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CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

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C O N T E N TS

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P R E AM B L E PART I T H E U NI ON AN D I TS T E RR I T O R Y ARTICLE 1 2 2A 3 4 Name and t err itor y of th e Un ion . A d mis s i o n o r est ab l i s h men t o f n e w S t at es . [ R ep ea l ed . ] For mation of new St at es and alt er ation o f areas , bound ar i es o r n ames of ex isting St at es . Laws mad e under arti cl es 2 and 3 to provid e for th e amend ment of th e F irst and th e Four th S ch edul es and supplemen t al , in cid ent al and cons equ ential matt ers . PART II C I TI Z ENS HIP 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Cit i zenship at th e co mmen cement of th e Constitution . Rights of citi ze nship of cert ain p ersons who h av e migr at ed to Indi a fro m P akist an . Rights of ci ti zenship of cert ain mi gr ants to P akist an . Rights of citi zenship of cer t ain p e rsons of Indian o rigin r esiding o u ts id e In d i a. P ersons vo lunt ari l y acqu iring citi zen ship of a for eign St at e not to b e ci t i z en s . Continu an ce of th e righ ts o f ci tizenship . P arl i a ment to r egul at e th e righ t of cit i zen ship by l a w. PART III F U ND A M EN T AL R I G H TS G e n er a l 12 13 Defini tion . Laws in consist ent with or in d erog ation of th e fund ament al rights . Right to Equality 14 Equality before law.

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15 16 17 18

Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth. Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment. Abolition of Untouchability. Abolition of titles. Right to Freedom

19 20 21 22

Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc. Protection in respect of conviction for offences. Protection of life and personal liberty. Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases. Right against Exploitation

23 24 25 26 27 28

Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour. Prohibition of employment of children in factories, etc. Right to Freedom of Religion Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion. Freedom to manage religious affairs. Freedom as to payment of taxes for promotion of any particular religion. Freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in certain educational institutions. Cultural and Educational Rights

29 30 31 31A 31B 31C 31D

Protection of interests of minorities. Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions. [Repealed.] Saving of Certain Laws Saving of Laws providing for acquisition of estates, etc. Validation of certain Acts and Regulations. Saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles. [Repealed.] Right to Constitutional Remedies

32 32A

Remedies for enforcement of rights conferred by this Part. [Repealed.]

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33 34 35

Power of Parliament to modify the rights conferred by this Part in their application to Forces, etc. Restriction on rights conferred by this Part while martial law is in force in any area. Legislation to give effect to the provisions of this Part. PART IV DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY

36 37 38 39 39A 40 41 42 43 43A 44 45 46 47 48 48A 49 50 51

Definition. Application of the principles contained in this Part. State to secure a social order for the promotion of welfare of the people. Certain principles of policy to be followed by the State. Equal justice and free legal aid. Organisation of village panchayats. Right to work, to education and to public assistance in certain cases. Provision for just and humane conditions of work and maternity relief. Living wage, etc., for workers. Participation of workers in management of industries. Uniform civil code for the citizens. Provision for free and compulsory education for children. Promotion of educational and economic interests of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. Duty of the State to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public health. Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. Protection and improvement of environment and safeguarding of forests and wild life. Protection of monuments and places and objects of national importance. Separation of judiciary from executive. Promotion of international peace and security. PART IVA FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES

51A

Fundamental duties.

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PART V THE UNION CHAPTER I.-THE EXECUTIVE The President and Vice-President 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 The President of India. Executive power of the Union. Election of President. Manner of election of President. Term of office of President. Eligibility for re-election. Qualifications for election as President. Conditions of Presidents office. Oath or affirmation by the President. Procedure for impeachment of the President. Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy. The Vice-President of India. The Vice-President to be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States. The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, of President. Election of Vice-President. Term of office of Vice-President. Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of Vice-President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy. Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President. Discharge of Presidents functions in other contingencies. Matters relating to, or connected with, the election of a President or VicePresident. Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases. Extent of executive power of the Union. Council of Ministers 74 Council of Ministers to aid and advise President.

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Other provisions as to Ministers. The Attorney-General for India

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Attorney-General for India. Conduct of Government Business

77 78

Conduct of business of the Government of India. Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc. CHAPTER II.-PARLIAMENT General

79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88

Constitution of Parliament. Composition of the Council of States. Composition of the House of the People. Readjustment after each census. Duration of Houses of Parliament. Qualification for membership of Parliament. Sessions of Parliament, prorogation and dissolution. Right of President to address and send messages to Houses. Special address by the President. Rights of Ministers and Attorney-General as respects Houses. Officers of Parliament

89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96

The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the office of Deputy Chairman. Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Chairman. The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration. The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People . Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker. Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Speaker. The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.

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Salaries and allowances of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman and the Speaker and Deputy Speaker. Secretariat of Parliament. Conduct of Business

97 98

99 100

Oath or affirmation by members. Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum. Disqualifications of Members Vacation of seats. Disqualifications for membership. Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members. Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 99 or when not qualified or when disqualified. Powers, Privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Parliament and of the members and committees thereof. Salaries and allowances of members. Legislative Procedure

101 102 103 104

105 106

107 108 109 110 111

Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills. Joint sitting of both Houses in certain cases. Special procedure in respect of Money Bills. Definition of Money Bills. Assent to Bills. Procedure in Financial Matters

112 113 114 115 116 117

Annual financial statement. Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates. Appropriation Bills. Supplementary, additional or excess grants. Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants. Special provisions as to financial Bills. Procedure Generally

118

Rules of procedure.

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119 120 121 122

Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business. Language to be used in Parliament. Restriction on discussion in Parliament. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament. CHAPTER III.LEGISLATIVE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT

123

Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament. CHAPTER IV. THE UNION JUDICIARY

124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 131A 132 133 134 134A 135 136 137 138 139 139A 140 141

Establishment and constitution of Supreme Court. Salaries, etc., of Judges. Appointment of acting Chief Justice. Appointment of ad hoc judges. Attendance of retired Judges at sittings of the Supreme Court. Supreme Court to be a court of record. Seat of Supreme Court. Original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. [Repealed.] Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in certain cases. Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in regard to Civil matters. Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in regard to criminal matters. Certificate for appeal to the Supreme Court. Jurisdiction and powers of the Federal Court under existing law to be exercisable by the Supreme Court. Special leave to appeal by the Supreme Court. Review of judgments or orders by the Supreme Court. Enlargement of the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. Conferment on the Supreme Court of powers to issue certain writs. Transfer of certain cases. Ancillary powers of Supreme Court. Law declared by Supreme Court to be binding on all courts.

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Enforcement of decrees and orders of Supreme Court and orders as to discovery, etc. Power of President to consult Supreme Court. Civil and judicial authorities to act in aid of the Supreme Court. [Repealed.] Rules of Court, etc. Officers and servants and the expenses of the Supreme Court. Interpretation. CHAPTER V. COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR-GENERAL OF INDIA

142 143 144 144A 145 146 147

148 149 150 151

Comptroller and Auditor-General of India. Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General. Form of accounts of the Union and of the States. Audit reports. PART VI THE STATES CHAPTER I. GENERAL

152

Definition. CHAPTER II. THE EXECUTIVE The Governor

153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162

Governors of States. Executive power of State. Appointment of Governor. Term of office of Governor. Qualifications for appointment as Governor. Conditions of Governors office Oath or affirmation by the Governor. Discharge of the functions of the Governor in certain contingencies. Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases. Extent of executive power of State.

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Council of Ministers

163 164 165

Council of Ministers to aid and advise Governor. Other provisions as to Ministers. The Advocate-General for the State Advocate-General for the State. Conduct of Government Business

166 167

Conduct of business of the Government of a State. Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor, etc. CHAPTER III.THE STATE LEGISLATURE
General

168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177

Constitution of Legislatures in States. Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States. Composition of the Legislative Assemblies. Composition of the Legislative Councils. Duration of State Legislatures. Qualification for membership of the State Legislature. Sessions of the State Legislature, prorogation and dissolution. Right of Governor to address and send messages to the House or Houses. Special address by the Governor. Rights of Ministers and Advocate-General as respects the Houses. Officers of the State Legislature

178 179 180 181 182 183 184

The Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker. Power of the Deputy Speaker or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Speaker. The Speaker or the Deputy Speaker not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration. The Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council. Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Chairman and Deputy Chairman. Power of the Deputy Chairman or other person to perform the duties of the office of, or to act as, Chairman.

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185 186 187

The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration. Salaries and allowances of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker and the Chairman and Deputy Chairman. Secretariat of State Legislature. Conduct of Business

188 189

Oath or affirmation by members. Voting in Houses, power of Houses to act notwithstanding vacancies and quorum. Disqualifications of Members Vacation of seats. Disqualifications for membership. Decision on questions as to disqualifications of members. Penalty for sitting and voting before making oath or affirmation under article 188 or when not qualified or when disqualified. Powers, privileges and immunities of State Legislatures and their Members

190 191 192 193

194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201

Powers, privileges, etc., of the Houses of Legislatures and of the members and committees thereof. Salaries and allowances of members. Legislative Procedure Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills. Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other than Money Bills. Special procedure in respect of Money Bills. Definition of Money Bills. Assent to Bills. Bills reserved for consideration. Procedure in Financial Matters

202 203 204 205 206

Annual financial statement. Procedure in Legislature with respect to estimates. Appropriation Bills. Supplementary, additional or excess grants. Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.

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Special provisions as to financial Bills. Procedure Generally

208 209 210 211 212

Rules of procedure. Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to financial business. Language to be used in the Legislature. Restriction on discussion in the Legislature. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature. CHAPTER IV.- LEGISLATIVE POWER OF THE GOVERNOR

213

Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature. CHAPTER V---THE HIGH COURTS IN THE STATES

214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 224A 225 226 226A 227 228 228A 229 230

High Courts for States. High Courts to be courts of record. Constitution of High Courts. Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court. Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to High Courts. Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts. Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge. Salaries, etc., of Judges. Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another. Appointment of acting Chief Justice. Appointment of additional and acting Judges. Appointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts. Jurisdiction of existing High Courts. Power of High Courts to issue certain writs. [Repealed..] Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court. Transfer of certain cases to High Court. [Repealed.] Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts. Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories.

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Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States. CHAPTER VISUBORDINATE COURTS

233 233A 234 235 236 237

Appointment of district judges. Validation of appointments of, and judgments, etc., delivered by, certain district judges. Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service. Control over subordinate courts. Interpretation. Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class or classes of magistrates. PART VII THE STATES IN PART B OF THE FIRST SCHEDULE

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[Repealed.] PART VIII THE UNION TERRITORIES

239 239A 239A 239AA 239AB 240 241 242

Administration of Union territories. Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for certain Union territories. Special provisions with respect to Delhi. Provision in case of failure of constitutional machinery. Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature. Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories. High Courts for Union territories. [Repealed.] PART IX THE PANCHAYATS

243 243A 243B 243C 243D 243E 243F

Definitions. Gram Sabha. Constitution of Panchayats. Composition of Panchayats. Reservation of seats. Duration of Panchayats, etc. Disqualifications for membership.

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243G 243H 243-I 243J 243K 243L 243M 243N 243-O

Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats. Powers to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Panchayats. Constitution of Finance Commission to review financial position. Audit of accounts of Pachayats. Elections to the Panchayats. Application to Union territories. Part not to apply to certain areas. Continuance of existing laws and Panchayats. Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters. PART IXA THE MUNICIPALITIES

243P 243Q 243R 243S 243T 243U 243V 243W 243X. 243 243Z 243ZA 243ZB 243ZC 243ZD 243ZE 243ZF 243ZG

Definitions. Constitution of Municipalities. Composition of Municipalities. Constitution and composition of Wards Committees, etc. Reservation of seats. Duration of Municipalities, etc. Disqualifications for membership. Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc. Power to impose taxes by, and Funds of, the Municipalities. Finance Commission. Audit of accounts of Municipalities. Elections to the Municipalities. Application to Union territories. Part not to apply to certain areas. Committee for district planning. Committee for Metropolitan planning. Continuance of existing laws and Municipalities. Bar to interference by Courts in electoral matters.

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PART X THE SCHEDULED AND TRIBAL AREAS

244 244A

Administration of Scheduled Areas and Tribal Areas. Formation of an autonomous State comprising certain tribal areas in Assam and creation of local Legislature or Council of Ministers or both therefor. PART XI RELATIONS BETWEEN THE UNION AND THE STATES CHAPTER I.LEGISLATIVE RELATIONS Distribution of Legislative Powers

245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255

Extent of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States. Subject-matter of laws made by Parliament and by the Legislatures of States. Power of Parliament to provide for the establishment of certain additional courts. Residuary powers of legislation. Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to a matter in the State List in the national interest. Power of Parliament to legislate with respect to any matter in the State List if a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation. Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament under articles 249 and 250 and laws made by the Legislatures of States. Power of Parliament to legislate for two or more States by consent and adoption of such legislation by any other State. Legislation for giving effect to international agreements. Inconsistency between laws made by Parliament and laws made by the Legislatures of States. Requirements as to recommendations and previous sanctions to be regarded as matters of procedure only. CHAPTER II. ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONS General

256 257 257A 258 258A

Obligation of States and the Union. Control of the Union over States in certain cases. [Repealed.] Power of the Union to confer powers, etc., on States in certain cases. Power of the States to entrust functions to the Union.

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[Repealed.] Jurisdiction of the Union in relation to territories outside India. Public acts, records and judicial proceedings. Disputes relating to Waters

259 260 261 262 263

Adjudication of disputes relating to waters of inter-State rivers or river valleys. Co-ordination between States Provisions with respect to an inter-State Council. PART XII FINANCE, PROPERTY, CONTRACTS AND SUITS CHAPTER I.FINANCE General Interpretation. Taxes not to be imposed save by authority of law. Consolidated Funds and public accounts of India and of the States. Contingency Fund. Distribution of Revenues between the Union and the States Duties levied by the Union but collected and appropriated by the State. Taxes levied and collected by the Union but assigned to the States. Taxes levied and distributed between the Union and the States. Surcharge on certain duties and taxes for purposes of the Union. [Repealed.] Grants in lieu of export duty on jute and jute products. Prior recommendation of President required to Bills affecting taxation in which States are interested. Grants from the Union to certain States. Taxes on professions, trades, callings and employments. Savings. [Repealed.] Calculation of net proceeds, etc. Finance Commission. Recommendations of the Finance Commission. Miscellaneous financial provisions Expenditure defrayable by the Union or a State out of its revenues.

264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282

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283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 290A 291

Custody, etc., of Consolidated Funds, Contingency Funds and moneys credited to the public accounts. Custody of suitors deposits and other moneys received by public servants and courts. Exemption of property of the Union from State taxation. Restrictions as to imposition of tax on the sale or purchase of goods. Exemption from taxes on electricity. Exemption from taxation by States in respect of water or electricity in certain cases. Exemption of property and income of a State from Union taxation. Adjustment in respect of certain expenses and pensions. Annual payment to certain Devaswom Funds. [Repealed.] CHAPTER II. BORROWING

292 293

Borrowing by the Government of India. Borrowing by States. CHAPTER III. PROPERTY, CONTRACTS, RIGHTS, LIABILITIES, OBLIGATIONS AND SUITS

294 295 296 297 298 299 300

Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in certain cases. Succession to property, assets, rights, liabilities and obligations in other cases. Property accruing by escheat or laps or as bona vacantia. Things of value within territorial waters or continental shelf and resources of the exclusive economic zone to vest in the Union. Power to carry on trade, etc. Contracts. Suits and proceedings. CHAPTER IV. RIGHT
TO

PROPERTY

300A

Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law. PART XIII TRADE, COMMERCE AND INTERCOURSE WITHIN THE TERRITORY OF INDIA

301 302

Freedom of trade, commerce and intercourse. Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse.

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303 304 305 306 307

Restrictions on the legislative powers of the Union and of the States with regard to trade and commerce. Restrictions on trade, commerce and intercourse among States. Saving of existing laws and laws providing for State monopolies. [Repealed.] Appointment of authority for carrying out the purposes of articles 301 to 304. PART XIV SERVICES UNDER THE UNION AND THE STATES CHAPTER I. SERVICES

308 309 310 311 312 312A 313 314

Interpretation. Recruitment and conditions of service of persons serving the Union or a State. Tenure of office of persons serving the Union or a State. Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities under the Union or a State. All-India services. Power of Parliament to vary or revoke conditions of service of officers of certain services. Transitional provisions. [Repeated.] CHAPTER II.PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSIONS

315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323

Public Service Commissions for the Union and for the States. Appointment and term of office of members. Removal and suspension of a member of a Public Service Commission. Power to make regulations as to conditions of service of members and staff of the Commission. Prohibition as to the holding of offices by members of Commission on ceasing to be such members. Functions of Public Service Commissions. Power to extend functions of Public Service Commissions. Expenses of Public Service Commissions. Reports of Public Service Commissions.

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PART XIVA TRIBUNALS

323A 323B

Administrative tribunals. Tribunals for other matters. PART XV ELECTIONS

324 325 326 327 328 329 329A

Superintendence, direction and control of elections to be vested in an Election Commission. No person to be ineligible for inclusion in, or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste or sex. Elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assemblies of States to be on the basis of adult suffrage. Power of Parliament to make provision with respect to elections to Legislatures. Power of Legislature of a State to make provision with respect to elections to such Legislature. Bar to interference by courts in electoral matters. [Repealed.] PART XVI SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO CERTAIN CLASSES

330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 338A 339

Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the House of the People. Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the House of the People. Reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative Assemblies of the States. Representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the Legislative Assemblies of the States. Reservation of seats and special representation to cease after sixty years. Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts. Special provision for Anglo-Indian community in certain services. Special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefit of AngloIndian Community. National Commission for Scheduled Castes. National Commission for Scheduled Tribes. Control of the Union over the Administration of Scheduled Areas and the welfare of Scheduled Tribes.

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340 341 342

Appointment of classes. Scheduled Castes. Scheduled Tribes.

a Commission to investigate the conditions of backward

PART XVII OFFICIAL LANGUAGE CHAPTER I.LANGUAGE OF THE UNION 343 344 Official language of the Union. Commission and Committee of Parliament on official language. CHAPTER II. REGIONAL LANGUAGES 345 346 347 Official language or languages of a State. Official language for communication between one State and another or between a State and the Union. Special provision relating to language spoken by a section of the population of a State. CHAPTER III.LANGUAGE OF THE SUPREME COURT, HIGH COURTS, ETC. 348 349 Language to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts and for Acts, Bills, etc. Special procedure for enactment of certain laws relating to language. CHAPTER IV.-SPECIAL DIRECTIVES 350 350A 350B 351 Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances. Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage. Special Officer for linguistic minorities. Directive for development of the Hindi language. PART XVIII EMERGENCY PROVISIONS 352 353 354 355 Proclamation of Emergency. Effect of Proclamation of Emergency. Application of provisions relating to distribution of revenues while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation. Duty of the Union to protect States against external aggression and internal disturbance.

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356 357 358 359 359A 360

Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in States. Exercise of legislative powers under Proclamation issued under article 356. Suspension of provisions of article 19 during emergencies. Suspension of the enforcement of the rights conferred by Part III during emergencies. [Repealed.] Provisions as to financial emergency. PART XIX MISCELLANEOUS

361 361A 361B 362 363 363A 364 365 366 367

Protection of President and Governors and Rajprakukhs. Protection of publication of proceedings of Parliament and State Legislatures. Disqualification for appointment on remunerative political post. [Repealed.] Bar to interference by courts in disputes arising out of certain treaties, agreements, etc. Recognition granted to Rulers of Indian States to cease and privy purses to be abolished. Special provisions as to major ports and aerodromes. Effect of failure to comply with, or to give effect to, directions given by the Union. Definitions. Interpretation. PART XX AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION

368

Power of Parliament to amend the Constitution and procedure therefor. PART XXI TEMPORARY, TRANSITIONAL AND SPECIAL PROVISIONS

369 370 371 371A

Temporary power to Parliament to make laws with respect to certain matters in the State List as if they were matters in the Concurrent List. Temporary provisions with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. Special provision with respect to the States of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland.

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371B 371C 371D 371E 371F 371G 371H 371-I 372 372A 373 374 375 376 377 378 378A 379-391 392

Special provision with respect to the State of Assam. Special provision with respect to the State of Manipur. Special provisions with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh. Establishment of Central University in Andhra Pradesh. Special provisions with respect to the State of Sikkim. Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram. Special provision with respect to the State of Arunachal Pradesh. Special provision with respect to the State of Goa. Continuance in force of existing laws and their adaptation. Power of the President to adapt laws. Power of President to make order in respect of persons under preventive detention in certain cases. Provisions as to Judges of the Federal Court and proceedings pending in the Federal Court or before His Majesty in Council. Courts, authorities and officers to continue to function subject to the provisions of the Constitution. Provisions as to Judges of High Courts. Provisions as to Comptroller and Auditor-General of India. Provisions as to Public Service Commissions. Special provision as to duration of Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. [Repealed.] Power of the President to remove difficulties. PART XXII SHORT TITLE, COMMENCEMENT, AUTHORITATIVE TEXT IN HINDI AND REPEALS

393 394 394A 395

Short title. Commencement. Authoritative text in the Hindi language. Repeals.

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SCHEDULES
FIRST SCHEDULE I. The States. II. The Union territories. SECOND SCHEDULE PART A- Provisions as to the President and the Governors of States. PART B[Repealed.] PART CProvisions as to the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council of a State. PART D Provisions as to the Judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts. PART E Provisions as to the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India. THIRD SCHEDULE Forms of Oaths or Affirmations. FOURTH SCHEDULEAllocation of seats in the Council of States. FIFTH SCHEDULE Provisions as to the Administration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes PART AGeneral. PART BAdministration and Control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes. PART C Scheduled Areas. PART DAmendment of the Schedule. SIXTH SCHEDULEProvisions as to the Administration of Tribal Areas in the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram. SEVENTH SCHEDULE List I Union List. List II State List. List III Concurrent List. EIGHTH SCHEDULE Languages. NINTH SCHEDULEValidation of certain Acts and Regulations. TENTH SCHEDULE Provisions as to disqualification on ground of defection. ELEVENTH SCHEDULE Powers, authority and responsibilities of Panchayats. TWELFTH SCHEDULE Powers, authority and responsibilities of Municipalities, etc.

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APPENDIX
APPENDIX IThe Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954. APPENDIX II Re-statement, with reference to the present text of the Constitution, of the exceptions and modifications subject to which the Constitution applies to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. APPENDIX IIIExtracts from the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978 APPENDIX IVThe Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002. APPENDIX VThe Constitution (Eighty-eighth Amendment) Act, 2003.

INDEX

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PREAMBLE

W E , T HE P EO P LE OF I ND I A, h avin g sol emnl y r esolved to const itut e Indi a into a S OVERE IGN S O CI ALIST S E CULAR D E M O C R AT I C R E P UB LI C an d t o s e cu r e t o all i t s ci t i z en s : J US TI C E, so ci al , econo mi c and polit i cal; LI BERT Y of thought , expr ession , b eli ef , f aith and worship; E Q U A LI T Y o f s t atu s an d o f o p p o r t u n it y; and to pro mot e amo ng th em al l F R ATERNI TY assur ing th e dignit y of th e individu al and th e unit y and int egri t y o f th e Nation; I N OU R C O NS TI T UE N T ASS E MB L Y t h i s t w en t y- s i x t h d ay of N o v e mb e r , 1 9 4 9 , d o H E REB Y A D OP T , E N A C T AN D G I V E TO O U RS E L V ES TH I S CO NS TI T UT I O N.

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART I THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY


1 . Na me a nd t errito ry of th e Union .(1 ) Indi a, th at is Bh ar at , sh all b e a Un ion o f S t at es . (2 ) Th e St at e s a n d th e t er rito ri es th er eo f sh all b e as sp e c ifi ed in th e Fir st Sch edu l e. (3) Th e t errito ry of Indi a sh all co mpris e (a ) t h e t err itori es of th e St at es ; (b ) t h e Union t erri tori es sp ecif ied in th e First Sch edul e; and (c ) s u ch oth er t erri tori es as may b e acquir ed . 2 . Ad mi ssion or es tablish men t of n ew Stat es .Parli ament may b y l aw ad mit in to th e Union , or est ab lish , n ew S t at es on su ch t er ms and condit ions as it th inks fit . 2 A . [S i kki m to b e asso ciat ed with th e Union .] Rep . b y th e Const itution (T h i rt y- si xth Am e n d men t ) A c t, 1 9 7 5 , s . 5 ( w.e. f. 2 6 - 4 - 1 9 7 5 ) . 3 . Fo rma tion of n ew S tat es and a lt eration of a rea s, bounda ri es o r na me s of ex isting Stat es .P arli ament may b y l aw (a ) f o r m a n ew St at e b y s ep ar ation of t errito r y fro m an y St at e or b y unit ing t wo o r mo r e St at es or p arts of S t at es or b y unit ing any t err itor y to a p art o f an y St at e ; (b ) i n cr e as e t h e a r e a o f an y S t ate ; (c ) d i mini sh th e ar ea of an y St at e; (d ) al t er the bound ari es of an y St at e; (e ) al t er th e n ame o f an y St at e: Provid ed th at no Bill for th e purpos e sh al l be introdu ced in ei th er Hous e of P arli a me nt ex cept on th e r eco mme nd ation of th e Pr esid en t and un l ess , wh er e th e propos al cont ain ed in th e Bi ll aff ects th e ar ea, bound ari es or n a me of an y of th e St at es , th e Bil l h as b e en r e ferr ed b y th e Pr esid ent to th e Legisl atur e of th at S t at e for expr ess ing its vi ews th er eo n within su ch p eriod as ma y be sp ecifi ed in the r e f er en ce or with in su ch further p e riod as th e Pr esid en t may allo w and th e p eriod so sp ecifi ed or allo wed h as expir ed . Explanation I . In this arti cl e, in cl aus es (a ) to (e), St at e in clud es a Union t erritor y, bu t in th e proviso , St at e do es not in clud e a Union t err itor y. Explanation II . Th e p o w e r co n f err ed o n P ar l i a men t b y cla u s e (a ) in clud es th e power to for m a new St at e or Union t erritor y b y unit ing a p ar t of an y St at e or Union t erri tor y to an y oth er St at e or Union t erritor y. 4 . Law s ma d e und er a rti cl es 2 and 3 to p rovide f o r th e a mend men t of th e Fi rst and th e Fou rth S chedul es and suppl emen tal , in cid ental and cons equ entia l ma t t e rs . (1 ) An y l a w r ef err ed to in arti cl e 2 or ar ti cl e 3 sh al l co n t ain such provision s for th e amend men t of th e Firs t S ch edul e an d th e Fou rth S ch edul e as ma y b e n ecess ar y to give eff e ct to th e provis ions of 2

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

th e l aw and may al so cont ain su ch suppl ement al , in cid ent al and cons eq u ent ial provis ions (in cluding prov isions as to r epr es en t a tion in P arl i ament and in th e Legis l atur e or Legisl atur es o f th e S tat e o r St at es a ff e ct ed b y su ch l a w) as P a rli a me n t ma y d e e m n e c e ss ar y . (2 ) N o s u ch l a w a s a f o r es aid s h a l l b e d e e me d t o b e an a me n d me n t o f t h i s Consti tution for th e purpos es of arti cle 368 .

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART II CITIZENSHIP
5 . Citiz enship at th e co mmen cemen t of th e Co nstitu tion . At th e co mmen cement of this Constitution , ev er y p erson who h as hi s do mi cil e in th e t err itor y of Indi a and (a ) wh o was born in th e t erri tory of Indi a; or (b ) ei th er of whos e p ar ents was born in th e t erritor y of Indi a; or (c ) wh o h as b e en ordin ar il y r esid ent in th e t erritor y of Indi a for not l ess th an f iv e years i mmed i at el y pr eceding su ch co mmen cement , sh al l b e a citi zen of Indi a. 6 . Rights of cit iz enship of certain p e rson s w ho hav e mig rat ed to India f ro m P aki s tan. Not withst and ing an ything in arti cl e 5 , a p erson who h as migr ated to th e t e rritor y of Indi a from t h e t er ritor y no w in clud ed in P ak ist an sh all b e d eemed to b e a cit i z en of Indi a at th e comme n cemen t of this Const itution if (a ) h e o r eith er of hi s p ar ents or an y of his gr andp ar ents was born in Indi a as d ef in ed in th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a Act , 1935 ( as orig in all y en act ed); and (b )(i ) i n th e c as e wh er e su ch p erson h as so mi gr at ed b efor e th e nin et e en th d a y of Ju l y, 1948, h e h as b e en ordin ar il y r esid ent in th e t err itor y of India sin ce th e d at e of his migr ation, o r (i i ) i n th e cas e wh er e su ch p erson h as so migr at ed on or aft er th e nin et een th d ay of Jul y, 1948 , he h as b een r egist er ed as a ci ti zen of Ind i a b y an offi cer appoint ed in th at b eh alf b y th e Go v ern me nt of th e Do minion of Indi a on an appli cation ma d e b y h i m th er efor to su ch offi cer b efo r e th e co mmen cement of thi s Const itution in th e for m and ma n n er pr es cribe d b y th at Gov ern me nt: Provid ed th at no p erson sh all b e so r eg ist er ed unl ess h e h as b e en r esid en t in th e t er ritor y of Indi a fo r at l e ast six months i mme d i at el y pr eceding th e dat e of his appli cation . 7 . Rights of cit iz enship of certain mig rants to Pa kis tan. Not withs t anding an ything in arti cl es 5 and 6, a p er son who h as aft er th e fir st d a y of Ma r ch , 1947, migr at ed fro m the t err itor y of Indi a to th e t err itor y no w includ ed in P ak ist an sh al l not b e d eemed to b e a cit i z en o f Indi a: Provid ed th at nothing in this art i cl e sh al l apply t o a p erson who , aft er h aving so migr at ed to th e t e rritor y no w in clud ed in P akis tan , has r eturn ed to th e t erri tor y of Ind i a und er a p er mit for r es ettl ement or p er man en t r e turn is su ed b y o r u n d er th e au th o r ity o f an y l a w an d ev er y su ch p erso n sh al l fo r 4

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

th e purpos es of cl aus e ( b) o f art i cl e 6 b e d e eme d to h av e mig r at ed to th e t err itor y of India aft er th e nin eteenth d ay of July, 1948 . 8 . Rights of citiz ensh ip of certain p ersons of Indian origin resid ing outs id e India . No twithst anding an yth ing in art i cl e 5 , an y person who or eith er o f whos e p ar ents or an y of whos e gr andpar ents was born in Indi a as d efin ed in th e Gov ern ment o f Indi a Act , 1935 ( as origin al l y en act ed) , and who is ord in arily r esiding in any countr y ou tsid e Indi a as so defin ed sh all b e d e e me d to b e a c i t i z en o f In d i a if h e h as b ee n r eg ist er ed a s a c i t i z en o f Indi a b y the d iplo mati c or consul ar r epr es ent ativ e o f Indi a in th e countr y wh er e h e is for th e ti me b eing r esiding on an appli c at ion ma d e b y h i m th er efo r to su ch diplo mati c or consul ar r epr es en t a tiv e, wh eth er b efor e or aft er th e co mm en cement of this Const itution , in th e for m and mann er pr es cr ib ed b y the Gov e rn men t of th e Do minion of Indi a or th e Gov ern me nt of India. 9 . Persons volunta ri ly a cqu i ring citiz en ship of a fo reign Stat e not to b e ci tiz ens . N o p erson sh all b e a citi zen of Ind i a b y vi rtu e of arti cl e 5, o r b e d e e me d to b e a c i ti z en o f I n d i a b y v irtu e o f art i cl e 6 o r a rt i cl e 8 , if h e h as volunt aril y acquir ed th e cit i z enship of an y for eign St at e. 10 . Continuan ce of th e rights of cit iz enship . Ev er y p erson w ho is or is d eemed to b e a citi zen of Indi a und er an y of th e for egoing provis ions of thi s P ar t sh all , subj ect to th e provis ions of any l a w th at ma y b e mad e b y P arl i ament , continu e to b e su ch cit i zen. 11 . Pa rlia me n t to regu lat e the righ t of cit izenship by law . No t h in g in th e for egoing provis ions of thi s P art sh all d erog at e f ro m th e po wer of P arl i ament to mak e an y provis ion with r espect to th e acquis ition and t er min at ion o f cit i z en ship and all oth e r matt ers r el a ting to citi ze nship .

