28 views

Original Title: Chapter 2

Uploaded by Lizi Casper

- Human Activity Induced Vibration in Slender Structural Systems
- AC-SAP2000 User Manual
- push_sap_bentmodel_hinge.pdf
- Rubik s Cube Solution
- BOCHICA
- Autodesk Robot
- Rubik s Cube
- Stephen Timoshenko
- Lab4 Modal
- SAFE Tutorial
- Tall Buildings and Its Structural System
- Earthquake engineering
- KTUMTechStructuralEngg(2015)
- 1881016
- Cooling Towers
- Understanding Mill Vibration Phenomena
- Effect of Asial Load on Mode Shapes and Frequencies of Beams
- T.hald Implementation of a Finite Element Foundation Mod
- jrc_53442.pdf
- MACHINE FOUNDATION DESIGN 2003.ppt

You are on page 1of 63

1 GENERAL In a number of building structures, the centers of rigidity do not coincide with the centre of mass. As a consequence, during an earthquake, lateral base motion induces torsional vibrations in the structure. Field observations of earthquake damage have provided numerous examples of serious structural distress or failure due to torsional motion. In such cases Shear Walls are provided in buildings which are used to resist the lateral earthquake loads.

Figure 1: Shear Wall in RC Building Shear walls are vertical elements of the horizontal force resisting system. Shear walls are constructed to counter the effects of lateral load acting on a structure. In residential construction, shear walls are straight external walls that typically form a box which provides all of the lateral support for the building. When shear walls are designed and constructed properly, and they will have the strength and stiffness to resist the horizontal forces. In building construction, a rigid vertical diaphragm capable of transferring lateral forces from exterior walls, floors, and roofs to the ground foundation in a direction parallel to their

1

planes. Examples are the reinforced-concrete wall or vertical truss. Lateral forces caused by wind, earthquake, and uneven settlement loads, in addition to the weight of structure and occupants; create powerful twisting (torsion) forces. These forces can literally tear (shear) a building apart. Reinforcinga frame by attaching or placing a rigid wall inside it maintains the shape of the frame and prevents rotation at the joints. Shear walls are especially important in high-rise buildings subjected to lateral wind and seismic forces. In the last two decades, shear walls became an important part of mid and high-rise residential buildings. As part of an earthquake resistant building design, these walls are placed in building plans reducing lateral displacements under earthquake loads. So shear-wall frame structures are obtained. Shear walls are not only designed to resist gravity / vertical loads (due to its self-weight and other living / moving loads), but they are also designed for lateral loads of earthquakes / wind. The walls are structurally integrated with roofs / floors (diaphragms) and other lateral walls running across at right angles, thereby giving the three dimensional stability for the building structures. Shear wall structural systems are more stable. Because, their supporting area (total crosssectional area of all shear walls) with reference to total plans area of building, is comparatively more, unlike in the case of RCC framed structures.

1.1.2ADVANTAGES OF SHEAR WALLS IN BUILDINGS Properly designed and detailed buildings with shear walls have shown very good performance in past earthquakes. Shear walls in high seismic regions require special detailing. However, in past earthquakes, even buildings with sufficient amount of walls that were not specially detailed for seismic performance (but had enough well-distributed reinforcement) were saved from collapse. Shear wall buildings are a popular choice in many earthquake prone countries, like Chile, New Zealand and USA. Shear walls are easy to construct, because reinforcement detailing of walls is relatively straight forward and therefore easily implemented at site. Shear walls are efficient, both interims of construction cost and effectiveness in minimizing earthquake damage in structural and nonstructural elements like glass windows and building contents.

2

The objective of the project is to fully design and optimize a R.C.C framed building and to track the behavior of various structural components of the same for different loadings.

1.3 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT To achieve the above objectives the project is scheduled as below: To establish the geometry of the structure based on the various criteria. To determine the characteristic loadings and their occurrences. Analysis of structure taking into account vertical and lateral loadings. Design of various structural components using IS-456 (2000) and IS-13920 (1993). Optimization of various structural components

Some of the literatures reviewed are shown in brief below: Seismic analysis of the worlds second tallest building Taipei 101 with 101 stories and 508 m height, located in Taipei where earthquakes and strong typhoons are common occurrences. The structure of the building is a mega-frame system composed of concrete filled steel tube (CFT) columns, steel brace core and belt trusses, which recombined to resist vertical and lateral loads. An earthquake spectrum was generated for the location, which was adopted to calculate the lateral displacements and distributions of interior column forces. Time History analysis of elastic and inelastic seismic response was carried out.

Full scale measurements of wind effects on tall buildings This paper describes the results obtained from the measurements of win effects on two tall buildings with 70-storeys and 30-storeys. The field data presented is wind velocity and acceleration response measured at the top of the tall building. The damping characteristics which were obtained by using decrement technique

Wind engineering challenges of the new generation of super-tall buildings The new challenges posed by tall buildings are discussed in this paper. The statistics of wind speed and direction used in wind engineering have been almost entirely based on records from ground based meteorological stations. The aerodynamics of tall buildings can gave a huge impact on their cost. Wind affects not only the structural integrity of the tower but also its serviceability. The book titled Wind and Earthquake Resistant Buildings Structural analysis and design by S.TaranahBungalehas been quite successful in the discussion of modern design codes, comprehensive coverage of material properties, a full discussion of assessment of loading and its importance in assessing safety of designs.The book mainly covers the basic aspect of design along with a detailed explanation on the UBC,ASCE and IBC codes of design.

2.1 INTRODUCTION ABOUT SHEAR WALL Reinforced concrete (RC) buildings often have vertical plate-likeRC walls called Shear Wallsin addition to slabs, beams and columns. These walls generally start at foundation level and are continuous throughout the building height. Their thickness can be as low as 150mm, or as high as 400mm in high rise buildings. Shear walls are usually provided along both length and width of buildings Shear walls are like vertically-orientedwide beamsthat carry earthquake loads downwards to the foundation. Shear walls in high seismic regions require special detailing. However, in past earthquakes, even buildings with sufficient amount of walls that were not specially detailed for seismic performance (but had enough well-distributed reinforcement) were saved from collapse. Shear wall buildings are a popular choice in many earthquake prone countries, like Chile, New Zealand and USA. Shear walls are easy to construct, because reinforcement detailing of walls is relatively straight-forward and therefore easily implemented at site. Shear walls are efficient, both in terms of construction cost and effectiveness in minimizing earthquake damage in structural and nonstructural elements (like glass windows and building contents).

CHAPTER 3 GEOMETRY AND LAYOUT 3.1 Layout of the Building The building comprises of 15storeys, each storey with a height of 3.1 meters. Total height of thebuilding comprising of 49.6meters.G + 15 R.C.C building structure with 12x12 square meters building block compartments. With total width of 36 meters. Total area of 720 m2.

Each square block comprising of 9 columns, bringing the total number of columns to 16 columns in all and 4 columns at core wall acting as boundary elements for the shear wall. Though it is not necessary to provide flange it is recommended by IS 13920:1993 (clause 9.4). Boundary elementis the portion along the wall edges that is strengthened by longitudinal and transverse reinforcement. Here the boundary element provided is of 750x750mm.

