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CHAPTER 1

1 INTRODUCTION OF NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY


The North Western Railway is one of the sixteen railway zones in India. It is headquartered at Jaipur. It comprises four divisions: Jodhpur and reorganized Bikaner division of the erstwhile Northern Railway and reorganized Jaipur and Ajmer divisions of the erstwhile Western Railway. This zone came into existence on October 1, 2002. This railway comprises a total of 578 stations covering a total of 5449.29 route km out of which 2575.03 are broad gauge and 2874.23 are metre gauge.The operating diesel sheds of NWR are ABR (Abu Road)which holds WDM2's and Bhagat Ki Kothi (BGKT) Jodhpur which holds WDM2 WDG's WDP4's WDM3A's which are broad gauge locomotives ,and Phulera at Jaipur which use to hold YDM4's which are meter gauge locomotives .NWR even holds international rail service Thar express Jodhpur to Munabao.

Fig 1.1 india railway jone


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Fig1.2 north western railway system map

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Ajmer division is one of the important divisions of North-Western Railway. It has three major work shops which have got second position in Western Railway

Ajmer Group of workshop 1- Diesel loco and wagon Workshop 2- Carriage Workshop 3- Electrical Workshop 4- General Store 5- Personal Department 6- Supervisor Training Centre 7- CMT 8- EDP Centre 9- Workshop Accounts

My training are in 2 most important workshop. Most important workshop: Carriage Workshop
Electrical workshop

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CHAPTER 2
2 RAILWAY POWER HOUSE :Railway Power House is situated at NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY D.E.E, DRM OFFICE Ajmer.it is 33/11 K.V. SUB STATION. a 33 KV feeder is given to the power house from Rajasthan state electricity board [R.S.E.B] and a two 500 KVA D.G. SET ,1750 KVA D.G. SET were also installed In which some modern oil circuit breaker [O.C.B] were installed. This power house supplies the electrical energy to different parts of Ajmer division with the rate of 4.5 Lakh Unit /month. 2.1 Classification of Railway Power House Now electrical power house can also subdivided into three parts for better understanding. a) b) c) Yard Control room 1750 K.V.A D.G. set room

2.2 Yard:Yard is a basically a 33/11 K.V sub station and its line diagram is shown on the left hand page 33 K.V. feeder has come here from R.S.E.B. Madar by crossing Nasirabad road. Different safety equipment are arranged in this feeder which are clearly shown in schematic diagram.. After these arrangements this 33K.V. feeder is connected to 33 K.V. O/H Bus Bar which are placed horizontally in the yard. An earth switched is also arrange in 33 K.V. feeder. Three feeder have taken from 33 K.V. B.B. after isolating switch. Each feeder are arranged with different safety equipment as shown in figure.

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Fig 2.1 single line diagram of railway power house 2.3 Equipment Used In Railway Power House Substations 1. Lighting Arrester 2. Isolator 3. Potential Transformer 4. Current Transformer 5. Circuit Breaker 6. Protective Relay 7. Bus Bar 8. Insulator 9. Fuses 10. Arching Horn
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11. Transformer 12. Earthing 13. Earthing Transformer 14. Control cables 15. Oil Filter 16. Battery Charger 17. P.F. Improvement Unit 18. Stand By Units

Fig 2.2 lighting arrester

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2.3.1 Lightning Arresters The most common device used for protection of the power system against high voltage surge is the surge diverter which diverts the incoming high voltage wave to earth. Such a diverter alternatively called lightening arrester. Advantage a) b) c) They are providing very efficient protection against surges. They operate very rapidly taking less then a second. The impulse ratio is practically unity Limitation a) They may fail to check surges of very strip wave front from reaching the terminal apparatus. b) Their performance is adversely affected by the entry of moisture in to the enclosure.

Fig 2.3 potential transformer

2.3.2 Potential Transformer


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Potential transformer which step down the voltage at system to sufficiently low values, are necessary on every power system for a) b) c) Indicator of voltage condition Metering of supply for exchange of energy Relaying and synchronizing

The PT is employed far voltage above 380 volts to feed the potential coil metering and indicating instrument. The primary winding of PT is connected to the main bus bar of the switch gear installation and to the secondary winding various indicating and metering instrument are connected. It is located b/w the CT and isolator.

Fig 2.3 Potential Transformer Application PT's are used for the measurement and protection accordingly these are either measuring protective type voltage transformer. These may be single phase or three phases.

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fig2.4 current transformer 2.3.3 Current Transformer Measuring of A.C. one of the most frequent operation not only of its inherit but also it is necessary in determining other parameter of electric circuits. A current transformer is intended to operate normally with the rated current of the network flowing through the primary winding, which is interested in series network. The secondary of circuit is connected to the measuring instrument and relays supplies a current which is proportional to & in phase with current error and phase displacement inherent in the design of the circuit. Construction

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Fig 2.4 Current transformer

The C.T. basically consist of core on which are wound a primary and one of two secondary winding. The primary is directly inserted in power circuit (The circuit current is to be measured) and to the secondary winding. The indicating and metering instruments are connected when the rated current of C.T. flows through its primary winding, a current of 5 Amp. will apart in its secondary windings. The primary winding usually a signal turn winding and numbers of turns as the secondary winding depend upon the power circuit to be measured.

