nong trong thiet b trao oi nhiet dang khung
ban
1- thung can bang; 2- bm ay; 3- thiet b trao oi nhiet
dang khung ban; 4- thiet b ong hoa; 5- injector; 6- thiet b
lu nhiet;
7- thung tam cha (vo trung); 8- thiet b rot vo trung

Sa c dung phan ln dang ti ch qua


qua trnh thanh trung. Do tnh chat va thanh phan
cua sa, ong thi do yeu cau s dung nen sa
ti ch co the bao quan bang phng phap thanh
trung. Qua trnh thanh trung ch dung nhiet o
khong cao (630C/30 phut; 770C/15 giay), hoac bang
phng phap UHT (ultra high temperature) nham tranh
bien tnh sa.
Thong so ky thuat:
.........................................................................................................
55

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................
* Tiet trung UHT:
San
long

pham

dang

Cac thong so cua qua


trnh UHT

San pham acide cao pH<


4.5

93-96oC / 30-15 giay

San pham acide thap pH>


4.5

135-149oC / 30-1 giay

Sa ( My)

138oC / 2 giay

Sa ( Anh)

T> 135oC / >1 giay


T> 140oC / >2 giay

Sa co hng lieu
( Anh)

* thanh trung pasteur:


San pham

Nhiet o (

C)/ Thi

gian
Sa ( My)

630C/30 phut ;

Sa ( Anh)

630C/30 phut
giay

770C/15giay
; 720C/ 15

Dch chiet trai cay

850C/15 giay

Trng

dang

long

600C/3,5 phut

Trng

dang

long

64,40C/2,5 phut

(My)
(Anh)
Bia

650C/20 phut

4.2.2. Sa ac co ng:
Da vao nguyen tac trong nong o ng cao
(60%) tat ca cac vi sinh vat eu khong the phat
trien c. Sa ac co ng la mot san pham
che bien cua sa ngoai ra con mang muc ch bao
quan.

.........................................................................................................
56

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

4.2.3. Sa bot:
Vi cong nghe say phun ngi ta tao ra san
pham sa bot ay la san pham co thi gian bao
quan lau nhat cua sa.
4.2.4. Bao quan bang nhiet o thap:
Dung nhiet o thap e lam giam hoat ong
cua vi sinh vat. Tuy nhien, phng phap nay gia
thanh cao va thi gian bao quan khong lau. Ch
nen ap dung phng phap nay khi ket hp vi thanh
trung hoac dung trong qua trnh van chuyen en c
s che bien.
4.3. CAC DANG H HONG SA:
Sa ch co mot dang h hong ang ke nhat
la len men lac tic chuyen glucose thanh axit lactic lam
sa b chua. Chnh v the chung ta can co bien phap
bao quan sa ngay sau khi thu hoach xong nham duy
tr trang thai nguyen lieu tot cho nhng qua trnh
che bien tiep theo.
Ngoai ra vi thanh phan dinh dng cao, khi b
nhiem vi sinh vat khac vao sa va s phat trien
cua chung gay nen mot so bien oi ca chat va
lng sa. Co nhng vi sinh vat trong qua trnh phat
trien sinh ra san pham phu la nhng oc to gay
anh hng en ngi s dung.
4.4. VI SINH VAT TRONG MOT SO SAN PHAM
SA:
Vi khuan len men chua:
-

Streptococcus lactis: la vi khuan hieu kh tuy tien,


hnh que co nhanh. Co kha nang len men glucose,
lactose, galactose, mantose, dextrin thanh acid lactic.
Khong len men saccharose. Phat trien tot 30
35oC. Sau khoang 5 7 ngay vi khuan tao c o
acid khoang 90 1200T (o Tecne: la so ml dung
dch NaOH hoac KOH 0,1N can thiet e trung hoa
100ml sa). Sau khi at o acid cc ai, o acid se

.........................................................................................................
57

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

c gi nguyen theo thi gian. Thng c dung


trong san xuat sa chua, b chua
-

Streptococcus cremoris: la lien cau khuan cung co


khi di dang song cau khuan, phat trien
nhiet o 20 250C. Cac ieu kien nuoi cay
giong nh S.lactis. Thng lam ong sa, nhng
cung co the lam nht sa. Co kha nang len
men lactose thanh acid lactic, nhng khong len men
saccharose, mantose, dextrin. Thng c dung
trong san xuat b chua.

Lactobacterium bulgaricum: la trc khuan len men


lactic. Phat trien tot nhiet o 22 530C, co kha
nang lam cho sa b chua en 200 3000T .

Lactobacterium lactis: la trc khuan len men lactic.


Phat trien tot nhiet o 22 500C, co kha
nang lam cho sa b chua en 110 1800T. Gay
ong sa sau 12h.

Lactobacterium casei: la trc khuan len men lactic.


Phat trien tot nhiet o 300C, co kha nang
lam cho sa b chua en 180 200 0T. Lam ong
sa sau 2 3 ngay. Gi vai tro quan trong trong
qua trnh lam chn phomai. Co the phat trien
nong o muoi cao en 5,3%.

Lactobacterium plantarun: la trc khuan len men


lactic. Phat trien tot nhiet o 300C, co kha
nang lam cho sa b chua en 180 200 0T. Lam
ong sa sau 2 3 ngay. Gi vai tro quan trong
trong qua trnh lam chn phomai. Tuy nhien mot so
chung thuoc loai nay co kha nang gay nhng
vet r tren mat phomai.