This building is a dual system structure with SMRF (Special Moment Resisting Frame) andDuctile Shear Wall. In buildings where a space frame resists the earthquake forces, the columnsand beams act in bending. During a large earthquake, story-to-story deflection (story drift) maybe accommodated within the structural system without causing failure of columns or beams.However, the drift may be sufficient to damage elements that are rigidly tied to the structuralsystem such as brittle partitions, stairways, plumbing, exterior walls, and other elements thatextend between floors. Therefore, buildings can have substantial interior and exterior nonstructuraldamage and still be structurally safe. Although there are excellent theoretical andeconomic reasons for resisting seismic forces by frame action, for particular buildings, thissystem may be a poor economic risk unless special damage-control measures are taken.

A shear wall (or braced frame) building is normally more rigid than a framed structure. With lowdesign stress limits in shear walls, deflection due to shear forces is relatively small. Shear wallconstruction is an economical method of bracing buildings to limit damage, and this type ofconstruction is normally economically feasible up to about 5 stories. Notable exceptions to theexcellent performance of shear walls occur when the height-to-width ratio becomes great enoughto make overturning a problem and when there are excessive openings in the shear walls. Also, ifthe soil beneath its footings is relatively soft, the entire shear wall may rotate, causing localizeddamage around the wall. The structural systems just mentioned may be used singly or incombination with each other. When frames and shear walls interact, the system is called a dualsystem if the frame alone can resist 25% of the lateral load. Otherwise, it is referred to as acombined system. The type of structural system and the details related to the ductility andenergy-absorbing capacity of its components will establish the Response reduction factor R, usedfor calculating the total base shear.

The model was first given trial sections for the structural members and was analyzed for thesame. After numerous numbers of trials and errors, the dimensions of the structural memberswere decided. The static and dynamic analysis was carried out on the model with the givensections assigned to it. Column members modeled initially with a cover of 45mm to steel rebar. Beam section members were given 30mm clear cover to the steel rebar. Slab was modeled as a Rigid Diaphragm, since the slab does not contribute in resisting the storyshear. Also the rigid diaphragm does not change its plan shape when subjected to lateral loads. Itremains the same size, and square corners remain square. There is no flexure; rigid diaphragmsare capable of transmitting torsion to the major resisting elements (usually the outermostelements). The lateral story shear is distributed to the resisting elements in proportion to therigidities of those elements. Shear Wall was modeled as a Shell element, which combines both in-plane and out-ofplanestiffness. Also the shear wall is provided with flange sections at its ends acting as boundaryelements to the wall. Boundary elements are portions along the wall edges are strengthened bylongitudinal and transverse reinforcement. Furthermore it is recommended by IS 13920:1993 to provide shear walls with flanges with greater dimension than the wall itself as boundaryelements. Furthermore, the slab element has been meshed into finer elements of 1x1 meter dimension, forbetter and accurate load distribution on the beam members. M25 grade concrete was adopted forthe horizontal members like slab and beams. M30 grade concrete was adopted for the verticalmembers like columns and Shear Wall.

Earthquake Parameters: Seismic zone considered Soil Type Importance Factor Response reduction factor Zone V Soft soil High 5

Wind Parameters: Terrain Category Structure class Risk co-efficient Windward Co-efficient Leeward Co-efficient 3 B 1.08 0.8 0.5

CHAPTER 5 LOADINGS

Various Indian Codes like IS 875 (Part-1, 2 and 3), IS 1893(Part-1):2002 have been referred to decide the quantum of loading to be given to the structure.

5.1. GRAVITY LOADS 5.1.1 Loads on Beams The imposed loading applicable to the beams and slabs are given in IS 875 (Part-1)-1975, The brick wall load on the beam was calculated based on the height per meter length of the wall.

Density of brick wall = 1805 Kg/m3 Cement Plaster Total = 1040 Kg/ m3 = 2845 Kg/ m3

= 3.1 m

Weight per meter of Brick-wall = 3.1 x 2.845 = 9 KN/m. Uniformly distributed load of 9 KN/m on the beams from brick-wall acting as dead load on the structure.

5.1.2. Loads on Slab Dead load on slab element has been taken as 2 KN/m and 2KN/m as Live load on the slab element (since the building structure is a residential complex). Table 1: Load Intensity Loading Dead Load Live Load Intensity 2KN/m 2KN/m

10

The wind speed suggested by IS 875(Part-3):1975 is 50m/s for this location. The wind exposure is from the extents of the rigid diaphragms assigned to the slab elements. Also IS 1893(Part-1):2002 states that wind is not to be considered simultaneously with earthquake or maximum flood or maximum sea waves.The load case combinations adopted are referred from IS 875 (Part-3):1975.

1.2 (D.L + L.L + Wx) 1.2 (D.L + L.L Wx) 1.2 (D.L + L.L+Wy) 1.2 (D.L + L.L Wy) 1.5 (D.L + Wx) 1.5 (D.L - Wx) 1.5 (D.L + Wy) 1.5 (D.L - Wy)

Seismic forces are the most decisive and critical loadings for a multi storey building. The structure is seismically loaded using elastic time-history method and load combinations specified by the code are used. The structure is assumed to be with the soil being softsoil. The direction scales are calculated taking the importance factor (I) as 1.5 and reduction factor (R) as 5. The load case combinations adopted are referred from IS 1893 (Part-1):2002.

11

Table 2: Load Combinations Static 1.2 (D.L + L.L + EQx) 1.2 (D.L + L.L EQx) 1.2 (D.L + L.L + EQy) 1.2 (D.L + L.L EQy) 1.5 (D.L + EQx) 1.5 (D.L - EQx) 1.5 (D.L + EQy) 1.5 (D.L - EQy) Dynamic 1.2 (D.L + L.L + THx) 1.2 (D.L + L.L THx) 1.2 (D.L + L.L + THy) 1.2 (D.L + L.L THy) 1.5 (D.L + THx) 1.5 (D.L - THx) 1.5 (D.L + THy) 1.5 (D.L - THy)

5.2 ASSUMPTION OF SECTION AND MATERIAL The multi-storey building is entirely made of R.C.C members. For analysis of the same in STAADPRO, the following properties shown in table-3 of the materials have been adopted.

Table 3: Properties of the Materials Concrete (KN/m) M25 fck = 25 N/mm2 Isotropic Material Mass per unit Volume = 2.4 Weight per unit Volume =24 Modulus of Elasticity = 25 x 106 Poissons Ratio = 0.2 Co-eff of Thermal Expansion = 9.9 x 10-6 Shear Modulus = 10.41 x 106 fck = 30 N/mm2 Isotropic Material Mass per unit Volume = 2.4 Weight per unit Volume =24 Modulus of Elasticity = 25 x 106 Poissons Ratio = 0.2 Co-eff of Thermal Expansion = 9.9 x 10-6 Shear Modulus = 10.41 x 106 M30

Structural components like beams and columns which constitute the structural frame have been assumed initially and the structure is analyzed taking into account permissible deflections. The following sections shown in table 4 were assumed.