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART III FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS


G e n er a l 1 2 . D ef i n i t io n .In this P art , unl ess th e cont ext o th er wis e r equir es , th e St at e in clud es th e Gov ernmen t and P arli ament of Indi a and th e Gov ern ment and th e Legisl atur e of each of th e St at es and all local or oth er author iti es within th e t erri tor y of Indi a or und er th e contro l of th e G o v er n me n t o f I n d i a . 13 . Law s in consi st ent w ith o r in deroga tion of th e funda me n tal rights . (1) All l a ws in for ce in th e t errito r y of Ind i a i mmed iat el y b efor e th e co mmen cement of this Const itution , in so f ar as th ey ar e in cons ist ent with th e prov isions of thi s Part , sh all , to th e ext ent of su ch in consi st en cy, b e void . (2) Th e S t at e sh all not mak e an y l aw whi ch t ak es aw ay or abridg es th e righ ts conf err ed b y this P ar t an d an y l a w mad e in contr av ention of this cl au s e sh al l, to th e ex t ent of th e contr av ention , b e void . (3) In this ar ti cle, un l ess th e cont ext oth er wi s e r equir es, (a ) l aw in clud es an y Ordin an ce, ord er , b ye-l aw, rul e, r egulation , noti fi c ation , cu sto m or us ag e having in th e t erri tor y o f Ind i a th e for ce of l aw; (b ) l aw s in force in clud es l aws p ass ed or mad e b y a Legisl atur e o r oth er co mp et ent autho rit y in th e t erritory of Indi a befor e th e co mmen cement of this Consti tution and not pr evious l y r ep eal ed , not with st anding t h at an y su ch law or an y p art th er eof may n ot b e th en in op er at ion ei th er a t all or in p arti cul a r ar e as . (4) No thing in t his ar ti cl e shall appl y to any amen d ment of this Consti tution mad e und er arti cl e 368 . Right to Equali ty 14 . Equal ity befo re law .The S t at e shall not d en y to an y p erson equ ali t y b efor e th e l aw or the equ al pro t ection of th e l aws within th e t err itor y of India. 15 . Prohib ition of dis cri mi nation on g rounds of relig ion, ra ce, ca st e, s ex o r pla ce o f bi rth .(1 ) The S t at e sh all not dis cr i min at e ag ainst an y cit i zen on g rounds onl y of r eligion , r ace, caste, s ex , p l ace of bir th o r an y o f t h e m. ( 2 ) N o cit i z en s h all , o n g r o u n d s o n l y o f r el ig i o n , r a c e , c a s t e , s ex , p l a c e of birth or an y of th em, b e subject to an y dis abil it y, l i abilit y, restr i ction or condit ion wi th reg ard to (a ) acces s to shops , publi c r es taur ants , hot els and pl aces of publi c e nt er t ain men t; or 6

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(b ) t h e us e of well s, t anks , b athing gh ats , ro ads and pl aces of publi c r esor t ma int ain ed wholl y or p artl y ou t of St at e funds or d edi cated to th e us e of th e g en eral publi c. (3) Noth ing in thi s arti cl e shall p r ev ent th e St at e fro m making an y sp eci a l prov ision for wo men an d ch ildr en . (4) Noth ing in this arti cl e or in cl au s e (2) of arti cl e 29 sh al l prev en t th e St at e fro m ma king an y sp ecial provision for th e ad v an c emen t o f an y so ci all y and edu c ation a ll y back ward cl ass es of ci ti zens or for th e S ch ed u l ed C ast es an d th e S ch ed u l ed Trib es . 16 . Equa lity of oppo rtunity in ma tt ers o f publ ic emp loymen t.(1) Th er e sh all b e eq u ali t y of opportuni t y for all citi zens in ma tt ers r el ating to emp lo yment or appoint ment to an y offi ce und er th e St at e. (2) No citi zen sh all , on grounds onl y of relig ion, r ace, cast e, s ex , d es cent , pl ace of bir th, r esid en ce or an y of th em, b e in eligibl e for, or dis cr i min at ed ag ains t in r esp ect of , an y emplo yment or off i ce und er th e S t at e . (3) No thing in this arti cl e sh all pr ev en t P arl i amen t f ro m making an y l a w pr es cr ibing , in r eg ard to a cl ass or cl as s es of emp lo yme nt or appoint me nt to an off i ce und er th e Gov ernme n t of , or any lo cal or o th er author it y within , a St at e or Union t err itor y , an y r equir emen t as to r es id en ce within th at St at e or Union t err itor y prior to su ch emp lo yment or appoint ment . (4) Noth ing in thi s arti cl e shall p r ev ent th e St at e fro m making an y provis ion for th e r es erv ation of appoin t men ts or po sts in favour of an y b a ck ward cl ass of ci ti zens whi ch , in th e opinion of th e St at e, is not ad equ at el y r epres ent ed in th e servi ces und er the St at e. (4 A) No thing in this art i cl e sh all pr ev en t the St at e fro m making an y provis ion fo r res erv at ion in ma t t ers of promo tion , with cons equ ent i al s enior it y, to any cl ass or cl asses o f posts in the s e rvi c es und er t h e St at e in f avour of th e Sch edul ed Cast es and th e S ch edul ed Trib es whi ch , in th e opinion of th e St at e, ar e not ad equ at el y r epr es ent ed in th e s ervi ces und er th e St at e. (4 B) Nothing in this art i cl e sh all pr ev ent th e Stat e fro m considering an y u n fi ll ed v a c an cie s o f a y e ar wh i ch ar e r es erv ed fo r b ein g fi ll ed u p in th at year in accord an ce wi th an y provis ion for r es erv at ion mad e und er cl aus e (4 ) o r cl au s e (4 A ) as a s ep a ra te c l ass o f v a c an ci es to b e fil le d u p in an y su cceeding year or years and su ch cl ass of v acan ci es sh all not b e consid er ed tog eth er with th e v acan ci es of th e year in whi ch th ey ar e b eing fi ll ed up fo r d et er min ing th e ce il ing of f ift y per cen t. r es erv ation on tot a l n u mb er o f v a c an ci es o f t h at y ea r . (5) No thing in thi s art i cl e sh all aff ect th e op er at ion of an y l aw w hi ch provid es th at the in cu mb ent of an off i ce in conn ection wi th the aff ai rs of an y r el igious or d eno min ation a l in stitut ion or an y memb er of the gov erning

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

bod y th er eof shall b e a p erson prof es sing a p arti cu l ar r el igion or b e longing to a p arti cul ar deno min ation . 17 . Abolition of Untou chabi lity . Un to u ch ab il it y i s ab o lish ed an d it s pr acti ce in an y for m i s forbidd en . Th e en for cement of an y di sab ilit y aris ing out of Untou ch ab ilit y shall b e an off en c e punish ab l e in accord an ce with l aw. 18 . Abo lition of tit l es .(1) No ti tl e, no t b eing a milit ar y or acad emi c dis tin ction , sh all b e conf err ed by th e St at e. (2) No citi zen of Indi a sh al l accept an y tit l e f rom an y for eign St at e. (3) No p erson who is no t a citi zen of Indi a sh all , whil e h e holds an y offi ce of profi t or trust und er th e St at e, accep t withou t th e cons ent of th e Pr esid en t an y t itl e fro m an y foreign St at e. (4) No p erson holding an y of fi ce of profi t or trust und er th e S tat e sh al l, without th e cons ent of th e Pr esid en t, accept an y p res ent , emolu ment , or offi ce of an y kind fro m o r und er an y for eign Stat e. Right to Fr eedom 19 . Prot ection of certain rights rega rding f reedo m o f sp eech , et c. (1) All cit i zens sh al l h av e th e right (a ) t o fr eedo m of sp eech and expr ess ion; (b ) t o ass embl e p eaceabl y and withou t ar ms ; (c ) t o for m associ at ions or un ions; (d ) t o mov e fr eel y throughou t the t erri tor y of Indi a; (e ) t o r esid e and s ett l e in an y p art of th e t err itory of Indi a; and * * * * * (g ) t o pr actis e an y prof ess ion, or to carr y on an y o c cup ation , tr ad e or busin ess . (2) Nothing in sub- cl au s e (a) of cl aus e (1) sh all aff e ct th e oper at ion of an y ex isting l aw , or p r ev ent th e S t at e fro m mak ing an y l aw, in so f ar as su ch l a w i mpos es r e ason ab l e r est ri ctions on th e ex er cis e of th e righ t conf err ed b y the s aid sub - cl au s e in th e int er est s o f th e sov er eign t y and int eg rit y of Ind ia, th e s e cu ri t y of th e S t at e, fr iendl y r el ation s with for eign St at es, publi c ord er , decen cy or mo r alit y, o r in r el ation to cont empt of court , d ef a ma tion or in cit e me nt to an off en ce. (3) Noth ing in sub- cl aus e (b ) o f th e s aid cl au s e sh al l aff e ct th e o p er at io n of an y exist ing l aw in so f ar as it i mpos es , or pr ev ent th e S t at e fro m ma k ing an y l aw i mpos ing, in the in t er ests o f the sov er e ignt y an d in t egrit y of Indi a or publi c ord er , r e asonabl e r estr i ctions on th e ex er cis e of th e right conf err ed b y th e s aid sub- cl aus e. (4) Nothing in sub- cl au s e (c) o f th e s aid cl au s e sh al l af f e ct th e o p er at io n of an y exist ing l aw in so f ar as it i mpos es , or pr ev ent t h e S t at e f r o m ma k ing an y l aw i mpos ing, in the in t er ests o f the sov er e ignt y an d in t egrit y

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

of Indi a or publi c ord er or mor ali t y, r eason ab l e r est ri ctions on th e ex er cis e of th e right conferr ed b y th e s aid sub- cl aus e. (5) Nothing in sub- cl aus es (d ) and ( e) o f th e s aid cl au s e sh al l a ff e ct th e op er at ion of any ex isting l aw in so f ar as it imp os es , or pr event th e S t ate fro m mak ing any l aw i mposing , r eason abl e r es tri ctions on th e ex er cis e of an y of th e rights conf err ed b y th e s aid sub- cl au s es eith er in th e int er est s of th e g en er al publi c o r for th e prot ection of th e int e r ests of any S ch edul ed Trib e. (6) Noth ing in sub- cl aus e (g ) o f th e s aid cl au s e sh al l aff e ct th e o p er at io n of an y exist ing l a w in so f ar as it i mpos es , or pr ev ent th e S t at e fro m mak ing an y l aw i mposing , in the int er es ts o f the g en er al publi c, r eason abl e r est ri ctions on th e ex er cis e of th e r ight conf er red b y th e s a id sub- cl au s e, and , in p arti cu lar , noth ing in th e s aid sub- cl au s e sh all aff e ct th e op er ation of an y ex isting l a w in so f ar as it r el at e s to , or p r ev en t th e St at e fro m mak ing an y l aw r el ating to, (i) th e prof ession al or t e chni cal qu al ifi c ation s n eces s ary for pr act ising an y prof es sion or carr ying on an y o c cup ation, tr ad e or busin es s, or (i i) th e carr ying on b y th e S tat e, o r b y a corpor at ion o wned or contro ll ed b y th e S t at e, of any t r ad e, busin ess , industr y or s e rvi c e, wh eth er to th e ex clus ion, co mplet e or p arti al, of citi zen s or oth er wis e. 20 . Prot ection in resp ect of convi ct ion fo r off en ces .(1) No p e rson sh al l b e convi cted of an y off ence ex cept for viol at ion o f a l aw in for ce at th e ti me of the co mmi ss ion of th e Act ch arg ed as an offen ce, nor b e subj ect ed to a p en alt y gr eat er th an th at wh i ch mi ght h av e b een infl i ct ed und er th e l aw in for ce at th e ti me of th e co mmission of th e off en ce. (2 ) No p erso n sh al l b e p ro s e cu t ed an d p u n ish ed fo r th e s ame o ff en c e mo r e th an once. (3) No p erson accus ed of an y off en ce sh all b e co mp ell ed to b e a wi tn ess ag ains t h i ms elf. 21 . Prot ection of lif e and p ersonal lib erty . No p er so n sh al l b e d epriv ed of his l if e or p er sonal lib ert y ex cept accord ing to pro c edur e e st ab lish ed b y la w . 22 . Prot ection agains t a rrest and d et ention in certain cas es . ( 1 ) No p erson wh o is arr est ed sh al l b e d e t ain ed in cu stod y without b eing infor med , as soon as may b e, of th e grounds for su ch arr est nor sh all h e b e d eni ed th e r ight to consu lt, and to b e d ef end ed b y, a l eg al pr ac ti tion er of h i s ch o i c e . (2) Ev er y p e rson who is a rr est ed and d et ain ed in cu stod y sh al l be produ ced b efore th e n e ar est ma g istr a t e within a p er iod of t w ent y- four hours of su ch arr es t ex cluding th e t i me n ecessar y for th e jou rn e y fro m th e pl ace of arr est to th e court of th e ma gis tr at e an d no su ch p erson sh al l b e
1

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1.On the commencement of s. 3 of the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978, art. 22 shall stand amended as directed in s. 3 of that Act. For the text of s. 3 of that Act, see Appendix III.

10

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

d et ain ed in cu stod y b eyond the s a id p eriod without th e au thori t y of a ma g istr a t e. (3) Nothing in cl aus es (1) and (2) sh all appl y (a) to an y p erson who for th e t ime b eing is an en emy ali en; or (b) to an y p erson wh o is arr est ed or d e t ain ed und er an y l a w provid ing fo r prev en tiv e d et en tion . (4) No l a w providing for prev en tiv e d e t ention sh all au thoris e th e d et ent ion of a person for a longer p eriod th an thr ee months unless (a) an Adv isor y B o ard con sisting of p ersons who ar e, or h av e b een , or ar e qu al ifi ed to b e appoint ed as , Judg es of a High Court h as r eport ed b efor e th e exp iration o f th e s aid p eriod o f thr ee mo nths th at th er e is in it s op inion suffici en t caus e for su ch d et ention : Provid ed th at nothing in this sub- cl au s e sh all au thor is e th e d etention of an y p er son beyond th e maximu m p eriod pr es crib ed b y an y l aw mad e b y P arli a me nt und er sub- cl aus e (b) of cl aus e (7); or (b) su ch p e rson is d e t ain ed in accord an ce with th e prov isions of an y l aw mad e b y P arl i ament und er sub- cl aus es ( a ) and (b ) o f cl au s e (7 ) . (5) Wh en an y person is d et ain ed in pur su an ce of an ord er ma d e und er an y l aw providing fo r pr ev ent ive d e t ention , th e au thorit y ma king th e ord er s h al l , as s o o n as ma y b e , co mmu n i c at e t o s u ch p e r s o n t h e g r o u n d s o n wh i ch th e o rd er h as been ma d e and sh all afford hi m th e earli es t opportun it y of ma k ing a rep r esent at ion ag ainst th e ord er . (6) Nothing in cl aus e (5) sh al l r equir e th e author it y mak ing an y su ch ord er as is r ef err ed to in th at claus e to dis clo se f acts whi ch su ch autho rit y consid er s to b e ag ains t the publi c int e rest to disclos e . ( 7 ) P ar l i a men t ma y b y l a w p r esc r i b e (a) th e cir cu ms tan ces und er which , and th e cl ass or cl as s es of cas es in wh i ch, a p erson ma y b e det ain ed for a period long er than thr e e mo nths und er an y l aw providing for pr ev entiv e d et ent ion without obt ain ing th e opinion of an Advisor y Bo ard in accord an ce with th e provis ions of sub- cl aus e (a) of cl aus e (4) ; (b) th e ma xi mum p e riod for whi ch an y p erson ma y in an y cl ass or cl ass es of cas es b e det ain ed und er an y l aw provid ing for pr ev ent iv e d et ent ion; and ( c) th e pro cedure t o b e fol lowed b y an Advisor y Bo ard in an inquir y und er sub- cl ause (a) of cl aus e (4) . Right agains t Ex ploi tation 23 . Proh ibition of t raffi c in hu ma n b eings and fo rced labou r .(1) T r affi c in h u man b ein g s an d b egar and oth er s imi l ar for ms of for ced l abour ar e prohibit ed and an y contr av ention of this provis ion sh al l b e an off en c e punish ab l e in accord an ce with law.

11

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2) Nothing in this arti cl e sh all pr ev ent the S t at e fro m imp osing co mpulsor y s ervi ce for publ i c purpos es , and in i mpos ing su ch s ervi ce th e St at e sh all no t mak e an y dis cr imi n ation on grounds on l y of r eligion , r ace, c a s t e o r cl ass o r a n y o f t h e m. 24 . Prohibition of emp loy ment of chi ld ren in fa cto ri es, et c. No child b e low th e ag e of four t e en years sh all be emp lo y ed to work in an y f actor y or min e or eng ag ed in an y oth er h azardous emplo yment. Right to Fr eedom of Religion 2 5 . F re ed o m o f co n s ci en c e a n d f r e e p ro f ess io n , p ra ct i c e a n d p ropagation of relig ion. (1) Subj ect to pub li c ord er , mo r alit y and h e alth and to th e oth er provi sions of this P art , all p ersons ar e eq u ally ent itl ed to fr eedo m o f cons ci en ce and th e right fr eel y to prof ess, pr act is e and p r o p ag at e r el ig i o n . (2) Nothing in this art i cl e sh all aff e ct th e op eration of an y ex ist ing l aw or pr ev ent th e St at e fro m mak ing an y l aw (a) r egul ating or r est ri cting an y econo mi c, fin an ci a l, pol iti ca l or oth er s e cul ar activ it y wh i ch ma y b e asso ci at ed with r el igious pr act i ce; (b) providing for so ci al wel far e and r efor m or th e throwing op en of Hindu r e ligious i n stitu tions of a p ubli c ch aract er to al l cl ass es and s e ct i o n s o f Hin d u s . Explanation I .Th e wearing and carr ying of kirpans sh all b e deemed to b e in clud ed in th e prof ession of th e Sikh r eligion . Explanation II . In sub- cl aus e (b ) o f cl aus e (2) , th e ref er en ce to Hindu s sh al l b e con strued as in clud ing a r e f er en ce to persons prof ess ing th e Sikh , J ain a or Buddh ist r elig ion, and th e r ef er en c e to Hindu r eligious ins titution s sh al l b e const rued accordingl y. 2 6 . F r e ed o m t o ma n a g e r el ig i o u s a f f a i rs . Subj ect to publi c ord er , mo r ali t y and h ealth , ev er y r el igious d eno min ation or an y s e ction ther eof sh al l h av e th e right (a) to est abli sh and maint ain inst itutions for r elig ious and ch arit ab l e purpos es ; (b) to man ag e its o wn aff airs in mat t ers of r el igion; ( c) to o wn and ac quir e mov abl e a nd i mmov ab l e prop ert y; and (d) to ad minist er su ch prop ert y in accord an ce with l a w. 27 . F r e edo m a s to pay me n t of tax e s fo r p romo t ion of any pa rti cu la r relig ion. No person sh all b e co mp ell ed to p a y an y t axes, th e pro ceeds of w hi ch ar e sp ec if i c all y appropri a t ed in p a yme n t of exp ens es for th e pro motion o r ma i n t en an c e of an y p arti cul ar r eligion or r eligious d eno min ation .

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

28 . Freedo m a s to att endan ce at religiou s ins truction o r relig ious w orship in certain edu cational i nstitut ions . (1) No r elig ious i nstru ct ion sh al l b e provided in an y edu cation al ins titution wholl y mai ntain ed ou t of S t at e f u n d s . (2) Nothing in cl aus e (1) sh all appl y to an edu cation al in stitu tion wh i ch is ad min ist er ed b y th e S t at e but h as b e en e st ablish ed und e r an y e ndo w me nt or t rust whi ch requir es th at r eligious instru ct ion sh al l b e i mp art ed in su ch ins titution . (3) No p erson att end ing an y ed u c ation a l institut ion r e cognised b y th e St at e or r eceiv ing aid out of St at e funds sh all b e r equir ed to t ak e p art in an y r elig ious instru ction th at may b e i mp ar t ed in su ch inst itution or to att end an y r e ligious worship that ma y b e condu ct ed in su ch inst itution or in an y pr emis es at t a ch ed th er eto un l ess su ch person or, if su ch p er son is a mi nor , his gu ardi an h as giv en his cons ent th er eto . Cultura l and Edu cationa l Righ ts 29 . Prot ection of in t erests of mi no rit i es. (1) An y s e ction of th e cit i z en s r esiding in th e t erritor y of Indi a or an y p art th er eo f h aving a dis tin ct l angu ag e, s c ript or cu ltu r e of its own shall h av e th e right to c o n s erv e t h e s ame . (2) No citi zen sh all b e d eni ed ad mission into an y edu cation al inst itution mai nt ain ed b y th e St at e or r eceiving aid out of St at e funds on grounds onl y o f r el i g i o n , r a c e, c a s t e , l an g u ag e o r an y o f t h e m. 30 . Right o f mi n o riti es to establ ish and ad mi nist er edu cationa l ins titutions . (1) Al l minoriti es , wh eth er b ased on r el igion or l angu ag e, sh al l h av e th e right to est abl ish and ad mini st er edu cat ion al inst itutions of th ei r ch o ic e . (1 A) In making an y l a w providing for th e co mpulsor y acqu isition of an y prop ert y of an edu cation al institu tion est abl ish ed and ad minist er ed b y a mi nori t y, r ef e rred to in cl au s e (1) , th e St ate sh all en su r e th at th e amount fix ed b y o r d et er min ed und er such l a w for th e ac quis ition of such prop ert y is su ch as would no t r es tri ct or abrog at e th e right gu ar ant e ed und er th at c l au s e . (2) Th e St at e sh al l no t, in gr ant ing aid to edu cation al insti tutions , dis cr i min at e ag ains t an y ed u c ation a l inst itution on th e g round th at it is und er th e manag ement of a mi nori t y, wh eth er b as ed on r el igion or l an g u ag e .

13

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

* * * 31 . [ Co mpul sory a cquisit ion of prop ert y .] Re p . b y th e Const itution (F o rt y- fo u rth Am e n d men t ) A c t, 1 9 7 8 , s . 6 ( w.e. f. 2 0 - 6 - 1 9 7 9 ) . Sa ving of Certain La ws 31 A. Saving of law s p roviding fo r a cqu isition of estat es, et c. (1) Not wi thst anding an yth ing cont ain ed in arti cl e 13, no l aw providing for (a) th e acquisi tion b y th e St at e of an y est at e or of an y rights ther ein or th e extingui sh me nt or modi fication of an y such rights , or (b) th e t aking ov er of th e man ag e me nt of an y prop ert y b y th e St at e for a l i mit ed p eriod eith er in the pub li c int er est o r in ord er to secur e th e prop er man ag ement of th e prop ert y, or (c) the amalgamation of two or more corporations either in the public interest or in order to secure the proper management of any of the corporations, or (d) th e ex tinguish me nt or modifi cation of an y righ ts of man aging ag ents , s ecr et ari es and tr easur ers , man aging di r ectors , directors or man ag ers of corpor at ions , or o f an y vo ting rights of shar ehold er s th er eof , or ( e) th e ext inguish me nt or modif i cation o f any r ights accruing b y vir tu e of an y agr eement , l eas e or li cen ce for th e pu rpos e of s ear ching for , or winning , an y mi n er al or mi n er al oil , or th e pr ematur e t ermi n ation o r c an c ell at io n o f an y s u ch ag r ee me n t , l e as e o r l i c en c e , sh al l b e d eemed to b e void on th e ground th at it i s in consis tent wi th, or t ak es away or abridg es an y of th e right s conf err ed b y arti cl e 14 or arti cl e 19: P rovid ed th at w h er e su ch l a w is a l a w mad e b y th e Leg isl atur e of a St at e, th e provision s of this arti cl e sh all not appl y th er eto unl ess such l a w, h aving b e en r eserv ed for th e consid er ation of th e Pr esid en t , has r eceiv ed his ass en t: Provid ed furth er th at wh ere an y l aw mak es an y provision for th e acquis ition b y th e S t at e of an y est a t e and wh ere an y l and co mpris ed th er ein is h eld b y a p erson under his p erson al cult ivation , i t sh al l not be l a wfu l for th e St at e to acquir e an y port ion of su ch l and as i s with in th e ceil ing li mi t appli c ab l e to him u nd er an y l aw for th e t i me being in for ce or an y bu ilding or stru ctur e st anding th er eon or appurt en ant th ereto , unl ess th e law r el ating to th e acquisit ion of su ch l and, build ing or structur e, provid e s for p a yment of co mpen s ation at a r at e which sh all not b e l ess th an th e mar k et v alu e th er eo f . (2) In this articl e , (a) th e expr ession es t at e sh all , in r el ation to an y lo cal ar ea, h av e th e s ame mean ing as th at expression or its local equiv al en t h as in th e

14

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

exis ting l a w r elating to l and t enur es in for ce in th at ar ea an d sh al l also in clud e (i) an y jagir , ina m o r muafi or oth er si mil ar gr ant and in the S t at e s o f T a mil N a d u and K er al a , an y jan ma m rig h t ; (i i ) an y l and h eld und er r yot wari s et tl emen t; (i i i ) an y l and h eld or l et for purpos es of agri cu ltur e or for purpos es an cillar y th er eto, in cluding was t e l and , for est l and, l and for p astur e o r sit e s of bu ildings and oth er stru ctur es o c cupi ed b y cult iv ators of l and , ag ri cu ltur a l l abour er s an d vill ag e art is ans; (b) th e expr ession right s , in r el ation to an est a t e, sh all in clud e an y rights v esting in a propri eto r, sub-propri e tor, und er-propri e tor, t enur e-ho ld er, r a i ya t , u n d er- ra i y a t o r o th er in te r me d i ar y an d an y rig h ts or privi l eg es in r esp ect of l and rev enu e. 31 B. Va lidation of certain Ac ts and Regulation s. Wi thout pr ejud ice to th e g en er al ity of th e prov isions cont ain ed in arti cl e 31A, non e of th e Acts and Regul at ions sp eci fi ed in th e Ninth S ch edu l e nor an y of th e provis ions th ereof sh al l b e d eemed to b e void , or ev er to hav e b e co me void , on th e ground th at su ch Act , Regul at ion o r provis ion is i n consist en t w ith , o r t ak es a w a y o r ab rid g es a n y o f th e r ig h ts co n f err ed b y, a n y provis ions of this P art , and notwiths t anding any j udg men t, d ecr ee o r ord er of an y court or Tribun al to th e cont r ar y, each of th e said Acts and Regul at ions sh all , subj ect to th e po wer of any co mp et ent Legis l atur e to r ep eal or amend it , continu e in for ce. 31 C. Saving of law s giving eff e ct to certain di rectiv e p rincipl es. Not withs t anding an ything cont ain ed in ar ti cl e 13 , no l aw giving eff ect to 1 th e poli c y o f the S t at e to wards s e cu ring [ a ll or an y of th e prin cip l es l a id do wn in P a rt IV] sh all b e d eemed to b e void on th e g round th at it is in cons ist ent with , or t ak es away or abridg es any of th e r ights conf err ed b y 2 a rt i cl e 1 4 o r arti cl e 1 9 ; and no la w contain ing a d e clarat ion that i t is for gi ving eff e ct to su ch po li cy sha ll b e ca ll ed in qu est ion in an y court on th e ground that i t do es not gi ve eff ect to su ch poli cy: Provid ed th at wh er e su ch l a w is ma d e b y th e Legisl atur e of a S t at e, th e provis ions of this arti cl e sh all no t appl y th ereto un l ess su ch l a w, h av ing b e en r es erv ed for th e consid er at ion of th e Pr esid en t, h as receiv ed his a s s en t . 3 1 D. [Sa ving of la ws in r esp ect of anti-na tional a cti viti es .] Rep . b y th e Consti tution (F ort y- third Amen d m en t ) Act ,1977, s .2 (w . e . f .13-4-1978 ). Right to Consti tutiona l Remedi es 32 . Remedi es fo r enfo rcemen t of rights con ferred by thi s Pa rt .(1) Th e righ t to mov e th e Sup r eme Court b y appropri at e pro ceedings for th e enfor cement of th e righ ts con ferr ed b y this P art is gu ar ant eed .

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1. Subs. by the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976, s. 4, for the principles specified in clause (b) or clause (c) of article 39 (w.e.f. 3.1.1977). Section 4 has been declared invalid by the Supreme Court in Minerva Mills Ltd. and others vs. Union of India and others (1980) s. 2, S.C.C. 591. 2. In Kesavananda Bharati vs. the State of Kerala (1973),Supp. S.C.R.1., the Supreme Court held the provisions in italics to be invalid.

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(2) Th e Sup r eme Court sh all h av e power to is su e dir e ction s or ord ers or writs , in clud ing writs in the n atur e of hab eas corpus , mandamus , prohib ition , quo warranto a n d cert iorari , which ev er may b e appropri at e, for th e enfor c emen t of an y of th e rights conf err ed b y this P art . (3) Without pr ejudi ce to th e powers conf err ed on th e Supr eme Court b y c l au s es (1 ) an d (2 ), P arli a me n t ma y b y l a w emp o w e r an y o th er co u rt to ex er cis e wi thin th e lo cal li mits of it s jurisdi ction all or an y of th e po wers e x er cis ab l e b y th e Supr e me Court und er cl aus e (2) . (4) Th e right guar ant eed b y this ar ti cl e sh al l not b e susp end ed ex cept as oth er wis e prov id ed for b y this Consti tution . 3 2 A . [ Consti tutional validi t y of S tat e la ws not to b e consid er ed in pro ceedings und er arti cl e 32 .] Rep. b y th e Con stitut ion (F o rt y- third A m e n d m en t ) A ct , 1977 , s . 3 (w . e . f . 1 3 - 4 - 1 9 7 8 ) . 33 . Pow er of Pa rlia men t to modify th e rights conf erred by thi s Pa rt in th ei r appli cation to Fo rces , et c.P ar li a me n t ma y , b y l a w, d e t er min e to wh at ex t en t any of th e rights conf err ed b y th is P art sh all , in th eir appli cation to , (a ) t h e me mb ers o f th e A r med F o r c es; o r (b ) t h e memb ers of th e For ces ch arg ed with th e maint en ance o f publi c ord er ; or (c ) p e rsons emp lo yed in an y bur eau o r oth er org anis at ion est ab lish ed b y th e S t at e for purpos es of int e llig en ce or count er int e llig en ce; or (d ) p e rsons emp lo y ed in , or in conn ection with , th e t el eco mmu ni cation s yst ems s et up for th e purpos es of an y For ce, bur eau or org anis a tion r ef err ed to in claus es (a ) to ( c) , b e r e stri ct ed o r a b ro g a t ed so as to en su r e th e p ro p e r d is ch arg e o f th eir duti es and th e maint en an ce of dis cip lin e among th em 34 . Rest ri ction o n rights conf erred by thi s Pa rt w hil e ma rtia l law is in fo rce i n any a r ea . Not with st anding an ything in the f o r egoing provis ions of this P ar t, P ar li ament may b y l aw ind emnif y an y person in the s ervi ce of th e Union or of a St at e o r an y oth er p erson in r esp ect of an y act don e b y hi m in conn ection wi th th e ma int en an ce or r esto ration of ord er in an y ar ea within th e t erri tor y of Indi a wh er e mar ti al l aw was in for ce or v alid at e an y s ent en ce p ass ed , punish me nt in fli ct ed , forf eitur e ord er ed or oth er act don e und er marti al l aw in su ch ar ea. 35 . Legislat ion to giv e ef fect to th e p rovis ions of this Pa rt . Not withs t anding an ything in this Constitu tion , (a) P ar li ament sh al l h av e, and th e Legis l atur e of a St at e sh all not h av e, po w er to mak e l aw s

16

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(i) with r esp ect to an y of th e matt ers whi ch und er cl aus e (3) of art i cl e 16, cl ause (3) of art i cl e 32 , arti cl e 33 and arti cl e 34 may b e provid ed for b y l a w mad e b y P arl i a ment ; and (i i) for pr es cribing punish me nt for thos e acts wh i ch are d ecl ar ed to b e off en ces und er this P art ; and P arli ament sh al l, as soon as may b e af t er th e co mmen cement of thi s Consti tution , mak e l aws fo r pr es crib ing pun ishmen t for th e acts r ef err ed to in sub- cl au s e ( ii) ; (b) an y l a w in for ce i mme d i at el y b efor e th e co mme n cement of this Consti tution in th e t err itor y of Indi a with r espect to an y o f the mat t ers r ef err ed to in su b - cl au s e ( i) of cl aus e (a) or provid ing fo r punish me nt fo r an y a c t r ef err ed to in su b - cl au s e (ii ) o f th at cl au s e sh all , su b j e ct to th e t er ms th er eof and to an y a d apt at ions and mo difi c at ions th at ma y b e ma d e th er ein und er arti cl e 372 , cont inu e in f or ce unt il alt er ed or r ep e al ed or a me nd ed b y P a rli a me nt . Explanation . In this ar ti cl e, the expr es sion "l aw in for ce'' h as th e s ame mean ing as in arti cl e 372 .

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART IV DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY


3 6 . D ef in i t i o n .In this P art , unl ess th e cont ext oth er wis e r equir es , th e St at e h a s the same mean ing as in P art III . 3 7 . App li ca tio n o f th e p rin cipl e s co n ta in ed in thi s P a rt . Th e provis ions contain ed in th is P art sh all not b e enfor ceabl e b y an y cour t, but th e p rin cip l es th er e in l aid d o w n ar e n ev er th el ess fu n d a me n t al in th e gov ern an ce o f th e coun tr y and i t sh all b e th e du t y of th e Stat e to appl y th es e prin cipl es in mak ing l aws. 38 . Sta t e to s e cu re a so cia l o rd er fo r th e p romo t ion of w elfa re of th e p eopl e .(1) The St at e sh all s triv e to pro mo t e th e welf ar e of the p eopl e b y s e curing and prot ect ing as eff ectiv el y as it ma y a so ci al order in whi ch jus ti ce, so ci al , econo mi c and poli ti c al , sh all infor m all th e inst itutions of th e n ation al lif e. (2) Th e St at e sh all , in p art i cular , s triv e to mi ni mis e th e in equ ali ti es in in co me, an d en d e avour to elimi n at e in eq u aliti es in st atu s, facil iti es and opportun iti es , not onl y amongst indiv idu als but also amongst groups of p eopl e r esid ing in diff er ent ar eas or eng ag ed in diff er ent vocations . 39 . C ertain p rin cip l es of poli cy to b e follow ed by th e Stat e. Th e St at e sh all, in part i cul ar , d ir e ct it s po li cy to wards s e cu ring (a ) t h at th e citizens , men and w o men equ all y, h av e th e right to an ad equ at e me ans of liv elihood; (b ) t h at th e o wn ership an d contro l of th e ma t eri al r esour ces of th e co mmun it y ar e so distr ibut ed as b est to subs erv e th e co mmon good; (c ) t h at th e op er at ion of th e econo mi c s ys t em do es no t r esult in th e con c en tr at ion of wealth an d mean s of produ ction to th e co mmon d etr i ment ; (d ) t h at th er e i s e q u al p a y fo r eq u al wo rk fo r b o th men an d wo me n ; (e ) t h a t th e h ea lth and str eng th of work ers , men a nd wo men , and th e t en d er ag e o f ch ild r en ar e n o t ab u s ed an d th at cit i z en s a r e n o t fo r c ed b y econo mi c n ecessi t y to en ter avocation s unsu it ed to th eir ag e or str eng th; (f ) t h at ch ildr en ar e giv en opportun iti es an d f acil iti es to d ev e lop in a h e al th y ma nner and in condit ions of fr eedo m and d ignit y and th at childhood and youth ar e protect ed ag ainst exploi t ation and ag ainst mo r al an d mat e r i al ab an d o n me n t . 39 A. Equal ju sti ce and f ree l egal aid . Th e S t at e sh all s e cu re t h at th e o p er at io n o f th e l eg a l s yst em p ro mo t es ju st i c e, o n a b asi s o f eq u al opportun it y, and sh al l, in p ar ti cul ar, prov id e fr ee l eg al aid, b y sui t abl e l egi sl ation or s ch e me s or in an y oth er way, to en sur e th at opportuni ti es for 17

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

s ecuring justi ce ar e not d eni ed to an y cit i zen b y r eason of econo mi c or oth er dis ab ilit i es . 40 . Organisation of vi llag e pan chayats .Th e St ate sh all t ake st ep s to org anis e vill age p an ch ayat s and endo w th em wi th su ch po wers and author it y as ma y b e n ecess ar y to en ab l e th em to fun ction as unit s of s e lfgov ern ment . 41 . Right to wo rk, to edu cation and to publi c assis tan ce in certain cas es . Th e St at e sh all , within th e l i mits of it s econo mi c cap acit y and d ev elop ment , ma k e ef fectiv e provis ion for s e curing th e r ight to work , to edu cation and to publ i c assis tan ce in cas es of un emplo yment , old age, s i ck n es s an d d i s a b l e me n t , an d i n o t h er c as es o f u n d es erv ed w an t . 42 . Provis ion fo r ju st and huma n e condit ions of w ork and ma t ernity reli e f. Th e S tat e sh al l mak e provision for s ecuring jus t and hu man e condit ions of work and for materni t y r eli ef . 4 3 . Liv i n g w ag e, et c. , f o r w or ke r s . Th e S t at e s h a l l en d e av o u r t o s e cur e , b y suitabl e l eg isl ation or econo mi c org anis a tion or in an y oth er way, to all work ers , agr i cultural , industri a l or o th erwis e, work , a living wag e, condi tions of work ensuring a d ecent st and ard of lif e and ful l enjo yment of l ei sur e an d soci al an d cu ltur al oppor tunities an d , in p art i cul ar , th e St at e sh al l endeavour to pro mot e cott ag e industr i es on an in d iv id u al o r co -o p er at iv e b as is in ru r al ar e as . 43 A. Pa rt i cipation of w orkers in ma nag emen t of indust ri es . Th e S t at e sh all t ak e st ep s , b y su it ab le l eg i sl atio n o r in an y o th e r w ay , to s e cu r e th e p arti cip a tio n o f wo rk ers in th e ma n ag e me n t o f u n d ert ak in g s, est ab lish ments or oth er org anisation s en g ag ed in an y industr y. 44 . Uni fo rm civil cod e fo r the citiz ens . The St at e sh all en d e avour to s e cu r e for th e cit i z en s a un ifor m civil co d e throughout th e t erri tor y of India. 45 . Provision fo r f ree and comp u lso ry edu cation fo r chi ldren . Th e St at e sh all endeavour to provid e , within a p eriod of ten years fro m th e co mmen cement of this Const itution , fo r fr ee and co mpulsor y edu cation for all chi ldr en un til th ey co mpl et e th e ag e of fourteen years . 46 . Pro mo tion of edu cational and econo mi c int erest s of S ch edul ed C a st es , S ch ed u l ed T rib es a n d o th e r w ea ke r s e ctio n s. Th e S t at e s h a l l pro mot e with sp eci al car e th e edu c ation a l and econo mi c inter est s of th e weak er s ections o f th e p eopl e, and , in p arti cu lar , of th e S ch edul ed Cast es a nd th e S ch edule d Trib es , and sh all p rot e ct th em f ro m so ci al injus ti c e and all for ms of exploi t ation . 47 . Duty of th e Stat e to ra is e th e l ev el of nutrit ion and th e standa rd of liv ing and to i mp r ov e publi c h eal th. Th e S t at e sh all r eg ard th e r ais ing of th e l ev el of nutrit ion and th e st an d ard of living of its p eopl e and th e i mprov ement of pub li c health as among i ts pri mar y duti e s and , in p art i cul ar , th e St at e sh all endeavour to bring about prohibit ion of th e

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

consu mption except for me di cin al pu rpos es of i ntoxi cating drinks and of drugs whi ch ar e injur ious to h e alth . 48 . Organisation of ag ri cultu re and an i mal hu sband ry.T h e St at e sh al l en d e avour to org anis e ag ri cu ltur e an d an i mal husb and ry on mo d ern a nd s ci en tifi c lin es and sh a ll , in p art i cul ar , t ak e st ep s for pr es erving a nd i mproving th e br eeds , and prohibi ting th e s l aught er , of co ws and calv es and oth er mil ch and dr aught cattl e. 4 8 A . P ro t e ct io n a n d i mp r o v eme n t o f en v i ro n me n t a n d s a f e g u a rd i ng of fo rests and w ild lif e. Th e St at e sh al l end eavour to prot ect and i mprov e th e environ ment and to s af egu ard th e f o r ests an d wild lif e of th e country. 49 . Prot ection of mo nu men ts and p la ces and obj ects of nationa l i mp o rta n c e .I t s h all b e th e oblig ation of th e S t at e to prot ect ev er y mo nu men t or place or obj ect of ar tist i c or h istori c int er es t, d ecl ar ed b y or u n d er l aw ma d e b y P a rli a me n t to b e o f n atio n a l i mp o rta n c e , fro m spol i ation , disfigur ement , d estru ction , r e mo v al, dispos al o r export , as th e c a s e ma y b e . 50 . S epa ration of judi cia ry f rom ex ecutiv e.Th e St at e sh all t ak e st ep s to s ep ar at e th e judi ci ar y fro m th e ex ecutiv e in th e publi c s ervi c es of th e S t at e . 5 1 . P ro mo ti o n o f i n t e rn a t i o n a l p ea c e a n d s ec u rit y . Th e Stat e sh al l e n d e av o u r t o (a ) p ro mot e int ern at ion al peace and s ecurit y; (b ) ma i nt ain just and honor abl e r el a tions b et w een n ations ; (c ) f o s t er r esp ec t for int ern ation al l a w an d t rea t y obl ig ations in th e d ealing s of org ani zed p eopl es with on e anoth er; and (d ) en cour ag e sett l emen t of in tern at ion al d isput es b y arbit ration .

