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SET THEORY George Cantor was the first mathematician to define a set formally. The ideas of sets and elements of a set is the basis for concepts such as: Graph theory (sets of vertices and edges) Algebras (sets of numbers and their operations) Geometry (sets of lines and points) Basic Concepts

Set is simply a collection of objects. Formal definition: A set is a collection of unordered, well - defined and distinct objects. The objects that belong to a given set are called elements. Notation: Sets Elements Set groupings

A, B, C,,X, Y, Z a, b, c, , x, y, z {}

Example: A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} Note that: Order is not important A = {1, 4, 3} and B = {3, 4, 1} describe the same set Duplication of elements is not allowed. A = {1, 4, 3, 4, 4} A = {1, 4, 3} x x A x belongs to set A A x is not an element of the set A.

Example: Let C = {p, {q}, r} 1. p ___ C 2. q ___ C 3. r ___ C 4. {q} ___ C Methods of Describing Sets Rule method describe properties of the member of the set. Roster method list down the elements of the set Examples: A = {x | x is an odd number} A = {x | x = 2n + 1 where n W} A = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, } A = {x | x = 1/2n where n A = {1, , , } Other Basic Terms Universal Set denote by U, is the totality of all elements under consideration. A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} U = {x | x is a positive integer} W}

A = {CMSC 11, CMSC 56, CMSC 57, CMSC 123} U = {set of all CMSC courses} Cardinality of a Set denoted by |A|, is the number of elements in the set A. A = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} |A| = B = {x | x is an interger} |B| = C = {22} |C| = Two sets A and B are equal, denoted by A = B, if and only if Whenever x A then x B; and Whenever x B then x A (A = B) (x A x B) (x B x A) Which of the following sets are equal? 1. A = {x | (x2 - 7x + 12) = 0} 2. B = {-3, -4} 3. C = {4, 3} 4. D = {3, 4} A set A is said to be a subset of another set B, denoted by A B, if and only if every element of set A is also an element of set B. When A B, we also say that A is contained in B. (A B) ( x)(x A x B)

A set is said to be a proper subset of another subset B, denoted by A B, if and only if A is a subset of B and there is at least one element of set B that is not an element of A. When A B, we also say that A is strictly contained in B. (A (A B) B) ( x)(x B x A) (A B) (A B)

Remark: We can also define equality of two sets based on the concept of subsets: (A = B) (A B) (B A) Theorem: A A (that is, any set is a subset of itself) Theorem: (A B) (A B) Theorem: [(A B) (B C)] (A C) Theorem: [(A B) (B C)] (A C) Theorem: [(A B) (B C)] (A C) Theorem: [(A B) (B C)] (A C) Russels Paradox: Every set is a subset of itself but no set is an element of itself. Russels paradox shows that a set cannot be an element of itself. Let R be the set of sets that are not elements of themselves. That is, R = {S | S S S, then S R. This set R does not exist. Another version of the Russels paradox: S} or if S is a set and

Set A is an ordinary set if it is not an element of itself. Set A is an extraordinary set if it is an element of itself. Now let R be the set of all ordinary sets, that is, R = {S | S S}. What kind of set is R, ordinary or extraordinary? The barbers paradox: The barber of a certain village shaves everyone who do not shave themselves. We can thus define the set B = {people who do not shave themselves} so that we say that the barber shaves only those people who are members of the set B. Then we ask this question: does the barber shave himself? A null or empty set, denoted by or {}, is the unique set that does not contain any element. Example: The set A = {x|x2 3x + 2 = 0 and x > 2} Note that || = 0 and that {}. In the latter, {} actually describes the set that contains an empty set. Thus {} is not empty. Theorem: For any universe U, if A U then B. And if A then A.

Definition: The power set of a set A, denoted by P(A), is the set of all subsets of A or P(A) = {x|x is a set and x A } Note that |P(A)| = 2|A|. Example: Given the set A = {a, b, c, d} P (A) = |P (A)| Operations on Sets Union The union of two sets A and B, denoted by A that belong to A only, or to B only, or to both A and B. A B = {x | (x A) (x B)} B is made up of those elements

Intersection The intersection of two sets A and B, denoted by A elements that belong to both A and B. A B = {x | (x A) (x B)}

B is made up of those

Symmetric Difference - The symmetric difference of two sets A and B, denoted by A made up of those elements that belong to A only or to B only. A B = {x | (x A) (x B) (x (A B))} Relative Complement - The relative complement of two set B with respect to set A, denoted by A B is made up of those elements that are in set A but not in set B. A B = {x | (x A) (x B)}

B is

Complement The complement of a set A, denoted by A, is made up of those elements that are in the universal set U that are not in A. A = {x | (x U) (x A)} Examples: Let A = {1, 3, 6, 9}, B = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10} and U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10}. Find: 1. A B 2. A B

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

AB BA A B B (A B) (A B) A B A B= .

Definition: Two sets A and B are said to be disjoint if and only if A Venn Diagrams Venn Diagrams are visual representation of sets. developed by John Venn

Notation: Universal set is usually represented by a rectangle. Subsets of the universal set are usually represented by closed polygons (usually a circle or an ellipse). To highlight a particular set, that corresponding section is shaded. Elements of the sets or the number of elements belonging to those sets maybe written within the shape corresponding to those sets. Examples: 1. Represent two non-disjoint sets 2. Represent two disjoint sets 3. Represent A = {set of women}, B = {set of men}, U = {set of all people} 4. Represent set operations for two sets A and B where A and B are non-disjoint sets. 5. Represent A = {1,3,6,9}, B = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}, and U = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10} 6. Represent no.5 using the cardinalities of the sets. Note: Venn Diagrams useful in showing the equivalence of two sets. Examples: 1. A B = A B 2. A B = (A B) (A B) Application of Venn Diagrams 1. Suppose that there are 180 freshmen at your school. Of these, 45 are taking a course in computer science and 56 are taking a course in mathematics, and 30 are taking a course in both computer science and mathematics. How many are not taking a course in either computer science or in mathematics? Show your solution using the Venn diagram. A total of 123 students have taken a course in Spanish, 87 have taken a course in French, and 60 have taken a course in Russian. Further, 20 have taken a course in both Spanish and French, 10 have taken courses in both Spanish and Russian, and 40 have taken courses in both French and Russian. If 205 students have taken at least one of Spanish, French, and Russian, how many students have taken a course in all three languages?

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