2012 Texas Instruments Motor Control Training

d-axis V3 = 010
Sector 2

V2 = 110

Sector 3

Vref
α

T2•V2 T2•
V1 = 100 q-axis

V4 = 011

T1•V1 T1•
Sector 4 Sector 5 Sector 6

V5 = 001

V6 = 101

-Vth

Quadrants of Operation
Second Quadrant negative speed-positive torque “reverse-braking” Torque First Quadrant positive speed-positive torque “forward-accelerating”

Generating

Motoring

II I III IV

Motoring
Speed

Generating
Fourth Quadrant Positive speed - negative torque “forward-braking”

Third Quadrant negative speed - negative torque “reverse-accelerating”

Dave Wilson

TI Spins Motors…Smarter, Safer, Greener.

. im + - Advantages Easy to implement Low Cost Compact Only 1 diode snap per PWM cycle Disadvantages 1 diode drop loss on current commutation Motor cannot reverse direction Does not regenerate power Dave Wilson TI Spins Motors…Smarter.Simple 1 Quadrant Motor Drive Circuit A single quadrant variable VM speed drive only needs one transistor. Safer. Greener.

Greener. . Tore Undeland. 1995 Dave Wilson TI Spins Motors…Smarter. and William Robbins. Safer. Source: Power Electronics. John Wiley & Sons. by Ned Mohan.Three Phase Inverter VBus PWM1 PWM3 PWM5 PWM2 PWM4 PWM6 Three-phase PWM waveforms and harmonic spectrum.

866 2 1 Vbus = peak l-n voltage ≈ 13% DROP! Dave Wilson TI Spins Motors…Smarter.Voltage Drop Resulting from AC-DC-AC Conversion PWM 1 PWM 3 PWM 5 AC Mains Vbus PWM 2 PWM 6 Freescale Dave’s Control Center PWM 4 Input AC L-L Output AC L-N Output L-L 3 = 0. Greener. . Safer.

Greener. Safer. .3rd Harmonic Modulation i ⎞ 2 ⎛ sin ⎜ 2π ⎟ N⎠ 3 ⎝ i ⎞ 3 ⎛ sin ⎜ 6π ⎟ N⎠ 9 ⎝ 100% PWM limit Look-Up Table of size N i=0…N-1 0% PWM limit wrap around when end of table is reached V1 sin (ω o t ) + V3 sin (3 ω o t ) A 4π⎞ ⎛ ⎟ + V3 sin (3ω o t + 4 π ) C V1 sin ⎜ ω o t + ⎝ 3 ⎠ B 2π⎞ ⎛ ⎟ + V3 sin (3ω o t + 2 π ) V1 sin ⎜ ω o t + ⎝ 3 ⎠ Dave Wilson TI Spins Motors…Smarter.

The inverter can be driven to 8 states. University of Minnesota Dave Wilson TI Spins Motors…Smarter. Sc.2 null vectors Source: Mahmoud Riaz. Greener. 120° offsets between A. Professor of Electrical Engineering.6 voltage vectors V6=110 A B C V4 = 100 A B C V5 = 101 A B C C V0 = 000 V7 = 111 1 = Top Switch is on 0 = Bottom Switch is on . U • PWMs control the phase voltages. B. • SVM treats the inverter as ONE unit!! . V TI Dave’s Control Center W • SVM controls the Voltage Vector. .D.ALL 6 switches affected. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. A V1 = 001 A B C V3 = 011 A B C V2 = 010 A B C B . Safer.Space Vector Modulation • PWMs treat each phase individually.. and C.

Space Vector Modulation V1 V3 V2 V6 V4 V5 V1 V2 120o V3 60o C θ B V6 180o 0o V1 A 240o 0 60 120 180 240 300 0 V4 300o V5 “6-Step” Voltage Waveforms Vector Diagram Vref = Vmag•SIN(θ) • Sinusoidal operation occurs when a reference vector (Vref) rotates around the d-q axis. Safer. Output angle θ determined by relative “on” time between two adjacent vectors. Output magnitude determined by relative “on” time between two adjacent vectors and the null vector. Output voltage vector created by repeatedly switching between adjacent vectors and the “null” vector (all three phases high or all three phases low). Greener. Dave Wilson TI Spins Motors…Smarter. .

SVM Implementation V2 = 010 V3 = 011 (Vy) Sector 2 • Vref. Greener.T1 . and a null vector in a time averaging fashion: Vref = Vx•T1 + Vy•T2 + Vnull•T0 Where: Vx = lowest angle voltage vector Vy = highest angle voltage vector Sector 3 Vref α T2•Vy V1 = 001 (Vx) V6 = 110 T1•Vx Sector 4 Sector 5 Sector 6 If Vref is represented in POLAR notation ( m∠α ): T1 = T•m•SIN(60 . Safer. is created by the two adjacent state vectors Vx.T2 m = vector magnitude (0 to 1) α = vector angle between Vref and Vx (0 to 60o) T = switching period SWITCHING PERIOD V4 = 100 V5 = 101 Example vector reconstruction in sector 1.α) T2 = T•m•SIN(α) T0 = T . T Vx T1 Vy T2 Null T0 Dave Wilson TI Spins Motors…Smarter. Vy. .