PART IVA

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PART IVA FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES


51 A. Funda me ntal du ti es .I t sh al l b e th e dut y of ev er y cit i z en of India (a ) t o ab ide b y th e Consti tution an d r esp ect i ts id eals and ins titution s, th e Nation al Fl ag an d th e Nation al Anth em; (b ) t o ch erish and fol low th e nobl e id ea ls whi ch in spired our n ation a l struggle for fr eedo m; (c ) t o uphold and prot ect th e sov er eign t y, unit y and int egrity of Indi a; (d ) t o def end th e coun tr y and r end er n at ion al s ervi ce wh en call ed upon to do so; (e ) t o pro mot e h ar mon y and t h e spir it of co mmon broth erhood amo ngst all th e p eop l e of India t r ans cending r el igious , l inguis ti c and r egion al or s ection al div ersi ti es; to r enoun ce p racti c es d erog ator y to th e digni t y o f wo men; (f ) t o v alu e an d p r es erv e th e ri ch h erit ag e o f o u r co mp o sit e cu ltu r e; (g ) t o pro t ect and i mprov e th e n atur al environ ment in cluding for es ts, l ak es , riv ers and wild li f e, and to h ave co mp assion for living cr eatur e s; (h ) t o d ev elop th e s ci en tifi c temp er , hu manism and the sp irit of inqui r y and r efor m; (i ) t o s af egu ard publi c prop er t y and to abjur e viol en ce; (j ) t o striv e tow ards ex cell ence i n all sph eres o f indiv idu al and coll ectiv e activit y so th at th e nation const an tl y ris es to high er l ev el s of e n d e av o u r an d ac h i ev e me n t .

20

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PART V THE UNION C HA P TE R I.T H E E X EC U TI VE


Th e Pr esid ent and Vi ce- Pr esid ent 52 . Th e Presid ent of India . Th er e sh all b e a Pr esid en t o f Indi a . 53 . Ex ecutiv e pow er of th e Union .(1 ) The ex ecut iv e power of the U n io n sh all b e v est ed in th e Pre sid en t an d sh a ll b e ex er cis ed b y h i m e ith er dir ectl y or through offi cers subordin a t e to him i n accord an ce with th is Consti tution . (2) Without pr ejudi ce to th e gen er al it y of th e for egoing provis ion, th e supr eme co mmand of th e Def ence For ces of the Un ion sh all be v est ed in th e Pr esid en t and th e ex er cis e th er eof sh al l b e re gul at ed b y l a w . (3) Nothing in this art i cl e sh all (a ) b e d eemed to tr an sf er to th e P r esid en t any f u n ctions conf err ed b y an y ex isting l a w on th e Gov ern me nt of any St at e or oth er authori t y; or (b ) p r ev ent Parl i a ment fro m conf erring by l a w fun c tions on author iti es oth er th an th e Pr esid ent . 54 . El ection of Pres id ent.T h e P r es id en t sh al l b e el e ct ed b y th e memb er s o f an el ecto r al co ll eg e consis ting of (a ) t h e el ect ed memb er s o f bo th Hous es of P arli ament ; and (b ) t h e el ect ed memb er s o f the Legisl ativ e As semb li es of th e St at es. Explanation . In this arti cl e and in art i cl e 55 , S t at e in clud es th e Nation al Capit al Territor y of Delhi and th e Union t erri tor y of Pondi ch err y. 55 . Mann er of el ect ion of Presid en t. (1) As f ar as pr acti cabl e, ther e sh al l b e u n ifo rmi t y in th e s c a le o f r ep r es en t atio n o f th e d i ff er en t S t at es a t th e el ect ion of th e Pr esid ent . (2) For th e purpos e of s e curing su ch unifor mit y among th e S tat es in t er s e as w ell as p ari t y b e tw e en th e S t at e s as a w h o l e an d th e U n io n , th e nu mb er o f vot es whi ch each el ect ed memb er of P arli ament and of th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y of each St at e is entit l ed to cast at su ch election sh all b e d et er min ed in th e follo wing man n er: (a ) ev er y el ected memb er o f th e Leg isl ativ e Ass embl y o f a St at e sh al l h av e as ma n y vot es as ther e ar e mu lt ipl es of on e thous an d in th e quoti en t ob t ained b y d ividing th e popul at ion of th e St at e b y th e tot al n u mb er o f th e e le c t ed me mb er s o f th e Ass e mb l y; 21

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(b ) i f , aft er t aking th e s a id mu ltipl e s of on e thous an d , th e r e maind er is not l es s th an fiv e hundr ed , th en th e vot e of each me mb er r ef err ed to in sub- cl au s e (a) s h all b e fu rth er in cr e as ed b y o n e; (c ) e a c h e l e c t ed member of either House of Parliament shall have such number of votes as may be obtained by dividing the total number of votes assigned to the members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States under sub-clauses (a) and (b) by the total number of the elected members of both Houses of Parliament, fractions exceeding onehalf being counted as one and other fractions being disregarded. (3) The election of the President shall be held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting at such election shall be by secret ballot. Explanation. In this article, the expression population means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published: Provided that the reference in this Explanation to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026 have been published, be construed as a reference to the 1971 census. 56. Term of office of President.(1) The President shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office: Provided that (a ) t h e Pr es id en t may, b y writing und er his hand addr ess ed to th e Vi ce-Pr es id ent , r esign hi s of fi ce; (b ) t h e Pr esid en t may, for viol ation of th e Consti tution , b e r e mo v ed fro m offi ce b y imp each men t in th e mann er prov id ed in arti cl e 61; (c ) t h e Pr esid en t sh all , not withst an d ing th e expir a tion of his t er m, continu e to hold offi ce unti l h is su ccessor ent e rs upon h is offi ce. (2) Any resignation addressed to the Vice-President under clause (a) of the proviso to clause (1) shall forthwith be communicated by him to the Speaker of the House of the People. 57. Eligibility for re-election.A person who holds, or who has held, office as President shall, subject to the other provisions of this Constitution, be eligible for re-election to that office. 58. Qualifications for election as President.(1) No person shall be eligible for election as President unless he (a ) i s a citi zen of Indi a, (b ) h as co mpl eted th e ag e of th irt y- fiv e years , and (c ) i s qu al ifi ed for el ect ion as a memb er of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e. (2) A p er son sh all not b e eligibl e for el ection as Pr esid ent if h e holds an y offi ce of p rofi t und er th e Gov ern ment o f Indi a or th e Gov ern ment of an y St at e or under an y lo cal or oth er au thorit y subj ect to th e contro l of an y of th e s aid Gov ern ments .

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Explanation . For th e purpo s es of th is arti cl e, a p erson sh all not b e d eemed to ho ld an y offi ce of profi t b y r e ason onl y th at h e is the Pr esid ent or Vi ce- Pr esident of th e Un ion or th e Governor of an y St at e or i s a Minist er eith er for th e Union or for an y S t at e. 59 . Condit ions of Presid ent's offi ce.(1 ) Th e Pr esid en t sh all n o t b e a memb er of either Hou s e of P arli ament or of a Hous e o f th e Legis l atur e o f an y St ate, and if a memb er of eith er Hou s e of P arl i ament or of a Hous e of th e Legisl atur e of an y St at e b e el ect ed Pr es ident , h e sh all b e d eemed to h av e v acat ed his s eat in th at Hous e on th e d at e on whi ch h e enters upon hi s offi ce as Pr es ident . (2) Th e Pr esid ent sh al l no t hold an y o th er offi ce of profit . (3) Th e Pr es id en t sh all b e en titl ed without p a ymen t o f r ent to th e us e o f his of fi ci al r esid en c es and sha ll b e al so en tit l ed to su ch emo lu me nts , a llo w an c es and priv il eg es as ma y b e d e t er min ed b y P a rli a me nt b y l a w and , unti l provision in th at b eh alf i s so ma d e, su ch emo lu me nts , allow a n c es and priv il eg es as are sp ecifi ed in the S e cond S ch edul e. (4 ) T h e e mo lu me n ts a n d allo w a n c es o f th e P r esid en t sh all n o t b e di mini sh ed dur ing his t er m of offi ce. 60 . Oath o r affi rma tion by the Presid ent . Ev er y Pr es id ent a nd ev er y p erson acting as Pr esid en t or dis ch arg ing th e fun ctions of th e Pr esid en t sh al l, b efor e ent er ing upon hi s offi ce, ma k e and subs crib e in th e pr es en ce of th e Chi e f Just i c e of Indi a or , in his abs en ce, th e s enior - most Judg e o f th e Supr eme Court av ail abl e, an o a th or affir mation in th e fol lo wing for m, th at i s to s a y "I , A. B . , d o s w e a r i n t h e n a m e o f G o d t h a t I wi l l f ai t h f u l l y ex e cu t e
solemnly affirm

th e of fi c e of President (or discharge the functions of the President) of India and will to the best of my ability preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law and that I will devote myself to the service and well-being of the people of India.". 61 . P ro c edu re fo r i mp e a chme n t of th e P r esid ent . (1) Wh en a Pr esid en t is to b e i mp each ed for v iol ation of th e Cons titut ion, th e ch arg e sh al l b e pr ef erred b y eith er Hous e of P arli ament . (2) No su ch ch arg e sh all b e pr eferr ed unl ess (a ) t h e p ropos al to p ref er su ch ch arg e is contain ed in a r esolution w h i ch h as b e en mo v ed af t er at l e ast fo u rt e en d a ys' n o ti c e in wri ting sign ed b y not l ess th an on e-fou rth of th e tot al nu mb er of memb ers of th e Hous e h as b een giv en of th eir int ent ion to mov e th e r esolu tion , and (b ) s u ch r eso lu tio n h as b e en p ass ed b y a ma jo rit y o f n o t l ess th an t wo-th irds of the tot al memb ership of th e House. (3) Wh en a ch arg e h as b een so pr ef err ed b y eith er Hous e of P arl i ament , th e oth er House sh all inv e stigat e th e ch arg e or cau s e th e ch arg e to b e in v es tig at ed an d th e P re sid en t sh al l h av e th e rig h t to ap p e ar an d to b e r epr es en t ed at su ch inv est iga tion .

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(4) If as a result of the investigation a resolution is passed by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the House by which the charge was investigated or caused to be investigated, declaring that the charge preferred against the President has been sustained, such resolution shall have the effect of removing the President from his office as from the date on which the resolution is so passed. 62. Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy. (1) An election to fill a vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of President shall be completed before the expiration of the term. (2) An election to fill a vacancy in the office of President occurring by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise shall be held as soon as possible after, and in no case later than six months from, the date of occurrence of the vacancy; and the person elected to fill the vacancy shall, subject to the provisions of article 56, be entitled to hold office for the full term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office. 63. The Vice-President of India.There shall be a Vice-President of India. 64. The Vice-President to be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States.The VicePresident shall be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States and shall not hold any other office of profit: Provided that during any period when the Vice-President acts as President or discharges the functions of the President under article 65, he shall not perform the duties of the office of Chairman of the Council of States and shall not be entitled to any salary or allowance payable to the Chairman of the Council of States under article 97. 65. The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, of President. (1) In the event of the occurrence of any vacancy in the office of the President by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise, the Vice-President shall act as President until the date on which a new President elected in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter to fill such vacancy enters upon his office. (2) When the President is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence, illness or any other cause, the Vice-President shall discharge his functions until the date on which the President resumes his duties. (3) The Vice-President shall, during, and in respect of, the period while he is so acting as, or discharging the functions of, President, have all the powers and immunities of the President and be entitled to such emoluments, allowances and privileges as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is so made, such emoluments, allowances and privileges as are specified in the Second Schedule. 66. Election of Vice-President.(1) The Vice-President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both Houses of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting at such election shall be by secret ballot. (2) Th e Vi ce-Pr esid en t sh all not b e a me mb er of eith er Hous e of P arl i ament or of a Hous e of the Legi sl atur e o f an y St at e, and if a memb er of eith er Hous e of P arli ament or of a Hous e of th e Legi sl atur e of an y St at e b e el e ct ed Vi c e-Pr es id en t , h e sh all b e d e e me d to h av e v a c at ed h is s e at in

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th at Hous e on th e d at e on whi ch h e ent ers upon hi s offi ce as Vi ceP r esid en t. (3) No p erson sh al l b e eligib le for el ection as Vi ce-Pr esid ent un l ess h e (a ) i s a citi zen of Indi a; (b ) h as co mpl eted th e ag e of th irt y- fiv e years; and (c ) i s qu al ifi ed for el ect ion as a memb er of th e C oun cil of St at es . (4 ) A p er so n sh all n o t b e el ig ib l e fo r el e ct io n as Vi c e -Pr esid en t if h e holds an y office of p rofit und er th e Govern me nt of Indi a or th e Gov ern ment of an y St at e or und er an y lo cal or oth er autho rity subj ect to th e control of an y of th e s aid Go v ern me nts . E x p l a n a t i o n . For th e purposes of th is arti cl e, a p erson shall no t b e d eemed to ho ld an y offi ce of profi t b y r e ason onl y th at h e is the Pr esid ent or Vi ce- Pr esident of th e Un ion or th e Governor of an y St at e or i s a Minist er eith er for th e Union or for an y S t at e. 6 7 . T e r m o f o f f i c e o f Vi c e- P re s i d en t . Th e Vi ce-Pr es id ent sh al l hold offi ce for a t erm o f fiv e years f ro m th e d at e on whi ch h e enters upon his offi ce: Provid ed th at (a ) a Vi ce-P r esid ent may, b y writ ing und er his h and addr ess ed to th e Pr esid en t, r es ign his offi ce; (b ) a V i c e -Pr esid en t ma y b e r emo v ed fro m h is o ffi c e b y a r e so lu t io n of th e Coun cil of St at es p ass ed b y a ma jori t y of all th e th en me mb ers of th e Coun ci l and agr e ed to b y the Hous e of th e P eopl e; bu t no resolu tion for th e purpos e of this cl au s e sh al l b e mo v ed unl ess at l e ast fourt e en d ays' noti ce h as b een g iv en o f th e int ent ion to mo v e th e resolution ; (c ) a Vi ce-Pr esid en t sh al l, not with st anding th e ex p ir ation of his t er m, continu e to hold offi ce unti l h is su ccessor ent ers upon his offi ce. 68 . Ti me o f holding el ection t o fi ll va can cy in th e offi ce o f Vi cePresid ent and th e t erm of offi ce of p erson el ect ed to fil l casua l va can cy .(1) An election to fil l a v acan c y caus ed b y th e expir a tion of th e t er m o f offi ce of Vi ce-Pr esid ent sh all b e co mpl et ed b efor e the exp ir ation o f t h e t er m. (2) An el ection to f ill a vacan cy in th e offi ce of Vi ce-Pr esid en t o ccurring b y r eason of hi s d eath, r esign at ion or r emov al , or other wis e sh all b e h eld as soon as possib l e after th e o c curr ence of th e v acancy, and th e p erson el ect ed to f ill th e v acancy sh al l, subj ect to th e provi sions of arti cl e 67 , b e en ti tl ed to ho ld offi ce for th e full t er m of f iv e years fro m th e d at e on whi ch h e enters upon his offi ce. 69. Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President.Every Vice-President shall, before entering upon his office, make and subscribe before the President, or some person appointed

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

in that behalf by him, an oath or affirmation in the following form, that is to say "I , A. B . , d o s w e a r i n t h e n a m e o f G o d t h at I w i l l b e ar t r u e f ai t h and
solemnly affirm

all eg i an ce to the Consti tution of Indi a as b y l aw est abl ish ed and th at I will f ai thfull y dis charg e th e dut y upon whi ch I am about to ent er . " 70. Discharge of President's functions in other contingencies.Parliament may make such provisions as it thinks fit for the discharge of the functions of the President in any contingency not provided for in this Chapter. 71. Matt ers relating to , o r co nn ect ed w ith, th e el ection of a Presid ent o r Vi ce- P resi den t. (1) All doub ts an d disput es aris ing out o f or in conn ect ion wi th th e el ection o f a Pr esid ent or Vi ce-P resident sh all b e inqui r ed into and d e cid ed b y th e Supr eme Court whos e d e cision sh al l b e fin a l. (2) If the election of a person as President or Vice-President is declared void by the Supreme Court, acts done by him in the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of the office of President or Vice-President, as the case may be, on or before the date of the decision of the Supreme Court shall not be invalidated by reason of that declaration. (3) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, Parliament may by law regulate any matter relating to or connected with the election of a President or Vice-President. (4) The election of a person as President or Vice-President shall not be called in question on the ground of the existence of any vacancy for whatever reason among the members of the electoral college electing him. 72. Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases. (1) The President shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence (a) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is by a Court Martial; (b) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is for an offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends; (c) in all cases where the sentence is a sentence of death. (2) Nothing in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall affect the power conferred by law on any officer of the Armed Forces of the Union to suspend, remit or commute a sentence passed by a Court Martial. (3) Nothing in sub-clause (c) of clause (1) shall affect the power to suspend, remit or commute a sentence of death exercisable by the Governor of a State under any law for the time being in force. 73. Extent of executive power of the Union. (1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the executive power of the Union shall extend (a ) t o th e matt ers with r esp ect to whi ch P arliamen t h as power to mak e l aw s; and

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(b ) t o th e ex erc is e o f su ch r ig h ts , au th o r it y an d ju ri sd i ctio n a s ar e e x er cis ab l e b y th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a b y v irtu e of an y tr ea t y or agr eement: Provid ed th at th e ex ecu tiv e po wer r ef er r ed to in sub- cl aus e (a ) s h all not , s av e as expr ess l y provid ed in this Const itution or in an y law ma d e b y P arl i a ment , extend in an y St at e to matt ers with r esp ect to whi ch th e Legisl atur e o f th e St at e h as also po wer to make l aws . (2) Un t il o th erwis e provid ed by P arli a ment , a St at e an d an y offi cer or author it y of a St at e ma y, not withst and ing an ything in th is arti cl e, continu e to ex er cis e in matt ers with r e spect to whi ch P arl i a ment h as power to mak e l aws for th at S tat e su ch ex ecutiv e po wer or function s as th e S t at e or offi cer or authorit y th er eof could ex ercis e i mme d i at ely b e for e th e comme n cemen t of this Const itution . Coun cil of Minist er s 74 . Coun cil of Min ist ers to aid and advise Presid ent .(1) Th er e sh al l b e a Council of Minist er s with th e Pri me Minis t er at th e h e ad to aid and advi s e th e Pr esid en t who sh all , in th e ex ercis e of his fun ction s, act in accord an ce with su ch advi ce: Provid ed th at th e P r esid ent may r equi r e th e Coun cil o f Minis t ers to r e consid er su ch adv i ce, eith er g en er al l y or o th er wis e, and the P r esid ent sh al l act in accord an ce with th e advi ce t end er ed aft er su ch r e consid er ation . (2) Th e qu es tion wh eth er an y, and if so wh at , adv i ce was t end er ed b y Minist ers to th e Pr esid en t sh all not b e inquir ed into in an y court . 75 . Oth er p rovis ions as to Minist ers . (1) Th e Pri me Minis t er sh all b e appoint ed b y th e Pr esid ent and th e oth e r Minis t ers sh all b e appoint ed b y th e Pr esid en t on th e advi ce of the Pri me Min ist er . (1 A) Th e tot al nu mb er of Ministers , in clud ing th e Pri me Minister , in th e Coun cil of Minist er s sh all not ex ceed fift een per cent . o f th e tot al nu mb er of memb er s of th e Hou s e of th e P eopl e. (1 B) A me mb er of eith er Hous e of P ar li ame nt belonging to an y pol iti cal p art y who is disqu alifi ed for b eing a memb er of th at H ous e und er p ar agr aph 2 of th e T enth S ch edul e sh al l a lso b e disqu al ifi ed to b e appoint ed as a Minis t er und er cl aus e (1) for dur ation of th e p eriod co mmen c ing from t h e d at e of his d isqu alif i c ation till th e d at e on whi ch th e t er m of h is office as su ch memb er would expi re or wh er e h e cont es ts an y el ect ion to eith er Hou s e of P arliamen t b efor e the expir y o f su ch p eriod , t ill th e d at e o n wh i ch h e is d e cl ar ed e l e ct ed , wh i ch ev er is e arl ie r. (2) Th e Mini st ers sh al l ho ld of fi ce during th e pl easur e of th e Pr esid en t. (3) Th e Coun cil o f Min ist ers sh al l b e co ll ectiv el y r esponsible to th e H o u s e o f t h e P eo p l e .

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(4) Befor e a Minist er ent ers upon his off ice, th e P r esident sh all ad minis ter to him t h e o aths of offi ce and of s e cr ecy accord ing to th e for ms s et out for th e purpos e in th e Third S ch edul e. (5) A Minis t er who for an y period of six cons ecut iv e months is not a memb er of eith er Hous e of P ar liamen t sh all at th e exp ir ation o f t h at p eriod ceas e to b e a Minis t er. (6 ) Th e s a l ari es an d a llo w an c es o f M in ist ers sh all b e su ch as P arl i a men t ma y f ro m ti me to ti me b y l a w d et e r min e a n d , u n ti l Pa rl i a men t so d et er min es , sh all b e as sp ecifi ed in th e S econd Sch edul e. The Attorney-General for India 76. Attorney-General for India.(1) The President shall appoint a person who is qualified to be appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court to be Attorney- General for India. (2) It shall be the duty of the Attorney-General to give advice to the Government of India upon such legal matters, and to perform such other duties of a legal character, as may from time to time be referred or assigned to him by the President, and to discharge the functions conferred on him by or under this Constitution or any other law for the time being in force. (3) In the performance of his duties the Attorney-General shall have right of audience in all courts in the territory of India. (4) The Attorney-General shall hold office during the pleasure of the President, and shall receive such remuneration as the President may determine. Conduct of Government Business 77. Conduct of business of the Government of India.(1) All executive action of the Government of India shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the President. (2) Orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of the President shall be authenticated in such manner as may be specified in rules to be made by the President, and the validity of an order or instrument which is so authenticated shall not be called in question on the ground that it is not an order or instrument made or executed by the President. (3) The President shall make rules for the more convenient transaction of the business of the Government of India, and for the allocation among Ministers of the said business. * * * * * 78. Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc.It shall be the duty of the Prime Minister (a ) t o co mmu ni cat e to th e Pr esid en t all d e ci sions of th e Coun cil of Minist ers r e l ating to th e ad minis tr ation of th e aff ai rs of th e Union and propos al s fo r l egis l ation; (b ) t o furnish su ch infor mation r el ating to th e ad min istr ation of th e aff ai rs of th e Un ion and p roposals for l egis l ation as th e Pr es id en t ma y call for ; and (c ) i f th e Pr esid en t so r equir es , to sub mit for th e consid eration of th e Co u n cil o f M in ist e rs an y ma tt e r o n wh i ch a d e cisio n h as b ee n t ak en b y a Min ist er but whi ch h as not b een consid er ed b y th e Coun cil.

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA CHAPTER II.PARLIAMENT General

79. Constitution of Parliament.There shall be a Parliament for the Union which shall consist of the President and two Houses to be known respectively as the Council of States and the House of the People. 80. Composition of the Council of States.(1) The Council of States shall consist of (a) twelve members to be nominated by the President in accordance with the provisions of clause (3); and (b) not more than two hundred and thirty-eight representatives of the States and of the Union territories. (2) The allocation of seats in the Council of States to be filled by representatives of the States and of the Union territories shall be in accordance with the provisions in that behalf contained in the Fourth Schedule. (3) The members to be nominated by the President under sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall consist of persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as the following, namely: Literature, science, art and social service. (4) The representatives of each State in the Council of States shall be elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assembly of the State in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote. (5) The representatives of the Union territories in the Council of States shall be chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law prescribe. 81. Composition of the House of the People.(1) Subject to the provisions of article 331, the House of the People shall consist of (a) not more than five hundred and thirty members chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the States, and (b) not more than twenty members to represent the Union territories, chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law provide. (2) For the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (1), (a) there shall be allotted to each State a number of seats in the House of the People in such manner that the ratio between that number and the population of the State is, so far as practicable, the same for all States; and (b) each State shall be divided into territorial constituencies in such manner that the ratio between the population of each constituency and the number of seats allotted to it is, so far as practicable, the same throughout the State: Provided that the provisions of sub-clause (a) of this clause shall not be applicable for the purpose of allotment of seats in the House of the People to any State so long as the population of that State does not exceed six millions.

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(3) In this article, the expression population means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published: Provided that the reference in this clause to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026 have been published, be construed, (i) for the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (2) and the proviso to that clause, as a reference to the 1971 census; and (ii) for the purposes of sub-clause (b) of clause (2) as a reference to the 2001 census. 82. Readjustment after each census.Upon the completion of each census, the allocation of seats in the House of the People to the States and the division of each State into territorial constituencies shall be readjusted by such authority and in such manner as Parliament may by law determine: Provided that such readjustment shall not affect representation in the House of the People until the dissolution of the then existing House: Provided further that such readjustment shall take effect from such date as the President may, by order, specify and until such readjustment takes effect, any election to the House may be held on the basis of the territorial constituencies existing before such readjustment: Provided also that until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026 have been published, it shall not be necessary to readjust (i) the allocation of seats in the House of People to the States as readjusted on the basis of the 1971 census; and (ii) the division of each State into territorial constituencies as may be readjusted on the basis of the 2001 census, under this article. 83 . Du ration of Hous es of Pa rlia men t .(1) Th e Coun c il of St at es sh al l no t b e subj ect to d issolution , but as n e arl y as pos sibl e on e-th ird of th e me mb ers ther eof sh all r et ire as soon as ma y b e on th e expir a tion of ev er y s e cond year in acco rd an ce with th e provision s mad e in that b eh al f b y P arl i ament b y l aw . (2) Th e Hous e o f th e P eopl e, un l ess soon er dis solv ed, sh all con tinu e for fiv e years fro m t h e d at e appoint ed for its fir st me eting and no long er and th e expi r ation of th e s a id p eriod o f fiv e years sh all oper at e as a dis solution of th e Ho u s e: Provid ed th at th e s aid p eriod ma y, w hil e a P ro cl a ma tion of Eme r g en c y is in op er ation, b e ex t end ed b y P arli a me nt b y l a w for a p eriod not ex ceeding on e year at a ti me and not ext ending in an y cas e b eyond a p eriod o f six mo n th s aft er th e Pro cl a ma tio n h as c e as ed to o p er at e . 84 . Qualif i cation fo r me mb er ship of Pa rliamen t. A p erson sh all not b e qu alif ied to b e chos en to fill a s eat in P arli amen t unl ess h e (a ) i s a c it i zen o f In d i a , an d ma k e s an d su b s crib e s b efo r e so me p erson au thorised in th at b eh alf b y th e El ection Co mmi ssion an o ath or

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affi r mation according to the for m s et out for th e purpos e in th e Th ird S ch edul e; (b ) i s , in th e cas e of a s eat in th e Coun cil of St at es, not l ess th an thi rt y years of ag e and , in th e cas e of a s eat in th e Hous e of the P eopl e, not l ess th an t we nt y- fiv e ye ars of ag e; and (c ) p oss ess es suc h o th er qu al ific a tion s as ma y b e pr e s crib ed in t h at b eh al f b y o r u n d e r an y l a w ma d e b y P a r l i a me n t . 85 . S essions of Pa rlia me n t , p ro rogation and disso lution .(1) Th e Pr esid en t sh al l fro m t i me to time s u mmo n each Hous e of P arl i ament to meet at su ch time an d p l ace as h e thinks f it , but six months sh al l no t int e rv en e b e twee n it s l ast si tting in on e s ess ion and th e d at e appoint ed fo r it s f irst si tting in th e n ext s ession . (2) Th e Pr esid ent may fro m t i me to ti me (a ) p rorogu e th e Hous es or eith er Hous e; (b ) d is solv e th e Hous e of th e P eopl e. 86 . Right of Presid ent to add ress and s end messag es to Hous es .(1) Th e Pr esid ent may ad dr ess eith er Hous e of P arl i ament o r both Hous es ass e mbl ed tog eth er , and for th at purpos e requir e th e attend an ce of memb er s. (2) Th e Pr es id ent ma y s end me ss ag es to either Hous e of P arl i a ment , wh eth er with r esp ect to a Bi ll th en p ending in P arl i ament or o th er wis e, and a Hou s e to whi ch an y me ss ag e is so s ent sh all w ith all conv enie nt d esp at ch consid er an y matt er r equ ir ed b y th e mess ag e to b e t ak en into consid er ation . 87 . Sp ecia l address by th e Presid en t. (1) At th e co mme n c ement of th e fir st s es sion af ter each g en er al el ect ion to th e Hous e of th e P eopl e and at th e co mme n cement of th e f irst s ess ion o f each year th e Pr esid en t sh all addr ess both Hous es of P arli a me nt ass e mbl ed tog eth er and infor m P arl i ament of the caus es of its su mmon s. (2) Prov ision sh all b e ma d e by th e rul e s r egul at ing th e procedur e of eith er Hous e for th e al lot ment of t i me fo r dis cus sion of th e ma tt ers r ef err ed to in such addr ess . 88 . Right s of Minist ers and Atto rn ey- G en eral as resp ects Hous es. E v er y Mini st er a nd th e Attorn ey- G en er al of Indi a sh all h av e th e right to sp eak in , and oth er wis e to t ake p a rt in th e pro ceedings of , eith er Hous e, an y joint sit ting of th e Hous es , and an y co mmi tt ee of Parli a me nt of wh i ch h e ma y b e n a me d a me mb er , but sh all not by virtu e of this arti cl e b e enti tl ed to vot e. Offi cers o f Par lia ment 89 . Th e Chai rma n and Deputy Chai rman of th e Coun cil of Stat es . (1) Th e Vi ce- Pr esid en t of Indi a sh all b e ex o ffi cio Ch airman of th e C oun cil of St at es .