2.3.4 Circuit Breaker

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Circuit breaker plays on important role in the design and performance of a power system on that these are the key piece of apparatus protecting the system and that ensure that continuity of supply. From consideration of cost the circuit breaker represent a major item & is perhaps only to generator & transformer. Necessary Function a) Carry continuously maximum current of the system. b) Make and break the circuit under faulty and normal operating condition. c) It may also happen many times that a circuit breaker is closed the system when the faulty conditional persist. It should not damage or create condition. It should not cause damage to other equipment on the system. In railway power house minimum oil circuit breaker are used.

Fig2.5 M.O.C.B.

2.3.5 Minimum Oil Circuit Breaker It acts as an arc quenching medium and it insulates the live part from earthed. It has been found that only a small percentage of oil is actually used for arc extension while the major part is utilize for insulation purpose. This action concentrates the oil to pass through a central hole in the moving contact and result in forcing the series of oil through the respective passage of the tabulators.
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Fig 2.5 Minimum Oil Circuit Breaker Advantage There is a reduce risk of fire. It requires lesser quantity of oil. It requires smaller space. Maintenance problems are reduced. Disadvantage a) Due to smaller quantity of oil the degree of combustion is increased. There is a difficulty in removing the gases from the contract space in time. b) The dielectric strength of the oil deteriorates rapidly due to high degree of carbonization.

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2.3.6 Protective Relay In a process power system consisting of generator transformer transmission as distributive circuit. It is in evil able that sooner or later some failure will occurs on any part or the system. It must be quickly dependent and disconnect the circuit. A protective relay is a device that detects the fault and indicates the operation of the circuit breaker to isolate the defective element from the rest of the system. A typical relay circuit is shown in the figure. This shown one way of 3-phase system. The relay circuit connection can be dividing in three parts. a. First part is primary winding of a current transformer, which is connected in series with the line to be protected. b. Second part consists of secondary winding of CT and relay operating coil. c. Third part is the tripping circuit which consists of a source of supply. The trip coil of the circuit breaker and the relay stationary contact.

2.3.7 Transformer A Transformer is a static piece of apparatus by means of which electric power of one circuit is transferred into electric power of the same frequency in another circuit. It can rise up or down the voltage in a circuit but with the corresponding decrease or increase in current. The physical basic principal of transformer is "Mutual induction" but two electric circuits linked by a common magnetic flux. In its simplest form it consist of two induction coils which are electrically separated but magnetically linked through a path of low reluctance. The two coil possesses mutual inductance. 2.3.8 Power Transformer Power Transformer have a rating above 200 K.V.A. and are used in generating stations and are used in sub station at each end of a power transmission line for stepping up or stepping down the voltage. They may be either 1 or 3 units. They are put in operation during load periods. Therefore power transformer should be designed to have maximum efficiency at near full load. Power transformer are
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designed to have considerable greater leakage reactance than is permissible in distribution transformer as in the case of power transformer inherent voltage regulation is less than the current limiting effect of higher leakage reactance. 2.3.9 Main Parts of Transformer

a. Transformer Tank b. Breather c. Conservator d. Explosion Vent Plug e. Temperature Indicator f. Fins

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g.

Fig 2.6 MAIN PARTS OF TRANSFORMER

2.3.10 Distribution Transformer

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Transformers up to size of about 200KVA used to step down the distribution voltage to a standard service voltage or from transmission line voltage to distribution voltage are known as Distribution transformer. They are kept in operation all the 24 hours a day whether they kept any load. Energy is lost in iron losses throughout the day while the copper losses account for loss in energy when the transformer loaded. Therefore distribution transformer should have their iron losses small as compared with full load copper losses. In other words they should be designed to have maximum efficiency at a load much lower then full load.

CHAPTER3
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3 DIESEL POWR STATION :Diesel Power station is the most important part of Railway Power House. We can say it, an energy power sources for railway, when R.S.E.B. supply is failure due to any reason then this set is used to feed the supply to the Loco workshop and Carriage and Wagon shop. This power station is installed here due to its following advantages 1. Diesel is used as a fuel in this plant which is easily available in Ajmer as compared to coal. 2. The design & installation of this plant is very simple. 3. The space requirement for this plant is less. 4. Less staff is required to operate this plant because many functions are controlled by panel board. Different parts of Diesel Power Plant

3.1 Diesel Engine


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Diesel engine is the main and heaviest part of Diesel Power system. The mechanical datas of diesel engine is given below: Specification Engine No. B.H.P. Type No. of cylinder Bore Stroke 1.2007 021330 2496 16V9x 10 251 B Max. Crank Shaft 16 9 10

