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d = major diameter dr = minor diameter dp = pitch diameter p = pitch H=√ /2p √3

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Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan

TERMINOLOGIES

The pitch “p” is the distance between adjacent thread forms measured parallel to the thread axis.

The pitch is the reciprocal of the number of thread forms per inch N.

The major diameter “d” is the largest diameter of a screw thread d thread. The minor (or root) diameter “dr” is the smallest diameter of a screw thread. The pitch diameter “dp” is a theoretical diameter between the major and minor diameters. The lead “l” is the distance the nut moves parallel to the screw axis p when the nut is given one turn.

For a single thread, the lead is the same as the pitch.

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Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan

5/8 in18 UNRF or 0.THREAD STANDARD American National (Unified) thread standard Thread size is specified by giving the # of threads per inch N N. and the thread series. Thread angle is 60◦ and the crests of the thread may be either flat or rounded. The difference is that a root radius must be used in the UNR series. Unified threads are specified by stating the nominal major diameter. the number of threads per inch. which reduced thread stress-concentration factors. rounded Two major series are: UN and UNR. for example. 3 Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan . UNR series threads have improved fatigue strengths.625 in-18 UNRF.

4 Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan . The MJ profile has a rounded fillet at the root of the external thread (useful where hi h f ti ( f l h high fatigue strength i required). are used on screws when power is to be transmitted. Two major series are: M and MJ MJ. t th is i d) Square and Acme threads.THREAD STANDARD Metric thread standard Metric threads are specified by writing the nominal major diameter and pitch in millimeters (M12 × 1.75).

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and. 6 Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan . usually. Familiar applications include the lead screws of lathes. and the screws for vises. presses.POWER SCREW A power screw is a device used in machinery to change angular motion into linear motion. and jacks. to transmit power.

and another expression for the torque required to lower the load. g loaded by the axial compressive force F. Force diagrams: (a) lifting the load. (b) lowering the load.POWER SCREW A square-threaded power screw with single thread having a mean diameter dm. We wish to find an expression for the torque required to raise this load. 7 Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan . and a helix angle ψ is p g . a pitch p. a lead angle λ.

THREADED FASTENERS Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan 8 Hex xagonal nu (a) en view. (d) jam nut with washe face. (c) regular nut cha amfered on both sid des. . (b) washer-f ) faced regu ular nut. (e) jam nut chamfered on both j w er ) c d side es. ge uts: nd eneral.

THREADED FASTENERS STIFFNESS Pretension or Bolt Preload pretension or bolt preload. Spring Rate Grip is the ratio between the force applied to the p y member and the deflection produced by that force. 9 Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan . The grip l of a connection is Twisting the nut stretches the bolt to produce the clamping force This clamping force is called the force. OR grip is the sum of the thicknesses of both members and both washers washers. the total thi k th t t l thickness of the clamped f th l d material.

THREADED FASTENERS STIFFNESS where At = tensile-stress area lt = length of threaded portion of grip Ad = major-diameter area of fastener major diameter ld = length of unthreaded portion in grip Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan 10 .

TENSION JOINTS – THE EXTERNAL LOAD Fi = preload P = external tensile load Pb = portion of P taken by bolt Pm = portion of P taken by members Fb = Pb + Fi = resultant bolt load Fm = Pm − Fi = resultant load on members C = fraction of external load P carried by bolt 1 − C = fraction of external load P carried by members or Bolt The load P is tension. through some distance δ. or elongate. We can relate this elongation to the stiffnesses by recalling that k is the force divided by the deflection. and it causes the connection to stretch. Thus Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan 11 .

TENSION JOINTS – THE EXTERNAL LOAD 12 Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan .

25d. and so Or it can be written as Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan 13 . Therefore the mean collar diameter is dc = (d + 1. We now define a torque coefficient K as the term in brackets.RELATING BOLT TORQUE TO BOLT TENSION The diameter of a hexagonal nut is equal to 1-1/2 times the nominal size.5d)/2 = 1.

(a) What is the spring rate of the bolt and the tube. what is the initial tension Fi in the bolt? (c) What is the bolt tension at opening if additional tension is applied to the bolt external to the joint? 14 Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan . The tube OD is the washer-face diameter dw = 1.75) = 1.5(0.PROBLEM 8–15 A 3/4 in-16 UNF series SAE grade 5 bolt has a 3/4 -in ID tube 13 in long. clamped between washer faces of bolt and nut by turning the nut snug and adding one-third of a turn.125 in = OD.5d = 1. if the tube is made of steel? What is the joint constant C? (b) When the one-third turn-of-nut is applied.