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(2) Th e Coun ci l of S tat es sh all , as soon as may b e, choos e a memb er of th e Coun ci l to b e Deput y Ch air man th er eof and , so oft en as th e offi ce o f Deput y Ch air man b eco mes vacant , th e Coun cil sh al l choos e anoth er me mb e r to b e De p u t y Ch air ma n th er eo f . 90 . Va ca tion and resignat ion of , and removal f ro m, t h e offi ce of Deputy Chai rman . A memb er hold ing offi ce as Deput y Ch air man of th e C oun cil of St at es (a ) s h all v acate hi s offi ce if h e ceas e s to b e a me mb er of th e C o u n cil ; (b ) may at any ti me, b y writing und er h is hand addr ess ed to th e Ch air man , resign his offi ce; and (c ) ma y b e r e mov ed fro m h is offi c e b y a r eso lution of th e Coun cil p ass ed b y a majori t y of al l th e th en memb ers of th e Coun cil: Provid ed th at no r eso lution fo r th e purpos e of cl au s e (c ) s h al l b e mo v ed unl ess at l e ast fourt e en d a ys noti ce h as b e en giv en of th e int ent ion to mo v e th e resolution . 91 . Pow er o f th e D eputy Chai rma n o r oth er p erson to p erfo rm t h e duti es of th e offi ce o f, o r to a ct as , Chai rman .(1 )Whil e th e off ice of Ch air man i s v acant , or during an y p er iod wh en th e Vi ce-Pr esident is act ing as , o r dis ch a rging th e fun c tions of, Pr esid en t, th e duti es of th e offi ce sh all b e perfor med b y th e Deput y Ch air man , or , if th e off i ce of Deput y C h air man is al so v acant , b y such memb er o f th e Coun cil of St at es as th e Pr esid en t ma y appoint for th e purpos e. (2) During th e abs en c e of th e Ch air man fro m an y si tting of th e Coun cil of St at es th e Deput y Ch air man , or , if h e is also abs ent , su ch p erson as may b e d et er min ed b y th e ru les of pro c edur e of th e Coun cil , or , if no su ch p erson is pr es en t , su ch oth er p erson as ma y b e d et er min ed b y th e Coun cil , s h al l a c t as Ch air ma n . 92 . Th e Chai rma n o r th e D eputy Chai rma n not to p res id e w hi l e a resolut ion fo r his remo val f ro m o ffi ce is und er consid eration . (1) At an y sit ting of th e Coun cil of St at es, whil e an y r esolu tion for th e r e mov al of th e Vi ce-Pr esid ent fro m hi s offi ce is und er consid er ation , the Ch ai r man , or wh il e an y r esolu tion fo r th e r e mo v al of th e Deput y Ch air man fro m his offi ce is und er consid er ation , th e Deput y Ch airman , sh all not , though he is pr es ent , pr es id e, and th e provisions of cl aus e (2) of ar ti cl e 91 sh al l appl y in r el ation to ev er y su ch s itting as th ey appl y in r el ation to a si tting fro m w h i ch t h e Ch air ma n , o r, as t h e c a s e ma y b e , t h e D ep u t y Ch air ma n , i s a b s en t . (2) Th e Ch air man sh all h av e the r ight to sp eak in , and oth er wis e to t ak e p art in th e pro ceedings of , th e Coun cil of S t ates wh il e an y r esolu tion fo r th e r e mo v al of th e Vi ce-Pr esid ent fro m h is o ffice is und er consid er ation in th e Coun cil , but , not withs t anding an ything in arti cle 100 , sh al l no t b e

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enti tl ed to vot e at al l on su ch r esolu tion or on an y oth er ma t t er during such p r o c e ed i n g s . 93 . Th e Sp ea ker and Deputy Sp ea ker of th e Hou s e of th e Peopl e. T h e Ho u s e o f t h e P eo p l e s h al l , a s s o o n as ma y b e , ch o o s e t wo me mb e r s o f th e Hous e to b e r esp ectiv el y Sp eak er and Deput y Sp eak er th er eof and , so oft en as th e offi ce of Speak er or Deput y Speak er b eco mes v acant , th e Hous e sh all choos e anoth er memb er to b e Sp eak er or Deput y Sp eak er , as t h e c as e ma y b e. 94 . Va cat ion and resignation o f, and remo val f ro m, t h e offi ces of S p ea ke r a n d De p u t y S p ea ke r . A memb er holding of fi ce as Sp eak er or Deput y Sp eak er of th e Hous e o f th e P eopl e (a ) s h al l v acat e his offi ce if h e ceas es to b e a memb er of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e; (b ) may at an y ti me, b y writ ing und er hi s h and addr ess ed , if su ch memb er is th e Sp eak er , to th e Deput y Sp eak er , and if su ch memb er is th e Deput y Sp eak er , to th e Sp eak er , r esign his offi ce; and (c ) may b e r emov ed fro m h is offi ce b y a r eso lution of th e Hous e o f th e P eopl e p assed b y a majori t y of all th e th en memb er s o f the Hous e: Provid ed th at no r eso lution fo r th e purpos e of cl au s e (c ) s h al l b e mo v ed unl ess at l e ast fourt e en d a ys noti ce h as b e en giv en of th e int ent ion to mo v e th e resolution : Provid ed furth er th at, wh en ev er th e Hous e of th e P eop le is dis solv ed, th e Sp eak er sh all no t v acat e his off i ce until imme d i at el y b efor e th e first meet ing of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e aft er th e disso lution . 95 . Pow er of th e Depu ty Sp ea ker o r oth er p erson to p erfo rm th e duti e s of th e offi ce of , o r to a ct as , Sp ea ke r.(1) Whil e th e offi ce of Sp e ak er is v a ca n t , th e d u t i es o f th e o f fi c e sh al l b e p erfo rme d b y th e Deput y Sp eak er o r, if th e off i ce o f Deput y Sp eak er is also v acant , b y su ch memb er of th e Hous e of th e Peopl e as th e P resid en t may appoint for the purpose. (2) During th e abs en ce of th e Sp eak er fro m an y sitt ing of the Hou s e of th e P eop l e th e Deput y Sp eak er or , if h e is also abs en t, su ch person as may b e d et er min ed by th e rul es of pro cedur e of th e Hous e, o r, i f no su ch p erson is pr esen t, such oth er p erson as ma y b e d e t er min ed b y th e House, sh all act a s S p e ak er . 96 . Th e Sp ea ker o r th e Deputy Sp ea ker not to p resid e w hil e a resolut ion fo r his remo val f ro m o ffi ce is und er consid eration . (1) At an y sitting of th e Hou s e of th e P eop l e, whil e an y r eso lution for th e r e mov al of th e Sp eak er fro m h is of fi ce is und er consid er ation , th e Sp eak er , or whil e an y r esolu tion for th e r e mov al of th e Deput y Sp eak er fro m hi s offi ce is und er consid er ation , th e Depu t y Sp eak er , sh all not , though h e i s pr es ent , pr es id e, and th e provisions of cl aus e (2) of ar ti cl e 95 sh al l appl y

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in r el ation to ev er y su ch s itting as th ey appl y in r el ation to a si tting fro m w h i ch t h e S p e ak e r , o r , as t h e c as e ma y b e , t h e D e p u t y S p e ak er , i s ab s en t . (2) Th e Sp eak er sh all h av e th e righ t to sp eak in , and o th erwise to t ake p art in th e pro ceedings of , th e Hous e of th e P eopl e whil e an y resolu tion for his r e mo v al f rom o ff i ce is und er consid er ation in th e House and sh all , not with st anding an ything in articl e 100 , b e en t itl ed to vot e onl y in th e first ins t an ce on su ch r eso lution o r on an y o th er ma tt er during such pro ceed ings but not in th e cas e of an eq u a lity of vot es . 97 . Sala ri es and allow ances of th e Cha irma n and Deputy Chai rma n a n d t h e S p ea ke r a n d D ep u t y S p ea ke r . Th er e sh all b e paid to th e C h air ma n and th e D epu t y Ch air ma n o f th e Coun cil of St at es , a nd to th e Sp eak er and th e Deput y Sp eak er of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e, su ch s al ari es a nd al low an c e s a s ma y b e r esp e ctiv e l y fix ed b y P arli a me nt b y l a w and , unti l prov ision in th at b eh alf is so mad e, su ch s al ari es and allo wan ces as ar e sp ecif ied in th e S e cond S ch edul e. 98 . Secreta riat of Pa rlia men t. (1) Each Hous e of P ar li ament sh all h av e a s ep ar at e s e cr et a ri al st aff: Provid ed th at nothing in this claus e sh all b e constru ed as pr ev en ting th e cr eat ion of posts co mmon to both Hous es of P arl i ament . (2) P arl i ament may b y l aw r egul at e th e r ecruit ment , and th e condit ions of s ervi ce of p ersons appoint ed, to the s ecr et ari al st aff of either Hous e of P arl i a ment . (3) Un til provision is ma d e b y P arl i a ment und er cl au s e (2) , th e P r esid en t ma y, aft e r consult a tion with the Sp eak er o f the Hou s e of th e P eopl e or th e C h air man of th e Coun cil of St at es , as th e cas e may b e, mak e rul es r egul ating th e r e cruit ment , and th e condi tions of s ervi ce o f p ersons appoint ed , to the s ecr et ari al s t aff of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e o r th e Coun cil of S t at es , and an y ru l es so ma de sh all h av e effect subj ect to the prov isions o f an y l a w ma d e u n d er t h e s ai d c l au s e . Condu ct of Busin ess 99 . Oath o r af fi rma tion by me mb ers . Ev er y memb er o f either House o f P ar li a men t sh all , b efo r e t ak in g h is s e at , ma k e an d su b s c rib e b efo r e th e Pr esid en t, or so me p erson appoint ed in th at b eh al f b y hi m, an o a th or affi r mation according to the for m s et out for th e purpos e in th e Th ird S ch ed u l e . 100 . Vot ing in Hous es , power of Hous es to a ct notw ithstand ing v a can ci es a n d q u o ru m. (1) S av e as other wis e provid ed in this Consti tution , all qu estions at an y s itting of eith er Hous e o r joint sit ting of th e Hous es sh all b e d et er min ed b y a ma j o rity of vot es o f th e me mb ers pr es ent and voting , oth er than th e Sp eak er or person acting as Ch air man or Sp eak er .

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Th e Ch air man or Sp eak er, or p erson acting as su ch , sh al l not vot e in th e fir st in st an c e , b u t sh all h av e an d ex er cis e a c astin g v o t e in th e c a s e o f an e q u al i t y o f v o t es . (2) Eith er House o f P arl i a ment s h all h av e po we r to act not withst an d ing an y v acan c y in th e me mb ersh ip t h er eof , and any p ro ceed ings in P a rli a me nt sh al l b e v al id not with st anding th at it i s d is cov er ed subs eq u ent ly th at so me p erson who was not en titl ed so to do s at or vo ted or o th er wis e took p art in th e pro ceedings . (3) Un til P arl i ame n t b y l a w other wis e provid es , th e quoru m to const itut e a meet ing of eith er Hous e of P arl i a ment sh all b e on e-t enth of th e tot a l n u mb er o f me m b ers o f t h e Ho u s e . (4) If at an y time d uring a meeting of a House th er e is no quoru m, it sh al l b e th e dut y of th e Ch airman or Sp eak er, o r p erson act ing as su ch, eith er to ad journ the Hou s e or to susp en d the meet ing un til th er e is a q u o r u m. Disqual ifi cations of Memb ers 101 . Va cat ion of s eats . (1) No p erson sh all b e a memb er of both H ous es o f P arliamen t and provision sh all b e mad e b y P arli ament b y l aw fo r th e v acat ion b y a p erson who is cho s en a memb er of both Hous es of his s e at in on e Hous e or th e oth er . (2) No p erson sh all b e a memb er bo th of P arliamen t and of a Hous e of th e Legis l atur e of a St at e, and if a p erson is chos en a memb er both of P arl i ament and of a Hous e of th e Legis l atur e of a St at e, th en , at th e e xpir a tion of su ch p eriod as may b e sp e cifie d in ru l es mad e b y th e Pr esid en t, th at p erson s s eat in P ar li ament sh all b eco me v acant , unl ess h e h as pr evious l y resign ed his s eat in th e Legisl atur e of th e St at e. (3) If a me mb er of eith er Hous e of P arli a me nt (a ) b eco mes subj ect to an y of th e disqu ali fi cation s men tion ed in c l au s e ( 1 ) o r cl au s e ( 2 ) o f art i cle 1 0 2 , o r (b ) r e sign s his s e at b y wri ting und er his hand addr ess ed to th e Ch air man or the Sp eak er , as th e cas e may b e, and his r esign ation is accept ed b y th e Ch air man or th e Sp eak er , as th e cas e may b e, his s eat sh all ther eupon b eco me v acant: Provid ed th at in th e cas e of an y r esign ation r eferr ed to in sub-cl aus e (b) , if fro m info r mation r e ceiv ed or oth er wis e an d aft er ma king su ch inquir y as h e th inks fit , the Ch air man or th e Sp eak er , as th e cas e ma y b e , i s s atis fi ed th at su ch resignation is not volunt ar y or g enuin e , h e sh all not accep t su ch r esign ation . (4) If for a p eriod of sixt y d a ys a me mb er o f eith er Hou s e of Parl i a ment is without p er mis sion of th e Hous e abs ent f rom al l meet ings th er eof , th e Hous e may d eclar e his s eat v acant:

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Provid ed that in co mputing th e s aid p er iod of sixt y d a ys no account sh all b e t ak en of an y p eriod dur ing whi ch th e Hous e is prorogu ed o r is adjourn ed for mor e th an four cons ecutiv e days . 102 . Di squalifications fo r me mb ersh ip. (1) A p erson sh al l b e disqu a lifi ed for b eing chos en a s , and for b e ing, a me mb e r o f eith e r Hou s e of P arli ament (a ) i f h e holds an y offi ce of profi t und er th e Gov ern ment of Indi a or th e Gov ernme n t o f an y St at e , oth er th an an off i c e d ec l ar ed b y P arl i a ment b y l aw not to d isqu alif y i ts ho ld er; (b ) i f h e is of unsound mind and st ands so d eclar ed b y a co mpet ent court ; (c ) i f h e is an undis ch arg ed in solv en t ; (d ) i f h e is not a cit i z en of Indi a, o r h as volunt ar il y acqui r ed th e cit i zenship o f a f or eign S t at e, or is und er an y ackno wl edg ment of all eg i an ce or adh er en ce to a foreign St at e; (e ) i f h e is so d isq u al ifi ed b y o r u n d er an y l aw ma d e b y P ar li ame n t . Explanation . For th e purpos es of this cl ause a p erson sh all not b e d eemed to hold an offi ce of profi t und er th e Gov ern ment of Indi a or the Gov ern me nt of an y St at e b y r e ason onl y th at h e is a Minist er eith er for th e U n i o n o r f o r s u ch S t at e . (2) A p erson sha ll b e disqu a lifie d for b eing a me mb e r of ei th er Hous e of P arl i ament i f h e is so disqu al ified und er th e Tenth S ch edul e. 103. Decis ion on qu es tions as to disqual ifi cat ions of me mb ers. (1) If an y qu est ion ari s es as t o wh eth er a memb er of either Hou se of P arl i a ment h a s b e co me subj ect to an y of th e disqu al ifi cations me n tion ed in cl aus e (1) of arti cl e 102 , th e qu est ion sh all b e r ef er r ed for the d ecis ion of th e Pr esid en t and his d e cision sh all b e fin al . (2) Befor e g iving an y d e cision on an y su ch qu es tion , th e Pr esid ent sh al l ob t ain th e opinion of th e El ection Co mmis sion and sh all act according to su ch opinion . 104 . Penalty fo r sitt ing and voting b efo re ma ki ng oath o r affi rma tion und er a rti cl e 99 o r w hen not qua lifi ed o r w hen disqua lifi ed . If a p erson sits or vot es as a me mb er of either Hous e of P arl i a ment b efor e h e h as co mp li ed with th e requir e me nts of ar ti cl e 99 , or wh en h e knows th at h e is not qu ali fi ed or th at h e i s disqu ali fi ed for memb er ship ther eof , or th at h e is proh ibit ed fro m so doing b y th e provis ions of an y l aw mad e b y P ar li ament , h e sh al l b e li abl e in r esp ect of each d ay on which h e so s its or vot es to a p en alt y of fiv e hundred rup ees to b e r ecov er ed as a d ebt du e to the Un ion.

37

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Po wers , Pr i vil eg es and Immuni ti es of Parl iament and its Memb ers

105 . Pow ers , privi l eg es , et c., of th e Hous es of Pa rlia men t and of t he me mb e r s a n d co mmi t t e es t h e re o f . (1) Subj ec t to th e prov isions of thi s Consti tution an d to th e rul es an d st anding orders r egul ating th e pro c edur e of P arli ament , th er e sh all b e fr eedo m o f sp eech in P arl i ament . (2) No me mb er of P arli a me nt sh all b e li ab l e to an y pro ceedings in an y court in r esp ect of an y thing s aid or an y vot e giv en b y h i m in Parl i ament or a n y co mmi tt e e th er eof , and no p erson sh all be so li abl e in re sp e ct of th e publi cation b y or und er th e authori t y o f eith er Hous e of P arli ame n t of an y r eport , p ap er , vot es or pro ceedings . (3) In o th er r esp ects , th e powers , priv il eg es and i mmu niti es of each Hous e of P arliamen t , and of th e memb ers and th e co mmi ttees of each H o u s e , sh all b e su ch as ma y fro m t i me to ti me b e d efin ed b y Pa rl i a men t b y l a w , and , until so d efin ed , sh a ll b e thos e of tha t Hous e and of its me mb ers and co mmi tt ees i mme d i at el y b efor e th e co ming i nto for ce of section 15 of th e Consti tution (Fort y-fou rth Amen d men t) Act , 1978. (4) Th e provisions o f cl aus es (1) , (2) and (3) sh al l appl y in rel at ion to p ersons w ho b y v irtu e o f th is C onsti tution h av e th e righ t to sp eak in , and oth er wis e to t ake p art in th e pro ceedings of , a Hous e of P arli amen t or an y co mmi tt ee th er eo f as th ey appl y in r el ation to memb ers of P arli amen t . 106 . Sala ri es and allow ances of me mb ers . M emb er s o f eith er Hous e of P a rli a me nt sh all b e enti tl ed to r e c eiv e su ch s a l ari es and a llo w an c es a s may f ro m ti me to t i me b e d et er min ed b y P arl i ament b y l aw and, un til provis ion in that r e sp ect is so ma d e , allo wances at su ch r ates and upon su ch condi tions as wer e i mmedi at el y b efor e th e co mmen cement of this Consti tution appli cab l e in th e cas e o f memb ers of th e Constitu en t A s s e mb l y o f t h e D o min io n o f I n d i a . L egis lati ve Pro cedur e 107 . Prov isions as to i nt rodu ction and pa ssing of Bil ls . (1) Subj ect to th e provisions of arti cl es 109 an d 117 wi th r esp ect to Mo n ey Bil ls and oth er fin an ci al Bil ls, a Bill may origin ate in eith er Hous e of Parl i ament . (2) Subj ect to th e provision s of arti cl es 108 and 109, a Bill shall not b e d eemed to h av e b een p ass ed b y th e Hous es of Parl i ament unl ess i t h as b een agr e ed to b y both Hous es , eith er without amen d ment or with su ch amen d men ts on ly as ar e ag r eed to b y both Hou ses . (3) A Bill p ending in P arl i ame n t sh all not l a ps e b y r e ason of th e prorog at ion o f th e Hou s es. (4) A B ill p end ing in th e Coun cil of St at es which h as not b een p ass ed b y th e Hous e of the P eopl e sh all not l aps e on a dissolu tion o f th e Hous e o f th e P eo p l e .

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(5) A Bill whi ch is p ending in th e Hous e of the P eopl e, or whi ch h aving b een p ass ed b y th e Hous e of the P eopl e is p endin g in th e Council of St at es , sh al l, subj ect to th e provisions of arti cl e 108 , laps e on a di ssolution of th e H o u s e o f t h e P eo p l e . 108 . Jo int si tting of both Ho us es in certain ca s es . (1) If aft er a Bill h as b e en p ass ed b y o n e Ho u s e an d tr an s mit t ed to th e o th er Ho u s e (a) th e Bill i s r ej ect ed b y th e oth er Hous e; or (b) th e Hous es h av e fin all y disagr eed as to the amen d men ts to b e mad e in th e Bi ll; or ( c) mor e th an six months el aps e f ro m th e d at e of th e r ecept ion of th e Bil l b y th e oth er Hous e wi thout th e Bill b eing pass ed b y it , th e Pr esid en t ma y, un l ess th e Bil l h as el ap s ed by r e ason o f a disso lution of th e Hous e o f the P eopl e, no tif y to th e Hous es by mes s ag e if th ey ar e sitt ing or b y pub li c noti fi c ation if th ey ar e not sitt ing , his int ention to su mmon th em to meet in a joint sit ting for th e pu rpos e of d elib er ating an d voting on th e Bil l: Provid ed th at nothing in th is claus e sh all appl y to a Mon e y Bill. (2) In r eckoning an y su ch p eriod of s ix months as is r ef err ed to in cl au s e (1) , no accoun t sh all b e t ak en of an y p er iod during whi ch th e Hou s e r ef err ed to in sub- cl aus e ( c) of th at cl aus e i s prorogu ed or adjourn ed for mo r e th an four cons ecut ive d ays . (3) Wh er e th e Pr esid en t h as und er cl au s e (1) notifi ed his int ent ion of su mmo ning th e Hous es to meet in a joint sit ting , n eith er Hous e sh all pro ceed fur th er with th e Bil l, but th e Pr esid ent ma y at an y ti me aft e r th e d at e of h is not ifi cation su mmo n th e Hous es to meet in a jo int sitt ing for th e purpo s e sp ecif i ed in th e noti fi cation and , if h e do es so , th e Hous es sh al l meet accordingl y. (4) If at th e join t sit ting of th e t wo Houses th e Bi ll , with su ch amen d men ts, if an y, as ar e agr e ed to in joint sitt ing, is pass ed b y a ma j ori t y o f th e tot a l nu mb er of me mb ers of both Hous es pr es ent and voting , it sh al l b e d eemed for th e purpos es of this Const itution to h av e b e en p ass ed b y both Hous es: Provid ed th at at a joint sit ting (a) if th e Bi ll, h av ing b een pass ed b y on e H ous e, h as no t b een p ass ed b y th e oth er Hous e wi th amen d men ts and r etu rn ed to the Hous e in whi ch it origin at ed , no amendmen t sh all b e propos ed to th e Bil l o th er th an su ch a me n d me n ts (if an y) a s ar e ma d e n e ce ss ar y b y th e d el a y in th e p ass ag e of th e Bil l; (b) if th e Bi ll h as b e en so p ass ed an d re tu rn ed , o n l y su ch amen d men ts as afor es aid shall b e propos ed to th e Bil l an d such oth er amen d men ts as ar e r el ev ant to th e matt ers with r esp ect to whi ch th e H o u s es h av e n o t agr e ed; and th e d e cision of th e p erson pr esiding as to th e amen d ments whi ch ar e ad missib l e und er this cl au s e sh all b e fin al .

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(5) A joint s itting may b e h e ld und er this arti cl e an d a Bill p ass ed th er eat, not withst and ing th at a dis solution of th e Hous e of th e P eop l e h as int erv en ed sin ce th e P r esid ent noti fi ed h is int ention to su mmon th e Hous es to meet th er ein . 109 . Special p ro cedu re in resp ect of Mon ey Bil ls.(1) A Mon e y Bill sh al l no t b e int rodu ced in th e Coun cil of St at es. (2) Aft er a Mon e y Bill h as b ee n p ass ed b y the H ous e o f th e P eopl e it sh al l b e tr ans mitt ed to th e Coun cil of S t at es for its r eco mmend ation s and th e Coun cil of St at es sh all within a p eriod of fourt e en d a ys fro m th e d a t e of its r eceipt of t h e Bill r eturn th e Bill to th e Hous e of th e P eopl e wi th it s r e co mme nd ations and th e Hous e of th e P eopl e ma y t h er eupon eith er accept or r ej ect al l or an y of th e r eco mmen d ations of th e Coun cil of Stat es . (3) If th e Hous e of th e P eopl e accepts an y of the r eco mmen d ations of th e C oun cil of St ate s , th e Mon e y B il l sh a ll b e d ee me d to h av e bee n p ass ed b y both Hous es with th e amend ments r eco mmen d ed b y th e Coun cil o f St at es and accept ed b y th e Hou s e of the P eopl e. (4) If th e Hous e of th e P eopl e do es not accept any o f th e r e co mme nd ations of th e Coun cil of S t at es , th e Mon e y Bill sh all b e d eemed to h av e b e en p ass ed b y both Hous es in th e fo rm i n whi ch it wa s p as s ed b y th e Hous e of the P eopl e wi thout an y o f th e amen d men ts r ecomme n d ed b y th e Coun cil of St at es. (5) If a Mon e y B il l p as s ed b y th e Hous e o f th e P eopl e and tr ans mit t ed to th e Coun cil of St at es for i ts r eco mme nd ations is not r eturn ed to th e Hous e of th e P eopl e with in th e s a id p eriod of fourt e en d a ys , i t sh all be d eemed to h av e b een p ass ed b y both Hou s es at th e expir ation of th e s aid period in th e for m in wh i ch it was p a ss ed b y th e Hou s e of th e P eopl e. 110 . Def inition o f "Mon ey Bil ls'' . (1) For th e purpos es of thi s Ch ap t er , a Bill sh all b e d eemed to b e a Mon e y Bill i f it cont ain s on l y provis ions d e aling with all or an y of th e follo wing ma tt ers , n ame l y: (a) th e i mposition , abolit ion, remi ssion , al t er ation or r egul at ion of a n y t ax ; (b) th e r egul ation of th e borrowing of mon e y or th e giving of an y g u ar an t e e b y th e G o v ern me n t o f In d i a, o r th e ame n d men t o f th e l a w wi th r esp ect to an y fin an ci a l obl ig ations und ert ak en or to b e und ert ak en b y th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a; ( c) th e custod y of th e Con solidat ed Fund o r th e Conting en c y Fund of Indi a, th e p ayment of mon eys into or th e withdr awal of moneys fro m an y su ch Fund; (d) th e appropri at ion of mon eys out of th e Consolid at ed Fund of Indi a;

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( e) th e d e cl aring of an y ex p enditu r e to b e ex p enditu r e ch arged on th e Consol idat ed Fund of Indi a or th e in cr easing of th e amount of an y su ch ex p en d itu re ; (f) th e r eceip t of money on account of th e Consolid at ed Fund of Indi a or th e publi c account of Ind i a or th e custod y or is su e of su ch mo n ey o r th e audit of th e accounts of th e Union or of a St at e; or (g) an y mat t er in cid en t al to an y of th e matters sp ecifi ed in subcl aus es ( a) to ( f) . (2) A Bill sh all not b e d eemed to b e a Mon ey Bil l b y r eason onl y th at it provid es for th e i mposition of fin es or oth er p ecuni ar y p en alt i es , or for th e d emand or p ayment of f ees fo r li cen ces or f ees for s ervi ces r end er ed , o r b y r eason th at it provid es for th e i mposi tion , aboli tion , r emiss ion , al t er ation or r egul at ion of an y t ax b y an y lo cal authori t y or bod y for lo cal purpos es . (3) I f an y qu estion aris es wh eth er a Bill is a Mon e y Bill or not , th e d e cis ion of th e Sp eak er of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e th er eon sh all b e fin al . (4) Th er e sh all b e endors ed on ev er y Mo n e y Bill wh en it i s tr an s mit t ed to th e Coun cil of St at es und er art i cl e 109 , and wh en it i s pr esent ed to th e Pr esid en t for ass ent und er arti cl e 111 , th e certifi cat e of th e Speak er of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e sign ed b y hi m th at it is a Mon ey Bill . 111 . As s ent to Bil ls.Wh en a B ill h as b een p ass ed b y th e H ous es of P arl i a men t , i t sh all b e p r e s en t ed to th e Pr e sid en t , an d th e Pr esid en t sh all d e cl ar e eith er th at h e as s ents to th e Bill , or th at h e withholds ass ent th er ef ro m: Provid ed th at th e Pr esid ent ma y, as soon as pos sibl e aft er th e pr es en t a tion to hi m of a Bill for as s ent , r eturn th e Bill i f it is not a Mon e y Bil l to th e Hous es with a messag e r equ esting th at th ey will r econsid er th e Bil l or an y sp ecif i ed provi sions th er eof and, in p art i cul ar , wil l consid er th e d esir ab ilit y of introdu cing an y su ch amend ments as h e may r eco mmend in his mess ag e, an d wh en a Bill is so r eturn ed , th e Hous es sh all r e consid er th e Bill accordingl y, and if th e Bill is p ass ed ag ain b y th e Hous es with or without amend ment and pr es ent ed to th e Pr es id ent for ass ent , the Pr esid ent sh al l no t wi thhold ass ent th erefro m. Pro c edur e in Finan cial Matt er s 112 . Annua l finan cial stat ement .(1 ) Th e P r esid ent sh all in r esp e ct of ev er y fin an c ial year caus e to be l aid b efor e both th e Hous es of P arl i a ment a st at ement of th e esti mat ed r eceipt s and exp enditu r e of th e Gov ern ment of Indi a fo r th at year , in th is Part r e f err ed to as th e " annu al f in an ci al st at ement ''. (2) Th e es ti ma t es o f ex p enditur e embodi ed in th e annu al fin an c i al st a t e men t sh a ll sh o w s ep ar at el y

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(a) th e su ms r eq u ir ed to me e t e x p en d itu r e d es c rib ed b y t h is Consti tution as exp end itur e ch arg ed upon the Conso lid at ed F und of Indi a; and (b) th e su ms r equir ed to meet oth er exp enditur e propos ed to b e mad e fro m th e Consolid at ed Fund of Indi a, and sh al l distingui sh ex p enditu r e on r evenu e account fro m oth er exp enditu re. (3) The following expenditure shall be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India (a) the emoluments and allowances of the President and other expenditure relating to his office; (b) the salaries and allowances of the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People; (c) debt charges for which the Government of India is liable including interest, sinking fund charges and redemption charges, and other expenditure relating to the raising of loans and the service and redemption of debt; (d) (i) the salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of the Supreme Court; (ii) the pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of the Federal Court; (iii) the pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of any High Court which exercises jurisdiction in relation to any area included in the territory of India or which at any time before the commencement of this Constitution exercised jurisdiction in relation to any area included in a Governor's Province of the Dominion of India; (e) the salary, allowances and pension payable to or in respect of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India; (f) any sums required to satisfy any judgment, decree or award of any court or arbitral tribunal; (g) any other expenditure declared by this Constitution or by Parliament by law to be so charged. 113. Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates.(1) So much of the estimates as relates to expenditure charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India shall not be submitted to the vote of Parliament, but nothing in this clause shall be construed as preventing the discussion in either House of Parliament of any of those estimates. (2) So much of the said estimates as relates to other expenditure shall be submitted in the form of demands for grants to the House of the People, and the House of the People shall have power to assent, or to refuse to assent, to any demand, or to assent to any demand subject to a reduction of the amount specified therein. (3) No demand for a grant shall be made except on the recommendation of the President. 114. Appropriation Bills. (1) As soon as may be after the grants under article 113 have been made by the House of the People, there shall be introduced a Bill to provide for the appropriation out of the Consolidated Fund of India of all moneys required to meet (a) the grants so made by the House of th e P eopl e; and

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(b) the expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India but not exceeding in any case the amount shown in the statement previously laid before Parliament. (2) No amendment shall be proposed to any such Bill in either House of Parliament which will have the effect of varying the amount or altering the destination of any grant so made or of varying the amount of any expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India, and the decision of the person presiding as to whether an amendment is inadmissible under this clause shall be final. (3) Subject to the provisions of articles 115 and 116, no money shall be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund of India except under appropriation made by law passed in accordance with the provisions of this article. 115. Supplementary, additional or excess grants. (1) The President shall (a) if the amount authorised by any law made in accordance with the provisions of article 114 to be expended for a particular service for the current financial year is found to be insufficient for the purposes of that year or when a need has arisen during the current financial year for supplementary or additional expenditure upon some new service not contemplated in the annual financial statement for that year, or (b) if any money has been spent on any service during a financial year in excess of the amount granted for that service and for that year, cause to be laid before both the Houses of Parliament another statement showing the estimated amount of that expenditure or cause to be presented to the House of the People a demand for such excess, as the case may be. (2) The provisions of articles 112, 113 and 114 shall have effect in relation to any such statement and expenditure or demand and also to any law to be made authorising the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India to meet such expenditure or the grant in respect of such demand as they have effect in relation to the annual financial statement and the expenditure mentioned therein or to a demand for a grant and the law to be made for the authorisation of appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India to meet such expenditure or grant. 116. Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.(1) Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, the House of the People shall have power (a) to make any grant in advance in resp ect of th e estimat ed exp endi tur e for a p ar t of an y fin an ci al year pending th e co mpl et ion of th e pro cedur e pr es cr ib ed in arti cl e 113 fo r the voting of su ch gr an t an d th e passing of th e l a w in accord an c e with th e provis ions of art i cl e 114 in rel at ion to th at ex p en d i tu r e; (b) to ma k e a gr ant for meeting an un exp ected d e mand upon th e r esour ces of Indi a wh en on account o f th e ma gnitud e or th e ind efin it e ch ar act er of the s erv i ce th e dema n d cannot be s tat ed with th e d et a ils ordin ar il y giv en in an annu al f in an ci al s tat ement; ( c) to mak e an ex ception al gr ant whi ch for ms no p art of th e curr ent s ervi c e of an y fin an ci al ye ar;

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a n d P arl i a men t sh al l h av e p o w e r to au th o rise b y l a w th e with d r aw a l o f mo n eys fro m t he Conso lid at ed Fund of Indi a for th e purpos es for whi ch th e s aid gr ant s ar e mad e. (2) Th e provis ions of art i cl es 113 and 114 sh all h av e eff ect in r el at ion to th e making o f an y gr ant und er cl aus e (1) and to an y law to b e mad e und er th at cl aus e as th ey h av e eff ect in r el ation to th e making of a gr ant wi th r eg ard to an y exp enditu r e mention ed in th e annu al fin an ci al st at ement and th e l a w to b e ma d e for th e au thoris ation of appropri a tion of mo n e ys out of th e Consolid at ed Fund of Ind i a to meet su ch exp enditu r e. 117 . Special p rovis ions as to finan cia l Bills . (1) A Bill or amen d men t ma k ing provision for an y of th e ma t t ers sp ecif ied in sub- cl au ses (a) to (f) of cl aus e (1) of ar ti cl e 110 sh all not b e introdu ced or mov ed ex cept on th e r e co mme nd ation of th e Pr esid en t an d a Bill ma king su ch provis ion shall not b e introdu ced in th e Coun cil of St at es: Provid ed th at no r e co mme nd ation sh al l b e r equir ed und er this cl au s e fo r th e moving of an amend ment ma king provision fo r th e redu ction or aboli tion of an y t ax . (2) A Bill or amen d men t sh al l no t b e d eemed to ma k e provision fo r an y of th e matt ers afor es aid b y r e ason onl y th at it provid es for th e i mpos ition of f in es or oth er p ecuni ar y p enalt i es , or for the d emand or p aymen t of fees for li cen c es or fees for s ervi c es r end er ed, or b y r e ason that i t provid es for th e i mposition , aboli tion , r e mission , alt er ation or r egul ation of an y t ax b y an y lo cal authorit y or bod y for lo cal purpos es . (3) A Bil l whi ch , if en act ed and brought into op er at ion, would involv e exp enditu re from th e Consolidat ed Fund of Indi a sh all not b e pass ed b y eith er Hous e of P arli ament un less th e Pr esid ent h as r eco mme nd ed to th at Hous e th e consid er at ion of th e Bil l. P ro c ed u r e G en era l l y 1 1 8 . Rul e s o f p ro c edu r e . (1) Each Hous e of P arli ament may mak e rul es for r egulating , subj ect to th e provi sions of th is Constitu tion , i ts pro c edur e and th e condu ct of its busin es s. (2) Until rul e s ar e mad e und er cl aus e (1) , th e rul es of pro c edur e and st and ing ord ers in for ce i mme di at el y b efor e th e co mme n cement of this Consti tution with r esp ect to th e Legisl atu r e o f th e Do minion of Indi a sh all h av e eff e ct in r el a tion to P ar li a ment subj ect to su ch mo d ification s and ad apt at ions as may b e mad e th er ein b y th e Ch air man of the Coun cil of St at es or th e Speak er of th e Hous e of th e P eople, as th e cas e may b e. (3) Th e Pr es id ent , aft er consu ltation wi th th e Ch air man of th e Coun cil of St at es and th e Sp eak er of th e Hous e o f th e Peopl e, ma y make rul es as to th e pro cedur e with r esp ect to joint sit tings of , and co mmu ni cations b et w e en , th e two Hous es .