12

Table 4: Assumed Sections for Analysis Slab Thickness-150mm Shear Wall Thickness-300mm Beam 400x650 mm Column 750x750 mm

13

The elastic properties and mass of building causes it to develop a vibratory motion when they aresubjected to dynamic action. The vibration of a building consists of a fundamental mode ofvibration and the additional contribution of various modes, which vibrates at higher frequencies. In low-rise buildings the seismic response depends primarily on the fundamental mode ofvibration, the also the period of vibration of this mode expressed in modes is the mostrepresentative characteristics of the dynamic response of a building. On the basis of time period,building structures are classified as i) Rigid (T < 0.3 sec). ii) Semi-Rigid (0.3 sec < T < 1.0 sec). iii) Flexible (T > 1.0 sec). Buildings with lower natural frequencies and long natural periods, these buildings willexperience lower accelerations but larger displacements. The model is analyzed for 45 numbersof modes. The type of analysis being chosen as Ritz Vector analysis over Eigen Vector analysis.Reason being Ritz vector analysis is that it provides a better participation factor, which enablesthe analysis to run faster, with the same level of accuracy. Further, missing-mass modes areautomatically included, there is no need to determine whether or not there are enough modes,and when determining convergence of localized response with respect to the number of modes,Ritz vectors converge much faster and more uniformly than do Eigen vectors. Ritz vectors arenot subject to convergence questions, though strict orthogonality of vectors is maintained, similarto Eigen vectors. The Ritz load vectors assigned are as accelerations in X, Y and Z-directions tothe building structure.

14

Table 5.1: Modal Analysis data Mode Period T (in sec) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 2.107427 2.107427 2.067215 0.66899 0.562153 0.562153 0.381305 0.261898 0.261898 0.257269 0.187375 0.159323 0.159323 0.143056 0.112865 Frequency (Hz) 0.4745123 0.4745123 0.4837426 1.4947907 1.7788751 1.7788751 2.6225725 3.8182804 3.8182804 3.8869821 5.3368913 6.2765577 6.2765577 6.9902695 8.8601426

Table 5.2: Modal Participation Data Type Accel Accel Accel Accel RX RY RY StatPercent 100 100 99.9999 DynPercent 100 100 99.8222

15

6.1 STOREY SHEAR The following storey shears were obtained from this method as depicted in table 5.2.

Table 6: Storey Shear Floor Peak Storey Shear in KN X 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 149.6 445.4 736.12 1021.82 1302.53 1578.29 1848.99 2112.81 2368.68 2616.65 2854.79 3080.44 3290.17 3488.03 3684.6 3881.17 Y 149.6 445.4 736.12 1021.82 1302.53 1578.29 1848.99 2112.81 2368.68 2616.65 2854.79 3080.44 3290.17 3488.03 3684.6 3881.17

Maximum base shear was observed in X and Y direction with an intensity of 3881.17 KN.Where X and Y directions are the orthogonal horizontal directions.

6.2 STOREY DRIFT Storey drift is the displacement of one level relative to the other level above or below. This is one of the most important parameter of lateral analysis to be studied. As per clause no. 20.5 of

16

IS 456:2000, the lateral sway at the top should not exceed H/500, where H is the total height ofthe building. = = 0.0992 meters = 99.2 mm.

Table 7: Storey Drift Storey Level 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 .356 .374 .399 .421 .442 .463 .48 .491 .496 .492 .476 .446 .399 .335 .243 .117 .428 .449 .448 .506 .532 .556 .576 .59 .596 .591 .571 .535 .479 .399 .292 .141 .535 .561 .599 .632 .664 .695 .720 .738 .745 .738 .714 .669 .599 .499 .365 .176 1.2(D.L+L.L+ ) 1.5(D.L+ )

Since all the storey drifts are under the limits prescribed by IS 456:2000, the building is safe against storey drift for lateral loading of wind on it.

17

Figure 3: Column Labels For simplicity, we are considering the similar columns sections in the building structure. Furthermore, since the building is symmetrical in plan dimensions, the columns grouped in the following manner tend to behave in a similar manner.

18

7.1.1 Design Details of Column C-19 Design Code: IS 456-2000 General design parameters: Given: = 3.100 m = 30 MPa = 415 MPa = 538072 mm2

Figure 4: Column Reinforcement Assumptions 1. The general conditions of clause 25.1.1 are applicable. 2. The specified design axial loads include the self weight of the column. 3. The design axial loads are taken constant over the height of the column. Design approach: The column is designed using the following procedure: 1. The column design charts are constructed. 2. The design axis and design ultimate moment are determined. 3. The design axial force and moment capacity is checked on the relevant design chart. 4. The procedure is repeated for each load case. 5. The critical load case is identified as the case yielding the lowest safety factor about the design axis.

19

Through inspection: Load case 3(1.5 (D.L + THx)) is critical. Check column slenderness: End fixity and bracing for bending about the Design axis: At the top end: Condition 2 (Partially fixed). At the bottom end: Condition 1 (fully fixed). The column is braced. Effective length factor 0.80 = Eff Effective column height: = Eff = .8 x 3.1 = 2.480 m Column slenderness about weakest axis: = = = 3.341 Where h is an equivalent column depth derived from the radius of gyration square root of 12

20

Figure 5: Column-19

Minimum Moments for Design Check for minimum eccentricity: Check that the eccentricity exceeds the minimum in the plane of bending: = N

= .0312 x 16532 = 515.798 kNm Check if the column is slender = 3.3 < 12 Therefore The column is short. Initial Moments: The column is bent in double curvature about the X-X axis: M1 = Smaller initial end moment = -1745.0 kNm M2 = Larger initial end moment = 1745.0 kNm The initial moment near mid-height of the column:

21

= 0.4 x

+ 0.6 x

= 0.4 x .1745 + 0.6 x 1745 = 349.000 kNm = 0.4 x = 0.4 x 1745 = 698.00 kNm Mi 0.4 M2 = 698.0 kNm The column is bent in double curvature about the Y-Y axis: M1 = Smaller initial end moment = -75.3 kNm M2 = Larger initial end moment = 75.3 kNm The initial moment near mid-height of the column: = 0.4 x + 0.6 x

= 0.4 x -75.31 + 0.6 x 75.31 = 15.062 kNm = 0.4 x = 0.4 x 75.31 = 30.124 kNm Mi 0.4 M2 = 30.1 kNm Design ultimate load and moment: Design axial load: = 16532.0 kN

22

Design of Column section for ULS: The column is checked for applied moment about the design axis. Through inspection: the critical section lies at the bottom end of the column. The design axis for the critical load case 3 lies at an angle of 2.47 to the X-axis The safety factor for the critical load case 3 is 0.71

Moment distribution along the height of the column for bending about the design axis: The final design moments were calculated as the vector sum of the X- and Y- moments of the critical load case. This also determines the design axis direction

23

Summary of design calculations: Design table for critical load case: Moments and reinforcement Mx (kNm) My (kNm) M (kNm) Design axis Safety factor Ast (mm2) Percentage AsNom (mm ) Critical load case: LC 3

2

Load case

Axis

Pu (kN)

M1

M2

Mi

Ma

Design

M (kNm)

(kNm) (kNm)

(kNm) (kNm)

Load case 1

1.5(D.L+L.L)

-34.0 -34.0

34.0 34.0

13.6 13.6

0.0 0.0

Top

34.0 34.0

303.2

1.363

24

Load case

Axis

Pu (kN)

M1

M2

Mi (kNm)

Ma (kNm)

Design

M (kNm)

M (kNm)

Safety factor

(kNm) (kNm)

Load case 2

1.5(D.L+EQx)

16335.0

-91.0 -54.0

91.0 54.0

Top

91.0 54.0

509.7

0.811

Load case 2

1.5(D.L+THx)

-75.3

Bottom

1745.0 75.3

1746.6

0.708

75.3

Load case 3(1.5(D.L + THx)) is critical. Thus increasing the column section size to 1000x1000mm and keeping the rebar percentage the same. The rebar percentage and various design details for the column section after increase in its dimensions are shown below. For Column section C-19 dimension of 1000x1000mm with 24 nos. of 36 diameter bars is safeagainst the different load cases on it. COLUMN C-18

25

7.1.2 DESIGN DETAILS OF C-18 The design details for this column with 1000x1000mm dimensions and 24 nos of 36mm diameter bars distributed equally on all sides.