The frictional coefficients are 0. uses a 5/8 in-6 Acme thread.15 for the threads and for the collar. The collar. which in this case is the anvil striker’s swivel joint. 15 Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan . Calculations are to be based on a maximum force of 6 lbf applied to the handle at a radius of 2-3/4 in from the screw p g centerline. has a friction diameter of 7/16 in.PROBLEM 8–8 The C clamp shown in the figure. Find the clamping force.

RIVETED JOINTS Modes of failure in shear loading of a bolted or riveted connection: (a) Shear loading (b) Bending of rivet (c) Shear of rivet (d) Tensile failure of members. 16 Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan . (e) Bearing of rivet on members or bearing of members on rivet.

577 S y τ= = = (c) Shear of rivet. (b − N r d c ) t m n A (e) Bearing of rivet on members or bearing of members on rivet. 2 A Dd n F F Sy σ = = = (d) Tensile failure of members. F 4F 0. F F Sy σ = = = A d c tm n 17 Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan Pt .RIVETED JOINTS Modes of failure in shear loading of a bolted or riveted connection: (a) shear loading. (b) bending of rivet σ = 2Z m rivet.

EXAMPLE 8–6 Two 1.by 4-in 1018 cold-rolled steel bars are butt-spliced with two 1/ 2 . 18 Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan .5 p estimate the static load F that can be carried if the bolts lose preload.by 4-in 1018 cold-rolled splice plates using four 3/4 in-16 UNF grade 5 bolts as depicted in Fig. For a design factor of nd = 1.

19 Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan . Find the factor of safety for each p possible mode of failure. The members are colddrawn bars of AISI 1020 steel.PROBLEM 8–43 The figure shows a connection that employs three SAE grade 5 bolts. The tensile shear load on the joint is 5400 lbf.

with or without the application of pressure and a filler material. 20 Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan . Application: A li ti Used in fabrication as an alternative method for casting or forging and as a replacement for bolted and riveted joints. to build up a small part that has broken off such as gear tooth or to repair a worn surface such as a bearing surface. to reunite metal at a crack.WELDED JOINTS A welded joint is a permanent joint which is obtained by the fusion of the edges of the two parts to be joined together. Also used as a repair medium e.g.

ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF WELDED JOINTS OVER RIVETED JOINTS Advantages: lighter than riveted structures greater strength provides very rigid joints possible to weld any part of a structure at any point takes l t k less time ti inexpensive no joint loosening Disadvantages: Because of uneven heating and cooling during fabrication. the th members may get b t distorted or additional stresses may develop. requires a highly skilled labour q g y inspection of welding work is more difficult metallurgical changes occur disassembly is a problem Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan 21 .

Double U-butt joint 3. Square butt joint 4.TYPES OF WELDED JOINTS 1. Butt Joint The butt joint is obtained by placing the plates edge to edge edge. Single V-butt joint Edge joint 5. Double V-butt joint Corner joint 2. The butt joints may be: 1.joint 22 Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan . Single U-butt j i t 3 Si l U b tt joint T.

SUPPLEMENTARY WELD SYMBOLS Spot Welding Weld all round Seam Welding Grinding Finish Projection Welding Machining Finish Butt R i t B tt Resistance 23 Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan .

h = weld throat (without reinforcement) l=l length of th weld th f the ld The average stress in a butt weld due to shear loading is: 24 Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan .BUTT WELD Consider single V-groove weld loaded by the tensile force F. For either tension or compression loading. the average normal stress is: Where.

Single transverse fillet 2. The fillet joints may be: 1. The cross-section of the fillet is approximately triangular. Double transverse fillet 3.LAP JOINT It is obtained by overlapping the plates and then welding the edges of the plates. Parallel fillet joints are designed for tensile strength g g are designed for shear strength 25 Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan .

The thinnest section is at the throat of the weld. For parallel fillet weld the shear stress is: weld. Leg L the length of each side i k th l th f h id is known as l or size of th leg i f the weld. at 45º from the legs.LAP OR FILLET WELD A fillet weld is made with equal legs. 45 Throat thinnest section of the weld is called throat. 26 Element of Machine Dynamics and Design / Erum Khan .

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