Table 3.1:- List of specification of diesel engine The main function of Diesel Engine is to produce a rotating mechanical power. This mechanical power is used to rotate the alternator shaft and after rotating action it generates the electric power. It is a multi cylinder engine. There are 16 cylinders in the engine. Each cylinder is mounted on the engine with every small inclination from its vertical axis. 8 cylinders are mounted on the right of the engines horizontal axis and other are mounted towards the left side. From the front side the cylinder is like V shape. So this is called V engine. In this type of engine diesel is used for fuel. This engine is air injection type, so air is compressed through a compressor and stored in air tanks. Compressed air and fuel is supplied to the fuel valve. This valve is open at a pre setter time. When this valve opens, the blast of compressed air takes the fuel in cylinder with itself and combustion is completed in the cylinder. This action produces an energy which moves the crank shaft. The crank shaft motion which given by cylinder is in cylinder order. 3.1.1 Fuel System
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First of all, the fuel is filled in a storage tank. Before filling the fuel in the tank, it is filtered by a strainer so suspended impurities can be removed with the help of pump, this oil is given to the injector. In this way the diesel is filtered again. 3.1.2 Air injection System This diesel engine is air injection type. So compressed air is required in this diesel power station. For this purpose an arrangement of air compressor and air tanks are made. This air compressed is driven by a 3 phase A.C. induction rotor. 3.2.1 Exhaust System This system is provided to discharge the exhaust gasses in the atmosphere. Exhaust system of each cylinder is connected to a main exhaust pipe. This exhaust pipe not only reduces the pressure in exhaust but also reduce the noise. 3.2.2 Cooling system The cylinder of diesel engine may be heat up during its working condition. So a cooling system is provided to cool the engine. In this system, chilled water is continuously flowed in the cylinder jacked. This water absorbs the heat from the cylinder and gets heat up. This hot water is taken in a heat exchanger. It cools the hot water and this cool water is again supplied to engine. 3.2.3 Lubricant system To reduce the fiction losses, lubricant system is used. In this system the lubrication oil passes through a strainer & filter to remove the impurities. Now this lubricant is sent in the engine from a pump. 3.3 Starting system In this Diesel power plant battery & compressed air is used to start the engine. Above 1750 KW D.G. sets are started with this method. The diesel engine is stored with the help of battery driven motor. At the starting period some deflection is given to the shaft of diesel engine through a gear with the help of this starting motor.
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Fig 3.2 alternator 3.4 Alternators It is also a measure part of the diesel power plant. Alternator shaft is coupled with diesel engine. It has large diameter and short axial length

3.5 Working Principal of 1750 KW D.G. Set When Diesel Engine is started, it drives the Alternator shaft also. The exciter is also belted from the rotor shaft induce some e.m.f. which is supplied to the rotating field winding of Alternator. A constant flux has set up. A constant flux will links with stationary armature winding. When the speed of engine is increased all these factor increase the induce e.m.f. by Alternator diesel engine and exciting current through the exciter is controlled from control panel. The desired frequency is gotten by the variation of speed of diesel engine. When required values of electrical quantities are generated, the supply is fed to the main control Railway Power House.
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3.6 Starting Instruction All fuel oil, lubrication oil jacket water & raw water valve should be in open condition. Start raw water pump from old Power House. Check air pressure in air tank and it should be minimum 200 P.S.I. in both tanks. Start pre lubricant oil pump and wait till low oil pressure indicator vanishes from control panel. 3.7 To Start D.G. Set Open valve of both the air tank. Switched ON all the AC & DC auxiliary supply board near main O.C.B. All 5 no. rotary switches provided on Control Room panel for air compressor, Crank Shaft, exhaust motor to be ON position. Push air starting switch provided at the engine of the governor. Engine is now in starting condition.

CHAPTER 4
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4 TRAIN LIGHTING & CARRIAGE MOTORS:Introduction Carriage and Wagon Shop is one of the most important workshop of the western railway. Here the poll of the meter gauge and board gauge coaches of carried out even the repairing and over hauling of the coaches of tourism trains like palace on wheel & royal oriented luxury of western railway express is carried out these are most important and costly trains here poll of MG & BG wagons are also carried out. Expect these work, this work shop also supplied the parts and other equipment of the coaches to other division of the western railway. In carriage and wagon shop, the electrical repairing of the coaches is done in following department:1. Train lighting 2. Carriage motor 4.1 Train Lighting System On the basis of generation following train lightning system are used :1. EOG (End On Generation) 1 Generating Voltage 415 V 2 Generating Voltage 450V 2. Mid On Generation (MOG) 3. Self Generating System0 1 V DC (from Dynamo) 2 24 V DC (from Alternator) 3 110 V DC (Alternator)

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4.1.1 End on Generation


In this type of system electricity is generated in power car instead of coach. This system is used in trains having AC coaches like Rajdhani express, Shatabdi express etc. In this system two power cars are installed on the basis of generating voltage. Two type of power cars are used
1) 415V, 3 Phase AC 2) 750 V,3Phase AC

In these days 750V, 3 Phase AC systems are preferred. In 415 V AC capacity of alternator is 160KVA, 220 KVA, 250 KVA etc. while in 750 volt system 500KVA alternator is used. This alternator is coupled to 390 BHP. 1500 RPM diesel engine. In each power car there are two DG sets so there are four DG sets in two power cars. Electricity generation from alternator is given to individual coach from two feeders. These feeder are provided with overload, earth fault and

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fuses. Alternator is also provided with overload, earth leakage, under voltage protection etc. For excitation of alternator 24 V, 320 AH capacity of battery and battery charger are given in power car. This battery is also used for emergency light in power car. In each coach a step down transformer 415/110V is given.110V AC used for fans and lights. AC plant motors are operated on 415 V 3 Phase AC supply. In each coach 24 V 90 AH batteries is given for emergency light. Merits 1. This system is much reliable 2. Illumination is good 3. Voltage drop is less 4. Low maintenance Demerit 1. Running cost is high 2. A power car has to work when train is at halt. 3. More diesel is used

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Fig 4.2 mid on generation 4.1.2 MOG (Mid On Generation) This train lightning system is used on small branch lines, hill area. In this system power car is used in the middle of all coaches therefore it is called as Mid On Generator. In this trains maximum 13 coaches are used with power car.
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In power car two DG sets of 30 KVA capacity each are used which generates 415 V, 3 AC diesel engine of 41,43,47BHP 1500RPM air cooled are used. Only one alternator is used at a time. Second is used as a stand by for alternator excitation 24V 320 AH battery and battery charger are given. 415V generated by alternating is step down to 110 V 3 A 50Hz by 30 KVA step down transformer. This C 110 V 3 is given to bus bar. From bus bar this power is supplied to particular coach. Feeders of 70 Sq. mm and 120 Sq. mm are mostly used for light and fan load separate feeders are used. Merit 1. It is more reliable from self generation 2. Low maintenance Demerits 1. We can not use more than 6 coaches on one side of power as voltage drop below 5.5 V is not permit able. 2. Creates disturbance to nearby passengers. 3. Can only use less number of coaches.