Moment distribution along the height of the column for bending about the design axis. The final design moments were calculated as the vector sum of the X- and Y- moments of the critical load case. This also determines the design axis direction. At the top, Near mid-height, At the bottom, Mx = 1714.3 kNm Mx = 852.9 kNm Mx = 1714.3 kNm

Summary of design calculations: Design table for critical load case: Moments and reinforcement Mx (kNm) My (kNm) M (kNm) Design axis Safety factor Ast (mm2) Percentage AsNom (mm2) Critical load case: LC 3 -1714.3 -1.7 1714.3 180.06 0.85 24429 2.44% 7805 685.7 0.7 852.9 0.06 0.86 24429 2.44% 7805 -1714.3 -1.7 1714.3 0.06 0.85 24429 2.44% 7805

M (kNm)

Load case

Axis

Pu (kN)

M1 (kNm)

M2 (kNm)

Mi (kNm)

Ma (kNm)

Design

M (kNm)

Safety factor

Load case 1

1.5(D.L+L.L)

X-X Y-Y

9846.0

-77.2 -1.1

77.2 1.1

-30.9 0.4

0.0 0.0

Top

77.2 1.1

389.2

1.879

26

Load case

Axis

Pu (kN)

M1 (kNm)

M2 (kNm)

Mi (kNm)

Ma (kNm)

Design

M (kNm)

M (kNm)

Safety factor

Load case 2

1.5(D.L+EQx)

12651.9

904.4 1.7

Top

904.4 1.7

904.4

1.462

Load case 2

1.5(D.L+THx)

1.7 1.7

Bottom

1714.3 1.7

1714.3

0.853

Revising the section by increasing the dimensions to 1150x1150 mm and using the same rebar distribution. The rebar percentage and various design details for the column section after increase in its dimensions are shown below.

Moment distribution along the height of the column for bending about the design axis. The final design moments were calculated as the vector sum of the X- and Y- moments of the critical load case. This also determines the design axis direction. At the top, Mx = 1714.3 kNm Near mid-height, Mx = 960.7 kNm At the bottom, Mx = 1714.3 kNm

27

Moments and reinforcement Mx (kNm) My (kNm) M (kNm) Design axis Safety factor Ast (mm2) Percentage AsNom (mm2) Critical load case: LC 3 -1714.3 -1.7 1714.3 180.06 1.04 24429 1.85% 10385 685.7 0.7 852.9 0.06 1.04 24429 1.85% 10385 -1714.3 -1.7 1714.3 0.06 1.04 24429 1.85% 10385

For Column section C-18 dimension of 1000x1000mm with 24 nos. of 36 diameter bars is safe against the different load cases on it.

Figure 7: Column - 23

28

The design details for this column with 1000 x 1000mm dimensions and 24 nos of 36mm diameter bars distributed equally on all sides.

Moment distribution along the height of the column for bending about the design axis. The final design moments were calculated as the vector sum of the X- and Y- moments of the critical load case. This also determines the design axis direction. At the top, Near mid-height, At the bottom, Mx = 1760.4 kNm Mx = 718.5 kNm Mx = 1760.4 kNm

Moments and reinforcement for LC 3:1.5(D.L + THx) Mx(kNm) My(kNm) M'(kNm) Design axis( ) safety factor Asc (mm2) Percentage AsNom (mm2) Critical load case: LC 3

o

Load case Axis Pu (kN) M1 M2 Mi (kNm) Ma (kNm) Design M (kNm) M (kNm) Safety factor (kNm) (kNm)

Load case 1

1.5(D.L+L.L)

-4.1 -0.2

4.2 0.2

1.6 0.1

0.0 0.0

Top

4.1 0.2

419.3

1.744

29

Load case

Axi s

Pu (kN)

M1 (kNm)

M2 (kNm)

Mi (kNm)

Ma (kN m)

Desi gn

M (kNm)

M (kNm)

Safety factor

Load case 2

1.5(D.L+E Qx)

X-X Y-Y

18005.2

1022.6 -0.2

-1022.6 0.2

-409.0 0.1

0.0 0.0

Top

1022.6 0.2

1022.6

1.027

Load case 2

1.5(D.L+T Hx)

X-X Y-Y

18174.3

-0760.4 -0.2

1760.4 0.2

704.2 0.1

0.0 0.0

Bott om

1760.4 0.2

1760.4

0.975

Load case 3(1.5 (D.L + THx)) is critical. This column is not safe against the prescribed load combinations on it. Thus revising the section by increasing its dimension to 1150x1150mm with the same rebar percentage distribution in it.

Moment distribution along the height of the column for bending about the design axis: The final design moments were calculated as the vector sum of the X- and Y- moment and the critical load case. This also determined the design axis direction

30

Moments and reinforcement for LC 3:1.5(D.L+THx) Mx (kNm) My (kNm) M (kNm) Design axis Safety factor Ast (mm2) Percentage AsNom (mm2) Critical load case: LC 3 -1760.4 -0.2 1760.4 180.01 1.20 24429 1.85% 10385 704.2 0.1 809.4 0.01 1.23 24429 1.85% 10385 -1760.4 -0.2 -1760.4 0.01 1.20 24429 1.85% 10385

M (kNm)

Load case

Axis

Pu (kN)

M1

M2

Mi (kNm)

Ma (kNm)

Design

M (kNm)

Safety factor

(kNm) (kNm)

Load case 1

1.5(D.L+L.L)

-4.1 -0..2

4.1 0.2

1.6 0.1

0.0 0.0

Top

4.1 0.2

472.3

2.109

Load case

Axi s

Pu (kN)

M1 (kNm)

M2 (kNm)

Mi (kNm)

Ma (kNm )

Desi gn

M (kNm)

M (kNm)

Safety factor

Load

1.5(D.L+ EQx)

X-X

18005.2

1022.6 -0.2

1022.6 -0.2

-409.0 0.1

0.0 0.0

Top

1022.6 0.2

1022.6

1.242

case 2 Y-Y

Load

1.5(D.L+ THx)

X-X

18174.3

-1760.4 -0.2

1760.4 0.2

704.2 0.1

0.0 0.0

1760.4

1.200

case 2 Y-Y

31

Load case 3 (1.5(D.L +THx)) is critical. For Column section C-18 dimension of 1150x1150mm with 24 nos. of 36 diameter bars is safe against the different load cases on it.