Lactobacterium helveticum: con c goi la trc


khuan phomat. Phat trien tot 22 510C, tao acid
en o 200 300oT.

Propionibacterium: la cac trc khuan khong bao


t, khong chuyen ong, co khi dang tron.
Phat trien tot ieu kien k kh hn hieu kh.

.........................................................................................................
58

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

Lam ong sa sau 5 7 ngay. o acid tao thanh


160 1700T. Tao thanh chu yeu la acid propionic,
acid acetic, CO2 ngoai ra con tao thanh mot t acid
formic, acid butiric, acid valerianic va vitamin B12 . Phat
trien tot niet o 30 350C. ng dung trong san
xuat phomai dai ngay
-

Nam men: cac loai nam men co kha nang len


men glucid ong vai tro quan trong trong viec tr
giup qua trnh len men cua vi khuan lactic, ong
thi tao them cac hng v ac trng, lam
phong phu them san pham len men. Cac giong
thuoc Torulopsis th c ng dung trong che bien
b e tang them thi gian bao quan cua b.

Cac vi khuan sinh hng:


La cac vi khuan co kha nang tao ra trong sa va
cac san pham t sa cac acid bay hi (acid acetic,
acid propionic) va nhieu hng thm (diacetin, eter)
-

Streptococcus citrovorus: phat trien kem, khong


gay ong tu. Nhiet o phat trien toi u la 300C.

Streptococcus paracitrovorus: phat trien khoe hn,


gay ong tu sau 2 3 ngay. Nhiet o phat trien
toi u la 300C.

Streptococcus diacetilactis: phat trien manh, tao


nhieu acid, tao diacetin co mui de chu. Nhiet o
phat trien toi u la 350C. Co mot so chung gay
ong tu sau 16 18h mot so khac sau 48h. ay la
loai co gia tr nhat trong cac loai sinh hng.

Leuconostoc citrovorum: co te bao hnh cau, trong


moi trng acid tao te bao dai, nhon hai au.
Tao t acid lactic. t khi lam ong sa. Tao ra acetila
metylcarbonin hoac acetoin lam cho b co mui thm.
c ng dung trong san xuat b.

Nam moc: mot so loai nam moc c s dung


trong san xuat phomat, tao mui thm ac biet cho
san pham nay. V du: Oidium lactis.

.........................................................................................................
59

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

4.4.1.Sa chua:
San pham sa chua che bien t sa ti sau khi
thanh trung c len men bang vi khuan Lactobacillus,
Streptococcus ket hp vi nam men Saccharomyces
kefir. Hoac bang he vi sinh vat Streptococcus
therophylus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Cac sinh vat nay
con song trong san pham cho en luc s dung.
Trong san pham nay khong c co cac loai vi sinh
vat khac. Khi sa chua b h hong ngha la no a
b nhiem vi sinh vat khac.
4.4.2.Sa ti tiet trung:
Bang cach s dung nhiet o nham tieu diet
vi sinh vat co trong nguyen lieu. Tuy nhien, do tnh
chat cua sa nen ch c tiet trung bang phng
phap Pasteur( s dung nhiet o khong cao). Hien nay
cong nghe phat trien a tao ra cong nghe tiet
trung UHT( nhiet o cao, thi gian tiep xuc thap).
Sa tiet trung UHT co thi gian bao quan tot hn.
Tuy nhien, neu dung cu cha khong am bao ve
sinh sa co the b nhiem nhng vi sinh vat do vat
cha mang theo.

Hnh 8: Vi khuan Corynebacter diphtheriae nhn di knh hien


vi.

4.4.3. Sa ac co ng:
nong o ng cao la moi trng khong
thuan li cho vi sinh vat phat trien. Tuy nhien, sa
.........................................................................................................
60

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

ac co ng van la moi trng cho vi khuan len


men lactic chuyen lactose thanh axit lactic lam chua
sa.
4.4.4. Sa bot:
Dung phng phap say phun ta co san pham
sa bot nham keo dai thi gian bao quan lau
nhat. Trong sa bot b von cuc do hut am ln hn
6% co the b nhiem trung va nam moc.
4.4.5. Phomai:
Pho mai che bien t casein sa cho len men t
nhien hoac bang he vi khuan len men chua va nam
moc. Do trong san pham con mot lng nc nen
co the b nhiem vi khuan len men thoi (sinh H 2S)
gay h hong san pham.

.........................................................................................................
61

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

CHNG 6:

VI SINH VAT TRONG


BOT VA TINH BOT

6.1. QUA TRNH NHIEM VI SINH:


Bot va tinh bot la san pham cua cac loai ngu
coc (lua, lua m, lua mach), mot so loai cu (khoai
m), va mot vai loai au (au xanh). Ban chat bot
la mot san pham co ham lng am thap. V the,
bot va tinh bot neu c bao quan tot se rat t
co kha nang vi sinh vat xam nhap va phat trien.
Qua trnh nhiem vi sinh vat cua bot va tinh bot
ch xay ra khi o am cua chung vt qua gii han.
Luc nay hoat ong cua enzym co trong san pham
thuy phan tinh bot thanh glucose giup cho vi sinh vat
phat trien. S phat trien manh me cua he vi sinh
vat nhanh chong lam h hong san pham.
Cac loai con trung (sau, mot) cung la oi
tng thng thay trong san pham bao quan khong
tot (e h, khong co bao b kn).
Ngoai ra san pham bot con mang theo nam
moc khi nguyen lieu b nhiem trong qua trnh bao
quan.
6.2. CAC QUA TRNH BAO QUAN:
Bot va tinh bot la nhng san pham can duy tr
mot mc o am toi thieu. Chnh v the, viec bao
.........................................................................................................
62