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Fig 4.3 S.O.G. 4.1.3 Self Generation System a. Generating Equipment

In self generating coach the apparatus used for generating electricity are known as generating equipment. In old T/L system dynamo was used but in modified system brushless alternator are used. Alternator produces AC which is converted into DC rectifier cum regulator and this DC is given to coach load and battery. Following alternator are used in coaches.

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3 KW Amp

, 130 V

, 100

Meter Gauge , Non AC Coach Broad Gauge , Non AC Coach Meter Gauge , Non AC Coach Meter Gauge , AC Coach Broad Gauge , AC Coach

4.5 KW , 120 V , 150 Amp 6. 3 KW Amp 12 KW Amp 18 KW Amp 22.75 KW / 25 KW , 130 V , 130 V , 133 , 120 V , 100 , 120 V , 150

Broad Gauge , AC-3 tier Coach

Table 4.1:- List of generating equipment

4.2 Train Lighting Basically two types of apparatus are use for train lighting they are:1. Alternator 110 V (A.C.) 2. Battery 110 V (D.C.) All the apparatus such as alternator battery & other useful apparatus are assembled inside the logs. Alternators have coupled with bogeys shaft by the belt or pulley arrangement. It generates 110 V (constant voltage) whenever train runs on the track, But it generates this voltage after some time when train runs in is average speed. Batteries and alternator sets are connected from the regulating panel which is installed

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in the bogies. It disconnects the load circuit of coach from the battery when alternator gives their proper voltage. Batteries are use in case of train is not running on the track or in standing condition on the plate from few minutes. The batteries output is also 110 V but it has DC in the nature because alternator gives 110 V, 3 phase A.C. voltage so rectifier circuit is used to convert it into D.C supply. This rectifier circuit is arranged in the regulating panel. Besides the load circuit alternator generating voltage are also used for charging the batteries. This charging system of battery has controlled from the regulating panel. Whenever battery reaches their rated voltage after than they have automatically disconnects from the alternator circuit. Different type of protective devices is used in the regulation panel. It disconnects the battery circuit. From the alternator in case of over change and it is also used for other protection from the minor and major part. 4.2.1 Alternator Section It is also a measure part of the diesel power plant. Alternator shaft is coupled with diesel engine. It has large diameter and short axial length. The main datas of alternator is follows: The alternator contains three parts. They are: 1. Stator 2. Rotor 3. Exciter The constructional feature and working of each part is as follow one by one on next page.

1. STATOR:29 ITM/EE/2010/062

It is the starting part of an alternator and consist of cost iron frame, which support the armature core, hawing itoh, and its inner portion is used to carry the armature winding. It has large diameter and axial length. Its outer portion is just like a cylinder and inner portion is known as stator core. Stator core is made of lamination special magnetic iron or stated alloy. Each lamination are of insulated with varnish and are steamed out in segments. This stator is used the losses due to:- eddy current. Its slots are made in the inner part of stator for housing the armature conductor slots. They ma be wide open, semi open or closed type but closed type slots are rarely used. The armature winding in the alternator are open i.e. there is no closed path for the armature current in the winding itself. One of each phase winding is connected to the natural point and other end is brought out chain winding is used in this alternator. It may be single layer or double layer.

2 ROTOR:Rotor is a moving part of alternator. This is salient pole type. In AC generator, rotor carrier the field winding. Constructionally it is looked like a fly wheel alternator and rotor fined to outer rim. It had a large number of projecting pole s having there core bolted on to a heavy magnetic wheel. This is made of cast iron or steel alloy. The pole and pole shoe are laminated to minimize heating & losses due to eddy current field winding in wounded around the pole core and two slip rings are mounted on the floor. The terminal of field winding is commeasures with the slip rings. Two brushes are also arranged on slip ring to supply the DC to the field windings.
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3 EXCITER:It is a DC shunt generator and belted on the staff of alternator. The main function of exciter is to excite the field magnets i.e. to supply DC the field winding because the field magnets are rotating; this current is supplied through two slip rings which is mounted on the rotor. The output voltage of exciter is 65 volts.

4.2.2 Specification of Alternator


1. Type 2 . . 4 . 5 . . 7 . Excitation Voltage 65Volts 390A 11KV Star Connected
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AK132M53 1000 0.8 3 Phase 1750Kw 2187.5KVA 114.8A 6

R.P.M.

3 Power Factor Phase Power in KW Power in KVA

6 Current in Amp. No. of Poles

8 Excitation Amp. . Voltage 9 Connection

Lubricant 1 0 . 1 1 . Maker

DTE Light BHEL Hyderabad

Table 4.2:- list of specification of alternator

4.2.3 Brush less Alternator


It is a 3 phase induction machine. It has no winding on its rotor. It has no slip ring, commutator & brushes etc. It is dust proof and water proof machine. On the circumference of rotor teeth & slots are made, as rotor is of salient pole type the air gap changer between rotor and stator. The flux induced in alternating type which is cut by 3 phase A.C. winding & thus E.M.F. produce in winding. On the shaft of alternator i.e. on driving side a pulley is fixed. The diameter of flat belt pulley is 140mm and for adjusting the belt tension arrangement is given. This alternator work with rectifier regulator panel. The o/p of alternator can be adjusted by adjusting the field.