Figure 8 Column 24

The design details for this column with 1000x1000mm dimensions and 24 nos of 36mm diameter bars distributed equally on all sides. Moment distribution along the height of the column for bending about the design axis. The final design moments were calculated as the vector sum of the X- and Y- moments of the critical load case. This also determines the design axis direction. At the top, Near mid-height, At the bottom, Mx = 1770.5 kNm Mx = 708.2 kNm Mx = 1770.5 kNm

32

Summary of design calculation: Design table for critical load case: Moments and reinforcement Mx (kNm) My (kNm) M (kNm) Design axis Safety factor Ast (mm2) Percentage AsNom (mm2) Critical load case: LC 3 -1762.3 -170.3 1770.5 185.52 1.17 24429 2.44% 7805 704.9 68.1 708.2 5.52 1.29 24429 2.44% 7805 -1762.3 -170.3 1770.5 5.52 1.17 24429 2.44% 7805

M (kNm)

Load case

Axis

Pu (kN)

M1 (kNm)

M2 (kNm)

Mi (kNm)

Ma (kNm)

Design

M (kNm)

Safety factor

Load case 1

1.5(D.L+L.L)

X-X Y-Y

7965.5

-5.8 -105.3

5.8 105.3

2.3 42.1

0.0 0.0

Top

5.8 105.3

314.9

2.322

Load case

Axis

Pu (kN)

M1 (kNm)

M2 (kNm)

Mi (kNm)

Ma (kN m)

Desi gn

M (kNm)

M (kNm)

Safet y factor

Load case 2

1.5(D.L+EQx )

X-X Y-Y

14024. 5

1022.6 -168.8

-1022.6 168.8

-410.8 67.5

0.0 0.0

Top

1022.9 168.8

1040.7

1.319

Load case 2

1.5(D.L+THx )

X-X Y-Y

14349. -1762.3 2

-170.3

1762.3 170.3

704.9 68.1

0.0 0.0

Botto m

1762.3 170.3

1770.5

1.165

33

Load case 3 (1.5(D.L +THx)) is critical. Thus this column is safe for the provided section and the percentage of steel rebar distribution provided.

Figure 9 Column 27

The design details for this column with 1000x1000mm dimensions and 24 nos of 36mm diameter bars distributed equally on all sides. Moment distribution along the height of the column for bending about the design axis. The final design moments were calculated as the vector sum of the X- and Y- moments of the critical load case. This also determines the design axis direction. At the top, Near mid-height, At the bottom, Mx = 1649.0 kNm Mx = 696.3 kNm Mx = 1649.0 kNm

34

Design table for critical load case: Moments and reinforcement Mx (kNm) My (kNm) M (kNm) Design axis Safety factor Asc (mm2) Percentage AsNom (mm2) Critical load case: LC 3 -1645.1 -112.7 1649.0 356.08 1.01 24429 2.44% 7805 -658.1 45.1 696.3 176.08 1.05 24429 2.44% 7805 -1645.1 -112.7 1649.0 176.08 1.01 24429 2.44% 7805

M (kNm)

Load case

Axis

Pu (kN)

M1 (kNm)

M2 (kNm)

Mi (kNm)

Ma (kNm)

Design

M (kNm)

Safety factor

Load case 1

1.5(D.L+L.L)

X-X Y-Y

5642.0

-69.0 -68.3

69.0 68.3

27.6 27.3

0.0 0.0

Top

69.0 68.3

223.0

3.279

Load case

Axis

Pu (kN)

M1 (kNm)

M2 (kNm)

Mi (kNm)

Ma (kN m)

Desig n

M (kNm)

M (kNm)

Safet y factor

Load case 2

1.5(D.L+ EQx)

X-X Y-Y

14775.0

1008.8 -112.6

-1008.8 -112.6

-403.5 45.1

0.0 0.0

Top

1008.8 112.6

1015.1

1.252

Load case 2

1.5(D.L+ THx)

X-X Y-Y

17612.4

-1645.1 -112.

-1645.1 112.7

-658.1 45.1

0.0 0.0

Top

1762.3 170.3

1649.0

1013

35

Load case 3(1.5 (D.L+THx)) is critical. Since the section is completely safe against the load combinations, revising the section by increasing the dimensions of the columns sections to 1050x1050mm and with the same rebar distribution percentage.

Moment distribution along the height of the column for bending about the design axis. The final design moments were calculated as the vector sum of the X- and Y- moments of the critical load case. This also determines the design axis direction. At the top, Near mid-height, At the bottom, Mx = 1649.0 kNm Mx = 725.6 kNm Mx = 1649.0 kNm

Summary of design calculation: Design table for critical load case: Moments and reinforcement Mx (kNm) My (kNm) M (kNm) Design axis Safety factor Ast (mm2) Percentage AsNom (mm2) Critical load case: LC 3 -1645.1 -112.7 1649.0 356.08 1.09 24429 2.22% 8625 -658.1 45.1 725.6 176.08 1.12 24429 2.44% 7805 -1645.1 -112.7 1649.0 176.08 1.09 24429 2.44% 7805

36

M (kNm)

Load case

Axis

Pu (kN)

M1 (kNm)

M2 (kNm)

Mi (kNm)

Ma (kNm)

Design

M (kNm)

Safety factor

Load case 1

1.5(D.L+L.L)

X-X Y-Y

5642.0

-69.0 -68.3

69.0 68.3

27.6 27.3

0.0 0.0

Top

69.0 68.3

232.5

2.322

Load case

Axis

Pu (kN)

M1 (kNm)

M2 (kNm)

Mi (kNm)

Ma (kN m)

Desig n

M (kNm)

M (kNm)

Safet y factor

Load case 2

1.5(D.L+E Qx)

X-X Y-Y

14775. 0

1008.8 -112.6

-1008.8 168.8

-403.5 45.1

0.0 0.0

Top

1008.8 112.6

1015.1

1.335

Load case 2

1.5(D.L+T Hx)

X-X Y-Y

14349. 2

-1645.1 -112.7

-1645.1 112.7

658.1 45.1

0.0 0.0

Top

1645.1 112.7

1649.0

1.086

Load case 3 (1.5(D.L +THx)) is critical. For Column section C-27 dimension of 1050x1050mm with 24 nos. of 36 diameter bars is safe against the different load cases on it.

37

CHAPTER 8 DESIGN OF SHEAR WALL 8.1 Shear Wall Design The design of shear wall in 3-storeyed reinforced concrete building has been presented for illustration .The design forces as per IS1893 (part-1):2002 in the shear wall have already been calculated and summarized in Table 9.1. The sectional and reinforced details fulfilled according to the clauses of IS 13920:1993 are presented as under: 8.1.1 Clause as per IS 13920 The Design requirements as per IS 13920:1993 and the details provided in the shear walls are given below: According to Clause 9.1: The General requirements of the Lateral force resisting system in the building is a dual system consisting of SMRF and Shear Wall According to Clause 9.1.1: The design of shear wall is based on the assumption that it will be the part of the lateral force resisting system of the structure consisting of SMRF and shear walls. In general, the shear walls will resist all the lateral force being a relatively stiff element According to Clause 9.1.2: In order to safeguard against premature out-of-plane buckling in the potential plastic hinge region of walls, minimum thickness of shear wall should not be less than 150mm. Assume thickness of shear wall 300mm. According to Clause 9.1.3: Shear wall is subjected to combined flexure and axial load therefore; the ends of the wall will be subjected to high axial load. Therefore, it is necessary to thicken the wall in boundary regions. This is readily achieved by providing flange elements with sufficient dimensions so as to provide of the wall section. This effective flange width to be used in the design of flanged wall sections, shall be assumed to extend beyond the face of the web for a distance which shall be smaller of (a) Half the distance to an adjacent shear wall web (b) 1/10th of the weight.