.6 0.2 0 1 0.SVM Variations • Choice of Null vectors effects SVM waveform creation and switching performance but motor still sees sinusoidal waveform at its phases.4 0. Greener. NULL=V0 1 0.2 0 0 60 120 180 240 300 360 0 60 120 180 240 300 360 NULL=V7 A B C A B C Good choice when reduced switching losses are desired in an inverter with high-side bootstrap circuits. Dave Wilson TI Spins Motors…Smarter.8 0.4 0.8 0.6 0. Safer.

3.4.4 0.6 0.8 0.2 0 0 60 120 180 240 300 360 Null = V0 in sectors 1. .SVM Variations (continued) Null = V7 in sectors 1.4 0.6 0.4.5 Null = V0 in sectors 2.8 0.2 0 0 60 120 180 240 300 360 1 0. Safer.6 A B C 1 0.6 1 0.3.5 Null = V7 in sectors 2.8 A B C Null = alt-rev (null alternates every sequence and sequence reverses.) 0.2 0 0 60 120 180 240 300 • Similar waveforms to Third Harmonic Most popular form of SVM 360 A B C Dave Wilson TI Spins Motors…Smarter.6 0. Greener.4 0.

ipes. Safer.ethz.ch Alternating-Reversing Sequence Dave Wilson TI Spins Motors…Smarter.SVM Using Center-Aligned PWMs PWM Period Sc Sb Sa V1 V3 V7 V3 V1 V0 V1 V3 V7 V3 V1 t1 t2 t0 t2 t1 t0 t1 t2 t0 t2 t1 http://www. . Greener.

5T0 V = T1+T2+.5T0 U = T1+T2+. Greener.SVM with PWMs Procedure for implementing SVM with Center-Aligned PWM Module 1 Check which sector the Vref vector is in.α) T2 = T•m•SIN(α) T0 = T .4.5T0 V = T1+.3.5T0 U = .T2 Note: All calculations referenced to top switch Source: Understanding Space Vector Modulation.5T0 T1 = T•m•SIN(60 . 2 Calculate T1.4.6 U = 100% V = T0+T2 W = T0 U = T1 V = T1+T2 W=0 U = T0 V = 100% W = T0+T2 U=0 V = T1 W = T1+T2 U = T0+T2 V = T0 W = 100% U = T1+T2 V=0 W = T1 V0 in 1.5T0 W = .5T0 W = T2+. and T0 from block below. T2.5T0 W = T1+T2+. EDN Products Edition. Safer.5T0 V = T2+. 3 Adjust PWMs High times based on table below.5T0 V = .5T0 W = T1+T2+. by Peter Pinewski.5T0 W = .5T0 U = T2+. March 7.5T0 W = T1+. .5T0 V = T1+T2+.6 U = T1+T2 V = T2 W=0 U = T0+T1 V = 100% W = T0 U=0 V = T1+T2 W = T2 U = T0 V = T0+T1 W = 100% U = T2 V=0 W = T1+T2 U = 100% V = T0 W = T0+T1 Alternating Reversing Sequencing U = T1+T2+.5T0 U = .5T0 U = T1+. 1996 Dave Wilson TI Spins Motors…Smarter.5T0 V = .5 V7 in 2. Null = V0 U = T1+T2 Sector 1 V = T2 W=0 U = T1 Sector 2 V = T1+T2 W=0 U=0 Sector 3 V = T1+T2 W = T2 U=0 Sector 4 V = T1 W = T1+T2 U = T2 Sector 5 V = 0 W = T1+T2 U = T1+T2 Sector 6 V = 0 W = T1 Null = V7 U = 100% V = T0+T2 W = T0 U = T0+T1 V = 100% W = T0 U = T0 V = 100% W = T0+T2 U = T0 V = T0+T1 W = 100% U = T0+T2 V = T0 W = 100% U = 100% V = T0 W = T0+T1 (5 compares) (3 multiples) (1-3 additions) V7 in 1.5 V0 in 2.T1 .3.

Sinusoidal Modulation Limited Amplitude • • In sinusoidal modulation the amplitude is limited to half of the DC-bus voltage. UDC-BUS B A C . The phase to phase voltage is then lower then the DC-bus voltage (although such voltage can be generated between the terminals). Safer. Uphase-phase PWM1 PWM3 PWM5 PWM2 PWM4 PWM6 Animation Source: Leos Chalupa Dave Wilson TI Spins Motors…Smarter. Greener.

Uphase-phase Uphase-phase PWM1 PWM3 15% B PWM5 B A A PWM2 PWM4 PWM6 C C Animation Source: Leos Chalupa Dave Wilson TI Spins Motors…Smarter. Safer. The amplitude of the first harmonic can be then increased by 15.5%. Greener.Full Phase-to-Phase Voltage Generation • • Full phase-to-phase voltage can be generated by continuously shifting the 3-phase voltage system. .