4.2.4Alternator (brush;ess)Specification

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Rating Volt Ampere Frequency

4.5 K.W. 30 V 120 A 50 Hz

Table 4.3:- List of specification of alternator(brushless alternator) Feature of Alternator 1. Light in weight. 2. Reliable source of A.C power. 3. Suitable control by static regulator. 4. Long life and minimum maintains.

4.3 RRU / ERRU (Rectifier Regulated Unit) To start the fan, light in a Indian rail battery system are used. The o/p of a 3 phase AC of the alternator is change in DC with the help of RRU (rectifier regulated unit) and new technical electronic based ERRU are used, Function of RRU 1. AC to DC for battery charging. 2. Control the alternator o/p by the field excitation. 3. To control the o/p voltage according to o/p current.

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Fig 4.3 battery (cut of section)

4.4 Train Lighting Cells (Battery Section)


Train lighting cells are secondary cells such as lead acid cell .In a charged lead acid cell the positive active material consist of lead peroxide [Pbo2] and the negative spongy lead [ pb ]. Dilute sulphuric acid [H2So4] serves as a electrolyte. The overall reaction inside the cell during discharge the charge are represented most conveniently be a reversible equation as follows. Pbo2 + Pb + H2SO4 2 PbSO4 +2H2O

4.5 Fans used in trains


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There may be of three main types of fans i.e. DC fans, A.C. fans, DC / AC fans. An electric fans is simply an electric motor to which the blades are fixed so that when the motor of the fan rotates the blades throw the air. In the train bogies generally two types of fans are used 1. 110 V A.C. fans 2. 24 V D.C. fans

4.5.1 24 V DC Fans The DC fans are of DC series motors in which the rotating part armature is connected in series with the stationary part. When the field is set up in the field winding which experience a force in the armature tending to move it at right angle to the field the blade attached with the shaft of the armature displaces the air. 4.5.2 110 V AC Fans The same principal applies to the AC fans but there is some difference in the construction of AC Fans than DC Fans that the rotating part of the A.C. fans is called a rotor and stationary part is called a stator. In the case of A.C. Fans mainly two types of single phase motor are used. These all types of motor work on the principle of induction motor 1. Shaded pole type motor 2. Capacitor run motor

4.6 Scale of Illumination

4.6.1 Quantity of lamp for various coaches

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

First class Second class Postal van Dining Corridor first class

16 lamps 40 lamps 30 lamps 16 lamps 11 lamps

Table 4.4:- List of quantity of lamp for various coaches

4.6.2 Lamp power consuption

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Night lamp fitting Cooling fitting gallery Cooling light passage Postal van dining Reading light

20 Watt. 20 Watt. 30 Watt. 30 Watt. 10 Watt.


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Bulbs (BG), Bulbs(MG)

110V/ 25 Watt, 24 V/20 Watt

List4.5 List of lamp power consumption

4.7 Carriage motors These are the main section of railway where the maintenance and repair of A.C. machine windings is made by workers. Different types of machine came here for maintenance and rewinding which are as follows:1. 2. 3. A.C. Induction motor D.C. Motor Transformer

4.7.1 Induction Motor Induction motors are two types 1. Slip ring Induction motor 2. Squirrel cage Induction motor

An Induction motor consists of two main parts:1. Stator 2. Rotor

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Stator

Stator is a stationary part of an induction motor. It is cylindrical structure, built up of dynamo grade lamination. The laminations are either 0.35 or 0.50 mm thick. Stator carries a three phase winding and is required a three phase supply. It is wound for a definite no. of poles the exact poled being determined by the requirement of speed. Greater the no. of pole, lesser the speed and vice-versa. When three phase supply is given to stator winding. It produces a flux, which is of constant magnitude but which rotates at synchronous speed. This revolving flux induces an emf in the rotor by mutual inductance.

2 Rotor Rotor is the rotating part of induction motor. Various type of rotor are used in the induction motor such as:1. Squirrel cage wound rotor 2. Double Squirrel cage wound rotor 3. Slip ring rotor

a.

Squirrel Cage Wound Rotor

Mostly Squirrel cage wound rotors are used in induction motor, because this type of rotor has the simplest and most rugged construction. The rotor consist of a cylindrical laminate core with parallel slot for caring the rotor conductor. In a Squirrel cage wound rotor, the rotor bars are permanently short circuited. Hence it is not possible to add any external resistance in series with the rotor circuit for starting purpose.

b.

Double Squirrel Cage Wound Rotor

Double Squirrel cage wound rotor has two slots first slot have made in inner circumference that are full closed slots and other slots have made on the periphery of

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rotor that are half closed slots low resistance and high cross section copper code are wound in the full closed slots and after then its short circuited in both side with a

conductor. Winding method is performing just like full closed slots but these are high resistance and low cross section bars for winding.

c.

Slip Ring Rotor

Starting torque of these motor are greater than Squirrel cage wound rotor when we drive motor. The starting condition high resistances winding of motor are used but after coning in its synchronous speed then only work low resistance winding. The slip ring motors are used where high starting torque is required .For instance 1. In the hoist, 2. In the cranes, 3. For power hammer, 4. For lift, 5. For battle ship purpose.