38

The shear wall is provided in between the middle two columns of the exterior frames. These columns will act as a flange element of the shear wall. Therefore, there is no need for further thickening of shear wall at the end or boundary regions. According to Clause 9.1.4: To control the width of the of the inclined cracks in the wall, the code recommends the direction of walls, i.e.; horizontal and vertical. The minimum reinforcement ratio should be 0.0025 of the gross area in each direction of the wall and should be uniform across the cross section of the wall and the calculated reinforcement in horizontal and vertical direction is greater than the minimum prescribed reinforcement. Provided reinforcement is uniformly distributed in both the directions. According to Clause 9.1.5: To reduce fragmentation and premature deterioration of the concrete under load reversal loading in inelastic range, it is preferred that the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement should be provided in two curtains if (a) factored shear stress in the wall exceeds 0.25 wall thickness > 200mm. Since the thickness of shear wall is 250mm and also

v)

According to Clause 9.1.6: To prevent the use of very large diameter of reinforcement, the code restricts diameter of bar up to 1/10th the thickness part thus diameter of bar used in horizontal and vertical reinforcement is 10mm,which is smaller than 1/10 (300) = 30mm. According to Clause 9.1.7: The maximum spacing of reinforcement in either direction shall not exceed

the smallest of 1w/5, 3tw, and 450mm; where 1w is the horizontal length of the wall, and tw is the

thickness of the wall .This limitation has been guided by the experience and various tests to confine .Thus the spacing provided in horizontal and vertical direction of

reinforcement is 130mm which is smaller of (a) 1w/5 = 800mm (b) 3tw=900mm and 450 Hence ok

39

v c)

shall be calculate as

= Vu/tw1w

Where, Vu =Factored Shear force = thickness of web 1w=Effective depth of wall section This may be takes as 0.81wfor rectangular section Vu = 167.16 / 2 = 59KN = 300 mm 1w = 4000 mm

= 0.8

4000 = 3200 mm

v

= 0.1N/mm

Hence ok. The design strength of concrete ( ) shall be calculated as per Table-13, Clause 9.2.2 of IS 456:2000 Assume, horizontal and vertical (As) is 0.25% and Concrete grade M30, Permissible shear stress in concrete is The nominal shear stress in the wall, IS 456:2000

v c

40

v is

less than

v

c (0.37

N/mm2).

Horizontal reinforcement to be provided as per 9.1.4 Minimum reinforcement = 0.25% of Ag =0.0025 =0.75 Hence, provide 10 mm diameter bar at 130 c/c in 2 curtains as horizontal reinforcement. According to Clause 9.2.6: The vertical reinforcement that is uniformly distributed in the wall shall not be less than the horizontal reinforcement in 9.2.5 Hence, provide 10mm diameter bar at 130 c/c in 2curtain as vertical reinforcement also. 8.2 Flexural Strength According to Clause 9.3.1: The moment of resistance,

, of

as for columns subjected to combined axial load and uniaxial bending as per IS: 456-1978.The moment of resistance that is provided by uniformly distributed vertical reinforcement in a slender rectangular wall section may be calculate as follows: (a)For

/1w

x*u/1w 2(0.168+

2=

41

Ast / (tw1w); / =

=AS1W/

= 0.75/300=0.002;

=0.31 =0.66

Since

1= [0.36+

= [0.36+0.03 0.3534 = 20,780KN-m The remaining moment Muelement. According to Clause 9.3.2: The cracked flexural strength of the wall should be greater than its un-cracked flexural strength. According to Clause 9.3.3: In walls that do not have boundary elements, vertical reinforcement consisting of at least 4 bars minimum of 12 mm diameter arranged in two layers shall be = 3000KN-m shall be resisted by reinforcement in boundary

42

provided along the edge of the wall and concentrated vertical reinforcement at the edges of the wall is more effective in resisting bending moment. 8.3 Boundary Elements Boundary elements are portions along the wall edges that are strengthen by longitudinal and transverse reinforcement. Though they may have the same thickness as that of the wall web, it is advantageous to provide them with greater thickness. According to Clause 9.4.1: Where the extreme fibre compressive stress in the wall due to combined axial load and bending is greater than 0.2fck, boundary elements shall be provided along the vertical boundaries of wall. The boundary elements may be discontinued where the calculate compressive stress become less than 0.15fck Gross Sectional Properties 1w = 4000 mm = 300mm Ag = tw1w3/12= 300 40003/12 =1.6 012 mm4

(

=

=6.6N/mm2 > 4 Therefore, boundary elements are provided. According to Clause 9.4.2: A boundary element shall have adequate axial load carrying capacity, assuming short column action, so as to enable it to carry an axial compression equal to the sum of factored gravity load on it and the additional compressive load induced by the seismic force. The latter may be calculated as

43

( Where,

Moment of resistance provided by distributed vertical reinforcement across the wall section. Centre of centre distance between the boundary elements along of the wall. The adjacent columns of shear wall act as a boundary element .From table 9.1 the maximum compressive axial load on boundary element column is conditions. Let with existing column size having dimension 750 mm 750 mm and assume longitudinal reinforcement 2% of the gross area. Ag = 750 750 =5.625 AS = 0.02 = 11205 mm2 Axial load capacity of boundary element column acting as short column =0.4 =0.4 7082056 KN > 16096 KN Increasing the column section to 1200mm Ag =1200 =1.4 As = 0.04 mm2 mm Ag + (0.67 -0.4 ) As mm2 mm2 =16096 KN under different loading

+ (0.67

44

=20347 mm2

Hence ok. According to Clause 9.4.4: The percentage of vertical reinforcement in the boundary elements shall not be less than 0.8 % neither greater than 6%. So, provided vertical reinforcement is 2% of gross area = 20347 mm2 Provide 20 bars of 36 mm diameter equally distributed on the four sides of the section. Hence ok. In order to avoid congestion, the practical upper limit would be 4 % Boundary element shall be provided as per IS13920:1993 and detailing in the adjacent columns of shear wall of boundary element according to IS13920:1993 Hence ok.

45

Figure 11: Critical Beam Location The design of one part of the block at level 8 is illustrated here

46

Figure 12: Beam Layout Plan 9.1.1 General requirements The flexural members shall fulfill the following general requirements. (IS13920; Clause 6.1.2) 0.3 Here = =0.61>0.3

Hence, ok. (IS13920; Clause 6.1.3) b 200 mm Here b = 400 mm 200 mm. Hence, ok. (IS13920; Clause 6.1.4) D D = 650 mm < mm

47

Hence, ok.

9.1.2 Bending Moments and Shear Forces The end moments and end shears for six load cases (3 static and 3 dynamic) are shown in thefollowing tables. Since the moments and shears due to Y-direction for orthogonal beams locatedparallel to X-direction show negligible shears and moments, they can be neglected from loadcombinations, also applied for beams in Y-direction.