Greener. Safer. “Shifting” voltage u0 must be the same for all three phases. . thus it can only contain 3r harmonics! A 15% B C Animation Source: Leos Chalupa Dave Wilson TI Spins Motors…Smarter.How to Increase Modulation Index • • Modulation index is increased by adding the “shifting” voltage u0 to first harmonic.

0 α 60 120 180 240 300 360 angle 3. Sector 1 Sector 2 Sector 3 Sector 4 Sector 5 Sector 6 Perform modified inverse Clarketransform on the voltage vector Calculate which sector the voltage vector is in Determine T1. 2.4 0.α) T2 = T•m•SIN(α) T0 = T .T2 Vx We could calculate “m” and “α”: Vβ α T1·Vx T2·Vy Vα m= (Vα )2 + (Vβ )2 Vβ Vα α = tan−1 …but with FOC.6 0.2 0 -0.8 0.4 -0.8 -1 Or… We could use a simple procedure designed specifically for RECTANGULAR notation: Vα Vβ 1.SVM with Field Oriented Systems Vy Recall: T1 = T•m•SIN(60 .T1 . . We have RECTANGULAR notation (Vα and Vβ). Safer. Reference Voltage Vector Components of the Stator Reference Voltage Vector amplitude 1 0.2 -0. 4. T2. Greener. and T0 Directly calculate the PWM register values Dave Wilson TI Spins Motors…Smarter.6 -0. we don’t have POLAR notation.

Greener.5 i j Vβ 3 i= Vα − 2 2 - j = Vβ Vβ 3 k=− Vα − 2 2 k i 0. Perform Modified Inverse Clark Transform Vα Vβ - 3 + - 0. Safer.1.5 k i j Dave Wilson TI Spins Motors…Smarter. .

Calculate the following expression: N = sign(i ) + 2 sign ( j ) + 4 sign (k ) where sign( + ) = 1 . Greener. j. you can determine the sector by using IF THEN statements to check the polarities of i. and k. Identify the correct sector based on i. sign( −) = 0 b. and k variables a. i j k 1 Dave Wilson 2 3 4 5 6 TI Spins Motors…Smarter.2. . Use look-up table below to determine the sector from the value of N N= Sector = 1 6 2 2 3 1 4 4 5 5 6 3 Alternatively. j. Safer.

Note: All calculations referenced to top switch Source: Understanding Space Vector Modulation.5T0 U = T1+.5T0 W = T1+.5T0 V = T2+.5T0 V = T1+.5T0 U = . EDN Products Edition.5 V7 in 2. and T2 applies to Vy (the most counter-clockwise vector) for any given sector.5T0 W = T2+.3.5T0 U = T2+.6 U = 100% V = T0+T2 W = T0 U = T1 V = T1+T2 W=0 U = T0 V = 100% W = T0+T2 U=0 V = T1 W = T1+T2 U = T0+T2 V = T0 W = 100% U = T1+T2 V=0 W = T1 k i V0 in 1.3.5T0 W = .5T0 V = . and T0 Sector→ Bounded by: T1 T2 † † 1 (U0-U60) 2 (U60-U120) 3 (U120-U180) 4 (U180-U240) 5 (U240-U300) 6 (U300-U0) i j -k -i j k Null = V0 U = T1+T2 Sector 1 V = T2 W=0 -i -j Null = V7 U = 100% V = T0+T2 W = T0 U = T0+T1 V = 100% W = T0 U = T0 V = 100% W = T0+T2 U = T0 V = T0+T1 W = 100% U = T0+T2 V = T0 W = 100% U = 100% V = T0 W = T0+T1 V7 in 1. Based on the sector.4.5T0 W = T1+T2+.5T0 V = . determine T1.5T0 V = T1+T2+. by Peter Pinewski.5T0 V = T1+T2+.5T0 T0 = 1 – T1 – T2 4. March 7.5 V0 in 2.5T0 U = .5T0 U = T1+T2+.3. T2.6 U = T1+T2 V = T2 W=0 U = T0+T1 V = 100% W = T0 U=0 V = T1+T2 W = T2 U = T0 V = T0+T1 W = 100% U = T2 V=0 W = T1+T2 U = 100% V = T0 W = T0+T1 -j -k Alternating Reversing Sequencing U = T1+T2+. 1996 Dave Wilson TI Spins Motors…Smarter.5T0 W = T1+T2+.5T0 W = . Safer.4. Load the PWM registers based on this table U = T1 Sector 2 V = T1+T2 W=0 U=0 Sector 3 V = T1+T2 W = T2 U=0 Sector 4 V = T1 W = T1+T2 U = T2 Sector 5 V = 0 W = T1+T2 U = T1+T2 Sector 6 V = 0 W = T1 † Recall that T1 always applies to Vx (the most clockwise vector). . Greener.

Safer. Greener. .Modulation Summary Feature→ VL-L (max) ↓Modulation Sine 3rd Harmonic Alternating Vnull with Reverse Sequencing Non-Alternating Vnull 0.866 VDC VDC VDC Switching Loss Reduction No No Switching Harmonics High Lower than sine Lower than sine Better spectrum spreading than 3rd Harmonic ? FOC Compatibility Fair Fair No Good VDC 33% Good Dave Wilson TI Spins Motors…Smarter.

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