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

quan chung la nham muc ch khong cho am xam


nhap.
Bao b co kha nang chong tham thau am la
vat lieu can thiet trong qua trnh bao quan bot va
tinh bot. Ngoai ra kho cha cung can lu y, khong b
ngap, khong am thap.
6.3. CAC DANG H HONG BOT VA TINH BOT:
6.2.1.Nhiem do vi khuan:
Cac vi khuan co kha nang len men ng
glucose va sinh bao t co the phat trien trong bot
neu bot b am. anh lu y trong so cac vi khuan
o la Bacillus mesentericus (gay benh khoai tay). Neu
bot b nhiem vi khuan gay benh khoai tay khi em
che bien banh se gay hien tng keo si goi la
benh si dnh.

Hnh 9: Vi khuan Bacillus mesentericus gay benh khoai


tay trong cac moi trpng nuoi cay va nhn di knh
hien vi.

6.2.1.Bot b moc:
.........................................................................................................
63

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

Trong qua trnh bao quan neu o am tang cao


nam moc se phat trien trong khoi bot gay bien
chat. Ngoai ra mot so nam( Aspergillus flavur,
Penicillium flavur )khi phat trien con tao ra sac to
va oc to lam cho bot b bien mau va nhiem
oc. Bot khi a bien mau do nam moc khong c
dung e che bien. Nam moc phat trien se sinh ra
nhieu oc to, trong o Aflatoxin tac ong manh len
he than kinh gay ngo oc cho ngi s dung. Co
nhieu loai Aflatoxin nhng loai co oc tnh cao la
Aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2

Hnh 10: Cau truc cua Alflatoxin

6.2.2. Bot von cuc:


San pham khi hap thu am se de b von cuc.
Am con la ieu kien tot cho cac loai vi sinh vat de
dang xam nhap va phat trien gay h hong bot.
6.2.3. Nhiem sau mot:
Bot va tinh bot thng b con trung xam nhap
khi ieu kien bao quan khong tot. Con trung
khong ch lam hao hut so lng san pham ma con
.........................................................................................................
64

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

lam giam mc o cam quan cua bot do phan


chung thai ra. Cac loai con trung thng thay trong
bot thuoc:
-Bo canh cng (mot)
-Bo canh vay (ngai) pha hoai gao
-Bo rang ca (Rep) pha hoai bot m
-Bo bet (nhen) pha hoai gao va bot m.
6.4. VI SINH VAT TRONG MOT SO SAN PHAM
BOT VA TINH BOT:
Bot va tinh bot neu c bao quan tot
thng t b h hong do vi sinh vat v ban than san
pham khong ap ng o am thch hp cho vi sinh
vat phat trien. Tuy nhien neu bao quan khong tot
mot so vi sinh vat co the phat trien.
6.4.1.Bot m:
Neu hap thu am do bao quan khong tot bot m
se b von cuc mot so vi sinh vat sinh bao t co
kha nang s dung ng glucose (Bacillus
mesentericus) se phat trien. Ngoai ra cac loai con
trung co the xam nhap nh mot bot, rep, nhen.
6.4.2. Bot dinh dng:
Do co bo xung mot so chat dinh dng khac
co the nhiem vi sinh vat ban than nguyen lieu
mang vao nh sau mot, nam moc hoac do nhiem
trong qua trnh che bien (san pham bot thng
khong qua qua trnh nhiet).
6.4.3. Banh m:
c lam t bot m hoa vi nc va muoi len
men bang men banh m va nng nhiet o 220oC 250oC. Mot so vi sinh vat co trong banh m nh nam
moc khi b h hong nh: Bacillus mesentericus lam
banh m khi be ra co nht keo thanh ch; nam
moc lam cho banh bien mau va v (ang).
.........................................................................................................
65

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

Trong qua trnh san xuat banh m va cac loai


banh lam t bot m, co vai tro quan trong cua nam
men. Thng s dung nhat la Saccharomyces
cerevisiae. Vi cac chung tinh khiet co chon loc, se
giup tao ra loai banh ngon, thm, xop. Ngoai vai tro
tao CO2, nam men con tao ra cac chat gay hng nh
etanol, aceton, diaceton,
Ngoai ra oi khi nhng chung vi khuan len men
lactic cung ong mot vai tro rat quan trong trong qua
trnh san xuat nhat la oi vi banh m en, chung
thng
gap nhat la:
Lactobacillus plantarum,
Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus fermentum.
6.4.4. M si, m ong, m thanh:
Do ieu kien kho khan nen nc ta
pham m si sau khi san xuat ch qua qua trnh
(khong qua say) va cung cap ra th trng. V
cac san pham nay thng b nhiem nam moc
h hong san pham.

san
hap
the
gay

.........................................................................................................
66

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

CHNG 7:

VI SINH VAT TRONG


CAC SAN PHAM NG,
BANH, KEO

7.1. QUA TRNH NHIEM VI SINH:


ng c lam t cac loai cay cha ham
lng ng cao nh ma, cu cai ng, hoac bang
cong nghe phan huy tinh bot di tac dung cua
enzym. Trong qua trnh che bien eu s dung nhiet.
V the, a so vi sinh vat eu b tieu diet. Tuy nhien,
mot so vi khuan sinh bao t va chu nhiet co the
ton tai trong ng, khi gap ieu kien thch hp se
phat trien va gay benh cho ngi s dung. Ngoai
ra trong qua trnh bao quan, neu ieu kien khong
tot ng co the b nhiem mot so vi sinh vat nh
nam moc, nam men va cac vi khuan co the phat
trien trong moi trng co ham lng ng cao.
Cac san pham banh keo c lam t ng va
mot so thanh phan khac nh bot, va cac chat bo
tr (mui ,mau, chat bao quan). Tuy theo cong
nghe che bien co qua qua trnh nhiet hay khong
cac san pham banh keo nhiem vi sinh vat khac
nhau.
.........................................................................................................
67

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

Nhng san pham banh keo khong qua qua trnh


nhiet ngoai vi sinh vat co trong nguyen lieu con b
nhiem vi sinh vat do moi trng, dung cu, va ngi
che bien o nhiem vao san pham nh: vi khuan
ng ruot, vi khuan tao bao t khong chu nhiet,
nam moc, nam men. Nhng vi sinh vat nay gay h
hong san pham va co tac hai en ngi tieu
dung.
Nhng san pham banh keo co qua qua trnh
nhiet (nng, hap, luoc) co the con nhiem vi
khuan sinh bao t va chu nhiet nh Clostridium
perfringens. Ngoai ra trong qua trnh bao quan san
pham banh keo chung con b nhiem nam moc gay
nen hien tng moc san pham.
7.2. CAC QUA TRNH BAO QUAN:
7.2.1.ng:
Do ban chat ng c che bien co s dung
nhiet nham co ac va ket tinh, qua trnh nay
ngoai muc ch tren con mang muc ch bao quan.
Ngoai ra trong qua trnh bao quan can lu y en
bao b nham tranh hien tng hap thu am vao san
pham. ng b hap thu am se khong con duy tr
dang tinh the tao ieu kien thuan li cho vi sinh vat
xam nhap va phat trien. Ben canh o trong san
pham ngi ta cung bo sung chat bao quan (chong
moc) nham tang thi gian bao quan.
7.2.2. Cac san pham banh keo:
7.2.2.1.Cac san pham co x ly nhiet:
Mot so san pham nh banh nng, chien,
hap ngoai muc tieu che bien con mang muc ch
bao quan san pham nhiet o thng trong thi
gian gii han. Tuy nhien muon bao quan thi gian
lau can lu y en yeu to bao b nham tao moi
trng bat li tranh s phat trien cua vi sinh vat.
Khi ket hp vi bao quan bang nhiet o thap co
.........................................................................................................
68

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

the keo dai them thi gian bao quan cua san
pham.
7.2.2.2.Cac san pham khong x ly
nhiet:
Nhng san pham dang nay (banh deo)
thng c che bien cho muc ch s dung ngay
hoac bao quan trong ieu kien nhiet o thap( 5oC
8oC) vithi gian rat ngan( vai ngay). Khi co bo
sung chat bao quan san phan co the keo dai thi
gian bao quan( banh au xanh).
7.3. CAC DANG H HONG CUA NG VA
BANH KEO:
7.3.1. Moc:
ng, va cac san pham cua no neu khong
c bao quan tot co the b nhiem nam moc gay
bien mau
san pham va lam giam ga tr san pham hoac h
hong hoan toan san pham. oi khi trong qua trnh
phat trien chung con tao ra oc to gay ngo oc
cho ngi s dung.
7.3.2. Ngam nc va von cuc:
ng co kha nang hut am rat cao. V the,
trong qua trnh bao quan neu khong tot se xay ra
hien tng hut am. Lng am trong ng se lam
von cuc lam giam gia tr san pham. Ngoai ra ay
con la ieu kien tot cho vi sinh vat phat trien.
7.3.3. Bien oi mau sac:
Khi ng b nhiem vi sinh vat, trong mot so
loai co kha nang tao ra sac to gay bien mau san
pham. Tat ca san pham khi b nhiem vi sinh vat va
thay oi trang thai eu khong c s dung.

.........................................................................................................
69

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

7.4. VI SINH VAT TRONG MOT SO SAN PHAM


NG VA BANH KEO:
Theo tieu chuan, cac loai ng dung e an
thang, keo, mt va mat eu khong cho phep co
E.coli, cac vi khuan gay benh, nam moc va nam
men. Tuy nhien trong qua trnh che bien va bao
quan mot so loai vi sinh vat co the hien dien trong
san pham gay h hong cho san pham va anh
hng en ngi s dung.
7.4.1. Keo:
Keo la mot san pham lam t ng va mot
so chat bo sung nh mau, mui va oi khi bo sung
them v. Keo rat de hut am do cha mot lng
ng hoan nguyen dan en chay nc va tao
ieu kien cho vi sinh vat phat trien.
7.4.2. Mach nha:
c lam t cach ng hoa tinh bot di tac
dung men amylase t mam ma. Do co s dung nhiet
trong khi che bien nen mach nha ch co the cha vi
khuan k kh chu nhiet (Clostridium perfringens) Va
nam moc neu ieu kien bao quan khong tot

.........................................................................................................
70

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

CHNG 8:

VI SINH VAT TRONG


RAU QUA VA
CAC SAN PHAM T RAU
QUA

8.1. QUA TRNH NHIEM VI SINH:


Rau qua ti co cha nhieu nc, men va
chat dinh dng la moi trng thch hp cho vi sinh
vat xam nhap va phat trien. Vay rau qua rat de
b h hong do vi sinh vat. Qua trnh nhiem vi sinh vat
vao rau qua thng do cac cach sau:
8.1.1.Qua trnh nhiem vi sinh vat t at:
Trong at co rat nhieu chung loai vi sinh vat.
V vay, rau qua khong tranh khoi b nhiem vi sinh
vat co trong at nh he vi khuan co nha bao,
Corynebacterium, Tellurit. Neu san pham sau khi thu
hoach khong c got ra ky nhng vi sinh vat nay
se xam nhap vao san pham gay h hong. Ngoai ra
trong qua trnh thu hoach rau qua co the b thng
ay la ieu kien e vi sinh vat xam nhap va phat
trien.
.........................................................................................................
71

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

8.1.2. Qua trnh nhiem t nguon nc


ti:
Tat ca cac loai rau eu can phai ti nc
trong qua trnh trong trot. Khi nguon nc ti b o
nhiem vi sinh vat (he vi khuan ng ruot, ky sinh
trung) rau qua se mang theo cac loai vi sinh vat nay.
Cac vi sinh vat nay se gay benh cho ngi s dung
neu khong c x ly tot.
8.1.3. Ban than rau qua mang benh:
Mot so vi sinh vat co the gay benh trc tiep
cho rau qua gay h hong san pham trong qua trnh
phat trien nh thoi la, thoi re. Rau qua thoi( t tan)
chu yeu do nam moc gay ra nh nam Alternaria,
Botritis, Phytophthora hay do vi khuan Erwinia.

Hnh 11: Mot so loai trng giun va san


.........................................................................................................
72

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

8.2. CAC QUA TRNH BAO QUAN:


Rau qua thng c s dung dang ti e
tan dung nguon dinh dng qu gia ma no mang theo
nh vitamin va muoi khoang. Chnh v the rau qua ch
co nhng loai bao quan nh sau:
8.2.1. Ve sinh va phan loai:
Muc ch cua ve sinh va phan loai nham loai
bo cac yeu to gay h hong san pham trong qua
trnh van chuyen va tieu thu. Phng phap ve sinh
thng s dung la dung nc e loai vi sinh vat
bam tren san pham. Lu y nguon nc dung trong
ve sinh phai sach e tranh hien tng tai nhiem.
Viec phan loai nham loai bo nhng phan t h
hong, mang benh,hay giap nat. Cac thanh phan
nay se la nguyen nhan lay lan h hong cho san
pham. Viec phan loai con giup phan thanh cac
nhom san pham co gia tr khac nhau.
8.2.2. Bao quan bang nhiet o thap:
Rau qua la dang te bao song, chung van con
hoat ong sau khi a thu hoach. Bao quan bang
nhiet o thap( 5oC 8oC) vi muc ch giam bt
cng o ho hap cua te bao giup keo dai thi
gian bao quan.
8.2.4. Bao goi:
Viec bao goi bang vat lieu thch hp cung lam
giam cng o ho hap cua te bao. Muc ch bao
goi la tao ra mot vi moi trng trong o co nong
o oxy thap. Yeu cau cua vat lieu lam bao b la
kha nang cho lng oxy tham thau thap. Khi cng
o ho hap thap thi gian bao quan se tang len.
Gan ay khoa hoc a thanh cong trong viec tao
mang sinh hoc( cytosan) e bao goi san pham. Viec
bao goi neu co bo xung hoa chat nh SO2, CO2 se
at hieu qua bao quan tot hn.

.........................................................................................................
73

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

8.2.5. Say chan khong:


Say chan khong la cong nghe tien tien da
vao tnh chat cua hi nc se boc hi nhiet o
thap trong ieu kien ap xuat thap. Vi ieu kien
nay, lng am trong rau qua se c lay ra khoi
san pham ma khong gay bien tnh nhng chat de
bien tnh nhiet co trong rau qua. Tuy nhien cong
nghe nay can thiet b phc tap va gia thanh cao.
Ngoai ra neu yeu cau khong cao trong mot so san
pham ngi ta co the dung phng phap say thong
thng hoac tan dung nguon nang lng thien
nhien( phi nang).
8.2.6. Len men lactic: (Muoi chua)
Li dung tnh chat len men lactic cua mot so vi
khuan tao moi trng axit tao ra cac san pham
muoi chua rau qua. Moi trng axit do s len men
lactic tao ra se c che s phat trien cua cac vi sinh
vat khac. ieu nay giup keo dai thi gian bao
quan san pham.
8.2.7. S dung ham lng ng cao:
ham lng ng cao vi sinh vat se b c
che, khi nong o ng at 60% tat ca cac vi sinh
vat eu khong phat trien c. Li dung tnh chat
nay ngi ta tao ra san pham mt qua vi muc ch
bao quan va a dang hoa san pham.
8.3. CAC DANG H HONG CUA RAU QUA:
Do ban than rau qua cha nhieu nc, men
hoat ong va cac chat dinh dng. Vay rau qua rat
de b h hong do vi sinh vat va do hoat ong cua
cac loai men cotrong san pham.
Co hai nguyen nhan lam cho rau qua ti b
bien chat va h hong.
-

Do thay oi sinh ly, sinh hoa

Cac yeu to ly hoa .