3-3 Beams

S.No.

B23 Middle 70.6 361.846 561.4 438.33 559.67 Right -227.3 -784.679 -1183.2 -945.14 -1180.52 Left 62 526.03 883 652.9 880

B24 Middle 67.9 334.08 510.3 402.03 498.52 Right -248.2 -754.159 -1121.5 -903.75 -1118.52

1 2 3 4 5

Table 8.1: End moments (KN-m) for 5 critical load cases 3-3 beams

S.No.

B23 Middle 75.43 377.27 538.144 427.6 537 Right 127.38 408.5 589.9 462.33 582.56 Left 64.25 379.6 494.927 432.9 490.456

B24 Middle 82.29 369.592 505.487 417.445 500.368 Right 134.24 400.869 557.332 452.26 559.526

1 2 3 4 5

Table 8.2: End Shears (KN) for 5 critical load cases for 3-3 beams

48

Rebar Percentage Start 1.903% 1.906% Middle 0.841% 1.205% End 2.347% 1.514%

Rebar Percentage Start 1.716% 1.794% Middle 0.707% 1.100% End 2.234% 1.367%

49

2-2 Beams

S.No.

B21 Middle 102.85 300.705 490 371.9 482 Right -180 -698.88 -1062.7 -837.92 -1059 Left 45.734 462.052 -839.95 593 -840

B22 Middle 69.9 326.355 502.05 394.6 500 Right -296.88 -788.84 -1153.7 -934 -1149.5

1 2 3 4 5

Table 8.5: End moments (KN-m) for 5 critical load cases 2-2 beams S.No. Load case Left 1 2 3 4 5 1.5(D.L+L.L) 1.2(D.L+L.L+EQx) 1.2(D.L+L.L+THx) 1.5(D.L+EQx) 1.5(D.L+THx) 140.25 402.579 558.83 468 560 B21 Middle 84.257 353.729 491.722 414 487.78 Right 168.149 371.464 550.56 430.99 548.3 Left 101.369 403.372 590.98 460 588.67 B22 Middle 123.139 390.202 540.65 441.43 539.62 Right 207.03 434.468 607.77 488.22 610.467

Table 8.6: End Shears (KN) for 5 critical load cases for 2-2 beams

50

Rebar Percentage Start 1.959% 1.591% Middle 0.791% 1.043% End 2.126% 1.350%

Rebar Percentage Start 1.716% 1.676% Middle 0.615% 1.076% End 0.615% 1.076%

51

1-1 Beams

S.No.

B19 Middle 70.6 361.846 561.389 438.33 560.41 Right -227.34 -784.68 -1183.2 -945.14 -1174.5 Left 62 526.031 -889. 5 652.98 -888.64

B20 Middle 67.96 334.018 510.38 402 506.45 Right -248.83 -754.16 -1121.5 -903.75 -1120.5

1 2 3 4 5

Table 8.9: End moments (KN-m) for 5 critical load cases 1-1 beams

S.No.

B19 Middle 75.43 377.277 538.144 427.5 538.144 Right 127.38 408.54 589.989 462.33 589.989 Left 64.25 379.6 494.92 432.93 494.92

B20 Middle 82.29 369.592 505.48 417.445 505.48 Right 134.241 400.869 557.332 452.26 557.332

1 2 3 4 5

Table 8.10: End Shears (KN) for 5 critical load cases for 1-1 beams

52

Rebar Percentage Start 1.903% 1.960% Middle 0.841% 1.205% End 2.347% 1.514%

Rebar Percentage Start 1.903% 1.960% Middle 0.841% 1.205% End 2.347% 1.514%

53

A-A Beams

S.No.

B13 Middle 53.41 38.222 81.2 33.48 79 Right -203.78 -238.78 -288.62 -267 -290 Left -203.87 -238.78 -288.62 -267.07 -289

B14 Middle 53.9 59.44 84.19 71.6 81 Right -205.07 -101.42 -250.37 -86.975 -246.41

1 2 3 4 5

Table 8.9: End moments (KN-m) for 5 critical load cases A-A beams

S.No.

B13 Middle 107.651 158.39 189.156 107.30 190 Right 184.346 204.902 233.442 219.8 235 Left 130.481 204.902 233.42 219.8 235

B14 Middle 110.434 160.616 189.156 170.309 187 Right 171.658 209.595 226.711 224.445 225.63

1 2 3 4 5

Table 8.10: End Shears (KN) for 5 critical load cases for A-A beams

54

Rebar Percentage Start 0.474% 0.289% Middle 0.289% 0.289% End 0.555% 0.289%

Rebar Percentage Start 0.555% 0.289% Middle 0.289% 0.289% End 0.474% 0.289%

55

B-B Beams

S.No.

B15 Middle 85.16 52.82 58.9 53.671 57 Right -110.76 -94.554 -98.4 -100.5 -96.53 Left -41.52 -38.249 -41.538 -41 -40.47

B16 Middle -16.24 41.191 42.5 43 41 Right -279.77 -218.82 -231 -224.08 -229

1 2 3 4 5

Table 8.9: End moments (KN-m) for 5 critical load cases B-B beams

S.No.

B15 Middle 84.08 133.263 137 136.51 136 Right 145.17 182.113 185.9 190.52 189.65 Left 106.91 151.527 155.35 156.331 154.74

B16 Middle 140.422 178.333 182.15 182.254 181.98 Right 201.485 215.759 219.58 222.741 217

1 2 3 4 5

Table 8.10: End Shears (KN) for 5 critical load cases for B-B beams

56

Rebar Percentage Start 0.536% 0.268% Middle 0.289% 0.289% End 0.289% 0.289%

Rebar Percentage Start 0.289% 0.289% Middle 0.289% 0.289% End 0.536% 0.289%

57

C-C Beams

S.No.

B17 Middle 85.65 62.631 63 -32.9 54 Right -103.5 -83.331 -83.629 -87.6 -70 Left 54.98 38.214 38.824 37.088 29.53

B18 Middle -43.7 -34.71 -35.34 -32.9 -32 Right -232.5 -185.56 -186.6 -195.5 -184.32

1 2 3 4 5

Table 8.9: End moments (KN-m) for 5 critical load cases C-C beams

S.No.

B17 Middle 52 135.767 135.9 142.429 127.44 Right 99.7 139.972 140.1 150.656 140 Left 69.19 139.972 140.1 150.656 129.46

B18 Middle 94.4 135.767 135.9 142.429 134.42 Right 129.303 173.908 174.04 186.582 170

1 2 3 4 5

Table 8.10: End Shears (KN) for 5 critical load cases for C-C beams

58

Rebar Percentage Start 0.437% 0.218% Middle 0.289% 0.289% End 0.289% 0.289%

Rebar Percentage Start 0.218% 0.218% Middle 0.289% 0.289% End 0.437% 0.289%

59

60

CHAPTER 10 CONCLUSION The structural design of multi-storey building requires meticulous planning. Proper planning ofbeams, shear wall, location and spacing of columns etc are important to maximize space usage. While designing the various structural components it is important to note that, the sectionsprovided here were large in section because of the fact that the stresses and forces developed dueto the Time-History analysis are very large. Material can be saved extensively by carrying outfurther optimization of various structural components. Reduction in the dimensions of sectionsfor the upper floors might bring down the total cost of the structure. The effect of wind on the structure is negligible to the seismic effects on it, due to the fact thatthe chosen accelerogram, i.e.; of Bhuj is a very fluctuating and strong one. Its effects on buildingstructures were witnessed, and they were horrible. Design data of formerly constructed buildingssubjected to seismic loading may be used to get an idea of the structural components usage andtheir sizes and orientation and thus efficiently and productively provide sections. A comparativestudy should be made by combination of different types of sections. This type of analysis, i.e.;Effect of wind on building structures is more pre-dominant on taller buildingstructures, i.e.; 100 meters and above. Due to the fact that the building has to be in a continuousstate of lateral loading of wind, and a low probability of seismic effect, that is if this particularbuilding is located in a windy and high seismic zone. Also it goes without mentioning that thesections provided for this building for the seismic dynamic analysis will be more than safeagainst wind loading on it.