4.7.2 D.C. motor D.C. machine can be works as generator, motor, breaks. In generator mode the machine is driven by a prime motor with mechanical power converted into electrical power. While in the motor mode the machine drives a mechanical load with the electrical power supplied converted into mechanical power. In the break mode ( which functions as a motor before the applications of breaking action) the machine works as a generator & the electrical developed is either pumped back to supply as in regenerative breaking or dissipated in the machine system the machine deaccelerated on account of the power dissipated by it and therefore produces a mechanical braking system. The D.C machines used for industrial application have essentially three major parts
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1. Field system 2. Armature 3. Commutator 1. Field System Field system is located the stationary part the machine called stator. The field system is designed for provides the necessary excitation for operation of machine. The stator of D.C. machine comprise of:1. Main poles. 2. Inter poles.

a. Main Poles These poles are designated to produce the main magnetic flux.

b. Inter Poles These poles are placed between the main poles and are design to improve commutation condition to ensure spark less of machines. Interpoles are not use in very small machines. 2. Armature The Armature is the rotating part of a D.C. machine where processor of electro mechanical comes. It is a cylindrical shape which rotates between the magnetic poles. The armature consists of:1. Armature core with slot 2. Armature winding 3. Commutator The commutator is mounted on the rotor shaft at a D.C. machine and it performs with the help of brushes. A mechanical arrangement converts A.C. into D.C. in case of generator and D.C. to A.C. in case of motor.
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CHAPTER 5
REFRIGERATION & AIRCONDITIONING & WITH RECTIFIER
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5.1Refrigeration:Refrigeration is a process in which work is done to move heat from one location to another. This work is traditionally done by mechanical work, but can also be done by magnetism, laser or other means. Refrigeration has many applications, including, but not limited to: household refrigerators, industrial freezers, cryogenics, air conditioning, and heat pumps. 5.2 Air conditioning:Air conditioning is the removal of heat from indoor air for thermal comfort. In another sense, the term can refer to any form of cooling, heating, ventilation, or disinfection that modifies the condition of air. An air conditioner (often referred to as AC or air con.) is an appliance, systems. 5.3 Refrigeration cycles:Refrigeration cycle is a process that removes heat from indoor evaporator to outdoor condenser units. 5.4 Principle of refrigeration cycle: Thermodynamic heat pump cycles or refrigeration cycles are the conceptual and mathematical models for heat pumps and refrigerators. A heat pump is a machine or device that moves heat from one location (the 'source') at a lower temperature to another location (the 'sink' or 'heat sink') at a higher temperature using mechanical work or a high-temperature heat source. Thus a heat pump may be thought of a "heater" if the objective is to warm the heat sink (as when warming the inside of a home on a cold day), or a "refrigerator" if the objective is to cool the heat source (as in the normal operation of a freezer). In either case, the operating principles are identical. Heat is moved from a colder place to a warmer place. The components of the gas refrigeration cycle are very similar to the vapor compression cycle. The gas flows through the compressor where its pressure and
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temperature becomes very high. It then flows into the heat exchanger, which performs the function similar to the condenser in the vapor compression cycle, except that there is no change in the phase of air or gas. In the heat exchanger the air gives up heat, but its pressure remains constant. The high pressure and medium temperature air then enters the throttling valve (also called expander), where its pressure is reduced suddenly and due to this its temperature also becomes very low. The low temperature and low pressure gas then enters the other heat exchanger (also called refrigerator) which performs the function similar to the evaporator in vapor compression cycle. The gas absorbs the heat from the substance to be cooled and becomes hotter, while the substance becomes cooler. There is no change in phase of the gas in this heat exchanger. The high pressure and high temperature gas then enters the compressor where the cycle repeat.

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5.5 Components of Refrigeration unit:Refrigeration cycle has five basic components to work: 1. The evaporator unit 2. The expansion valve 3. The compressor 4. The condenser
5. The copper refrigerant tube (a tube that connects these air conditioner

parts) (1) The evaporator unit: In the Refrigeration cycle evaporator is a heat exchanger that absorbs heat into the air conditioner system. The evaporator does not exactly absorb heat! Its the cooled refrigerant fed from the bottom of the evaporator coils absorb the heat. The liquid refrigerant usually flows from the bottom of the evaporator coils and boils as it moves to the top of the evaporator coils. The reason its fed from the bottom is to ensure the liquid refrigerant boils before it leave the evaporator coils. If a refrigerant was to fed from the top, the liquid refrigerant would easily drop to the bottom of the coils before it absorbs enough heat and boil. If evaporator was too feed liquid refrigerant into air conditioner compressor; it will shorts the air conditioner compressor. The air conditioner evaporator has three important tasks:(1)Its absorb heat. (2)Boils the entire refrigerant to vapor aqua saturated vapor. (3)Superheat. (2) Expansion Valve:-

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All expansion device or metering device has similar function (to some extent); its responsible for providing the correct amount of refrigerant to the evaporator. This is done by creating a restriction within the thermostatic expansion valve. The restriction causes the pressure and temperature of the refrigerant entering the Evaporator to reduce. The refrigeration cycle diagram above has a thermostatic expansion valve. This expansion device has (1) Remote Bulb (2) Capillary Tube (3) TXV Body Thermostatic expansion valve has other components besides these three. However, they are not important right now. TXV provides the correct amount of air conditioner refrigerant to the evaporator by using a remote sensing bulb as a regulator. The remote sensing bulb and capillary tube has a refrigerant inside. As you can see in the refrigeration cycle diagram above, the remote sensing bulb is tie with the suction line. The temperature from the suction line transfer heat to the sensing bulb through conduction. Sensing bulb responds to the temperature of the suction line and as a result, it decreases or increases the temperature and pressure inside the sensing bulb due to suction line temperatures. The sensing bulb also has a diaphragm on the other end. This diaphragm is with the TXV body. The diaphragm is the device that pushes or releases the needle from the valve seat.
(1) The compressors:-

The air conditioning compressor is known as the heart of the air conditioner units. Its one of the divided points between high and low side. As you can see in the refrigeration cycle diagram; the compressor has a refrigerant inlet line and refrigerant
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outlet line.