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(4) At a join t sitt ing of th e t wo Hous es th e Sp ea k er of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e, or in his abs en ce su ch p erson as ma y b e det er min ed b y rul es of pro cedur e mad e und er cl aus e (3), sh all pr esid e. 119. Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business. Parliament may, for the purpose of the timely completion of financial business, regulate by law the procedure of, and the conduct of business in, each House of Parliament in relation to any financial matter or to any Bill for the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India, and, if and so far as any provision of any law so made is inconsistent with any rule made by a House of Parliament under clause (1) of article 118 or with any rule or standing order having effect in relation to Parliament under clause (2) of that article, such provision shall prevail. 120. Language to be used in Parliament. (1) Notwithstanding anything in Part XVII, but subject to the provisions of article 348, business in Parliament shall be transacted in Hindi or in English: Provided that the Chairman of the Council of States or Speaker of the House of the People, or person acting as such, as the case may be, may permit any member who cannot adequately express himself in Hindi or in English to address the House in his mother-tongue. (2) Unless Parliament by law otherwise provides, this article shall, after the expiration of a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, have effect as if the words or in English were omitted therefrom. 121. Restriction on discussion in Parliament. No discussion shall take place in Parliament with respect to the conduct of any Judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court in the discharge of his duties except upon a motion for presenting an address to the President praying for the removal of the Judge as hereinafter provided. 122. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament. (1) The validity of any proceedings in Parliament shall not be called in question on the ground of any alleged irregularity of procedure. (2) No officer or member of Parliament in whom powers are vested by or under this Constitution for regulating procedure or the conduct of business, or for maintaining order, in Parliament shall be subject to the jurisdiction of any court in respect of the exercise by him of those powers. CHAPTER IIILEGISLATIVE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT 123. Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament.(1) If at any time, except when both Houses of Parliament are in session, the President is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may promulgate such Ordinances as the circumstances appear to him to require. (2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article shall have the same force and effect as an Act of Parliament, but every such Ordinance (a) shall be laid before both Houses of Parliament and shall cease to operate at the expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of Parliament, or, if before the expiration of

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that period resolutions disapproving it are passed by both Houses, upon the passing of the second of those resolutions; and (b) may b e withdr awn at an y time b y th e Pr es id ent . Explanation . Wh e r e th e Ho u s es o f P arli ame n t ar e su mmo n ed to r e ass e mbl e on diff er ent d at es , t h e p eriod of six week s sh al l b e r e ckon ed fro m th e l at er of thos e d at es for th e purpos es of this cl aus e. (3) If and so f ar as an Ordin ance und er th is arti cl e ma k es an y provision whi ch P a rli a ment wou ld not und er this Constitution b e co mp etent to en act, it sh all be void . * * * * * C H A P T E R I V .T H E U N I O N J U D I C I A R Y 124 . Establishmen t and constitu tion of Sup reme Cou rt . (1) Th er e sh al l b e a Supreme Co urt of Indi a cons isting of a Chi ef Justi ce of Indi a and , unti l P arliamen t b y l aw pr es cr ib es a l arger nu mb er , of not mor e th an 1 s ev en o t h er J u d g es . (2) Ev er y Judg e of th e Supr eme Cou rt shall b e appointed b y th e Pr esid en t b y warr ant und er his h and and seal aft er consult at ion with su ch of th e Judg es of th e Sup r eme Court and of th e High Courts in th e St at es as th e Pr esid ent may d eem n ecessar y for the purpos e and sh al l hold offi ce unti l h e at t ains th e ag e of sixt y-fiv e years : Provid ed th at in th e cas e of appoint me nt of a Judg e oth er th an th e Chi ef Jus ti c e, th e Chief Just i c e of Indi a sh al l al ways b e consult ed: P r o v i d ed f u r t h er t h at (a) a Judg e ma y, b y wri ting und er hi s h and addr essed to th e Pr esid en t, r es ign his offi ce; (b) a Judg e ma y b e r e mov ed fro m h is offi ce in th e mann er provid ed in cl aus e (4) . (2 A) Th e ag e of a Judg e o f the Supr eme Court sh al l b e d et ermi n ed b y su ch authori t y and in su ch manner as P arli ament may b y l aw provid e. (3) A p er son sh all not b e qu ali fi ed for appo int ment as a Judg e of th e Supr eme Cou rt unl ess h e is a citi zen of Indi a and (a) h as been for at l east f iv e years a Judg e of a High Cour t or of two or mor e su ch Courts in su cces sion; or (b) h as b een for at l east t en years an advo cat e of a High Court or of t wo or mor e su ch Courts in su ccession ; o r ( c) is , in th e opinion of th e Pr esid en t, a dist inguish ed jur ist . Explanation I . In thi s cl aus e "High Court'' mean s a High Court wh i ch ex er cis es, or whi ch at an y t i me b efor e th e co mmen cemen t of this Consti tution ex er cis ed , jur isdi ction in an y p art of th e t err itor y of Indi a.

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1. Now twenty-five, vide Act 22 of 1986, s. 2

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Explanation II . In co mputing for th e purpose of this cl au s e th e p eriod during whi ch a p erson has b een an advo cat e, an y p eriod during wh i ch a p erson h as h e ld judi ci al offi ce not in f erior to th at of a d istri ct judg e af t er h e b e c a me an ad v o c at e s h all b e i n clu d ed . (4) A Judg e of th e Supr eme Court sh all not b e r emov ed fro m his of fi ce ex cept b y an ord er of th e Pr esid ent p ass ed aft er an addr ess b y each Hous e of P ar li a me nt support ed b y a ma j o ri t y of th e to t al me mb er ship of th at Hous e and b y a maj ori t y of not l ess th an t wo-thirds of th e memb ers o f th at Hous e pr es en t an d voting h as been pr es en t ed to th e Pr esid en t in th e s a me s ess ion for such r e mov al on th e ground of prov ed misbeh aviour or in c ap a ci t y. (5) P arli ament may b y l aw r egul at e th e pro cedur e for th e pr esent at ion of an addr ess and for th e inv estig at ion and proof of th e misbeh aviour or in cap aci t y of a Judg e und er cl aus e (4) . (6) Ev er y p erson appo int ed to b e a Judg e of th e Sup r eme Court sh all , b efor e h e ent er s upon his off i ce, ma k e and sub scrib e b efor e th e Pr esid en t, or so me p erson appoint ed in th at b eh alf b y hi m, an o ath or affi r mation according to th e for m s et out for th e purpos e in th e Third S ch edul e. (7) No p e rson who h as h eld o ffice as a Judg e of th e Supr eme Court sh al l pl ead or act in an y court or befor e an y authori t y wi thin th e t err itor y of India. 1 2 5 . S a l a r i e s , e t c . , o f J u d g e s . (1) Th er e sh all b e p aid to th e Judg es of th e Supr eme Court su ch s a l ari es as ma y b e d et er min ed b y P arl i a ment b y l aw and, unti l provis ion in that b eh alf is so mad e, su ch s al ar i es as ar e sp ecif i ed in th e S e cond S ch edule. (2) Ever y Judg e s h all b e entit l ed to su ch privileg es and allo wan c es and to su ch right s in r esp ect of l eav e of abs en ce and p ension as may fro m ti me to ti me b e d et er min ed b y o r u n d er l a w ma d e b y P arl i a men t an d , u n ti l so d et er min ed , to su ch priv il eg es , allo wan ces and right s as ar e sp ecif i ed in th e S econd S ch edul e: Provid ed th at neith er th e privi leg es nor th e allo wan c es of a J udg e no r his rights in r esp ect o f l e av e of abs en c e or p ension sh all b e v ari ed to his dis adv an t age af ter his appoint ment . 1 2 6 . Appo int me nt o f a ct ing Chi ef J u sti c e .Wh en th e offi ce of Chi ef Jus ti ce of India is v acant or wh en th e Chief Just i c e is , b y r e ason of abs en ce or oth er wis e, un abl e to p erfo r m th e duti e s of his offi ce , th e du ti es of th e offi ce shall b e p erfor med b y su ch on e of th e oth er Judg es of th e Court as th e Pr esid en t ma y appoint for th e purpos e. 127 . Appoint ment of ad ho c Judg es . (1) If at an y ti me ther e should not b e a quorum o f th e Judg es of th e Supr eme Court av ail abl e to hold or continu e an y s ess ion of th e Court , th e Chi ef Just i ce of Indi a may, wi th th e pr evious cons ent of th e Pr esid en t and after consult a tion with th e Chi ef Justi ce of th e High Court con c ern ed , r equ est in writ ing th e

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att end an ce at the sit tings of th e Court , as an ad ho c Judg e, for su ch p eriod as may b e n ecess ar y, of a Judg e of a High Court dul y qu ali fi ed for appoint ment as a Judg e of th e Supr eme Court to b e d esign at ed by th e Chi ef Jus ti ce o f Ind i a. (2) I t sh all b e th e dut y of th e Judg e who h as b e en so d esign at ed , in prior it y to o th er duti es of his offi ce, to att end th e sitt ings o f th e Supr eme Court at th e time an d for th e p eriod for wh i ch his att end an ce is r equir ed , a n d wh il e so att en d in g h e sh a ll h av e a ll th e ju r isd i ctio n , p o w ers an d priv il eg es , and sh al l d is ch arg e th e duti e s, of a Judg e of th e Supr eme Cou rt . 128 . Att endance of reti red Judg es at sitting s of th e Sup reme C o u rt . Not withst an d ing an ything in this Ch apt er , th e Ch i ef Justi ce of Indi a ma y at any ti me , with th e pr evious cons ent of th e Pr esident , r equ est an y person who h as h eld th e offi ce of a Judg e of th e Sup reme Court or o f th e F ed er al Court or who h as held th e off i ce of a Judg e of a High Court and is dul y qu ali fi ed for appo int ment as a Judg e of th e Supr eme Co urt to si t and act as a Judg e of th e Supr eme Court , and ev er y su ch p er son so r equ est ed sh all , whil e so s itting an d acting , b e ent itl ed to su ch al lowan ces as th e Pr esid en t may b y ord er d et er min e and h av e all th e jurisd i ction , po wers and privil eg es of , but shall not o th erwise b e d eemed to b e, a Judg e of th at Court: Provid ed th at nothing in this arti cl e sh all b e d eemed to r equi r e an y su ch p erson as afor es aid to sit and act as a Judge of th at Court unl ess h e cons en ts so to do . 1 2 9 . S u p r e me C o u rt t o b e a co u rt o f r e co rd . Th e Supr eme Court sh al l b e a court o f r ecord and sh all hav e all th e powers of su ch a court in cluding th e po wer to punish for cont empt of its elf . 1 3 0 . S ea t o f S u p r e me C o u rt . T h e S u p r e me C o u rt sh all sit in D e lh i o r in such oth er place or p l aces, as the Chi ef Jus ti ce of Indi a may, with th e approv al of th e Pr esid en t, fro m ti me to ti me, appoint . 131 . Orig inal ju risd i ction of th e Sup reme Cou rt . Subj ec t to the provis ions of this Constitu tion , th e Supr eme Court sh all , to the ex clu sion of an y oth er court , h av e origin al jurisd i ction in an y disput e (a) b et w een th e Gov ern ment of Indi a and on e o r mo r e St at es; or (b) b etween th e Gov ern ment of Indi a and an y St at e or St at es on on e sid e and on e or mo r e oth er St ates on th e oth er; or ( c) b et w e en t wo o r mo r e S t a t es , if an d in so f ar as th e dispu t e involv es an y qu est ion (wh e th er of l a w or f act) on whi ch th e exist en ce or ext ent of a l eg al right d ep ends: Provid ed th at th e s a id jurisd i ction sh all no t ex t end to a disput e ar ising out of an y t r e aty, a gr e e men t, cov en ant , eng ag eme n t , sanad or oth er s i mil ar ins tru men t wh ich , h aving b een en t er ed into or ex ecut ed b efor e th e co mmen cement of this Constitu tion , con tinues in op er ation aft er su ch

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co mmen cement , or whi ch provid es th at th e s aid jur isdi ction sh all no t ext end to su ch a disput e. 1 3 1 A . [ Exclu si ve ju risdi ct ion of th e Supr em e Court in r egard to qu est ions a s to consti tutional va lid it y of Central la ws .] Rep. b y th e Consti tution (F ort y- third Amen d m en t ) Act , 1977 , s. 4 (w . e . f . 13-4-1978 ). 132 . App el lat e ju ris di ction of Sup reme Court in app ea ls fro m Hi gh Cou rts in certain ca s es . (1) An app e al shall l i e to th e Supr eme Cour t fro m an y judg ment , d ecr ee o r fin al o rd er of a High Cour t in th e t erritor y o f Indi a, wh eth er in a civil , cri min al or oth er proceeding , if th e High Court cert ifi es und er art i cl e 134A th at th e cas e involv es a subs t anti al qu es tion of l a w as to th e interpr et a tion of this Const itution . * * * * * (3) Wh er e su ch a certif i c at e is giv en , an y p art y in th e cas e ma y app e al to th e Supr eme Court on th e ground th at an y su ch qu estion as afor es aid h as b een wrongl y d ecid ed . Explanation . For th e purposes of this arti cl e, th e expr ession f in al ord er in clud es an ord er d e ciding an i ssu e wh i ch , if d e cid ed in f avour o f th e ap p ell an t, would b e suffi cien t for th e fin al dispo sal o f th e cas e. 133 . App el lat e ju ris di ction of Sup reme Court in app ea ls fro m Hi gh C ou rts in rega rd to civ il ma t t ers . (1) An ap p e al shall li e to th e Supr eme Court fro m an y judg me nt , d ecr ee or fin al ord e r in a civil pro ceeding of a High Court in th e t erritor y of Indi a if th e High Court c e r t if i es u n d er art i cl e 1 3 4 A (a) th at th e case involv es a subst an ti al qu estion of l a w of gen er al i mp o r t an c e; an d (b) th at in th e opinion of th e High Court th e s aid qu es tion n eeds to b e d ecid ed b y the Supr eme Court . (2) No t with st anding an yth ing in art icl e 132, an y p art y ap p e aling to th e Supr eme Court und er cl aus e (1) may u rg e as on e of th e grounds in su ch app e al th at a subst an ti al qu estion of l aw as to th e int erpr et ation of this C onsti tution h as b een wrong l y decid ed . (3) No twithst anding an ything in this ar ti cl e, no ap p e al sh all, unl es s P arl i a ment b y law oth er wis e provid es , l i e to th e Supr eme Court fro m th e judg ment , d ecr ee or fin al ord er of on e Judg e o f a High Cour t. 134 . App el lat e ju ris di ction of Sup reme Cou rt in rega rd to cri mi nal ma t t ers .(1) An app eal sh all lie to th e Supr eme Court f ro m any judg ment , fin a l o rder o r sent en ce in a cri min al pro ceeding of a High Court in th e t err itor y of India if th e High Court (a) h as on app eal r ev ers ed an ord er of acquit t al of an accus ed p erson and s enten ced hi m to d eath; or

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(b) h as wi thdraw n for t ri al befor e its elf an y cas e f ro m an y court subordin a t e to its au tho rit y and h as in su ch tr ial convi ct ed th e accus ed p erson and s enten ced hi m to d eath; or ( c) certif i es und er arti cl e 134A th at th e cas e is a fit on e fo r app e al to th e Supr eme Court: P ro v id ed th a t an ap p e al u n d er su b - cl au se (c) sh all li e subj ec t to su ch provis ions as ma y b e ma d e in th at b eh a lf under cl au s e (1) of art i cl e 145 and to su ch condit ions as th e High Court may est ab lish or r equir e. (2) P arli ament may b y l aw conf er on th e Supr eme Cour t any f urth er po wers to ent ert ain and h ear app eals fro m any judg ment , f inal ord er or s ent en ce in a cri min al pro ceeding of a High Court in th e t erritor y of Indi a subj ect to su ch condit ions and li mit a tions as may b e sp ecifi ed in su ch l a w. 134 A. Certifi cat e fo r app eal t o th e Sup reme Co u rt . Ever y High Court , p assing or making a judg ment , d ecr ee, fin al ord er, or s ent en ce, r ef err ed to in cl aus e (1) of art i cl e 132 or claus e (1 ) of art icl e 133 , or c l aus e (1) of arti cl e 134 , (a) ma y, i f it d eems fit so to do , on its o wn mot ion; and (b) sh all , if an or al appli c ation i s mad e , b y or on b eh alf of th e p ar t y aggri ev ed , i mmedi at el y aft er th e p ass ing or mak ing of su ch judg ment , d e cr e e , fin al o rd er o r s en t en c e , d et er min e, as soon as ma y b e aft er su ch p assing o r ma king , th e qu estion wh eth er a certifi c at e of th e n atur e r ef err ed to in cl aus e (1) of ar ti cl e 132 , o r cl au s e ( 1 ) o f a r t i cl e 1 3 3 o r , as t h e c as e ma y b e , s u b - cl au s e (c) of cl au s e (1) of arti cl e 134 , may b e giv en in r esp ect of that cas e. 135 . J urisdi ction and pow ers of th e Fed era l Cou rt und er ex isting law t o b e ex e r ci s a b l e b y t h e S u p r e me C o u rt . U n til P arli ame n t b y l a w oth er wis e prov id es , th e Supr eme Cou rt sh all also h av e jurisdi c tion and po wers with r esp ect to an y ma tter to whi ch th e provis ions of arti cl e 133 or art i cl e 134 do not appl y i f jurisdi ct ion and po we rs in r e l ation to th at ma tt er w e r e ex er ci s abl e b y th e F ed er al C ourt i mme d i at e l y b efo r e th e co mmen cement of this Const itution und er an y exis ting l aw. 136 . Special leav e to appeal by th e Sup reme C ou rt .(1 ) Not withs t anding an ything in this Ch ap t er, th e Supr eme Court ma y, i n its dis cr etion , gr ant sp eci al l eave to appeal f ro m an y judg ment , d ecr ee, d et er min at ion, sent en ce or ord er in an y caus e or mat t er p as s ed or mad e b y an y court or tribun al in th e t err itor y of Indi a. (2) Noth ing in cl au s e (1) sh all appl y to an y judg ment , d et ermi n ation , s ent en ce or order p a ss ed or ma d e b y an y court or tribun al con sti tut ed b y o r u n d er an y l a w r e l at in g t o t h e Ar me d F o r c es . 1 3 7 . R ev i ew o f j u d g me n ts o r o r d e rs b y t h e S u p r e me C o u rt . Subj ect to th e p rovisions of an y l a w ma d e b y P arl i a ment or an y rul es ma d e und er

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art i cl e 145, th e Supr eme Cour t sh all h av e power to r evi ew an y judg ment pronoun ced or ord er mad e b y i t. 138 . Enla rg ement of th e ju risdi ct ion of th e Sup reme Cou rt . (1) Th e Supr eme Court sh al l h av e su ch furth e r jurisdi c tion an d po wers with r esp ect to an y of th e matt ers in th e Union List as P arli amen t may b y l aw con f er. (2) Th e Supr eme Court sh all hav e su ch fu rth er ju risdi ct ion and po wers with r esp ect to an y ma tt er as the Gov ern me nt of Indi a and th e Gov ern me nt of an y St at e may b y sp eci al agr eement conf er , if P ar li amen t b y l aw provid es for th e ex er cis e of su ch jur isdi ction and po wers b y th e Supr eme Court . 139 . Conf erme nt on th e Su pre me Co u rt of pow ers to i ssu e certa in w rits . P arli amen t may b y law conf er on th e Supr eme Court po wer to is sue d ir ections, ord ers or writs , in cluding writs in th e n atur e of hab eas c o r p u s , ma n d a m u s , prohibi tion , quo warran to an d certiorari , or an y of th em, for an y purpos es oth er than thos e me ntion ed in cl aus e (2) of ar ti cl e 32. 1 3 9 A . T ra n s f e r o f c e r t a i n ca s es . (1) Wh er e cas es involv ing th e s a me or subst ant i all y th e s a me qu estions of l a w ar e p ending b efor e th e Supr eme Court and on e or mor e High Courts or b efor e two or mo r e High Cour ts and th e Supr eme Court is s ati sfi ed on i ts own mo tion or on an app li cat ion mad e b y th e At to rn e y- G en er al o f In d i a o r b y a p art y to an y su ch c as e th at su ch qu est ions ar e subst an ti al qu estions of g en er al i mport an ce, the Supr eme Court ma y withdr aw th e cas e or cas es p ending b efor e th e High Court or th e High Courts and dispos e of all th e cas es its el f: Provid ed th at th e Supr eme Court ma y af ter d e t er mining t he s aid qu est ions of l aw r eturn an y cas e so withdr awn tog e th er with a cop y of its judg me nt on such qu estions to th e High Cou rt fro m whi ch th e cas e h as b e en withdr awn, and th e High Court sh all on r eceip t th er eof , pro ceed to dispo se of th e ca s e in confor mity with su ch judg me nt . (2) Th e Supr eme Cour t ma y, if it d eems it exp edi ent so to do for th e ends of justi ce, tr ans f er an y cas e, app eal or oth er pro ceed ings p ending b efor e an y High Court to an y o th er High Cou rt . 140 . An cilla ry pow e rs of Sup reme Cou r t. P arli ame nt may b y l aw mak e provi sion for conf erring upon th e Supr eme Cour t su ch suppl ement al po wers not in consi st ent with any of th e prov isions of this Const itution as ma y ap p e ar to b e n ecess ar y or d esir ab l e for th e purpos e of en abling th e Court mo r e eff ectiv el y to ex er cis e th e jurisd i ction conf er r ed upon i t b y or und er this Constitu tion . 141 . Law d eclared by Sup reme Cou rt to b e bind ing on all cou rts . Th e l aw d ecl ared b y th e Supreme Cour t sh all b e b inding on all courts within th e t er ritor y of Indi a. 1 4 2 . En f o r c e me n t o f d e c r e es a n d o rd e rs o f S u p r e me C o u rt a n d o rd e rs as to dis cov ery , et c. (1 ) Th e Supr eme Court in th e ex ercis e of its

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

ju r isd i ctio n ma y p as s su ch d e cr e e o r ma k e su c h o rd e r as is n e c e ss ar y fo r doing co mpl et e ju sti ce in an y caus e or mat t er p ending b efor e i t, and an y d e cr ee so p ass ed or o rd er so ma d e sh all b e enfor ceabl e throughout th e t err itor y of India in su ch ma nn er as ma y b e pr es crib ed b y or und er an y l a w mad e b y P arli amen t and , until provis ion in th at b eh alf is so mad e, in su ch ma n n er as th e Pr esid en t ma y b y ord er pr es crib e. (2) Subj ect to t h e provis ions o f an y l a w ma d e in this b eh alf b y P arl i ament , th e Supr eme Court sh al l, as r esp ects the who l e of th e t er ritor y of Ind i a, h av e all and ev er y po wer to mak e an y ord er for the purpos e o f s e curing th e attend an ce of an y p erson , th e d is cov er y or produ ction of an y do cu ments , or th e inv est igation or punish ment of an y cont emp t of its el f. 143 . Pow er o f Presid ent to consul t Sup reme Cou rt . (1) If at an y ti me i t ap p ears to th e Pr es id en t th at a qu es tion of l a w or f a ct has aris en , or is lik el y to ar ise, whi ch is of su ch a n atur e an d of su ch pub lic i mport an ce th at it is ex p edient to ob t ain the opinion o f th e Supr eme Court upon it , h e ma y r e f er th e qu est ion to th at Court fo r consid er at ion an d the Court ma y, aft er su ch h e aring as it th inks f it , r eport to th e Pr esid en t it s opinion th er eo n . (2) Th e Pr esid en t may, no twithst an d ing an ything in th e p roviso to arti cl e 131 , r ef er a disput e of th e kind men tion ed in th e s aid proviso to th e Supr eme Court for opinion and th e Supr eme Court sh all , aft er su ch h ear ing as it th inks fit , r eport to th e Pr esid en t its opinion th er eo n . 144 . Civil and judi cial autho rit i es to a ct in aid of th e Sup reme C o u rt . All authori ti es , civi l and judi ci al , in th e t errito r y of Ind i a sh al l act in aid of th e Supr eme Cour t. 1 4 4 A . [ Special pro vis ions as to disposa l of qu est ions r elating to const itutional va lid it y of laws.] Rep . b y th e Co n stitu tion (Fort y- third A m e n d m en t ) A ct , 1977 , s . 5 ( w . e. f . 1 3 - 4 - 1 9 7 8 ) . 145 . Rul es of Cou rt , et c. (1) Subj ect to th e provisions of an y l a w mad e b y P ar li amen t , th e Sup r eme Co urt may f ro m t i me to time, wi th th e approv al of th e Pr esid en t, mak e ru l es for r egulating g en er all y th e pr acti ce and pro cedur e of th e Court in cluding (a) rul es as to th e p ersons pr actis ing b efo r e the Court; (b) rul es as to th e pro c edur e for h earing ap p eals and oth er ma tt ers p ert aining to app eals in cluding th e t i me within whi ch app eals to th e Court ar e to b e ent er ed ; ( c) rul e s as to th e pro c eedings in th e Court fo r th e en for c ement of an y of th e rights conf err ed b y Part III ; ( c c) rul es as to th e pro ceedings in th e Court under arti cl e 139 A; (d) ru l es as to th e en t e rt ain me n t o f ap p e als u n d er su b - cl au s e (c) o f cl aus e (1) of arti cl e 134;

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( e) rul es as to th e condi tions subj ect to whi ch an y judg me nt pronoun ced or o rd er mad e by t h e Court may b e r evi ewed and th e pro c edur e for su ch r evi ew in cluding th e ti me within wh i ch appli cations to th e Court for su ch r evi ew ar e to b e ent er ed; (f) ru l es as to th e co sts o f an d in cid en t al to an y p ro c e ed in g s in th e Court an d as to th e f e es to b e ch arg ed in r esp ect of pro ceedings th er ein ; (g) rul es as to th e gr anting of bail ; (h) rul es as to stay of pro ceedings; (i) rul es providing for th e summa r y d e t er min ation of an y app e al whi ch app e ar s to th e Court to b e f rivolous or v ex atiou s or b rought for th e purpos e of del ay; (j) ru l es as to the pro c edur e for inqui ri es r ef err ed to in cl au s e (1) of a rt i cl e 317 . (2) Subj ect to th e provision s of cl au s e (3) , rul es ma d e und er this art i cl e may f ix th e mini mu m nu mb er of Judg es who ar e to sit for an y purpos e, and may p rovid e for th e powers o f singl e Judg es and Division Courts . (3) The mi ni mum n u mb er o f Judg es who ar e to sit for th e purpos e of d e ciding an y cas e involving a subs t anti al qu est ion of l a w as to th e int e rpr et ation of this Co n stitution or for the pu rpos e of h e aring an y r ef er en ce und er art i cl e 143 sh all b e fiv e: Provid ed th at , wh er e th e Court h e aring an app e al under an y of th e provis ions of this Ch ap t er oth er th an arti cl e 132 consis ts o f l ess th an fiv e Judg es and in th e cour s e of th e h e ar ing of th e app e al th e Court is s atisfi ed th at th e app e al involv es a subs tan ti al qu est ion of l a w as to th e int e rpr et ation of this Cons titution th e d et er mination of wh i ch is n ecess ar y for th e d ispos al of th e app eal, su ch Court sh all r ef er th e qu est ion for opinion to a Court cons titut ed as r equi r ed b y this cl aus e for the purpos e of d e ciding an y cas e involv ing such a qu estion and sh all on r e ce ipt of th e opinion di spos e of th e app eal in confor mit y with su ch opinion . (4) No judg ment sh all b e d eliver ed b y th e Supr eme Court s ave i n op en Court , and no report sh all b e mad e und er articl e 143 s av e in accord an ce with an opinion also d el iver ed in op en Cour t. (5) No judg me nt and no su ch opinion sh al l b e d eliv er ed b y th e Supr eme Court s av e wi th th e con cur ren ce of a ma jor it y of th e Judg es pres ent at th e h e aring o f th e ca s e , but no thing in this cl au s e sh all b e d eemed to p r ev en t a Judg e who do es no t con cur fro m d eliv ering a di ss enting judg me nt or opinion . 146 . Off i cers and s ervants and th e exp ens es of th e Sup reme Cou rt . (1) Appoin t ments of offi cers and s erv an ts of th e Sup r eme Court sh all b e ma d e b y th e Chi ef Justi ce of Indi a or su ch oth er Judg e or offi cer of th e Court as h e may dir ect :

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Provid ed th at th e P resid en t may b y rul e r equir e th at in su ch cas es as may b e sp ecif i ed in th e rul e , no p erson not alr e ad y at t a ch ed to th e Co u rt sh al l b e appoint ed to an y offi ce conn ect ed with th e Court , s av e aft er consul t ation with th e Un ion Publi c S erv i ce Co mmi ssion . (2) Subj ect to th e provisions of any l a w ma d e b y P arl i ame n t , th e condit ions of servi ce of off i cers and s erv ant s of th e Sup r eme Cour t sh all b e su ch as ma y b e pr es crib ed by rul es mad e by th e Ch i ef Justi ce of Indi a or b y so me other Judg e or offi cer of th e Court author is ed by th e Chi ef Jus ti ce o f Ind i a to mak e rul es for th e purpos e: Provid ed th at the ru l es ma d e und er this cl au se sh all , so f ar as th e y r e l at e to s al ar ies, allo wan c es , l e av e or p ens ions , requir e th e approv al of th e P r esid en t. (3) Th e ad ministr a tiv e exp enses o f th e Supreme Co urt , in cluding all s al ar i es , allo wan c es and p ensions p a yabl e to or in r esp ect of th e off icers and s erv an ts o f th e Court , sh al l b e ch arg ed upon th e Consol id at ed Fund of In d i a , an d an y fe e s o r o th er mo n e ys t ak en b y th e Co u rt sh all fo r m p art o f th at Fund . 147 . Int erp retation .In this Ch apt er and in Ch apt er V of P ar t VI, r ef er en c es to any s ubst anti a l quest ion of l aw as t o th e int erpr etation of this Consti tution shall b e const ru ed as in cluding r ef er en c es to an y sub st anti al qu est ion of l a w as to th e in t erpr et a tion o f th e Gov e rn ment of Indi a Act, 1935 (in cluding an y en act ment amen ding or suppl ementing th at Act) , or o f an y Ord e r in Coun cil o r ord er mad e th er eund er , or of th e Ind i an I n d ep en d en c e Ac t , 1 9 4 7 , o r o f an y o r d er mad e t h er eu n d er .

C HA P TE R V.C OM P TR O L LE R A N D A U DI T OR -G E N ER A L OF I N D I A
148 . Co mpt ro ller and Audito r- Gen eral of India . (1 ) Th er e sh a ll b e a Co mptroll er and Aud itor- Gen er al of Indi a who sh all b e appoint ed b y th e Pr esid en t b y wa rr ant und er his h and and s eal and sh all onl y b e remov ed fro m offi ce in lik e ma nn er and on th e lik e grounds as a Judg e of th e S u p r e me Co u rt . (2) Ev er y p erson appoint ed to be th e Co mpt roller and Aud itor-Gen er al of Indi a sh all , b efor e h e en t ers upon hi s offi ce, mak e and sub s crib e b efor e th e Pr esid en t, or so me p erson appoint ed in th at b eh al f b y hi m, an o a th or affi r mation according to the for m s et out for th e purpos e in th e Th ird S ch ed u l e . (3) Th e s al ar y and oth er cond ition s of s ervi ce of th e Co mptroll er and A u d ito r- G en er al sh al l b e su ch a s ma y b e d et ermi n ed b y P a rli ame n t b y l aw and , unti l th ey ar e so d et er min ed , sh al l b e as sp ecifi ed in th e S e cond S ch edul e: Provid ed th at neith er th e s al a ry of a Co mp troll e r an d Auditor- Gen er al nor his rights in r esp ect of l e av e of abs en ce, p ension or ag e of r etir ement sh al l b e v ari ed to his dis adv ant ag e aft er his appoint me nt .

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(4) Th e Co mptroll er and Aud itor- G en er al sh all not b e el igibl e for fur th er offi ce eith er und er th e Gov ernme n t of Indi a or und er th e Gov ern me nt o f an y St at e aft er h e h as ceas ed to hold his offi ce. (5) Sub j ect to the prov isions of this Con stitut ion and of an y l a w mad e by P arl i ament , th e condit ions o f s ervi ce of p ersons s erving in th e Indi an Audit and Accounts Dep art ment and th e ad min istr ative po wers of the Co mptroll er a n d Au d ito r- G en er al sh all b e su ch as ma y b e p r es cr ib ed b y ru l es ma d e b y th e Pr esid en t aft er consul t ation with th e Co mptroll er and Auditor- Gen er al . (6) Th e ad min istr a tiv e ex p enses of th e off ice of th e Co mp trol l er and A u d ito r- G en era l , in clu d in g all s a l ari es , allo w a n c es an d p en sio n s p a y ab l e to or in r esp ect of p e rsons s erv ing in th at offi ce, sh al l b e ch arged upon th e Consolid at ed Fund of Indi a. 149. Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General.The Comptroller and Auditor-General shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and of the States and of any other authority or body as may be prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament and, until provision in that behalf is so made, shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and of the States as were conferred on or exercisable by the Auditor-General of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution in relation to the accounts of the Dominion of India and of the Provinces respectively. 150 . Fo rm o f accounts of th e Union and of th e Sta t es. Th e a c c o u n t s of the Un ion an d of th e St at es sh al l b e k ept in su ch for m as th e Pr es id en t may, on th e advi ce of th e Co mptrol ler and Aud itor- Gen eral of Indi a, p r es cr ib e. 151 . Audi t repo rts .(1) Th e r eport s of th e Co mptroll er and Aud itorGen er al of Indi a r e l ating to th e accounts of th e Union sh all b e sub mitt ed to th e Pr esid ent , who sh all cause t h em to b e laid b efor e each Hous e of P arl i a ment . (2) Th e r epor ts of th e Co mptro ll er and Audi tor-Gen er al of Ind ia r el a ting to th e accoun ts of a St at e sh all b e sub mit t ed to th e Gov ernor of th e S t at e, who sh all caus e th em to b e l aid b efor e th e Legisl atu r e of th e St at e.