BEAMS: Beams being the horizontal members are not as much affected by the seismic effects as columnsare. Nevertheless beams too require intrinsic analysis because of the moments and torsiondeveloping in it due to the ground motion generated because of the accelerogram.

COLUMNS: Sections proved insufficient to transfer the load safely. So increased cross sections were analyzedagainst the load combinations. Although all the revised columns sections passed the

61

analysischecks, it is worth noting that, the sections of the columns can be further decreased andoptimized if more columns are provided at appropriate location for the defined ground motionsinduced on it.

SHEAR WALLS: Shear walls are the most critical part of the structure acting against the lateral loading on thebuilding structure. Providing the wall with higher grade of concrete is of prime importance, since82this increases the strength of it and provided enhanced stability to the building structure. Itshould also be noted that, the shear walls acting as the core wall was provided because of the factthat this configuration was adopted from an existing structure. Efficient location of shear wallcan greatly help in reducing lateral loads on the frame structure, and better transfer of loads andmoments to the wall. Thus increasing the efficiency and use of the shear walls.

62

REFERENCES

PUBLICATIONS AND BOOKS 1. Wind and Earthquake Resistant Building, Structural Analysis and Design, Bungale S. Taranath. 2. Seung-Eock Kim & Huu-Tai Thai for Nonlinear inelastic dynamic analysis Engineering Structures 32 (2010) 38453856. 3. Design Example of a six storey building, by Dr. H.J.Shah and Dr. Sudhir K. Jain. 4. Structural Dynamics ,by Penzine and Clough. 5. Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures Manish Shrikande & Pankaj Agarwal. 6. Explanatory example on Indian Seismic Code IS1893 (Part-I), Dr. Sudhir K. Jain 7. Dynamic of Structures, Anil k. Chopra. 8. Uniform Building Code (UBC) 1997, IS456:2000, IS1893:2002 (Part-1), IS 13920:1993 and IS875:1987 (Part-3)

JOURNALS 1. Seismic Analysis of the worlds tallest building by Hong Fan, Q.S. Li, Alex Y Tuan and Lihua Xu. 2. Full scale measurements of wind effects on tall buildings, Q.S Li, J.Q Fang, A.P Jeary and C.K. Kong. 3. Wind engineering challenges of the new generation of super tall buildings, by Peter A. Irwin.

63

- Human Activity Induced Vibration in Slender Structural SystemsUploaded byrdey_1985
- AC-SAP2000 User ManualUploaded byAnonymous F9t6qljCF
- push_sap_bentmodel_hinge.pdfUploaded byraurosfig
- Rubik s Cube SolutionUploaded byMasterLeugim
- BOCHICAUploaded byCarlos Gutierrez
- Autodesk RobotUploaded byMoraru Gabriel
- Rubik s CubeUploaded bySai Krishna Lakkavajjala
- Stephen TimoshenkoUploaded bytechzones
- Lab4 ModalUploaded byffefffe
- SAFE TutorialUploaded byLuis Carlos Rodriguez Alvarez
- Tall Buildings and Its Structural SystemUploaded byPragya Roy
- Earthquake engineeringUploaded byMontoya Luis
- KTUMTechStructuralEngg(2015)Uploaded bySehleBasheer
- 1881016Uploaded byJimmy James
- Cooling TowersUploaded bystararun
- Understanding Mill Vibration PhenomenaUploaded bymarn-in2501
- Effect of Asial Load on Mode Shapes and Frequencies of BeamsUploaded byTom Watson
- T.hald Implementation of a Finite Element Foundation ModUploaded byRamon Gutierrez
- jrc_53442.pdfUploaded byRicardo Xixa
- MACHINE FOUNDATION DESIGN 2003.pptUploaded byIgnacio Jr Ramiento Paguyo
- Seismic Requirement of Power TransformerUploaded byPrashant Puri

- INTERIOR OF THE EARTH.pptUploaded byjayantnainiwal
- Structural Design ~ Online CivilUploaded byThiha Kyaw
- perhitungan struktur Shelter_meyerhoff anly.xlsxUploaded byTaufik Gunawan
- Sturdy SpineUploaded byjy4661
- Caribbean Studies MODULE ONEUploaded byBrandon Ramesarsingh
- Aseismic_base_isolation_review_and_bibli.pdfUploaded byanandg4ps10ccs01
- Controlling Factors_2014_ Basin AnalysisUploaded byRenuga Subramaniam
- Himalayan Vulnerability Uttarakhand,2013Uploaded byLalit
- 13_50.pdfUploaded byFaz Mughal
- ManosUploaded bymilo_122_
- IOEGC 2016 ScheduleUploaded byNagendra Chaudhary
- T.E.pdfUploaded byRajeev Bujji
- The Farthest Place-The Music of John AdamsUploaded byjosko capko
- 10 Slope Stability Classification-newUploaded byJames Mantel
- Seismic(Japan)2000Uploaded byBrian Taylor
- Neotectonics of the Sumatran Fault_ IndonesiaUploaded byFakhrurrazi
- A Green Pig Down Wall Street 191009Uploaded byineichea
- ignou disaster management.pdfUploaded byDaljot Singh Kang
- Analysis of Fiber-reinforced Elastomeric IsolatorsUploaded byAhmad Basshofi Habieb
- 2012_International Conference on Suistanable Build EnvironmentUploaded byBambang Sunardi
- Docslide.us Earthquake Response of Elastic Sdf Systems With Non Linear Fluid Viscous DampersUploaded byFernando Collantes
- Venezuela School Buildings - 8PUploaded byluisarmando5000
- Performance of Structures in the Mw 6.1 Mae Lao Earthquake n ThailandUploaded byAna Henry
- UT Testing-Self Study Notes- Rev1Uploaded byMuhd Ammarudin
- P-Delta Effect in Reinforced Concrete Structures of Rigid JointUploaded byJose Manuel
- The Arup Journal Issue 3 1997Uploaded byjuanjosefontana
- REPORT BKA.pdfUploaded byFatin Nadia Dieya
- Buckling Restrained Braces for Vibration Control of Building Structure 1Uploaded byAlexandru Stefan Both
- Calculation Sheet Gantry Tower Gi 150kv Ambalut Extension_rev1.0Uploaded byIman Rahmatullah
- How to Design Concrete Structures Using Eurocode 2Uploaded bypropl2012