The compressor inlet lines are known as:

(1)Suction pressure (2)Back pressure (3)Low side pressure The compressor outlet lines are known as: (1)High side pressure (2)Discharge pressure (3)Head pressure The compressor absorbs vapor refrigerant from the suction line and compresses that heat to high superheat vapor. As the refrigerant flows across the compressor, it also removes heat of compression, motor winding heat, mechanical friction, and other heat absorbs in the suction line. The air conditioner units compressor produce the pressure different, its the air conditioner compressors that cause the refrigerant to flow in a cycle. A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume. Compressors are similar to pumps: both increase the pressure on a fluid and both can transport the fluid through a pipe. As gases are compressible, the compressor also reduces the volume of a gas. Liquids are relatively incompressible, while some can be compressed, the main action of a pump is to pressurize and transport liquids. (2) The condenser:In this refrigeration cycle diagram, the air conditioner condenser is air cooled condenser. It functions the same way as the evaporator but it does the opposite. The condenser units are located outdoor with the compressor. It purposes is to reject both sensible and latent heat of vapor absorb by the air conditioner units.
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The condenser receives high pressure and high temperature superheats vapor from the compressor and rejects that heat to the low temperature air. After rejected all the vapor heat, it turns back to liquid refrigerant. The condenser has three important steps: (1)Its remove sensible heat or (de-superheat) (2)Remove latent heat or (condense) (3)Remove more sensible heat or (sub cooled). 5.6 Desired property of refrigerant:There are many desired properties of refrigerant as under below(1) Specific heat (2) Thermal conductivity (3) Latent heat (4) Specific volume (5) Viscosity (6) Boiling point (7) Freezing point (8) It should be non toxic. (9) It should be non inflammable. (10) It should be non explosive. (11) It should be non pollutant. (12) It should be non corrosive.
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High High High Low Low Low Low

(13) It should be non irritating. (14) It should be colourless and odorless. (15) It should be mix with mineral oil. (16) It should be electrically insulated. (17) Easy leak detection. (18) Chemically stable. (19) Cost effective. (20) Easily available.

5.7 Refrigerant:In the older days R-12 refrigerant are used but in present R-134 refrigerant is used in ac. The main reason behind it is R-12 is compatible with mineral oil, while R-134 is compatible with synthetic oil. It is not much harmful to ozone layer and safe according to globle warming.

5.8 PRECOOLING RECTIFIRE 5.8.1 General:The pre cooling rectifier is principally used for precooling the air conditioned coaches, before placing them along with other coaches on the platform lines for entraining. These rectifiers are also used to charge the high capacity 110 volts lead acid batteries forming part of the equipment/accessories of the air conditioned coaches. They essentially derive their supply from the three phases L.T. mains in the railways yards where they are stable maintenance checks. They also come in handy

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when the coaches are to stop for long periods in stations platforms to avoid drain on the batteries.

5.8.2 Construction:The precooling rectifier is split in to transformer box and diode cubicle. The transformer box is mainly up of two parts. The top half forms the main frame work made up of sheet iron construction on angle iron frame work in which the transformer together with control and protection arrangement is hung from the rigid structure at the top frame. The bottom half, also of sheet iron construction on angle iron frame work forms a flood proof tray and covers the bottom portion of the transformer. The top and bottom parts of the transformer box are bolted together by set of bolts spread all around with gasket to prevent entry of water and moisture. Two numbers of hinged doors with locking arrangement are provided on the transformer box. The bigger door provides access to the input/output connections and the HRC fuses. This door has an acrylic window to facilitate viewing of the dc ammeter and the unit ON lamp indication. The small door provides access to the tap changer switches S1 & S2 and the switch on push button switch S3. This portion is segregated from the live parts by a metal shield to avoid inadvertent contact with the live parts while operating the switches. The diode cubicle box is also of sheet iron construction on rigid angle iron frame work. A single hinged door with locking arrangement provides access to the input/output connections and the dc output HRC fuses. Suitable cable entry holes have been provided for the incoming and outgoing cable connections.

5.8.3 Operation:The general principal of steeping down the input 3 phase ac supply and rectifying it to dc through a full wave bridge rectifier has been followed.
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The transformer has been specially designed to suit the space constraint generally encountered by under slung equipment without sacrificing the performance. The input 3 phase ac supply is brought on to three terminal studs and through HRC fuses F1,F2 & F3, the tap changer switches S1 & S2, conductor K and thermal overload relay OL is fed to the primary of the transformer in delta configuration. The switch S1 controls four taps of fine adjustment on the primary winding. The combined selection of taps provides the required output dc current. The secondary winding is in star configuration. The output of the secondary, brought on copper flat terminals pads, is fed through external cabling to the input copper flat terminal pads in the diodes cubicle. The six nos. of diodes (three nos. body of cathode type and three nose body of anode type) in bridge configuration rectifier the ac in to dc and the dc output is brought on to two terminal bolts through copper bus bars and HRC fuses. Since the unit is designed for the slandered 200 amps output and 35% overload for a very short duration of about 10 seconds, the dc ammeter sensing the current through the current through the shunt provided on the diode cubicle is fitted on to the transformer box itself with a red band over the range between 200 and 300 amps. The availability of the ammeter on the transformer itself enables the selection of tap according to requirement of dc current. A shunt in the negative bus provides means to measure the dc output current.