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PART VI THE STATES C HA P TE R I.G EN ER A L


1 5 2 . D ef i n it i o n . In th is P ar t, unl ess th e cont ex t oth er wis e r equir es , the expr ess ion S t ate do es not in clud e th e St at e of J ammu and Kash mir . C H A P T E R I I. T H E E X E C U T I V E Th e Governor 153 . Gov erno rs of Stat es . Ther e sh all b e a Gov ernor for each St at e: Provid ed th at nothing in this arti cl e sh all pr ev en t th e appoin t me nt of th e s a me p er s o n as G o v er n o r f o r t wo o r mo r e S t a t es. 154 . Ex ecutiv e pow er of Stat e.(1) Th e ex ecutiv e po wer o f th e St at e sh al l b e v est ed in th e Gov ernor and sh a ll be e x er cis ed b y hi m ei th er dir ectl y or through offi cers subordin a t e to him i n accord an ce with th is Consti tution . (2) Nothing in this art i cl e sh all (a) b e d eemed to tr an sf er to th e Go v ernor any fun c tions conf err ed b y an y ex isting l aw on an y oth er authori t y; or (b) pr ev ent Pa rl i a ment or th e L eg isl atur e of th e St at e fro m conf err ing b y l a w fun ction s on an y authorit y subo rdin at e to th e G o v er n o r . 155 . Appoint ment of Gov erno r. Th e Gov ernor of a St at e sh all b e appoint ed b y the Pr esid ent b y warr ant und er his h and and s eal. 1 5 6 . T e r m o f o f f i c e o f Go v e rn o r .(1) Th e Gov ernor sh all hold offi ce during th e pl easur e of th e Pr esid ent . (2) Th e Gov ernor ma y, b y wri ting und er his h and addr essed to th e Pr esid en t, r es ign his offi ce. (3) Subj ect to th e fo r egoing provis ions of this ar ti cl e, a Gov ernor sh all hold offi ce for a t e r m of fiv e years fro m th e dat e on whi ch h e en t ers upon his off i ce: Provid ed th at a Go v e rnor sh all, no twithst anding th e expir ation of his t er m, continu e to hold offi ce unti l h is su ccessor ent ers upon his offi ce. 157 . Qualifi ca tions fo r appoint men t as Gov e rn o r .No p erso n sh al l b e elig ibl e for appoint ment as Governor unl ess h e is a cit i zen of Indi a and h as co mpl et ed th e ag e of thirt y-fiv e years . 158 . Condit ions of Gov e rno r's offi ce.(1 ) The Gov erno r sh all not b e a memb er of either Hou s e of P arli ament or of a Hous e o f th e Legis l atur e o f an y St at e sp ecifi ed in th e Firs t S ch edul e, and if a me mb er of eith er Hous e

55

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

of P arli ament or of a Hou s e o f th e Legislatur e of an y su ch S t at e b e appoint ed Gov ernor , h e sh al l be d eemed to h av e v acat ed hi s s e at in th at Hous e on th e d at e on wh i ch h e ent ers upon his offi ce as Gov ernor . (2) Th e Gov ernor sh all not hold an y o th er office of profit . (3) Th e Gov ernor sh all b e enti tl ed without p a ymen t o f r ent to th e us e of his of fi ci al r esid en c es and sha ll b e al so en tit l ed to su ch emo lu me nts , a llo w an c es and priv il eg es as ma y b e d e t er min ed b y P a rli a me nt b y l a w and , unti l provision in th at b eh alf i s so ma d e, su ch emo lu me nts , allow a n c es and priv il eg es as are sp ecifi ed in the S e cond S ch edul e. (3 A) Wh er e th e s a me p e rso n is a p p o in t ed as G o v ern o r o f t wo o r mo re St at es, th e emolu ments and al lo wan ces p ayable t o th e Gov ernor sh all b e a llo c a t ed a mo n g th e S t at es in su ch p ro p o rtio n as th e Pr es id e n t ma y b y o rd er d et er min e. (4) Th e emo lumen ts and allowan ces of th e Gov ernor sh all not b e di mini sh ed dur ing his t er m of offi ce. 1 5 9 . Oa th o r a ffi r ma tio n by the G o v e rno r .Ev er y Gov ernor and ev er y p erson di s ch arging th e fun c tions of th e Go v ernor sh all , b e for e en t er ing upon his offi ce, ma k e an d subscrib e in th e pr es en ce of th e Ch i ef Jus ti c e o f th e High Cour t ex er ci sing jurisdi c tion in r e l ation to th e St ate, or , in his abs en ce, th e senior mos t Judg e of th at Court av ail abl e, an o ath or affi r mation in th e follo wing form, th at is to s ay I , A . B. , d o s w e a r i n t h e n a m e o f G o d th at I will
solemnly affirm

f ai thfull y ex ecut e th e offi ce of Gov ernor (or dis ch arg e th e function s of G o v er n o r ) o f . .. . . . .. . . .. .(na m e of th e S tat e) and w ill t o the b est my ab ilit y pres erv e , prot ect and def end th e Consti tution and l a w and th at I will d evot e mys elf to th e s ervi ce and wel l-b eing of p eopl e of .. (n ame of th e Stat e) .

th e of th e th e

160 . Dis cha rge of th e functions of th e Gov erno r in certain conting en c i es. Th e Pr esid en t ma y ma k e su ch provision as h e thinks fit for th e dis ch arg e of th e fun ction s of th e Gov ernor of a St at e in an y conting en c y not provid ed for in this Ch apt er . 161 . Pow er of Gov erno r to g rant pa rdons , etc., and to susp end , remi t o r co mmu t e s ent en ces in certain cas es . Th e Gov ernor of a St at e sh all h av e th e power to gr ant p ardons , r epr i eves, r espi t es or remi ssion s of punish me nt o r to susp end , r e mit or co mmut e th e s ent en ce o f an y p erson convi ct ed of any off en c e ag ainst an y l a w r el a ting to a ma tt er to wh i ch th e ex ecutiv e po wer of th e St at e extends . 162 . Ex t ent of ex ecutiv e pow er of Stat e.Subj ect to th e provis ions of thi s Consti tution , th e ex ecutiv e po wer of a St ate s h all ex t end to th e matt ers with r esp ect to whi ch th e Leg isl atu r e of th e St at e h as po wer to mak e l aws: Provid ed th at in an y matt er with r esp ect to whi ch th e Legis l atur e of a St at e a n d P arl i ame n t h av e p o w er to ma k e l a ws , t h e ex e cu tiv e p o w er o f th e

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St at e sh all b e subj ect to, and li mit ed b y, th e ex ecutiv e po wer expr es sl y conf err ed b y this Consti tution or b y an y l aw ma d e b y Parli a me nt upon th e Union or authorit i es th er eof . Coun cil of Minist er s 1 6 3 . Co u n ci l o f M i n i s t e rs t o a i d a n d a d v i s e G o v e rn o r. (1) Th er e sh al l b e a Council of Minist er s with th e Ch i e f Minist er at th e h e ad to aid and advis e th e Gov ernor in th e ex er cis e of hi s fun ction s, ex cept in so f ar as h e is b y or und er thi s Cons titut ion r equir ed to ex er cis e h is fun ction s o r an y of th em in his dis cr e tion . (2) If an y qu estion aris es wh eth er an y ma tt er i s or is not a ma t t er as r esp ect s wh i ch th e Gov ernor i s b y or und er this Cons titut ion r equir ed to act in his dis c r etion , th e d e cis ion of th e Go v e rnor in his dis c retion sh al l be fin a l, and th e valid it y of an yth ing don e b y the Gov ernor sh al l not b e call ed in question on th e ground th at h e ought or ought not to h av e act ed in his dis cr etion . (3) Th e qu estion wh eth er an y, and if so wh at , advi ce w as t end er ed b y Minist ers to th e Governor sh all not b e inquir ed into in an y court . 164 . Oth er p rovis ions as to Mini st ers .(1 ) Th e Ch i ef Min iste r sh al l b e appoint ed b y the Gov ernor and th e oth e r Min ist er s sh all b e appoint ed b y th e Gov ernor on th e advi ce of th e Chi ef Minist er , and th e Mini st ers sh all hold offi ce during th e pl easur e of th e Gov ernor: Provid ed th at in th e St at es of B ih ar , M adh ya Pr ad esh and Oriss a, th er e sh al l b e a Minist er in ch arg e of trib al w elf ar e who may in addit ion b e in c h arg e o f th e we lf ar e o f th e S ch ed u l ed C ast es a n d b a ck w ard cla ss es o r an y oth er work . (1 A) Th e to t al nu mb er of Mini sters , in cluding th e Ch i ef Minis ter , in th e Coun cil of Min ist er s in a Stat e sh all not exceed fift een p er cent . of th e tot a l nu mb er of memb er s o f the Legisl ativ e As semb l y of th at Stat e: Provid ed th at th e nu mb er of Mini st ers , in cluding th e Chi ef Minis t er in a St at e sh all no t be l ess th an t w elv e: Provid ed fur th er that wh er e th e to t al nu mb er of Mini st ers in cluding th e Chi ef Minis ter in th e Council of Minis t ers in an y Stat e at th e co mmen cement of th e Cons titution (Nin et y-first Amend ment) Act , 2003 ex ceeds th e s a id fif t een p er ce nt . or th e numb e r sp ecif ied in th e first proviso , as th e cas e ma y b e , th en th e to t al nu mb er of Minist er s in th at St at e sh all b e brought in confor mit y with th e prov isions of thi s cl au s e within six months fro m su ch d at e* as the Pr es id en t may b y pub li c noti fi cation appoint . (1 B) A memb er of th e Legis l ativ e Ass embl y of a St at e or either Hous e of th e Legis l atur e of a St at e h aving Legisl at ive Coun cil b elonging to an y p o li ti c al p ar t y w h o is d isq u alifi ed fo r b ein g a me mb e r o f th at H o u s e u n d er p ar agr ap h 2 of th e Ten th S ch edul e sh all also b e disquali fi ed to b e
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

*7.1.2004: vide Notification No. S.O. 21(E), dated 7.1.2004.

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appoint ed as a Minis t er und er cl aus e (1) for dur ation of th e p eriod co mmen c ing from t h e d at e of his d isqu alif i c ation till th e d at e on whi ch th e t er m of h is office as su ch memb er would expi re or wh er e h e cont es ts an y el ect ion to th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y of a Stat e or ei th er Hous e of th e Legisl atur e of a St at e h av ing Legisl ativ e Coun cil , as th e cas e may b e, b efor e th e expir y of su ch p eriod , til l th e d ate on whi ch h e is d e cl ar ed e l e ct ed , wh i ch ev er is e arl ie r. (2) Th e Coun cil of Minis t ers sh al l b e co ll ectiv el y r esponsibl e to th e Legisl ativ e As semb l y of th e St at e. (3) Befor e a Minist er ent er s upon his offi ce, th e Gov ernor sh all ad minis ter to him t h e o aths of offi ce and of s e cr ecy accord ing to th e for ms s et out for th e purpos e in th e Third S ch edul e. (4) A Minis t er who for an y p eriod of six cons ecut iv e month s is no t a memb er o f th e Legisl atur e of th e St at e sh all at th e expir ation of th at p er iod ceas e to b e a Minis t er. (5) Th e s al a ri es and al low an ce s of Mini st ers sh all b e su ch as th e Legisl atur e of th e St at e ma y fro m ti me to ti me b y l a w d et e r min e and , unti l th e Legisl atur e o f th e St at e so d e t er min es , sh all b e as sp ecif i ed in th e S e co n d S ch ed u l e . Th e Ad vo cat e- Ge n eral for th e Stat e 1 6 5 . Ad v o ca t e- G e n e ra l f o r t h e S t a t e. (1) Th e Gov ernor of each S tat e sh al l appoint a p erson who is qu ali fi ed to b e appoint ed a Judge of a High C ourt to b e Advo cat e- G en er al for th e St at e. (2 ) It sh al l b e th e d u t y o f th e A d v o c at e- G en er al to g iv e ad v ic e to th e Gov ern ment of t h e St at e upon su ch l eg al matt ers, and to p erfor m s u ch o th er d u t i es o f a l eg al ch ar a c t er , as ma y fro m ti me to ti me b e r ef err ed o r assign ed to hi m b y th e Gov e rnor , and to dis ch arg e th e fun c tions conf err ed on hi m b y or und er this Const itution or an y other l a w for th e time b e ing in force. (3) The Advo cat e- G en er al sh all ho ld off i ce during th e p l easure o f th e Gov ernor , and sh al l r eceiv e su ch r e mun eration as th e Gov ernor may d et er min e . Condu ct of Go vern ment Busin ess 166 . Condu ct of bus in ess of th e Gov ern ment of a S tat e. (1) All ex ecutiv e action of th e Go v ernme n t of a St at e sh al l b e expressed to be taken in the name of the Governor. (2) Orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of the Governor shall be authenticated in such manner as may be specified in rules to be made by the Governor, and the validity of an order or instrument which is so authenticated shall not be called in question on the ground that it is not an order or instrument made or executed by the Governor.

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(3) The Governor shall make rules for the more convenient transaction of the business of the Government of the State, and for the allocation among Ministers of the said business in so far as it is not business with respect to which the Governor is by or under this Constitution required to act in his discretion. * * * * * 167. Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor, etc.It shall be the duty of the Chief Minister of each State (a) to communicate to the Governor of the State all decisions of the Council of Ministers relating to the administration of the affairs of the State and proposals for legislation; (b) to furnish such information relating to the administration of the affairs of the State and proposals for legislation as the Governor may call for; and (c) if the Governor so requires, to submit for the consideration of the Council of Ministers any matter on which a decision has been taken by a Minister but which has not been considered by the Council. CHAPTER III.THE STATE LEGISLATURE General 168. Constitution of Legislatures in States.(1) For every State there shall be a Legislature which shall consist of the Governor, and (a) in the States of Bihar, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh, two Houses; (b) in other States, one House. (2) Where there are two Houses of the Legislature of a State, one shall be known as the Legislative Council and the other as the Legislative Assembly, and where there is only one House, it shall be known as the Legislative Assembly. 169. Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States.(1) Notwithstanding anything in article 168, Parliament may by law provide for the abolition of the Legislative Council of a State having such a Council or for the creation of such a Council in a State having no such Council, if the Legislative Assembly of the State passes a resolution to that effect by a majority of th e to t al me mb e rsh ip o f th e A ss e mb l y an d b y a ma jo ri t y of not l e ss th an two -thirds of t h e me mb ers of th e Ass e mb l y p r es en t an d voting . (2 ) An y l a w r e fe rr ed to in cl au s e (1 ) sh all co n t ain su ch p ro v isio n s fo r th e amend ment of this Consti tution as may b e n ecess ar y to giv e eff ect to th e provision s of th e l a w and ma y also cont ain su ch suppl ement al , in cid en t al and cons equ ent i al p rovis ions as P ar li ament may d eem n ecess ar y. (3) No su ch l aw as afor es aid shall b e d eemed to b e an amend ment o f this Consti tution for th e purpos es of arti cle 368 . 170 . Co mp osition o f th e Leg islat iv e Ass e mb li es.(1) Sub j ect to th e provis ions of art i cl e 333 , th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y of each St at e sh all

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consis t of not mo r e th an fiv e hundr ed , and not l ess th an sixt y, me mb ers chos en b y dir ect el ection fro m terri tori al const itu en ci es in th e St at e. (2) For th e purpos es of cl ause (1) , each St at e sh all b e divid ed in to t err itori al consti tu en ci es in su ch mann er that th e r atio bet w een th e popul at ion of each cons titu en cy and th e nu mb er of s e ats allott ed t o it sh all , so f ar as pr acti cabl e, b e th e s ame throughout th e St at e. Explanation . In this cl au s e , th e expr ession popul at ion means th e popul at ion as ascert ained at th e l as t pr eceding census of whi ch th e r el ev ant figur es h av e b een publish ed : Provid ed th at th e r ef er en ce in this Explanat ion to th e l ast pr eceding c e nsus of wh ich th e r e l ev ant figur es h av e b e en publish ed sh all , until th e r el ev an t figur es for th e firs t ce nsus t ak en after th e year 2026 h av e b e en publi sh ed, b e constru ed as a r efer en ce to th e 2001 census . (3) Upon th e comp l etion of each census , the tot al nu mb er of s eats in th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y of each St at e and th e divi sion of each St at e into t err itori al constitu en ci es sh all b e r e ad jus t ed by su ch au tho rity and in su ch ma n n er as P a rlia me n t ma y b y l aw d e t er min e: Pro v id ed th at su ch r e ad ju s t men t sh al l n o t affe c t r ep r es en t atio n in th e Legisl ativ e As semb l y until th e dis solution of th e th en existing Ass e mbl y: Pro v id ed fu rth er th at su ch r e ad ju s t men t sh a ll ta k e eff e ct fro m su ch d at e as th e Pr esid en t ma y, b y ord er , sp eci f y an d unti l su ch r e ad just me nt t ak e s eff ect , an y el ection to th e Legisl ativ e As sembly may b e h eld on th e b asis of th e t err itori al consti tu enci es exis ting b efor e su ch r e adjus t ment: Provided also that until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026 have been published, it shall not be necessary to readjust (i) the total number of seats in the Legislative Assembly of each State as readjusted on the basis of the 1971 census; and (ii) the division of such State into territorial constituencies as may be readjusted on the basis of the 2001 census, under this clause. 171. Composition of the Legislative Councils.(1) The total number of members in the Legislative Council of a State having such a Council shall not exceed one third of the total number of members in the Legislative Assembly of that State: Provid ed th at th e tot al nu mb er of me mb er s in th e Legisl at iv e Coun cil of a St at e sh all in no cas e b e less th an fort y. (2 ) Un til P arli ame n t b y l a w o th er wis e p ro v id es , th e co mp o sit io n o f th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil of a St at e sh all b e as provid ed in cl aus e (3) . (3) Of th e tot al nu mb er o f me mb ers of th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil of a S t at e

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(a) a s n e arl y a s ma y b e , o n e-th i rd sh al l b e el e ct ed b y el e cto r at es consis ting of me mb ers of municip al iti es , distr ict bo ards and su ch oth er lo cal au thor iti es in th e St at e as P arl i a ment may b y l a w sp ecif y; (b) a s n e arl y a s ma y b e , o n e-tw e lfth sh all b e e l e ct ed b y el e cto r at es consis ting of persons r esid ing in th e St at e wh o h av e b e en for at l e ast thr ee year s g r adu at es of an y un iv ersi t y in th e t erri tor y of Indi a or h av e b e en fo r at l e ast th r e e y e ar s in p o ss ess io n o f q u ali fi c atio n s p r es cr ib ed b y or und er any l aw mad e b y P ar li ament as equiv al ent to th at of a gr adu at e of an y su ch univ ers it y; ( c) as n e ar l y as ma y b e , o n e -tw e lfth sh a ll b e e l e ct ed b y e l e cto r at es c onsis ting of p ersons who h av e b e en for a t l e ast thr e e ye ars eng ag ed in t eaching in su ch ed u cation al inst itutions within th e S t at e, not lo wer in st an d ard th an th at of a s e condar y s chool , as ma y b e pr es crib ed b y or u n d er an y l a w ma d e b y P ar li ame n t; (d) a s n e arl y a s ma y b e , o n e -th ird sh all b e el ec t ed b y th e me mb e rs of th e Legisl ativ e Ass e mbl y of t h e St at e fro m amo ngst p er sons who ar e n o t me mb er s o f th e Ass e mb l y; ( e) th e r e main d e r sh al l b e n o min at ed b y th e Go v ern o r in a c co rd an c e with th e provis ions of cl aus e (5) . (4) Th e memb ers to b e el ect ed und er sub- cl aus es ( a ) , (b ) and ( c) of cl au s e (3) sh all b e chos en in s u ch t err itori al constitu en ci es as may b e pr es cr ib ed b y or und er an y law mad e b y Parl i ament , and th e el ections und er th e s aid sub- cl aus e s and und er sub- cl ause ( d ) of th e s aid cl aus e sh al l b e h e ld in accord an ce wi th th e s yst em of p roport ion al r epr esent at ion b y me a n s of th e singl e tr ans f er abl e vot e . (5) Th e memb ers to b e no min ated b y th e Gov ernor und er sub- cl aus e ( e) of cl aus e (3) shall consi st of p ersons h aving speci al kno wl edg e or pr acti c al exp eri en ce in r esp ect of su ch ma tt ers as the fo llo wing , n a me l y: L it er atur e, s ci en ce, art , co-op er at iv e mov ement and so ci al s ervi ce. 172. Duration of State Legislatures.(1) Every Legislative Assembly of every State, unless sooner dissolved, shall continue for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting and no longer and the expiration of the said period of five years shall operate as a dissolution of the Assembly: Pro v id ed th at th e s aid p er io d ma y , w h i l e a Pro cl a ma tio n o f Eme r g en cy is in op er ation, b e ex t end ed b y P arli a me nt b y l a w for a p eriod not ex ceeding on e year at a ti me and not ext ending in an y cas e b eyond a p eriod o f six mo n th s aft er th e Pro cl a ma tio n h as c e as ed to o p er at e . (2) Th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil of a St at e sh all not b e subj ect to d issolu tion , but as n e ar l y as possib l e on e-third of th e memb e rs th er eof sh all r etir e as soon as may b e on th e expir ation o f ev er y s econd year in accord an ce with th e provis ions ma d e in th at b eh alf b y P arli a me nt b y l a w.

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173 . Qual ifi cation fo r me mb ership of the Stat e Leg islatu re.A p erson sh al l not b e qu alifi ed to b e chos en to fill a s e at in th e Legisl atur e o f a S t at e u n l ess h e (a) is a c it i zen o f In d i a , an d ma k e s an d su b s crib e s b efo r e so me p erson au thorised in th at b eh alf b y th e El ection Co mmi ssion an o ath or affi r mation according to the for m s et out for th e purpos e in th e Th ird S ch edul e; (b) i s, in th e ca s e of a s e at in th e Legis l ative Ass e mbl y, not l e ss th an t w ent y-f ive years of age and , in th e cas e of a s eat in the Legisl ativ e Coun cil , not l ess than thir t y years of ag e; and ( c) poss ess es such o th er qu al ification s as may b e pr es crib ed in t h at b eh al f b y o r u n d e r an y l a w ma d e b y P a r l i a me n t . 174 . S essions of th e Stat e Legis latu re, p ro rogation and dis solut ion. (1) Th e Governor sh al l f ro m t ime t o ti me su mmo n th e Hou se or each Hou s e of th e Legis l atur e of th e St at e to meet at su ch ti me and pl ace as h e think s fi t, but six months sh al l not int e rv en e b et w ee n its l ast sit ting in on e s ess ion an d th e d at e appoint ed for its f irst sit ting in th e n ext s ession . (2) Th e Gov ernor may f ro m ti me to ti me (a) prorogu e th e Hous e or ei th er Hous e; (b) dis solv e th e Legisl ativ e As semb l y. 175 . Right of Gov erno r to address and s end mes sag es to th e Hous e o r H o u s es .(1) Th e Gov erno r may addr ess th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y o r, in th e cas e of a St at e h aving a Legis l ativ e Coun cil , eith er Hous e of th e Legisl atur e of th e St at e, or both Hou ses as sembl ed tog eth er , and ma y for th at purpos e r equir e th e att end an ce of memb ers . (2) Th e Gov ernor ma y s end me ss ag es to th e Hous e or Houses of th e Legisl atur e of th e S t at e, wh ether wi th r esp ect to a Bill th en pending in th e Legisl atur e or oth er wis e, and a Hous e to wh ich an y mes s ag e is so s ent sh al l with all conv en i ent d esp at ch consid er an y ma tt er r equir ed b y th e mes s ag e to b e t ak en into consid er at ion. 176 . Sp ecial add ress by the Gov erno r.(1) At th e co mmen cemen t of th e firs t s e ssion aft er each g en er al el ect ion to th e Leg isl ativ e Ass e mb l y and at th e co mmen cemen t of th e fi rst s ess ion of each year , th e Gov ernor sh al l addr ess the Legisl ativ e Ass embl y or , in th e cas e of a S tat e h aving a Legisl ativ e Coun cil , both Hous es ass e mb l ed tog eth er and infor m th e Legisl atur e o f th e caus es of its su mmo ns. (2) Prov ision shall b e mad e b y th e ru les r egul ating th e pro c edur e of th e Hous e or ei th er Hous e fo r the allot ment of ti me for dis cussion of th e mat t ers r ef er r ed to in su ch address . 177 . Rights of Minist ers and Advo cat e-Gen eral as resp ects th e H o u s es . Ev er y M in ist er an d th e Ad v o c at e- G en er al fo r a St ate sh all h av e th e right to sp ea k in, and oth erwis e to t ak e p art in th e pro ceedings of , th e

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Legisl ativ e As semb l y of the St at e or , in th e cas e of a St at e h aving a Legisl ativ e Coun cil , both Houses , and to sp eak in, and oth e rwis e to t ak e p art in th e pro ceedings of , an y co mmi tt ee of th e Leg isl atur e of whi ch h e may b e n a med a memb er , but shall not , b y v irtue of this arti cl e, b e en titl ed to vot e. Offi cers o f th e Stat e L egi slatur e 178 . Th e Sp ea ker and Deputy Sp ea ker of th e Legisla tiv e Asse mb ly . E v er y L eg is l at i v e As s e mb l y o f a S t at e s h all , as s o o n as ma y b e, ch o o s e t wo memb er s of th e Ass embl y to be r esp ect iv el y Sp eak er and Deput y Sp eak er th er eof and , so oft en as th e offi ce of Sp eak er or Depu t y Sp eak er b eco mes v acant , th e Ass emb l y sh al l choos e anoth er memb er to b e Sp eaker or Depu ty S p e ak er , as t h e c a s e ma y b e . 1 7 9 . Va ca t i o n a n d r es ig n a t i o n o f , a n d r e mo v a l f ro m, t h e o f f i c es o f Sp ea ker and Deputy Sp ea ker. A memb er holding off i ce as Sp eak er or D e p u t y S p e ak er o f an A s s emb l y (a) sh all v acate hi s offi ce if h e ceas e s to b e a me mb er of th e A ss e mb l y; (b) may at an y ti me b y writing und er his h and addr ess ed , if su ch memb er is th e Sp eak er , to th e Deput y Sp eak er , and if su ch memb er is th e Deput y Sp eak er , to th e Sp eak er , r esign his offi ce; and ( c) ma y b e r e mo v ed fro m his offi ce b y a r esolution of th e Assemb l y p ass ed b y a majori t y of al l th e th en memb ers o f th e A ss emb l y: Provid ed th at no r eso lution fo r th e purpos e of cl au s e (c) sh al l b e mo v ed u n l ess a t l e ast fo u rt e en d a ys' n o ti c e h as b e en g iv en o f th e in t en t io n to mo v e th e resolution : Provid ed furth er th at , wh en ev er th e Ass embl y is dissolv ed , the Sp eak er sh al l not v acat e his o ffi ce unti l i mme d i at el y b efor e th e first meeting o f th e Ass e mbl y aft er th e disso lution . 1 8 0 . Po w e r o f t h e D ep u t y S p e a ke r o r o t h e r p e r s o n t o p e rfo r m t h e duti es o f th e offi ce of , o r to a ct as , Sp ea ker. (1) Whil e th e offi ce of Sp eak er is v a ca nt , th e dut i es of th e of fi ce sh al l b e p erformed b y th e Deput y Sp eak er o r, if th e off i ce o f Deput y Sp eak er is also v acant , b y su ch memb er of th e Ass embl y as th e Governor may appoint for th e purpos e. (2) During the absence of the Speaker from any sitting of the Assembly the Deputy Speaker or, if he is also absent, such person as may be determined by the rules of procedure of the Assembly, or, if no such person is present, such other person as may be determined by the Assembly, shall act as Speaker. 181 . Th e Sp eaker o r th e Deputy Sp ea ker not to p res ide w hil e a resolut ion fo r his remo val f ro m o ffi ce is und er consid eration .(1 ) At an y sitt ing of th e Legisl at iv e As s e mb ly, whil e an y r esolution for th e r e mov al of th e Sp eak er fro m h is of fi ce is und er consid er ation , th e Sp eak er , or whil e an y r esolu tion for th e r e mov al of th e Deput y Sp eak er fro m hi s

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offi ce is und er consid er ation , th e Depu t y Sp eak er , sh all not , though h e i s pr es ent , pr esid e, and th e prov isions of cl aus e (2) of arti cl e 180 sh all appl y in r el ation to ev er y su ch s itting as th ey appl y in r el ation to a si tting fro m whi ch th e Sp eaker or , as th e case may b e, th e Deput y Sp eak er , is abs ent . (2) Th e Sp e ak er sh all h av e th e righ t to sp e ak in , and oth er wise to t ak e p art in th e pro ceedings of , th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y whil e any r esolu tion for h is r emov al fro m off i ce is und er cons id eration in th e Ass embl y and sh al l, not withstanding an ything i n arti cl e 189 , b e entitl ed to vot e onl y in th e first inst an ce on su ch r esolut ion or on an y oth e r ma tt er dur ing su ch pro ceedings but not in th e cas e of an equ alit y of vot es . 182 . Th e Chai rma n and D eputy Cha i rma n o f th e L egisla tiv e C o u n cil . Th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil of ev er y St at e h av ing su ch Coun cil sh al l, as soon as may be, choos e t wo memb ers of th e Coun cil to b e r esp e ct iv el y Ch a ir ma n an d D ep u t y Ch air ma n th er eo f an d , so o ft en as th e offi ce o f Chairman or Deput y Ch air man b ecomes v acant , th e Coun cil sh all choos e ano ther memb er to b e Ch air man or Deput y Ch air man , as th e cas e ma y b e . 1 8 3 . Va ca t i o n a n d r es ig n a t i o n o f , a n d r e mo v a l f ro m, t h e o f f i c es o f C hai rma n and D eputy Cha i rman . A memb er holding off i ce as Ch air man or Deput y Ch airman o f a Legislativ e Coun cil (a) sh all v acate hi s offi ce if h e ceas e s to b e a me mb er of th e C o u n cil ; (b) may at an y ti me b y writing und er his h and addr ess ed , if su ch memb er is th e Ch air man , to th e Deput y Ch ai r man , and if su ch memb er i s th e Deput y Ch air man , to the Chair man , r esign his off i ce; and ( c) ma y b e r e mov ed fro m h is offi c e b y a r eso lution of th e Coun cil p ass ed b y a majori t y of al l th e th en memb ers of th e Coun cil: Provid ed th at no r eso lution fo r th e purpos e of cl au s e (c) sh al l b e mo v ed u n l ess a t l e ast fo u rt e en d a ys' n o ti c e h as b e en g iv en o f th e in t en t io n to mo v e th e resolution . 1 8 4 . Po w e r o f t h e D ep u t y Ch a i r ma n o r o t h er p e rso n t o p er f o r m t h e d u t i e s o f t h e o f f i c e o f , o r t o a ct a s, C h a i r ma n .(1 ) Wh il e th e offi ce of Ch air man is v acant , th e duti e s o f th e offi ce sh al l b e p e rformed b y th e Deput y Ch air man or , if th e office of Depu t y Ch air man is also v acant , b y su ch memb er of th e Coun cil as th e Gov ernor may appoint for th e purpos e. (2) During th e abs en ce of th e Ch air man fro m an y si tting of th e Coun cil th e Deput y Chair man or , if he is also abs ent , su ch p erson as may b e d et er min ed b y th e rul es of pro cedur e of th e Coun cil , or , i f no su ch p erson is pr es en t, su ch oth er p erson as ma y b e d e t ermi n ed b y th e Coun cil , sh al l a c t as Ch air ma n . 185. The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration.(1) At any sitting of the Legislative Council, while any resolution for the removal of the Chairman from his office is under consideration,

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the Chairman, or while any resolution for the removal of the Deputy Chairman from his office is under consideration, the Deputy Chairman, shall not, though he is present, preside, and the provisions of clause (2) of article 184 shall apply in relation to every such sitting as they apply in relation to a sitting from which the Chairman or, as the case may be, the Deputy Chairman is absent. (2) Th e Ch air man sh all h av e the right to sp eak in , an d oth er wis e to t ak e p art in th e p roceedings of , the Legisl ativ e Coun cil whil e an y resolu tion fo r his r e mo v a l from o ffi ce is under cons id er ation in th e Coun cil an d sh all , not with st anding an ything in articl e 189 , b e en t itl ed to vot e onl y in th e first ins t an ce on su ch r eso lution o r on an y o th er ma tt er during such pro ceed ings but not in th e cas e of an eq u a lity of vot es . 186 . Sala ri es and al low ances of th e Sp ea ker and Deputy Spea ker and t h e Ch a i r ma n a n d D ep u t y Ch a i r ma n . Th er e sh al l b e p aid to th e Sp eak er and th e Deput y Sp eak er of th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y, and to th e Ch air man and th e Deput y Ch air man of th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil , su ch sal ar i es and allo wan c es as ma y b e r esp ectiv el y fix ed b y th e Legisl atur e of th e S t at e b y l a w an d , until provis ion in th at b eh alf is so mad e, su ch s al ar i es an d allo wan ces as are sp ecifi ed in the S econd S ch edul e. 187 . S ecreta riat o f Stat e Legislatu re.( 1 ) Th e H o u s e o r e a c h H o u s e o f th e L eg isl a tu r e o f a St at e sh all h av e a s ep ar at e s e cr et a ri al st aff: Provid ed th at nothing in this claus e sh al l, in the cas e of th e Legis l ature of a S t at e h aving a Legis l ative Coun cil , b e constru ed as pr ev enting th e cr eat ion of posts co mmon to both Hous es of such Legisl atur e. (2) Th e Legisl atur e of a St at e may b y l aw r egul at e th e r ecruitmen t , and th e cond itions of s e rvi ce of persons appoint ed , to th e s e cr etari a l st aff of th e Hous e or Hous es of th e Legisl atur e o f the Stat e. (3) Unt il provision is ma de b y th e Legi sl atur e of th e St at e under cl au s e (2) , th e Go v ernor ma y, af t er consult a tion with th e Sp eak er of th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y or th e Ch air man of th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil , as th e cas e ma y b e , ma k e rul es r egul ating th e r e crui tmen t , and th e condit ions o f s ervi ce o f p ersons appoin t ed, to th e s ecr et ari al st af f of th e Assemb l y or th e Coun cil , and any rul es so ma d e sh all h av e eff ect subj ect to the provis ions o f an y l a w ma d e u n d er t h e s ai d c l au s e . Condu ct of Busin ess 188 . Oath o r a ffi rma tion by me mb ers . Ev er y me mb e r o f th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y or th e Le gis l ativ e Council of a St at e sh all , b efo r e t aking his s e at , ma k e and subscrib e b efor e th e Gov ernor , o r so me p erson appoint ed in that b eh a lf b y him, an o ath or affi r mation according to th e for m s et out for th e purpos e in th e Third S ch edul e. 189 . Vot ing in Hou s es, pow e r o f Hous es to a c t notw ithstand ing va can ci es and quo ru m. (1) S av e as other wis e provid ed in this Consti tution , al l qu es tions at any s itting of a Hous e o f th e Legisl atur e of a

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St at e sh al l b e det er min ed b y a maj ori t y of votes of th e memb ers pr es ent and voting , oth er th an th e Sp eaker or Ch air man, or p erson acting as su ch. Th e Sp eak er or Ch air man , or p erson acting as su ch , sh al l not vot e in th e fir st in st an c e , b u t sh all h av e an d ex er cis e a c astin g v o t e in th e c a s e o f an e q u al i t y o f v o t es . (2) A Hous e of th e Legi sl atur e of a St at e sh al l h av e power to act not with st anding an y v acan c y in th e me mb ership th er eo f , an d an y pro ceedings in th e Legisl atu re of a St at e sh all b e v alid notwiths t anding th at it i s dis cover ed sub sequ en tl y th at so me p erson who was not en titl ed so to do s at or vot ed or oth er wis e took p art in th e pro ceedings . (3) Unt il th e Le gis l atur e of the St at e b y l a w oth er wi s e provid es , th e quoru m to consti tut e a meeting of a Hous e o f th e Legi sl atur e of a St at e sh al l b e t en me mb ers or on e-t enth o f th e to t al nu mb er of me mb ers of th e H o u s e , wh i ch ev e r i s g r e at er . (4) If at an y t ime d uring a me eting of th e Legis l ativ e Ass e mbl y or th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil of a St at e th er e i s no quoru m, it sh all b e th e dut y of th e Sp eak er or Ch air man , or person acting as su ch , ei th er to adjou rn th e Hous e or to susp end th e meeting until th er e i s a quoru m. Disqual ifi cations of Memb ers 190 . Va cation of s eats .(1) No p erson sh all b e a memb er o f both Hous es of th e Legisl atur e of a St at e and provis ion sh al l b e ma d e b y th e Legisl atur e o f th e St at e b y l aw for th e v acation b y a p erson who is chos en a memb er of both Hous es of h is s eat in on e house or th e oth er . (2) No person sh al l b e a memb er of th e Legisl atur es of two or mor e St at es sp ecifi ed in th e First S ch edul e and if a p erson is chos en a memb er of th e Legi sl atur es of two or mor e su ch St at es , th en, at th e expir a tion of su ch p eriod as may b e sp ecifi ed in rul es mad e b y th e Pr esid en t, th at p erson's s eat in t h e Legis l atures of al l su ch St at es sh al l b eco me v acant , unl ess h e h as p revious l y r esign ed his s eat in th e Legisl atur es of all bu t on e of th e St at es . (3) If a memb er of a Hous e of the Legisl atur e of a S t at e (a) b e co mes subj ect to an y of th e disqu a lification s mentioned in cl aus e (1) or cl aus e (2) of arti cle 191; or (b) r es igns his s e at b y writing und er h is h and addr es sed to th e sp eak er or th e Ch air man , as th e cas e may be, and his r es ign ation is accept ed b y th e Sp eak er or th e Ch air man , as the cas e may b e, his s eat sh all ther eupon b eco me v acant: Provid ed th at in th e cas e of an y r esign ation r eferr ed to in sub-cl aus e (b) , if fro m info r mation r e ceiv ed or oth er wis e an d aft er ma king su ch inquir y as h e th inks fit , the Sp eak er or the Ch air man , as th e cas e may b e, is s atisf ied th at su ch resignation is not volunt ar y or g enuin e , h e sh all not accep t su ch r esign ation .