.........................................................................................................
74

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

8.3.1. Hien tng mat nc (heo):


-

Tac dung cua ho hap: rau ti van tiep tuc ho


hap. Neu co u Oxi trong qua trnh bao quan,
cac chat ng Axit hu c se b phan giai
dan thanh hi nc, CO2 va toa nhiet. Do co
rau qua ti e lau, mui v co nhat dan i.
Mot phan nhiet toa ra c cac te bao cua
rau qua hap thu vao, tao ieu kien cho phan
ng phan huy ng va axit hu c nhanh hn
len. Mot phan ln nhiet toa ra lam h hong
cac te bao khien rau qua b ung dap nat.
Neu khong u oxi, cac chat hu c lai b phan
giai thanh ru, CO2 va toa ra t nhiet hn
trng hp tren. Khi o ru tren 0,3% cac te
bao se b ngo oc, chet, lam cho rau b h
hong.

Anh hng cua o bay hi cua nc trong cac


te bao: rau ti trong qua trnh bao quan, b
mat nc dan dan lam trong lng b giam
xuong, te bao b teo, hnh dang ben ngoai thay
oi va rau b bien chat, h hong dan.

cac nc kh hau lanh, ngi ta thng gap


nhng trng hp nhiet o thap lam anh
hng en pham chat cua rau ti. Nc trong
rau ong bang lai lam cho hnh dang mau sac
cua rau bien oi. Khi am ap tr lai, nc
ong bang chay ra, mot phan c cac te
bao hap thu tr lai, nhng mot phan van b
chay i mat, khien cho trang thai cua rau
khong bnh thng, te bao b chet v rau b h
hong.
8.3.2. Do vi sinh vat:

Vi sinh vat xam nhap vao rau qua bat au t


nhng cho xc, nhng cho te bao khong c
bao ve nh nhng cho b sau mot uc khoet, roi
sinh soi nay n lam h hong rau qua. Cac dang h
.........................................................................................................
75

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

hong cua rau qua do vi sinh vat nh b thoi, gay


bien oi mau sac va tao mui v kho chu.
8.3.2.1. H hong do nam moc:
Cac qua b dap nat, sau o la nhng qua chn
se b nam moc tan cong. Do trong dch bao cua
nam moc co cha acid va ng, ay la ieu
kien thch hp cho nam moc phat trien. Sau khi phat
trien mot thi gian, nam moc se trung hoa moi
trng, tao ieu kien cho vi khuan phat trien.
Nam moc phat trien lam sinh ra mot so loai
enzym nh cellulose, petinase lam phan huy vo khien
cho cac khuan ty cua nam moc se an sau vao
cac mo cua thc vat khien cho dch bao chay ra.
ong thi, trong qua trnh phat trien, nam moc
cung tao thanh cac oc to lam rau qua b thoi
ra.
Thng gap nhat la cac dang:
-

Aspergillus niger : gay thoi en rau, qua ti, moc


en hanh

Penicillium

Fusarium
khoai tay

: gay moc thoi ca rot; thoi kho

Mucor

: gay moc thoi can tay

Rhizopus

: gay nhun en rau ti

: gay thoi xanh rau, qua ti;


thoi moc ca chua; thoi nhun
qua ti

8.3.2.2. H hong do vi khuan:


Rat t trng hp vi khuan la tac nhan au
trong qua trnh gay h hong rau, qua. Phan ln cac
trng hp la do s ket hp gia nam moc va vi
khuan. rau co ham lng protein cao hn qua va
thng khong co phan ng acid nen s h hong do
vi khuan gay nen thng gap rau nhieu hn la so
vi qua
.........................................................................................................
76

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

Mot so dang vi khuan gay h hong:


- Pseudomonas : P. fluorescens: gay thoi,
nhun rau ti; P. cepacia gay thoi hanh
- Crynebacterium : gay thoi khoai tay theo
vong.
- Clostridium: lam phong thoi rau ong hop;
tao acid butyric trong qua ngam ng
- Bacillus : lam nhun, en, nht rau ngam
dam
- Lactobacillus, Acetobacter: lam chua nc
ep rau, trai cay.
8.3.2.3. H hong do nam men:
Di tac dung cua nam men rau qua se b len
men thanh ru va CO2. Sau o di tac dung cua vi
khuan len men acetic v chua trong rau qua se hnh
thanh. Cac dang nam men thng gap: Candida,
Debariomyces, Hanse, Kloeckera, Pichia, Rhodotorula,
Saccharomyces, Torulopis,
8.4. VI SINH VAT TRONG MOT SO SAN PHAM
T RAU QUA:
Tat ca rau va qua eu nhiem vi sinh vat t
at, nc, bui bam vao luc thu hoach Ti khi em
thay vi khuanhieu kh cao co ngha la rau hoac cu
a tiep xuc vi mat at.
Ham lng axit va ng cua qua cao th nam
men va mam moc la chu ao. Trong rau qua co
ham lng gluxit tao ieu kien cho vi khuan sinh axit
lactic. S t tan cua rau va qua la do nam moc gay
nen. Nhng Coliforms khong do phan va nhng cau
khuan ruot la nhng vi khuan thng co mat tren
rau va qua nhng s co mat cua E.coli co the lien
quan vi viec s dung nc ti b o nhiem hoac
con ngi trong luc thao tac .
.........................................................................................................
77

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

Viec ra rau va cac cach x l nh nhiet am


86-980C lam cho so vi sinh vat giam va thng
ch con nha bao la song sot. Nh ca viec s hoa
chat nh SO2 tieu diet phan ln cac vi sinh cua thc
vat. Ket qua he vi sinh vat cua rau qua c x l
va p lanh thng la nhiem khuan sau khi x l va
nguon nhiem chnh la day chuyen san xuat, dung
cu va do ngi luc thao tac.
Viec phat hien E.coli hay Salmonella cho thay tren
be mat rau b nhiem phan

Hnh 12: Cau truc khang nguyen cua vi khuan Salmonella


typhi.