5.8.4 Protection & Indication:A thermal overload relay OL in conjunction with the contactor K protects the transformer against sustained overloads. HRC fuses F9 and F10 have also been provided in the dc output side. Besides, HRC fuses F6 and F7 are provided on the control circuit. HRC fuses F4 and F5 are provided for the two terminals brought on from the two phases of the input voltage or other purpose. HRC fuses F8 has been provided in the indication lamp circuit.
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The unit can be switched on by the push button switch S3 which energies the coil of contactor K. The switch S3 is interlocked with switches S1 and S2 such that the transformer can be switched ON only if the switch position is at No.1 in both S1 and S2. This is necessitated assuming that the input voltage is high and the transformer is to be energized with lowest selectable output. Once the unit is switched ON, the desired output can be obtained by selecting the taps. Facility has been given to electrically interlock the push button switch further with the pre cooling plug in the air conditioned coach so that any attempt to withdraw the pre cooling plug while the unit is ON would trip the unit. This is achieved by using terminals P1 and Q1 brought out on the SMC board. However, it may not be possible to open the door, if the air conditioned coach stops at platforms with transformer box in the platform wall side. In such cases, the interlock between S1 and S2 should be over ridden and hence a terminal no.11 brought out to the coach will enable switching ON of the transformer and rectifier irrespective of the position of switches S1 & S2. In the ON load tap changer rotary switched S1 & S2, provision has been made in the switch itself so that the movement of switch position from 4 to 1 or vice versa is blocked. This is necessary as the case may be which can be harmful. An ammeter of range 0-300A (operating from 300 amps 75 mille volts shunt) is housed in the transformer box. Also a lamp connected across two of the phases of the secondary indicates the ON condition of The unit. A capacitor network in the diode cubicle serves as a surge suppressor. 5.8.5 Technical Specification:Input voltage Output voltage Output current Transformer configuration : 415 volts 3 phase ac 50 Hz. : 135 volts dc nominal : 200 amps dc nominal : delta-star with taps on primary
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Class of insulation Diodes Type of cooling Efficiency Dimension

: class F : 300 amps/1000 volts : naturally air cooled : 90% : transformer box = 110 X 545 X 620 MMM : Diode cubicle = 1100 X 505 X 600 MMM

COMPONENTS LIST:S.NO. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION CAPACITY RATTING 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 F1,F2,F3 F4-F8 F9,F10 K O S1,S2 S3 A TX L D1-D3 D4-D6 SH D7-D15 HRC Fuse Mains HRC Fuse Control HRC Fuse Output Contactor Thermal Overload Relay 4 Pole 4 Way Rotary Switch Push-button Switches Ammeter DC Transformer Indication lamp holder Filament lamp Diode body anode Diode body cathode Shunt Surge arrestor Capacitor 63 Amps 2 Amps 250 Amps 63 Amps, 40 Amps 63 Amps 5 Amps/500V 0-300A/75mV 415/44V 7W/250V 300A/1000V 300A/1000V 300A/75mV 2MicroF/440V 3 5 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 3 1 9 UNIT

Table 5.1:- Precolling rectifier component list

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CONCLUSION
During my 30 days practical training at north western railway, Ajmer I got information and experience from my relevant section. I visited following section. 1. Railway Power House 2. Electrical Repair Shop 3. Carriage and Wagon Shop In railway power house of the north western railway, I learnt about the distribution of electrical power to the different unit of the plant like carriage workshop, loco workshop, EPR section etc. I also learnt about the circuit breaker, various protective relay, capacitor bank for power factor improvement I also studied the Diesel generator set of 1750 KW ,500 KW ,which are used in case of power supply failure from R.S.E.B. In electrical repair and maintenance of electrical shop, I learnt about the maintenance of electrical motor like single phase and three phase of different type like squirrel cage induction motor and slip ring induction motors, dc motor of various rating and also about the rewinding of motor, about various material used for winding, how to check for any fault etc. In carriage and wagon shop I learnt about the train lightening system, alternator section ,ERRU unit and battery section. I learnt about the maintenance of battery and alternator . I am really thankful to MR. Manish Goyal (DY. CEE.) It was definitely a knowledgeable experience taking training in Ajmer. It is indeed a vast industry with lot much to offer us as students of P and No doubt it showed that mere theoretical and bookish knowledge need to be supplemented with a able practice knowledge. And this very practical knowledge was given very ably by the personals of Railway.
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Every one at Railway ranging from the workers at stop to supreme head gave their able support to us. They explained each and everything in best way to make us understand the complete working of vast industry such as RAILWAY. They all were very Co-operative.

Railway has helped us in gaining practical knowledge mentioned above to great extent. The staff of railway is very supportive and helpful. They gave their best and in such a easy way in which we can understand. They told us very valuable things which are bard to learn merely from books. For once again I would like to thank from the core of my heart, to everybody who helped me and cooperated with me for my successful training.

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