Nhng rau qua trc khi ra, trc khi goi va


p lanh eu c xet nghiem bang em Coliforms
phan anh s theo doi ve ve sinh sau khi lam sach .
Nhng rau qua ong hop pH dui 4.6 th khong
at van e quan he gia vi sinh vat vi sc khoe
con ngi. Tuy nhien, th nghiem ve u am co the
c ch nh. Nhng rau axit thap ong hop co the
C. botulinum.
Rau con mang mot so loai ky sinh trung nh giun
ua( Ascaris lumbricoides), giun toc( Trichuris trichiura),
.........................................................................................................
78

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

giun moc( Ancylostoma), giun ln( Strongyloides


stercoralis) va amibe( Entamoeba histolytica)

Hnh 13: Vong i cua Entamoeba histolytica.

o hop rau, qua:


Trong o hop rau qua thng co cac nhom
vi sinh vat nh Baccilus mesentericus, Bacillus
subbtilis, Clostridium pasteurianum,
e tranh nhiem vi sinh vat ngi ta thng
dung phng phap rot nong 800C, tiet trung
1200C trong thi gian 60 70 phut. Tuy nhien
phng phap nay khong ap dung c cho tat
ca cac loai rau qua, do o nhieu khi ch co
the ap dung c phng phap thanh trung o
hop tam thi diet cac te bao dinh dng cua
.........................................................................................................
79

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

vi sinh vat, nham han che s phat trien cua vi


sinh vat.
o hop c chia lam 3 nhom san pham:
-

Nhom 1: co pH > 5,2 : co kha nang co Clostridium


tao ra chat oc.

Nhom 2: pH = 4,6 5,2 : co bao t

Nhom 3: pH = 3,2 4,6 bao t khong phat trien


va khong gay oc.

Cac dang h hong:


-

H hong nhe: do qua trnh phan giai glucid thanh


cac acid hu c tao v chua, thng do Bacillus
stearothermophilus,
Bacillus
coagulans
va
Baccarothermophylus gay nen.

H hong nang: do phan giai glucid thanh CO2 va


H2 gay no o hop va tao v tanh; thng do
Clostridium
polymixa
va
Clostridium
thermosaccharolytic gay nen.

H hong do tao kh sulfur: do phan ng thuy phan


protein tao thanh H2S di tac dung cua
Clostridium nigrificans.

Rau muoi chua:


ng va dch tach ra t rau la moi trng
dinh dng rat tot cho cac vi sinh vat phat
trien nh: vi khuan lactic, vi khuan gay thoi,
nam men, nam moc, Leuconostoc mesentericus.
ay chnh la cac vi sinh vat tao nen qua trnh
muoi chua rau.
Qua trnh muoi chua nay co mot so dang h hong
nh sau:
-

Rau b bien mau tao thanh cac sac to nh mau


hong, o sang, tao vang do bi nam men
Torulopsis.

.........................................................................................................
80

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

B mem nhun do nhiet o cao va s hien dien


cua Lactobacterium pentoaceticum

Rau b nht do Lactobacterium cucumeris fermentari


va Lactobacterium plantarum gay nen

Nc qua:
Qua sau khi hai ve c ra sach, ep lay
dch, loc va pha che thanh nc qua. Trong
qua trnh thu hai, van chuyen se hnh thanh
mot lng vi sinh vat rat ln xung quanh qua.
Tuy nhien, qua qua trnh che bien, lng vi sinh
vat lai giam i rat nhieu
Neu sau khi thu hai khong san xuat nhanh qua,
th rat nhieu hien tng gay h hong qua se
hnh thanh nh: b moc do Penicillium, b chua do
vi khuan lactic va vi khuan acetic, co mui ru
do nam men.
Trong qua trnh san xuat, e giam thieu lng
vi sinh vat xam nhap can ong chai va thanh
trung nhiet o cao 90 950C sau o bao
quan 0 150C hoac dung CO2 e bao quan,
neu co ieu kien nen s dung tia t ngoai
e diet khuan se lam tang thi gian bao
quan.

.........................................................................................................
81

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

TAI LIEU THAM KHAO


1.

Nguyen Lan Dung chu bien - Vi sinh

vat hoc - Nha xuat ban Giao duc, 1997


2.

Nguyen c Lng - Cong nghe vi

sinh vat 1,2,3 Trng ai hoc bach khoa thanh


pho HCM. 1996
3.

Lu c Pham, Ho Sng - Vi sinh

tong hp Nha xuat ban khoa hoc va ky


thuat , Ha noi, 1997
4.

Le Xuan Phng - Vi sinh vat cong

nghiep - nha xuat ban xay dng , Ha noi


2001
5.

Le Ngoc Tu - Hoa sinh cong nghiep

Nha xuat ban khoa hoc va ky thuat, Ha


noi 1997
6.

Madigan, Martinko, Parker

- Biology of

Microorganism - Pretice Hall, 1997


7.

Lam Th Kim Chau, Nguyen Thng

Lenh, Van c Chn - Thc tap ln sinh hoa Tu sach ai hoc khoa hoc t nhien tp. HCM,
1997
8.

Bui Th Nh Thuan, Nguyen Phung

Tien, Bui Minh c - Kiem nghiem chat lng

.........................................................................................................
82

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

va thanh tra ve sinh an toan thc pham; tap 1,


2 - Nha xuat ban y hoc, 1991
9.

Nguyen Phung Tien, Bui Minh c,

Nguyen Van Dp Vi sinh vat thc pham Nha


xuat ban y hoc, 2003
10.

Nguyen

Lan

Dung,

oan

Xuan

Mu, Nguyen Phung tien, ang c Trach,


Pham Van Ty Mot so phng phap nghien
cu vi sinh vat hoc NXB Khoa hoc va Ky
thuat, 1998
11.

Th nghiem vi sinh - Trng ai hoc

ky thuat tp. HCM, 1998


12.

Cac tieu chuan Viet Nam

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83

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

MUC LUC
LI M AU ................................................2
Chng

0:
CAC
PHNG
PHAP
NH LNG VI SINH VAT................4

0.1.Phng phap em trc tiep...........................4


0.2. Phng phap em khuan lac:.......................6
0.3. Phng phap mang loc:..................................8
0.4. Phng phap MPN (Most Probable Number)......9
0.5. Phng phap o o uc:.................................9
CHNG

1.1.

1:
Mot
so
loai
vi
sinh
vat
gay
benh
thng
gap
.........................................................11

COLIFORM VA COLIFORM PHAN (FECAL


COLIFORM).......................................................12

1.2. Staphylococcus:................................................13
1.3. Shigella:...........................................................16
1.4. Salmonella.......................................................16
1.5. Yersinia:...........................................................17
1.6. Vibrio:...............................................................18
1.7. Clostridium:.......................................................19
CHNG

2:
Vi
sinh
vat
trong
che bien va bao quan tht
.........................................................23

.........................................................................................................
84

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

2.1. QUA TRNH NHIEM VI SINH:..........................23


2.2. CAC QUA TRNH BAO QUAN:....................24
2.3. Cac dang h hong cua tht:.......................30
2.4. Vi sinh vat trong mot so san pham t
tht:.................................................................32
CHNG

3:
Vi
sinh
vat
trong
che bien va bao quan CA
.........................................................37

3.1. QUA TRNH NHIEM VI SINH:..........................37


3.2. CAC QUA TRNH BAO QUAN:....................41
3.3. Cac dang h hong cua ca:........................42
3.4. VI SINH VAT TRONG MOT SO SAN PHAM
T CA:.........................................................43
CHNG

4:
Vi
sinh
vat
trong
TOM, MC VA CAC ONG VAT
NHUYEN
THE
.........................................................47

4.1. QUA TRNH NHIEM VI SINH:..........................47


4.2. CAC QUA TRNH BAO QUAN:....................48
4.3. Cac dang h hong cua Tom, mc va cac
loai nhuyen the:..........................................49
4.4. VI SINH VAT TRONG MOT SO SAN PHAM
T TOM, MC VA CAC LOAI NHUYEN
THE:.............................................................51
CHNG

5:
Vi
sinh
vat
trong
CHE BIEN VA BAO QUAN SA
.........................................................52

4.1. QUA TRNH NHIEM VI SINH:..........................52


4.2. CAC QUA TRNH BAO QUAN:....................55
.........................................................................................................
85

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

4.3. CAC DANG H HONG SA:.......................57


4.4. VI SINH VAT TRONG MOT SO SAN PHAM
SA:..............................................................57
CHNG

6:
Vi
sinh
vat
trong
BOT
VA
TINH
BOT
.........................................................62

6.1. QUA TRNH NHIEM VI SINH:..........................62


6.2. CAC QUA TRNH BAO QUAN:....................62
6.3. CAC DANG H HONG BOT VA TINH BOT:
........................................................................63
6.4. VI SINH VAT TRONG MOT SO SAN PHAM
BOT VA TINH BOT:.....................................65
CHNG

7:
Vi
sinh
vat
trong
CAC SAN PHAM NG, BANH,
KEO
.........................................................67

7.1. QUA TRNH NHIEM VI SINH:..........................67


7.2. CAC QUA TRNH BAO QUAN:....................68
7.3. CAC DANG H HONG CUA NG VA
BANH KEO:....................................................69
7.4. VI SINH VAT TRONG MOT SO SAN PHAM
NG VA BANH KEO:............................70
CHNG

8:
Vi
sinh
vat
trong
RAU
QUA
VA
CAC SAN PHAM T RAU QUA
.........................................................71

8.1. QUA TRNH NHIEM VI SINH:..........................71


8.2. CAC QUA TRNH BAO QUAN:....................73
8.3. CAC DANG H HONG CUA RAU QUA:......74
.........................................................................................................
86

Phan 2: Vi sinh thc pham


.........................................................................................................

8.4. VI SINH VAT TRONG MOT SO SAN PHAM


T RAU QUA:...............................................77
TAI LIEU THAM KHAO .................................82
MUC LUC.........................................................84

.........................................................................................................
87