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(4) If for a p eriod of s ixt y d ays a memb er of a Hous e o f th e Legis l atur e of a St at e is withou t p er mission of th e House abs ent fro m all me et ings th er eof , th e Hous e may d ecl ar e his s eat v acant : Provid ed that in co mputing th e s aid p er iod of sixt y d a ys no account sh all b e t ak en of an y p eriod dur ing whi ch th e Hous e is prorogu ed o r is adjourn ed for mor e th an four cons ecutiv e days . 191 . Disqual ifi cat ions fo r me mb ersh ip.(1) A p erson sh all b e disqu alifi ed for b eing chos en as , and for b eing , a memb er of th e Legisl ativ e As semb l y or Leg islativ e Coun cil of a S t at e (a) if he holds an y o ffi ce of profi t und er th e Gov ern me nt o f Indi a or th e Go v ern me nt of an y St at e specif i ed in th e Firs t S ch edul e, oth er th an an of fi ce d eclar ed b y th e Legis l atur e of th e S t at e b y l aw not to disqu alif y its hold er ; (b) if h e is of unsound mind and st ands so d eclar ed b y a co mpet ent court ; ( c) if h e is an undis ch arg ed in solv ent ; (d) if h e is no t a ci ti zen of Indi a, or h as vo lunt ar il y acquir ed th e cit i zenship o f a f or eign S t at e, or is und er an y ackno wl edg ment of all eg i an ce or adh er en ce to a foreign St at e; ( e) if h e is so d isq u a lifi ed b y o r u n d er an y l aw ma d e b y P ar li ame n t . Explanation .For th e purpo ses of th is claus e , a p erson shall not b e d eemed to hold an offi ce of profi t und er th e Gov ern ment of Indi a or the Gov ern ment of an y St at e sp ecifi ed in th e Fi rst S ch edul e b y reason onl y th at h e is a Minis t er eith er for th e Un ion o r fo r su ch St at e. (2) A p erson shall b e d isqu alif ied for b eing a memb er of th e L egisl ativ e Ass e mb l y o r Legis l ativ e Coun cil of a St at e if h e is so disqu alif i ed und er th e Tenth S ch edul e. 192. Decision on qu estions as to di squalifi cation s of me mb ers .(1 ) If an y qu est ion aris es as to wh eth er a memb er of a Hous e of th e Legisl atur e of a St at e h as beco me subj ect to an y of th e d isqu ali fi cations me ntion ed in cl aus e (1) of arti cl e 191 , th e qu est ion sh all b e r ef er r ed for the d ecis ion of th e Go v ern o r an d h is d e cisio n sh all b e fin al . (2) Befor e giv ing an y d ecis ion on an y su ch qu est ion, th e Gov ernor sh all obt ain th e opinion of th e El ect ion Co mmi ssion and sh all act according to su ch opinion . 193. Pena lty fo r si tting and voting befo re ma ki ng oath o r affi rma tion und er a rt i cl e 188 o r w hen not qualifi ed o r w hen disqua lifi ed . If a p erson si ts or vot es as a memb er of th e L eg isl ativ e Ass embl y or th e Legi sl ativ e Coun cil of a St at e b efor e h e h as comp li ed wi th th e r equi r e ments of art i cl e 188, or wh en h e kno ws th at h e is not qu al ifi ed or th at h e is disqu al ifi ed fo r memb er ship th er eof , o r th at h e i s proh ibit ed fro m so do ing b y th e provisions of an y l a w ma d e b y P arl i ame n t or th e

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Legisl atur e o f th e St at e, h e sh all b e li abl e in resp ect of each day on whi ch h e so sits or votes to a p en a lt y of fiv e hundr ed rup e es to b e r e co v er ed as a d ebt du e to th e St at e. Po wers , Pr i vil eg es and Immuni ti es of Sta te L egisla tur es and th eir M embe rs 1 9 4 . Pow e r s , p ri v i l eg es , et c. , o f t h e Ho u s es o f L e g i s la t u r es a n d o f t h e me mb ers and co mmi t t ees th ereof .(1 ) Subj ec t to th e provi sions of this Consti tution an d to th e rul es an d st anding orders r egul ating th e pro c edur e of th e Leg isl atur e, th er e sh all b e fr eedo m of sp eech in th e Legis l atur e of e v er y S t at e . (2) No me mb er of th e Legislatur e of a St ate sh all b e li abl e to an y pro ceedings in an y cour t in r esp ect o f an ything s a id or an y vot e g iv en b y hi m in th e Legisl atur e or an y co mmi tt ee th er eo f , an d no p erson sh all b e so li ab l e in r esp ect o f th e publi c ation b y or und er th e au thorit y of a Hous e of s u ch a L eg is l atu r e o f an y r ep o r t , p ap er , v o t es o r p r o c e ed i n g s . (3) In other respects, the powers, privileges and immunities of a House of the Legislature of a State, and of the members and the committees of a House of such Legislature, shall be such as may from time to time be defined by the Legislature by law, and, until so defined, shall be those of that House and of its members and committees immediately before the coming into force of section 26 of the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1978. (4) The provisions of clauses (1), (2) and (3) shall apply in relation to persons who by virtue of this Constitution have the right to speak in, and otherwise to take part in the proceedings of, a House of the Legislature of a State or any committee thereof as they apply in relation to members of that Legislature. 195. Salaries and allowances of members.Members of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council of a State shall be entitled to receive such salaries and allowances as may from time to time be determined, by the Legislature of the State by law and, until provision in that respect is so made, salaries and allowances at such rates and upon such conditions as were immediately before the commencement of this Constitution applicable in the case of members of the Legislative Assembly of the corresponding Province. Legislative Procedure 196. Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills.(1) Subject to the provisions of articles 198 and 207 with respect to Money Bills and other financial Bills, a Bill may originate in either House of the Legislature of a State which has a Legislative Council. (2) Subject to the provisions of articles 197 and 198, a Bill shall not be deemed to have been passed by the Houses of the Legislature of a State having a Legislative Council unless it has been agreed to by both Houses, either without amendment or with such amendments only as are agreed to by both Houses. (3) A Bill pending in the Legislature of a State shall not lapse by reason of the prorogation of the House or Houses thereof.

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(4) A Bill pending in the Legislative Council of a State which has not been passed by the Legislative Assembly shall not lapse on a dissolution of the Assembly. (5) A Bill which is pending in the Legislative Assembly of a State, or which having been passed by the Legislative Assembly is pending in the Legislative Council, shall lapse on a dissolution of the Assembly. 197. Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other than Money Bills.(1) If after a Bill has been passed by the Legislative Assembly of a State having a Legislative Council and transmitted to the Legislative Council (a) the Bill is rejected by the Council; or (b) more than three months elapse from the date on which the Bill is laid before the Council without the Bill being passed by it; or (c) the Bill is passed by the Council with amendments to which the Legislative Assembly does not agree; th e Legis l ativ e Ass e mbl y may, subj ect to th e ru l es r egul at ing its pro c edur e, p ass th e Bi ll ag ain in th e s a me or in an y subs eq u ent s es sion with o r without su ch amend ments , if an y, as h av e b een mad e, sugg est ed o r agr e ed to b y th e Legis l ativ e Coun cil and th en tr an s mit th e Bil l as so p ass ed to th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil . (2) If aft er a Bill h as b e en so p a ss ed fo r th e s e cond time b y the Legisl ativ e As semb l y and tr ansmi tt ed to th e Legis l ativ e Coun cil (a) th e Bill is r ej e ct ed b y the Coun cil; or (b) mo r e th an on e month el ap ses fro m th e d at e on wh i ch th e Bil l is l a id b efo re the Coun cil without th e Bill b eing p ass ed b y it; or ( c) th e Bill is p ass ed b y th e Coun cil with amend ments to which th e Legisl ativ e Ass embl y do es not agr ee; th e Bill sh al l b e d eemed to h av e b een p assed b y th e Hous es of th e Legisl atur e of th e St at e in th e fo r m in whi ch it was p ass ed b y th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y for th e s econd ti me with su ch amend ments , if an y, as h av e b e en ma d e or sugg est ed by th e L eg isl ative C oun cil a nd agr e ed to b y th e Legisl ativ e Ass e mbl y. (3) Nothing in thi s ar ti cl e sh all appl y to a Money Bill . 198. Sp ecial pro cedu re in resp ect of Mon ey Bil ls. (1) A Mon e y Bill sh al l no t b e int rodu ced in a Legis l ativ e Coun cil. (2 ) Aft er a Mo n e y Bil l h as b ee n p ass ed b y th e L e g isl a tiv e Ass e mb l y o f a St at e h av ing a Legisl ativ e Coun cil , i t sh all b e tr an s mit t ed to th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil for its r e co mme nd ations , and th e Legi sl ativ e Coun cil sh al l with in a period of fourt een d ays f ro m th e d at e o f i ts r eceipt of th e Bil l r eturn th e Bil l to th e Legisl ativ e Ass embly wi th it s r ecommen d ations , and th e Legi sl ativ e Ass e mbl y ma y t h er eupon eith er accept or r ej e ct all or an y of th e r e comme n d a tions of th e Legisl at iv e Coun cil .

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(3) I f th e Leg isl ativ e Ass embly accep ts an y of th e r eco mmen d ation s of th e L eg isl ativ e C oun ci l, th e M on e y Bil l sh all b e d e e me d to h av e b e en p ass ed b y both Hous es w ith th e amend ments r eco mmended b y th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil and accept ed b y th e Legi sl ativ e Ass embl y. (4) I f th e Le gis l ativ e Assemb l y do es not accept an y of th e r e co mme nd ations of th e Legisl at iv e Coun cil , t h e Mo n e y Bill sh al l b e d eemed to h av e b e en p ass ed by both Hous es in th e for m in whi ch it was p ass ed b y th e Legis l ativ e Ass e mb l y wi thout an y of th e amen d men ts r eco mmend ed by th e Legisl at ive Coun cil . (5) If a Mon ey B il l p ass ed b y th e L egi sl ativ e A ss embl y and trans mit t ed to th e Leg isl at iv e Coun cil for it s r e co mmen d ation s i s not r eturn ed to th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y wi thin the s aid p e riod of fourt e en d a ys , it sh all b e d eemed to h av e b een p ass ed b y both Hou s es at th e expir ation of th e s aid p erio d in th e fo rm i n wh i ch i t wa s p ass ed b y th e L e g isl at iv e Asse mb l y . 199. Definition of Money Bills.(1) For the purposes of this Chapter, a Bill shall be deemed to be a Money Bill if it contains only provisions dealing with all or any of the following matters, namely: (a) the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax; (b) the regulation of the borrowing of money or the giving of any guarantee by the State, or the amendment of the law with respect to any financial obligations undertaken or to be undertaken by the State; (c) the custody of the Consolidated Fund or the Contingency Fund of the State, the payment of moneys into or the withdrawal of moneys from any such Fund; (d) the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State; (e) the declaring of any expenditure to be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of the State, or the increasing of the amount of any such expenditure; (f) the receipt of money on account of the Consolidated Fund of the State or the public account of the State or the custody or issue of such money; or (g) any matter incidental to any of the matters specified in sub-clauses (a) to (f). (2) A Bill shall not be deemed to be a Money Bill by reason only that it provides for the imposition of fines or other pecuniary penalties, or for the demand or payment of fees for licences or fees for services rendered, or by reason that it provides for the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority or body for local purposes. (3) If any question arises whether a Bill introduced in the Legislature of a State which has a Legislative Council is a Money Bill or not, the decision of the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of such State thereon shall be final. (4) There shall be endorsed on every Money Bill when it is transmitted to the Legislative Council under article 198, and when it is presented to the Governor for assent under article 200, the certificate of the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly signed by him that it is a Money Bill.

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200. Assent to Bills.When a Bill has been passed by the Legislative Assembly of a State or, in the case of a State having a Legislative Council, has been passed by both Houses of the Legislature of the State, it shall be presented to the Governor and the Governor shall declare either that he assents to the Bill or that he withholds assent therefrom or that he reserves the Bill for the consideration of the President: Provided that the Governor may, as soon as possible after the presentation to him of the Bill for assent, return the Bill if it is not a Money Bill together with a message requesting that the House or Houses will reconsider the Bill or any specified provisions thereof and, in particular, will consider the desirability of introducing any such amendments as he may recommend in his message and, wh en a Bill is so r eturn ed , th e Hous e or Hous es sh al l r e consid er th e Bil l accordingl y, an d if th e Bill is p ass ed ag ain b y th e Hous e or Hous es with or wi thout amend ment and pr es ent ed to th e Gov ernor for ass ent , th e Gov ernor sh all not withhold assent th er ef ro m: Provid ed furth er th at th e Gov ernor sh all not ass ent to , but sh all r es erv e for th e consid eration of th e Pr esid en t, an y Bill whi ch in th e opinion of th e Gov ernor would, if i t b ecame l aw, so d erog at e fro m th e po wers of th e High Court as to endang er th e position wh i ch th at Court is b y this Consti tution d esign ed to fi ll . 201 . Bills res erv ed fo r consid eration . Wh en a B ill is r es erv ed b y a Gov ernor for the cons ider ation of th e Pr esid ent, th e Pr esid ent sh all d e cl ar e eith er that h e ass ents to th e Bil l or th at h e withholds ass en t th er efro m: Provid ed th at, wh er e th e Bil l is no t a Mon e y Bil l, th e P r esid ent may dir ect th e Governor to r eturn th e Bill to th e Hous e or, as th e cas e ma y b e, th e Hous es of th e Legisl atur e of th e S t at e tog eth er with su ch a me s s ag e as is mention ed in th e fi rst proviso to ar ti cl e 200 and , wh en a Bill is so r eturn ed , th e Hous e o r Hous es sh all r e cons ider it accordingl y wi thin a p eriod of six months fro m th e d at e of r eceipt of su ch me s s age and , if it i s ag ain p ass ed b y t h e Hous e or Hous es wi th or without amen dmen t , i t sh al l b e p r es en t ed ag a in to th e Pr esid e n t fo r h is co n sid er at io n . Pro c edur e in Finan cial Matt er s 202 . Annual finan cial stat emen t .(1 ) Th e Governor sh all in r esp ect o f ev er y f in an ci al year caus e to be l aid b efor e the Hous e or Hous es o f th e Legisl atur e o f th e St at e a st at ement of th e esti ma t ed receipt s and exp enditu re of th e St at e for th at year , in this P art r ef err ed to as th e an n u al fin an ci al st a t e men t " . (2) Th e es ti ma t es o f ex p enditur e embodi ed in th e annu al fin an c i al st a t e men t sh a ll sh o w s ep ar at el y (a) th e su ms r e q u ir ed to me e t e x p en d itu r e d es crib ed b y t h is Consti tution as exp enditu re ch arg ed upon th e Consolid at ed Fund of th e S t at e ; an d (b ) t h e su ms requir ed to meet oth e r ex p end itur e propo s ed to b e ma d e fro m th e C o n so lid a t ed F u n d o f th e S t at e;

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and sh al l distingui sh ex p enditu r e on r evenu e account fro m oth er exp enditu re. (3) Th e follo wing exp enditu r e sh all b e exp enditu r e ch arg ed on th e Consolid at ed Fund of each S t at e (a) th e emolumen ts and allowan c es of th e Gov ernor and oth er exp enditu re r el ating to hi s of fi ce; (b) th e s al ari es and al lowan ces of th e Sp eak er and th e Deput y Sp eak er of th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y and , in the cas e of a St ate h aving a Legisl ativ e Coun cil , also of the Ch air man and th e Deput y Chair man of th e Legisl ativ e Coun cil ; ( c) d ebt ch arges for whi ch the St at e is li ab le in clud ing inter est , sink ing fund ch arg es and r ede mp tion ch arg es , and o th er exp enditu r e r el ating to th e rais ing of lo an s and th e s ervi ce and r ed emption of d ebt; (d ) ex p enditu r e in resp ect of th e s al a ri es an d allo wan c es of Judg es o f an y H i g h Co u r t ; (e ) an y su ms requir ed to s atisf y an y judg ment , d ecr ee or award of an y court or arbit r al tribun al ; (f ) an y oth er ex p enditu r e d e clar ed b y this Const itution , or by th e L egisl atur e o f th e St at e b y l aw, to b e so ch arg ed . 203 . Proced ure in Legis latu re w ith resp ect to esti ma t es . (1) So mu ch of th e est i mat es as r el at e s to exp enditu re ch arg ed upon th e Consolid at ed Fund of a St ate sh all no t b e sub mitt ed to th e vot e of th e Legisl ativ e Ass embl y, bu t nothing in th is cl aus e sh al l b e constru ed as prev enting th e dis cus sion in the Legisl atur e of an y o f thos e esti ma t es. (2) So much of the said estimates as relates to other expenditure shall be submitted in the form of demands for grants to the Legislative Assembly, and the Legislative Assembly shall have power to assent, or to refuse to assent, to any demand, or to assent to any demand subject to a reduction of the amount specified therein. (3) No demand for a grant shall be made except on the recommendation of the Governor. 204. Appropriation Bills.(1) As soon as may be after the grants under article 203 have been made by the Assembly, there shall be introduced a Bill to provide for the appropriation out of the Consolidated Fund of the State of all moneys required to meet (a) the grants so made by the Assembly; and (b) the expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of the State but not exceeding in any case the amount shown in the statement previously laid before the House or Houses. (2) No amendment shall be proposed to any such Bill in the House or either House of the Legislature of the State which will have the effect of varying the amount or altering the destination of any grant so made or of varying the amount of any expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of the State, and the decision of the person presiding as to whether an amendment is inadmissible under this clause shall be final.

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(3) Subject to the provisions of articles 205 and 206, no money shall be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund of the State except under appropriation made by law passed in accordance with the provisions of this article. 205. Supplementary, additional or excess grants.(1) The Governor shall (a) if the amount authorised by any law made in accordance with the provisions of article 204 to be expended for a particular service for the current financial year is found to be insufficient for the purposes of that year or when a need has arisen during the current financial year for supplementary or additional expenditure upon some new service not contemplated in the annual financial statement for that year, or (b) if any money has been spent on any service during a financial year in excess of the amount granted for that service and for that year, cause to be laid before the House or the Houses of the Legislature of the State another statement showing the estimated amount of that expenditure or cause to be presented to the Legislative Assembly of the State a demand for such excess, as the case may be. (2) The provisions of articles 202, 203 and 204 shall have effect in relation to any such statement and expenditure or demand and also to any law to be made authorising the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State to meet such expenditure or the grant in respect of such demand as they have effect in relation to the annual financial statement and the expenditure mentioned therein or to a demand for a grant and the law to be made for the authorisation of appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State to meet such expenditure or grant. 206. Votes on account, votes of credit and exceptional grants.(1) Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter, the Legislative Assembly of a State shall have power (a) to make any grant in advance in respect of the estimated expenditure for a part of any financial year pending the completion of the procedure prescribed in article 203 for the voting of such grant and the passing of the law in accordance with the provisions of article 204 in relation to that expenditure; (b) to make a grant for meeting an unexpected demand upon the resources of the State when on account of the magnitude or the indefinite character of the service the demand cannot be stated with the details ordinarily given in an annual financial statement; (c) to make an exceptional grant which forms no part of the current service of any financial year; and the Legislature of the State shall have power to authorise by law the withdrawal of moneys from the Consolidated Fund of the State for the purposes for which the said grants are made. (2) The provisions of articles 203 and 204 shall have effect in relation to the making of any grant under clause (1) and to any law to be made under that clause as they have effect in relation to the making of a grant with regard to any expenditure mentioned in the annual financial statement and the law to be made for the authorisation of appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State to meet such expenditure.

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207. Special provisions as to financial Bills.(1) A Bill or amendment making provision for any of the matters specified in sub-clauses (a) to (f) of clause (1) of article 199 shall not be introduced or moved except on the recommendation of the Governor, and a Bill making such provision shall not be introduced in a Legislative Council: Provided that no recommendation shall be required under this clause for the moving of an amendment making provision for the reduction or abolition of any tax. (2) A Bill or amendment shall not be deemed to make provision for any of the matters aforesaid by reason only that it provides for the imposition of fines or other pecuniary penalties, or for the demand or payment of fees for licences or fees for services rendered, or by reason that it provides for the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority or body for local purposes. (3) A Bill which, if enacted and brought into operation, would involve expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of a State shall not be passed by a House of the Legislature of the State unless the Governor has recommended to that House the consideration of the Bill. Procedure Generally 208. Rules of procedure.(1) A House of the Legislature of a State may make rules for regulating, subject to the provisions of this Constitution, its procedure and the conduct of its business. (2) Until rules are made under clause (1), the rules of procedure and standing orders in force immediately before the commencement of this Constitution with respect to the Legislature for the corresponding Province shall have effect in relation to the Legislature of the State subject to such modifications and adaptations as may be made therein by the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, or the Chairman of the Legislative Council, as the case may be. (3) In a State having a Legislative Council the Governor, after consultation with the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the Chairman of the Legislative Council, may make rules as to the procedure with respect to communications between the two Houses. 209. Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to financial business. The Legislature of a State may, for the purpose of the timely completion of financial business, regulate by law the procedure of, and the conduct of business in, the House or Houses of the Legislature of the State in relation to any financial matter or to any Bill for the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State, and, if and so far as any provision of any law so made is inconsistent with any rule made by the House or either House of the Legislature of the State under clause (1) of article 208 or with any rule or standing order having effect in relation to the Legislature of the State under clause (2) of that article, such provision shall prevail. 210. Language to be used in the Legislature.(1) Notwithstanding anything in Part XVII, but subject to the provisions of article 348, business in the Legislature of a State shall be transacted in the official language or languages of the State or in Hindi or in English: Provided that the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly or Chairman of the Legislative Council, or person acting as such, as the case may be, may permit any member who cannot

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adequately express himself in any of the languages aforesaid to address the House in his mother-tongue. (2) Unless the Legislature of the State by law otherwise provides, this article shall, after the expiration of a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution, have effect as if the words or in English were omitted therefrom: Provided that in relation to the Legislatures of the States of Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura this clause shall have effect as if for the words "fifteen" years occurring therein, the words "twenty-five years" were substituted: Provided further that in relation to the Legislatures of the States of Arunachal Pradesh, Goa and Mizoram, this clause shall have effect as if for the words "fifteen years" occurring therein, the words "forty years" were substituted. 211. Restriction on discussion in the Legislature. No discussion shall take place in the Legislature of a State with respect to the conduct of any Judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court in the discharge of his duties. 212. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature.(1) The validity of any proceedings in the Legislature of a State shall not be called in question on the ground of any alleged irregularity of procedure. (2) No officer or member of the Legislature of a State in whom powers are vested by or under this Constitution for regulating procedure or the conduct of business, or for maintaining order, in the Legislature shall be subject to the jurisdiction of any court in respect of the exercise by him of those powers.

CHAPTER IV.LEGISLATIVE POWER OF THE GOVERNOR


213. Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.(1) If at any time, except when the Legislative Assembly of a State is in session, or where there is a Legislative Council in a State, except when both Houses of the Legislature are in session, the Governor is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may promulgate such Ordinances as the circumstances appear to him to require: Provided that the Governor shall not, without instructions from the President, promulgate any such Ordinance if (a) a Bill containing the same provisions would under this Constitution have required the previous sanction of the President for the introduction thereof into the Legislature; or (b) he would have deemed it necessary to reserve a Bill containing the same provisions for the consideration of the President; or (c) an Act of the Legislature of the State containing the same provisions would under this Constitution have been invalid unless, having been reserved for the consideration of the President, it had received the assent of the President. (2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article shall have the same force and effect as an Act of the Legislature of the State assented to by the Governor, but every such Ordinance (a) shall be laid before the Legislative Assembly of the State, or where there is a Legislative Council in the State, before both the Houses, and shall cease to operate at the

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expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of the Legislature, or if before the expiration of that period a resolution disapproving it is passed by the Legislative Assembly and agreed to by the Legislative Council, if any, upon the passing of the resolution or, as the case may be, on the resolution being agreed to by the Council; and (b) may be withdrawn at any time by the Governor. Explanation.Where the Houses of the Legislature of a State having a Legislative Council are summoned to reassemble on different dates, the period of six weeks shall be reckoned from the later of those dates for the purposes of this clause. (3) If and so far as an Ordinance under this article makes any provision which would not be valid if enacted in an Act of the Legislature of the State assented to by the Governor, it shall be void: Provided that, for the purposes of the provisions of this Constitution relating to the effect of an Act of the Legislature of a State which is repugnant to an Act of Parliament or an existing law with respect to a matter enumerated in the Concurrent List, an Ordinance promulgated under this article in pursuance of instructions from the President shall be deemed to be an Act of the Legislature of the State which has been reserved for the consideration of the President and assented to by him. * * * * * CHAPTER V.THE HIGH COURTS IN THE STATES 214. High Courts for States.There shall be a High Court for each State. * * * * * 215. High Courts to be courts of record.Every High Court shall be a court of record and shall have all the powers of such a court including the power to punish for contempt of itself. 216. Constitution of High Courts.Every High Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and such other Judges as the President may from time to time deem it necessary to appoint. * * * * * 217. Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court.(1) Every Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, the Governor of the State, and, in the case of appointment of a Judge other than the Chief Justice, the Chief Justice of the High Court, and shall hold office, in the case of an additional or acting Judge, as provided in article 224, and in any other case, until he attains the age of sixty-two years: Provided that (a) a Judge may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office; (b) a Judge may be removed from his office by the President in the manner provided in clause (4) of article 124 for the removal of a Judge of the Supreme Court;

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(c) the office of a Judge shall be vacated by his being appointed by the President to be a Judge of the Supreme Court or by his being transferred by the President to any other High Court within the territory of India. (2) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judge of a High Court unless he is a citizen of India and (a) has for at least ten years held a judicial office in the territory of India; or (b) has for at least ten years been an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession. * * * * * Explanation.For the purposes of this clause (a) in computing the period during which a person has held judicial office in the territory of India, there shall be included any period, after he has held any judicial office, during which the person has been an advocate of a High Court or has held the office of a member of a tribunal or any post, under the Union or a State, requiring special knowledge of law; (aa) in computing the period during which a person has been an advocate of a High Court, there shall be included any period during which the person has held judicial office or the office of a member of a tribunal or any post, under the Union or a State, requiring special knowledge of law after he became an advocate; (b) in computing the period during which a person has held judicial office in the territory of India or been an advocate of a High Court, there shall be included any period before the commencement of this Constitution during which he has held judicial office in any area which was comprised before the fifteenth day of August, 1947, within India as defined by the Government of India Act, 1935, or has been an advocate of any High Court in any such area, as the case may be. (3) If any question arises as to the age of a Judge of a High Court, the question shall be decided by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the decision of the President shall be final. 218. Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to High Courts. The provisions of clauses (4) and (5) of article 124 shall apply in relation to a High Court as they apply in relation to the Supreme Court with the substitution of references to the High Court for references to the Supreme Court. 219. Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts.Every person appointed to be a Judge of a High Court shall, before he enters upon his office, make and subscribe before the Governor of the State, or some person appointed in that behalf by him, an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule. 220. Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge.No person who, after the commencement of this Constitution, has held office as a permanent Judge of a High Court shall plead or act in any court or before any authority in India except the Supreme Court and the other High Courts.

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Explanation.In this article, the expression High Court does not include a High Court for a State specified in Part B of the First Schedule as it existed before the commencement of the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956. 221. Salaries, etc., of Judges.(1) There shall be paid to the Judges of each High Court such salaries as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is so made, such salaries as are specified in the Second Schedule. (2) Every Judge shall be entitled to such allowances and to such rights in respect of leave of absence and pension as may from time to time be determined by or under law made by Parliament and, until so determined, to such allowances and rights as are specified in the Second Schedule: Provided that neither the allowances of a Judge nor his rights in respect of leave of absence or pension shall be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment. 222. Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another.(1) The President may, after consultation with the Chief Justice of India, transfer a Judge from one High Court to any other High Court. (2) When a Judge has been or is so transferred, he shall, during the period he serves, after the commencement of the Constitution (Fifteenth Amendment) Act, 1963, as a Judge of the other High Court, be entitled to receive in addition to his salary such compensatory allowance as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until so determined, such compensatory allowance as the President may by order fix. 223. Appointment of acting Chief Justice.When the office of Chief Justice of a High Court is vacant or when any such Chief Justice is, by reason of absence or otherwise, unable to perform the duties of his office, the duties of the office shall be performed by such one of the other Judges of the Court as the President may appoint for the purpose. 224. Appointment of additional and acting Judges.(1) If by reason of any temporary increase in the business of a High Court or by reason of arrears of work therein, it appears to the President that the number of the Judges of that Court should be for the time being increased, the President may appoint duly qualified persons to be additional Judges of the Court for such period not exceeding two years as he may specify. (2) When any Judge of a High Court other than the Chief Justice is by reason of absence or for any other reason unable to perform the duties of his office or is appointed to act temporarily as Chief Justice, the President may appoint a duly qualified person to act as a Judge of that Court until the permanent Judge has resumed his duties. (3) No person appointed as an additional or acting Judge of a High Court shall hold office after attaining the age of sixty-two years. 224A. Appointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts.Notwithstanding anything in this Chapter, the Chief Justice of a High Court for any State may at any time, with the previous consent of the President, request any person who has held the office of a Judge of that Court or of any other High Court to sit and act as a Judge of the High Court for that State, and every such person so requested shall, while so sitting and acting, be entitled to such allowances as the President may by order determine and have all the jurisdiction, powers and privileges of, but shall not otherwise be deemed to be, a Judge of that High Court:

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Provided that nothing in this article shall be deemed to require any such person as aforesaid to sit and act as a Judge of that High Court unless he consents so to do. 225. Jurisdiction of existing High Courts.Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and to the provisions of any law of the appropriate Legislature made by virtue of powers conferred on that Legislature by this Constitution, the jurisdiction of, and the law administered in, any existing High Court, and the respective powers of the Judges thereof in relation to the administration of justice in the Court, including any power to make rules of Court and to regulate the sittings of the Court and of members thereof sitting alone or in Division Courts, shall be the same as immediately before the commencement of this Constitution: Provided that any restriction to which the exercise of original jurisdiction by any of the High Courts with respect to any matter concerning the revenue or concerning any act ordered or done in the collection thereof was subject immediately before the commencement of this Constitution shall no longer apply to the exercise of such jurisdiction. 226. Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.(1) Notwithstanding anything in article 32 every High Court shall have power, throughout the territories in relation to which it exercises jurisdiction, to issue to any person or authority, including in appropriate cases, any Government, within those territories directions, orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari, or any of them, for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by Part III and for any other purpose. (2) The power conferred by clause (1) to issue directions, orders or writs to any Government, authority or person may also be exercised by any High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to the territories within which the cause of action, wholly or in part, arises for the exercise of such power, notwithstanding that the seat of such Government or authority or the residence of such person is not within those territories. (3) Where any party against whom an interim order, whether by way of injunction or stay or in any other manner, is made on, or in any proceedings relating to, a petition under clause (1), without (a) furnishing to such party copies of such petition and all documents in support of the plea for such interim order; and (b) giving such party an opportunity of being heard, makes an application to the High Court for the vacation of such order and furnishes a copy of such application to the party in whose favour such order has been made or the counsel of such party, the High Court shall dispose of the application within a period of two weeks from the date on which it is received or from the date on which the copy of such application is so furnished, whichever is later, or where the High Court is closed on the last day of that period, before the expiry of the next day afterwards on which the High Court is open; and if the application is not so disposed of, the interim order shall, on the expiry of that period, or, as the case may be, the expiry of the said next day, stand vacated. (4) The power conferred on a High Court by this article shall not be in derogation of the power conferred on the Supreme Court by clause (2) of article 32.

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226A. [Constitutional validity of Central laws not to be considered in proceedings under article 226.] Rep. by the Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977, s. 8 (w.e.f. 13-41978). 227. Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court.(1) Every High Court shall have superintendence over all courts and tribunals throughout the territories in relation to which it exercises jurisdiction. (2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provision, the High Court may (a) call for returns from such courts; (b) make and issue general rules and prescribe forms for regulating the practice and proceedings of such courts; and (c) prescribe forms in which books, entries and accounts shall be kept by the officers of any such courts. (3) The High Court may also settle tables of fees to be allowed to the sheriff and all clerks and officers of such courts and to attorneys, advocates and pleaders practising therein: Provided that any rules made, forms prescribed or tables settled under clause (2) or clause (3) shall not be inconsistent with the provision of any law for the time being in force, and shall require the previous approval of the Governor. (4) Nothing in this article shall be deemed to confer on a High Court powers of superintendence over any court or tribunal constituted by or under any law relating to the Armed Forces. * * * * * 228. Transfer of certain cases to High Court.If the High Court is satisfied that a case pending in a court subordinate to it involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution the determination of which is necessary for the disposal of the case, it shall withdraw the case and may (a) either dispose of the case itself, or (b) determine the said question of law and return the case to the court from which the case has been so withdrawn together with a copy of its judgment on such question, and the said court shall on receipt thereof proceed to dispose of the case in conformity with such judgment. 228A. [Special provisions as to disposal of questions relating to constitutional validity of State laws.] Rep. by the Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act, 1977, s. 10 (w.e.f. 13-41978). 229. Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts.(1) Appointments of officers and servants of a High Court shall be made by the Chief Justice of the Court or such other Judge or officer of the Court as he may direct: Provided that the Governor of the State may by rule require that in such cases as may be specified in the rule no person not already attached to the Court shall be appointed to any office connected with the Court save after consultation with the State Public Service Commission.

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(2) Subject to the provisions of any law made by the Legislature of the State, the conditions of service of officers and servants of a High Court shall be such as may be prescribed by rules made by the Chief Justice of the Court or by some other Judge or officer of the Court authorised by the Chief Justice to make rules for the purpose: Provided that the rules made under this clause shall, so far as they relate to salaries, allowances, leave or pensions, require the approval of the Governor of the State. (3) The administrative expenses of a High Court, including all salaries, allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of the officers and servants of the Court, shall be charged upon the Consolidated Fund of the State, and any fees or other moneys taken by the Court shall form part of that Fund. 230. Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories.(1) Parliament may by law extend the jurisdiction of a High Court to, or exclude the jurisdiction of a High Court from, any Union territory. (2) Where the High Court of a State exercises jurisdiction in relation to a Union territory, (a) noth ing in this Cons titut ion sh al l b e constru ed as empo wering th e L eg isl atu r e o f th e S ta t e to in cr e as e , r est ri ct o r ab o li sh th a t jur isdi ction ; an d (b) th e r ef er en ce in arti cl e 227 to th e Go v ernor sh all , in r e lation to an y rul es , for ms or t abl es for subordin a t e courts in th at t err itor y, b e constru ed as a ref er en ce to th e Pr esid en t. 231. Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States.(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in the preceding provisions of this Chapter, Parliament may by law establish a common High Court for two or more States or for two or more States and a Union territory. (2) In relation to any such High Court, (a) the reference in article 217 to the Governor of the State shall be construed as a reference to the Governors of all the States in relation to which the High Court exercises jurisdiction; (b) the reference in article 227 to the Governor shall, in relation to any rules, forms or tables for subordinate courts, be construed as a reference to the Governor of the State in which the subordinate courts are situate; and (c) the references in articles 219 and 229 to the State shall be construed as a reference to the State in which the High Court has its principal seat: Provided that if such principal seat is in a Union territory, the references in articles 219 and 229 to the Governor, Public Service Commission, Legislature and Consolidated Fund of the State shall be construed respectively as references to the President, Union Public Service Commission, Parliament and Consolidated Fund of India.

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA CHAPTER VI.SUBORDINATE COURTS

233. Appointment of district judges.(1) Appointments of persons to be, and the posting and promotion of, district judges in any State shall be made by the Governor of the State in consultation with the High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to such State. (2) A person not already in the service of the Union or of the State shall only be eligible to be appointed a district judge if he has been for not less than seven years an advocate or a pleader and is recommended by the High Court for appointment. 233A. Validation of appointments of, and judgments, etc., delivered by, certain district judges. Notwithstanding any judgment, decree or order of any court, (a) (i) no appointment of any person already in the judicial service of a State or of any person who has been for not less than seven years an advocate or a pleader, to be a district judge in that State, and (ii) no posting, promotion or transfer of any such person as a district judge, made at any time before the commencement of the Constitution (Twentieth Amendment) Act, 1966, otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of article 233 or article 235 shall be deemed to be illegal or void or ever to have become illegal or void by reason only of the fact that such appointment, posting, promotion or transfer was not made in accordance with the said provisions; (b) no jurisdiction exercised, no judgment, decree, sentence or order passed or made, and no other act or proceedings done or taken, before the commencement of the Constitution (Twentieth Amendment) Act, 1966 by, or before, any person appointed, posted, promoted or transferred as a district judge in any State otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of article 233 or article 235 shall be deemed to be illegal or invalid or ever to have become illegal or invalid by reason only of the fact that such appointment, posting, promotion or transfer was not made in accordance with the said provisions. 234. Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service. Appointments of persons other than district judges to the judicial service of a State shall be made by the Governor of the State in accordance with rules made by him in that behalf after consultation with the State Public Service Commission and with the High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to such State. 235. Control over subordinate courts. The control over district courts and courts subordinate thereto including the posting and promotion of, and the grant of leave to, persons belonging to the judicial service of a State and holding any post inferior to the post of district judge shall be vested in the High Court, but nothing in this article shall be construed as taking away from any such person any right of appeal which he may have under the law regulating the conditions of his service or as authorising the High Court to deal with him otherwise than in accordance with the conditions of his service prescribed under such law. 236. Interpretation. In this Chapter (a) the expression district judge includes judge of a city civil court, additional district judge, joint district judge, assistant district judge, chief judge of a small cause

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA court, chief presidency magistrate, additional chief presidency magistrate, sessions judge, additional sessions judge and assistant sessions Judge; (b) the expression judicial service means a service consisting exclusively of persons intended to fill the post of district judge and other civil judicial posts inferior to the post of district judge.

237. Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class or classes of magistrates.The Governor may by public notification direct that the foregoing provisions of this Chapter and any rules made thereunder shall with effect from such date as may be fixed by him in that behalf apply in relation to any class or classes of magistrates in the State as they apply in relation to persons appointed to the judicial service of the State subject to such exceptions and modifications as may be specified in the notification.

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PART VII.[The States in Part B of the First Schedule]. Rep. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.

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PART VIII THE UNION TERRITORIES


239. Administration of Union territories.(1) Save as otherwise provided by Parliament by law, every Union territory shall be administered by the President acting, to such extent as he thinks fit, through an administrator to be appointed by him with such designation as he may specify. (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in Part VI, the President my appoint the Governor of a State as the administrator of an adjoining Union territory, and where a Governor is so appointed, he shall exercise his functions as such administrator independently of his Council of Ministers. 239A. Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for certain Union territories.(1) Parliament may by law create for the Union territory of Pondicherry (a) a body, whether elected or partly nominated and partly elected, to function as a Legislature for the Union territory, or (b) a Council of Ministers, or both with such constitution, powers and functions, in each case, as may be specified in the law. (2) Any such law as is referred to in clause (1) shall not be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368 notwithstanding that it contains any provision which amends or has the effect of amending this Constitution. 239AA. Special provisions with respect to Delhi.(1) As from the date of commencement of the Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1991, the Union territory of Delhi shall be called the National Capital Territory of Delhi (hereafter in this Part referred to as the National Capital Territory) and the administrator thereof appointed under article 239 shall be designated as the Lieutenant Governor. (2)(a) There shall be a Legislative Assembly for the National Capital Territory and the seats in such Assembly shall be filled by members chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the National Capital Territory. (b) The total number of seats in the Legislative Assembly, the number of seats reserved for Scheduled Castes, the division of the National Capital Territory into territorial constituencies (including the basis for such division) and all other matters relating to the functioning of the Legislative Assembly shall be regulated by law made by Parliament. (c) The provisions of articles 324 to 327 and 329 shall apply in relation to the National Capital Territory, the Legislative Assembly of the National Capital Territory and the members thereof as they apply, in relation to a State, the Legislative Assembly of a State and the members thereof respectively; and any reference in articles 326 and 329 to appropriate Legislature shall be deemed to be a reference to Parliament. (3) (a) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the Legislative Assembly shall have power to make laws for the whole or any part of the National Capital Territory with respect to 85

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any of the matters enumerated in the State List or in the Concurrent List in so far as any such matter is applicable to Union territories except matters with respect to Entries 1, 2 and 18 of the State List and Entries 64, 65 and 66 of that List in so far as they relate to the said Entries 1, 2 and 18. (b) Nothing in sub-clause (a) shall derogate from the powers of Parliament under this Constitution to make laws with respect to any matter for a Union territory or any part thereof. (c) If any provision of a law made by the Legislative Assembly with respect to any matter is repugnant to any provision of a law made by Parliament with respect to that matter, whether passed before or after the law made by the Legislative Assembly, or of an earlier law, other than a law made by the Legislative Assembly, then, in either case, the law made by Parliament, or, as the case may be, such earlier law, shall prevail and the law made by the Legislative Assembly shall, to the extent of the repugnancy, be void: Provided that if any such law made by the Legislative Assembly has been reserved for the consideration of the President and has received his assent, such law shall prevail in the National Capital Territory: Provided further that nothing in this sub-clause shall prevent Parliament from enacting at any time any law with respect to the same matter including a law adding to, amending, varying or repealing the law so made by the Legislative Assembly. (4) There shall be a Council of Ministers consisting of not more than ten per cent. of the total number of members in the Legislative Assembly, with the Chief Minister at the head to aid and advise the Lieutenant Governor in the exercise of his functions in relation to matters with respect to which the Legislative Assembly has power to make laws, except in so far as he is, by or under any law, required to act in his discretion: Provided that in the case of difference of opinion between the Lieutenant Governor and his Ministers on any matter, the Lieutenant Governor shall refer it to the President for decision and act according to the decision given thereon by the President and pending such decision it shall be competent for the Lieutenant Governor in any case where the matter, in his opinion, is so urgent that it is necessary for him to take immediate action, to take such action or to give such direction in the matter as he deems necessary. (5) The Chief Minister shall be appointed by the President and other Ministers shall be appointed by the President on the advice of the Chief Minister and the Ministers shall hold office during the pleasure of the President. (6) The Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to the Legislative Assembly. (7) (a) Parliament may, by law, make provisions for giving effect to, or supplementing the provisions contained in the foregoing clauses and for all matters incidental or consequential thereto. (b) Any such law as is referred to in sub-clause (a) shall not be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368 notwithstanding that it contains any provision which amends or has the effect of amending, this Constitution. (8) The provisions of article 239B shall, so far as may be, apply in relation to the National Capital Territory, the Lieutenant Governor and the Legislative Assembly, as they apply in relation to the Union territory of Pondicherry, the administrator and its Legislature,

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respectively; and any reference in that article to clause (1) of article 239A shall be deemed to be a reference to this article or article 239AB, as the case may be. 239AB. Provision in case of failure of constitutional machinery.If the President, on receipt of a report from the Lieutenant Governor or otherwise, is satisfied (a) that a situation has arisen in which the administration of the National Capital Territory cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of article 239AA or of any law made in pursuance of that article; or (b) that for the proper administration of the National Capital Territory it is necessary or expedient so to do, the President may by order suspend the operation of any provision of article 239AA or of all or any of the provisions of any law made in pursuance of that article for such period and subject to such conditions as may be specified in such law and make such incidental and consequential provisions as may appear to him to be necessary or expedient for administering the National Capital Territory in accordance with the provisions of article 239 and article 239AA. 239B. Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature.(1) If at any time, except when the Legislature of the Union territory of Pondicherry is in session, the administrator thereof is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action, he may promulgate such Ordinances as the circumstances appear to him to require: Provided that no such Ordinance shall be promulgated by the administrator except after obtaining instructions from the President in that behalf: Provided further that whenever the said Legislature is dissolved, or its functioning remains suspended on account of any action taken under any such law as is referred to in clause (1) of article 239A, the administrator shall not promulgate any Ordinance during the period of such dissolution or suspension. (2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article in pursuance of instructions from the President shall be deemed to be an Act of the Legislature of the Union territory which has been duly enacted after complying with the provisions in that behalf contained in any such law as is referred to in clause (1) of article 239A, but every such Ordinance (a) shall be laid before the Legislature of the Union territory and shall cease to operate at the expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of the Legislature or if, before the expiration of that period, a resolution disapproving it is passed by the Legislature, upon the passing of the resolution; and (b) may be withdrawn at any time by the administrator after obtaining instructions from the President in that behalf. (3) If and so far as an Ordinance under this article makes any provision which would not be valid if enacted in an Act of the Legislature of the Union territory made after complying with the provisions in that behalf contained in any such law as is referred to in clause (1) of article 239A, it shall be void. * * * * *

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240. Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories. (1) The President may make regulations for the peace, progress and good government of the Union territory of (a) th e An d a man an d Ni co b a r Isl an d s ; (b) L aksh ad w eep; ( c) D ad r a an d Na g ar H av el i ; (d) D aman and D iu; ( e) Pondi ch err y: Provided that when any body is created under article 239A to function as a Legislature for the Union territory of Pondicherry, the President shall not make any regulation for the peace, progress and good government of that Union territory with effect from the date appointed for the first meeting of the Legislature: Provided further that whenever the body functioning as a Legislature for the Union territory of Pondicherry is dissolved, or the functioning of that body as such Legislature remains suspended on account of any action taken under any such law as is referred to in clause (1) of article 239A, the President may, during the period of such dissolution or suspension, make regulations for the peace, progress and good government of that Union territory. (2) Any regulation so made may repeal or amend any Act made by Parliament or any other law which is for the time being applicable to the Union territory and, when promulgated by the President, shall have the same force and effect as an Act of Parliament which applies to that territory. 241. High Courts for Union territories(1) Parliament may by law constitute a High Court for a Union territory or declare any court in any such territory to be a High Court for all or any of the purposes of this Constitution. (2) The provisions of Chapter V of Part VI shall apply in relation to every High Court referred to in clause (1) as they apply in relation to a High Court referred to in article 214 subject to such modifications or exceptions as Parliament may by law provide. (3) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and to the provisions of any law of the appropriate Legislature made by virtue of powers conferred on that Legislature by or under this Constitution, every High Court exercising jurisdiction immediately before the commencement of the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, in relation to any Union territory shall continue to exercise such jurisdiction in relation to that territory after such commencement. (4) Nothing in this article derogates from the power of Parliament to extend or exclude the jurisdiction of a High Court for a State to, or from, any Union territory or part thereof. 242. [Coorg.] Rep. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, s. 29 and Sch.

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PART IX THE PANCHAYATS


243 . Def initions . In th is P art , unl ess th e context oth er wis e r equir es , (a) district means a district in a State; (b) Gram Sabha means a body consisting of persons registered in the electoral rolls relating to a village comprised within the area of Panchayat at the village level; (c) intermediate level means a level between the village and district levels specified by the Governor of a State by public notification to be the intermediate level for the purposes of this Part; (d) Panchayat means an institution (by whatever name called) of self- government constituted under article 243B, for the rural areas; (e) Panchayat area means the territorial area of a Panchayat; (f) Population means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published; (g) village means a village specified by the Governor by public notification to be a village for the purposes of this Part and includes a group of villages so specified. 2 4 3 A . G ra m S ab h a . A Gr am S a b h a ma y e x er cis e s u ch p o w e r s an d p erfor m su ch fun ction s at th e vill ag e l ev e l as th e Legisl ature of a St at e ma y, b y l a w , p rovid e . 243 B. Constitution o f Pan chayats .(1) Th ere sh al l b e consti tut ed in e v er y S t at e , P an ch a y ats at th e v ill ag e , in t er me d i at e an d d istri ct l ev e ls in accord an ce with th e provision s of this P ar t. (2) No t wi thst anding an ything in cl au s e (1) , P an ch a yats at th e int e r medi a t e l ev el may not b e constitu t ed in a St at e h aving a popul ation n o t ex c e ed i n g t w e n t y l ak h s . 243 C. Co mp osition of Pan chayats . (1) Subj ect to th e provis ions of thi s P art , the Legis l atur e of a St at e may, b y law, mak e provision s with r esp ect to th e co mposit ion of Pan ch a yats : Provid ed th at the r at io b e tween th e popul ation of th e t e rritor ial ar ea of a P an ch a y at at an y l ev el an d th e n u mb er o f s e ats in su ch P an ch a y at to b e fi ll ed b y el ection sh all , so f ar as pr act i c ab l e , be th e s a me throughout th e S t at e . (2) All th e s eats in a P an ch a ya t sh al l b e filled b y p ersons chos en b y dir ect el ect ion fro m t errito ri al con stitu en ci es in th e P an ch ayat ar ea and , for this purpose, each P an ch ayat ar ea sh al l b e d ivid ed in to t e rritor i al const itu en ci es in su ch ma nn er th at th e ratio b e tween th e popul ation of e a ch const itu en cy and th e nu mb er of s eats allot ted to it sh all , so f ar as pr act i cab l e, b e th e s ame throughout th e p an ch ayat ar ea. (3) Th e L egisl atu r e o f a St at e ma y, b y l a w , p rovid e for th e r epr es en t ation 89

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(a) of the Chairpersons of the Panchayats at the village level, in the Panchayats at the intermediate level or, in the case of a State not having Panchayats at the intermediate level, in the Panchayats at the district level; (b) of the Chairpersons of the Panchayats at the intermediate level, in the Panchayats at the district level; (c) of the members of the House of the People and the members of the Legislative Assembly of the State representing constituencies which comprise wholly or partly a Panchayat area at a level other than the village level, in such Panchayat; (d) of the members of the Council of States and the members of the Legislative Council of the State, where they are registered as electors within (i) a Panchayat area at the intermediate level, in Panchayat at the intermediate level; (ii) a Panchayat area at the district level, in Panchayat at the district level. (4) Th e Ch ai rperson of a P an chayat and o th er memb er s of a Pan ch ayat wh eth er o r not chos en b y dir e ct el ection fro m t err itori al constitu en ci es in th e P an ch a yat ar ea sh all h av e th e right to vot e in th e meeting s of th e P an ch ayats . (5) Th e Ch airp erson of (a) a panchayat at the village level shall be elected in such manner as the Legislature of a State may, by law, provide; and (b) a Panchayat at the intermediate level or district level shall be elected by, and from amongst, the elected members thereof. 2 4 3 D . R es e rv a t i o n o f s ea t s . (1) S eats sh al l be r es erv ed for (a) the Scheduled Castes; and (b) the Scheduled Tribes, in ev er y P an ch a y a t an d th e n u mb er o f s e a ts so r es erv ed sh all b e ar , as n e arl y as ma y b e , th e s a me proport ion to th e tot a l nu mb er of s e at s to b e fi ll ed b y dir e ct el ect ion in th at P an ch a yat as th e popul ation of th e S ch edul ed Cas tes in th at P an chayat ar ea or of th e S ch edul ed Trib es in th at P an ch a yat ar ea b e ars to th e total popul ation of th at ar ea and s u ch s e ats may b e al lott ed b y rot at ion to diff er en t cons tituen ci es in a P an ch ayat . (2) No t l ess th an on e- third o f th e tot al nu mb er of s eats r es erved und er cl aus e (1) sh al l b e r e s erv ed for wo me n b elonging to th e S ch edul ed Cas t es or , as th e cas e may b e, th e S ch edul ed Trib es . (3) No t l ess th an on e- third (in cluding th e nu mb er of s e ats r e serv ed fo r wo men b e longing to th e S ch edu led Cast es an d th e S ch edul ed Trib es) o f th e tot a l nu mb er of s e at s to b e f ill ed b y dir e ct el e ct ion in ev ery P an ch a yat sh al l b e r es erv ed fo r wo me n an d su ch s e a ts ma y b e al lo tt ed b y ro t a tio n to diff er en t constitu en ci es in a P anch a yat . (4 ) Th e o ff i c es o f th e Ch airp erso n s in th e P an ch a y ats at th e v ill ag e o r a n y o th er l ev el sh al l b e r es erv ed fo r th e S ch ed u l ed C ast es , th e S ch ed u l ed

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T rib es and women in su ch mann er as th e L egis l atur e of a St at e may, b y l a w , p ro v id e: Provid ed th at th e nu mb er of offi ces of Ch airp ersons r es erv ed for th e S ch ed u l ed C ast es an d th e S ch ed u l ed Trib es in th e P an ch a y ats at e a ch l ev el in an y St at e shall b e ar , as n e arl y as ma y b e , th e s ame proport ion to th e to t a l n u mb er o f su ch o ffi c es i n th e P an ch a y a ts a t e a ch l ev el a s th e popul at ion of the S ch edul ed Cast es in th e S tat e or of th e S ch edul ed Tr ibes in th e St at e b e ars to th e tot al popul at ion o f th e St at e: Provid ed furth er th at not l ess th an on e-third of th e to t al nu mb er of offi ces of Ch airp ersons in th e P an ch a yats at each l ev e l sh al l b e r e serv ed for wo men : Provid ed also that th e nu mb er of off i ces r es erved und er th is claus e sh all b e allo t t ed b y ro t at io n to d iff ere n t P an ch a y ats a t e a ch l ev el . (5) Th e r es erv ation of s e ats under cl aus es (1) and (2) and th e res erv at ion of o ffi ces o f Ch airp er sons (oth er th an th e r es erv at ion for wo men) und er cl aus e (4) sh all ceas e to h ave ef f e ct on the exp ir ation o f t h e p eriod sp ecif i ed in ar ticl e 334 . (6) Nothing in thi s P art sh all pr ev en t th e Legis l atur e o f a S tat e fro m ma k ing an y provis ion for r e serv ation of s e ats in an y P an ch a ya t o r offi ces of Ch airp ersons in th e P an ch a ya ts at an y l ev e l in f avour of b a ck ward cl ass o f cit i zen s. 2 4 3 E . Du ra t io n o f Pa n ch a y a t s , et c .(1) Ev er y P an ch a ya t , unl ess soon er dissolv ed und er an y l a w fo r th e ti me b eing in for ce, shall continu e for fiv e years fro m th e d a t e appoint ed for i ts first meeting and no long er . (2) No amend ment of an y l aw for th e t i me b eing in for ce sh all h av e th e eff e ct o f causing dis solution of a P an ch a ya t at an y l ev el , whi ch is fun ct ioning i mme d i at el y b efo re su ch amend ment , ti ll th e expir a tion of it s dur at ion sp ecified in cl aus e (1) . (3) An el ection to consti tut e a P an ch ayat sh all b e co mp l et ed (a) before the expiry of its duration specified in clause (1); (b) before the expiration of a period of six months from the date of its dissolution: Provid ed th at w h er e th e r emaind er o f th e p eriod for whi ch the d issolv ed P an ch a y at wo u ld h av e c o n tin u e d is l es s th an s ix mo n th s , it s h all n o t b e n ecess ar y to hold an y el ec tion und er th is cl au s e for constitu ting th e P an ch a yat for su ch p eriod . (4) A P an ch a yat constitu t ed upon th e dis solution o f a P an ch a ya t b efor e th e expir at ion of its dur ation sh all continu e onl y for th e r e ma ind er of th e p eriod fo r which th e dis solv ed P an ch ayat would h av e continu ed und er c l aus e (1) h ad it not b e en so d issolv ed . 243 F. Disqualif i cations for me mb ersh ip.(1) A p erson sh al l b e disqu alifi ed for b eing chos en as , and for b eing, a memb er of a Pan ch ayat (a) if he is so disqualified by or under any law for the time being in force for the purposes of elections to the Legislature of the State concerned:

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Provided that no person shall be disqualified on the ground that he is less than twenty-five years of age, if he has attained the age of twenty-one years; (b) if he is so disqualified by or under any law made by the Legislature of the State. (2) I f an y qu estion aris es as to wh eth er a memb er of a P an ch ayat h as b e co me sub j ect to an y of th e disqu al ifi cations men tion ed in claus e (1) , th e q u est io n sh al l b e r ef err ed fo r th e d e cisio n o f s u ch au th o r it y a n d in su ch man n er as th e Legis l atur e of a St at e may, b y l aw, p rov id e. 243G. Pow ers , autho rity and respons ibilit i es of Pan chayats . Subj ect to th e provisions of this Constitut ion, th e Legisl atur e of a St at e may, b y l a w, endo w th e P an ch a yats with su ch power s and autho rit y as may b e n ecess ar y to en abl e th em to fun ction as inst itution s of s el f-gov ern ment and su ch l a w ma y cont ain provision s fo r th e d evolut ion o f po wers and r espons ibili ti es upon P an ch a yats at th e appropri a t e l ev el , subject to su ch condit ions as ma y b e sp ecifi ed th er ein, with r esp ect to (a) the preparation of plans for economic development and social justice; (b) the implementation of schemes for economic development and social justice as may be entrusted to them including those in relation to the matters listed in the Eleventh Schedule. 2 4 3 H. P ow e r s t o i mp o s e t a x es b y , a n d Fu n d s o f , t h e Pa n ch a y a t s .Th e L egisl atur e o f a St at e may, b y law , (a) authorise a Panchayat to levy, collect and appropriate such taxes, duties, tolls and fees in accordance with such procedure and subject to such limits; (b) assign to a Panchayat such taxes, duties, tolls and fees levied and collected by the State Government for such purposes and subject to such conditions and limits; (c) provide for making such grants-in-aid to the Panchayats from the Consolidated Fund of the State; and (d) provide for constitution of such Funds for crediting all moneys received, respectively, by or on behalf of the Panchayats and also for the withdrawal of such moneys therefrom, as may b e sp ecifi ed in th e l aw. 243-I . Co nstitution o f Finan ce Co mmi s sion to revi ew finan c ial posi tion .(1) Th e Gov ernor of a S t at e sh all , as soon as may b e with in on e year fro m the co mme n cement of th e Consti tution (S ev ent y- third Amend ment ) Act , 1992 , and th er eaft er at th e expir ation of ev ery f ifth year, const itut e a F inan ce Co mmiss ion to r evi ew the fin an ci al position of th e P an ch a yats an d to mak e r eco mmend ation s to th e Governor as to (a) the principles which should govern (i) the distribution between the State and the Panchayats of the net proceeds of the taxes, duties, tolls and fees leviable by the State, which may be divided between them under this Part and the allocation between the Panchayats at all levels of their respective shares of such proceeds;

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(ii) the determination of the taxes, duties, tolls and fees which may be assigned to, or appropriated by, the Panchayats; (iii) the grants-in-aid to the Panchayats from the Consolidated Fund of the State; (b) the measures needed to improve the financial position of the Panchayats; (c) any other matter referred to the Finance Commission by the Governor in the interests of sound finance of the Panchayats. (2) The Legisl atur e of a S t at e may, b y l aw, p rovid e for the comp osit ion of th e Co mmiss ion, th e qu ali fi c ations wh ich sh all b e requis it e for appoint me nt as me mb ers th er eo f an d th e mann er in wh i ch they sh al l b e s el e c t ed. (3) Th e Co mmi ssion sh all d et e rmi n e th eir pro cedur e an d shall h av e su ch po wers in th e perfor man ce of th eir fun ct ions as th e Legisl atu re of th e St ate ma y , b y l a w , co n f er o n t h e m. (4) Th e Gov ernor shall cause ev er y r eco mmen d ation made b y th e Co mmi ssion und er this art i cl e tog eth er with an expl an ator y me mo r a ndu m as to th e action t ak en th er eon to b e l aid b efor e th e Legisl atur e of th e St at e. 243J . Audit of a ccounts of Pan chayats . The Legisl atur e of a St at e ma y, b y l a w, ma k e provisions with r esp ect to th e ma int en an ce of accoun ts b y th e P an ch a yats and th e auditing of su ch accounts . 243 K. El ections to th e Pan chayats . (1) Th e sup erin t end ence , dir e c tion and control of th e pr ep ar ation of el ector a l ro lls for , an d th e condu ct of , all el ect ions to th e P an ch a yats sh all b e v est ed in a St at e El ect ion Co mmi ssion consis ting of a St at e El ection Co mmis sion er to b e appointed b y th e G o v er n o r . (2) Sub j ect to th e provi sions of an y l aw mad e b y th e Leg isl atur e o f a St at e, th e condition s of s ervi c e and tenu r e of offi ce of th e Stat e El ection C o mmi ssio n er sh all b e su ch as th e Go v e rn o r ma y b y ru l e d et er min e: Provid ed th at th e St at e El ection Co mmis sioner sh all not b e r e mo v ed fro m h is off i ce ex cept in l ik e mann er and on the l ik e grounds as a Judg e o f a High Court and th e condit ions o f s ervi ce of th e St at e El ect ion Co mmi ssion er sh al l not b e v ar i ed to his dis adv ant age af t er hi s a p p o i n t me n t . (3 ) T h e G o v ern o r o f a S t at e s h all , wh en so r eq u e st ed b y t h e St at e El ection Co mmis sion, mak e av ail ab l e to th e St at e El ection Co mmi ssion su ch st aff as may b e n ecess ar y for th e di s ch arg e of th e fun c tions conf err ed on th e St at e El ection Co mmi ssion b y cl aus e (1). (4) Subj ect to th e prov isions of this Cons titution , th e Legisl atur e of a St at e may, b y law, mak e provision with r esp ect to al l matt ers r el ating to , or in conn ection with , el ections to th e P an ch ayats . 243 L. Appl i cation to Union territo ri es.The provision s of this P art sh al l app l y to th e Union t erritor i es and sh all, in th eir application to a Union t errito r y, hav e eff ect as if th e r ef er en ces to th e Gov ernor of a St at e

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wer e r ef er en c es to th e Ad minis trator of th e Union t err itor y appoint ed und er art i cl e 239 and r ef er en c es to the Leg isl atur e or th e l eg isl ativ e Ass e mbl y o f a St at e w er e r ef er en ces , in r el ation to a U nion t erri tor y h aving a Legisl ativ e As semb l y, to th at Legis l ativ e Ass emb l y: Provid ed th at th e Pr es id en t ma y, b y publ i c noti fi c ation , di r ect th at th e provis ions of this P ar t sh all appl y to an y Un ion t e rritor y or p art th er eo f subj ect to su ch ex cept ions an d modifi cations as h e ma y s p ecif y in th e noti fi cation . 2 4 3 M . Pa rt n o t t o a p p ly t o c e r t a i n a r ea s . (1) Nothing in th is P art sh al l appl y to th e S ch edul ed Ar eas r ef err ed to in cl au s e (1) , and th e t rib al ar eas r ef err ed to in cl aus e (2) , of arti cl e 244 . (2) Nothing in this P art sh all appl y to (a) the States of Nagaland, Meghalaya and Mizoram; (b) the hill areas in the State of Manipur for which District Councils exist under any law for the time being in force. (3) Nothing in this P art (a) relating to Panchayats at the district level shall apply to the hill areas of the District of Darjeeling in the State of West Bengal for which Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council exists under any law for the time being in force; (b) shall be construed to affect the functions and powers of the Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council constituted under such law. (3 A) Nothing in arti cle 243 D, r el at ing to r eserv at ion of s eats for th e S ch ed u l ed C as t es , s h all ap p l y t o t h e S t at e o f Aru n a ch al P r ad esh . (4) Not withs t anding an ything in this Const itution , (a) the Legislature of a State referred to in sub-clause (a) of clause (2) may, by law, extend this part to that State, except the areas, if any, referred to in clause (1), if the Legislative Assembly of that State passes a resolution to that effect by a majority of the total membership of that House and by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members of that House present and voting; (b) Parliament may, by law, extend the provisions of this Part to the Scheduled Areas and the tribal areas referred to in clause (1) subject to such exceptions and modifications as may be specified in such law, and no such law shall be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368. 243 N. Continuan ce of ex isting law s and Pan chayats .Not wi thst and ing an ything in this P a rt , an y provis ion of an y l aw r e lating to Pan ch a yats in for ce in a St at e i mme d i at el y b efor e th e co mme n cement of th e Consti tution (S ev en t y- third Amend ment ) Ac t , 1992 , wh i ch is in cons ist ent with th e provis ions of this P art , sh all continu e to b e in for c e un til amend ed or r ep e al ed b y a co mp et ent Legislatur e or oth er co mp et ent authorit y or until th e expir at ion of on e year fro m su ch co mmen cemen t , whi ch ev er is earli er: Provid ed th at a ll th e P an ch aya ts ex isting imme d i a t el y b efor e su ch co mmen cement sh al l con tinu e til l th e expir ation of th eir dur ation , unl ess soon er dissolv ed b y a r eso lution p a ss ed to that eff e ct b y th e Legi sl ativ e

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Ass embl y of that St at e or, in th e cas e of a St at e h av ing a Legisl ativ e Coun cil , b y each Hous e of th e Legisl atur e o f th at St at e. 243- O. Ba r to int erf eren ce by cou rts in el ecto ral matt ers . Not withs t anding an ything in this Constitu tion , (a) the validity of any law relating to the delimitation of constituencies or the allotment of seats to such constituencies, made or purporting to be made under article 243K, shall not be called in question in any court; (b) no election to any Panchayat shall be called in question except by an election petition presented to such authority and in such manner as is provided for by or under any law made by the Legislature of a State.

P A R T I XA

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PART IXA
T H E M UN I C I P A L I TI ES 2 4 3 P . D ef in i t i o n s .In this P art , unl ess th e cont ext oth er wis e r equir es, (a) Co mmi tt ee mean s a Co mmi tt ee const ituted und er arti cl e 243S; (b) dis tri ct means a distr ict in a S t at e; ( c) M etropoli tan ar ea means an ar ea h av ing a popul ation of t en l akhs or mor e, co mpris ed in one or mor e dis tricts and consist ing of two or mor e Municip al iti es or Pan ch a yats or oth er contiguous ar eas , sp ecif i ed b y the Gov ernor b y publi c notif i c ation to b e a Metropo lit an ar ea for th e purpos es of this P art ; (d) Muni cip al ar ea means th e t er ritori al ar ea of a Muni cip alit y as is not ifi ed b y the Gov ernor; ( e) Muni cip a lit y means an ins titut ion of s e lf-gov ernmen t const itut ed und er arti cl e 243 Q; (f) P an ch ayat mean s a P an ch ayat const itut ed und er arti cl e 243 B; (g) popul at ion mean s th e popul at ion as ascert a ined at the l ast pr eceding census of whi ch th e rel ev ant figu r es h av e b een pub lish ed . 243 Q. Constitution of Muni cipali ti es .(1 ) T h er e sh all b e c o n st itu t ed in ev er y S t at e , (a) a Nag ar P anch ayat (b y wh atev er n ame call ed) for a tr ansition al ar ea, th at is to s a y, an ar ea in tr an s ition fro m a r u r al ar ea to an urb an a r e a; (b) a Mun i cip al C oun cil for a smal l er urb an ar ea; and ( c) a Mun i cip al Corpor at ion fo r a l arg er urb an ar ea, in accord an ce with th e provi sions of this P art : Pro v id ed th at a M u n i cip ali t y u n d er th is cl au s e ma y n o t b e co n sti tu t ed in su ch urb an ar ea or p art th er eo f as th e Go v ernor ma y, h aving reg ard to th e si ze of th e ar ea and th e muni cip al s ervi c es b eing p rovid ed or propos ed to b e provid ed b y an industri al est ab lish ment in th at ar ea and su ch o th er f a ctor s as h e ma y d eem fit , b y publi c notif i c ation , sp ecif y to b e an indus tri al to wn ship . (2) In thi s ar ticl e, a tr ansit ion al ar ea, a smal l er urb an area or a l arg er urb an ar ea means su ch ar ea as th e Gov ernor may, h aving r eg ard to th e popu l ation of th e ar ea, th e d ensi t y of th e popu l ation th er ein, th e r ev enu e g en er ate d for lo c al admi nis tr ation , the p er c ent ag e of e mp lo ymen t in non -ag ri cultur al activit i es, th e econo mi c i mport an c e or su ch o th er f a ctor s as h e ma y d e em fi t, sp ec if y b y publi c noti fi c ation for th e purpos es of this P ar t. 243 R. Co mp osition of Mun i cipali ti es .(1) Sav e as provid ed in cl au s e (2) , al l th e s e ats in a Muni cipali t y sh all be fil l ed b y p ersons chos en b y dir ect el ection fro m th e t er ritorial cons titu en ci es in th e Muni cip al ar ea and 96

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for thi s purpo se each Muni cip al ar ea sh all b e divid ed into t erri tori al const itu en ci es to b e kno wn as w ards . ( 2 ) Th e L eg is l atu r e o f a S t at e ma y , b y l a w , p r o v i d e (a) for th e r epr es en t a tion in a Muni cip a lit y of (i) p erson s having sp eci al knowl edg e or exp eri en ce in Muni cip al ad minis tr ation; (i i) th e memb ers of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e and th e memb er s o f th e Legi sl ativ e Ass e mbl y of the St at e r epr es en ting constitu en ci es w h i ch co mp ris e w h o ll y o r p artl y th e Mu n i cip al ar e a; (i ii) th e memb ers of th e Coun cil of S t at es and th e memb ers of th e L eg isl at iv e C o u n cil o f th e St at e r eg is t er ed a s el e c to rs wi th in th e Muni cip al ar ea; (i v) th e Ch airp ersons of th e Co mmit t e es const itut ed und er cl aus e (5) of arti cl e 243S: Provid ed th at the p ersons r ef erred to in p ar agr aph ( i) sh all n o t h av e th e righ t to vo te in th e meetings of th e Muni cip ali ty; (b) th e mann er of el ection of th e Ch airp erson of a Muni cipali t y. 243S . Co ns titution and co mp osit ion of Wa rd s Co mmi t t e es, et c.(1) Th er e sh all b e const itut ed Wards Co mmi tt ees , consist ing o f on e or mor e wards , within th e t err itori al area of a Muni cipali t y h aving a popul at ion of t h r e e l ak h s o r mo r e . (2) Th e Leg isl atur e of a S t at e may, b y l aw, make provision with r esp ect to (a) th e co mposi tion and the t erri tori al ar ea of a W ards Co mmi tt ee; (b) th e mann er in wh i ch the s e ats in a Wards Co mmi tt ee sh all b e fi ll ed . (3) A memb er of a Muni cip ali t y r epr es enting a ward within th e t err itori al ar ea of th e Wards Co mmi tt ee shall b e a memb er of th at C o mmi tt ee. (4) Wh er e a Wards Co mmi tt ee consi sts of (a) on e ward , th e memb er r ep r es en ting th at ward in th e M u n i cip ali t y; o r (b) two or more wards, on e of th e memb ers r epr es ent ing su ch wards in th e Muni cip ali t y el ect ed b y th e memb ers of th e Wards Co mm it t ee, sh al l b e th e Ch airp er son of th at Co mmi tt ee. (5) Nothing in this arti cl e sh al l be d eemed to pr ev en t th e Leg isl atu r e of a St at e fro m making an y provision for th e const itution o f Co mmi tt ees in addit ion to th e Wards Co mmi ttees . 2 4 3 T . R es e rv a t i o n o f s ea t s .(1) S eats shall b e r es erv ed for th e S ch edul ed Castes and th e S ch edul ed Trib es in ev er y Muni cipali t y and th e nu mb er of s eats so r es erv ed sh all b ear, as nearl y as may be, th e s ame proport ion to th e tot al nu mb er of s e ats to b e fil l ed b y d ir e ct el ect ion in

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th at Muni cip al it y as th e popul at ion of th e S ch edul ed Cast es in th e Muni cip al ar ea or of th e S ch edul ed Tr ib es in th e Muni cip al area b ears to th e tot al popul ation of th at ar ea and su ch s e ats ma y b e allo tt ed b y rot ation to diff er en t const itu en ci es in a Muni cip ali t y. (2) No t l ess th an on e- third o f th e tot al nu mb er of s eats r es erved und er cl aus e (1) sh al l b e r e s erv ed for wo me n b elonging to th e S ch edul ed Cas t es o r , as t h e c a s e ma y b e , t h e S ch e d u l ed Tri b es . (3) No t l ess th an on e- third (in cluding th e nu mb er of s e ats r e serv ed fo r wo men b e longing to th e S ch edu led Cast es an d th e S ch edul ed Trib es) o f th e to t a l n u mb e r o f s e at s to b e fil le d b y d ir e c t el ec tio n in ev er y M u n i cip ali t y sh al l b e r es erv ed fo r wo me n an d su ch s e a ts ma y b e al lo tt ed b y ro t a tio n to diff er ent constitu en ci es in a Muni cip alit y. (4) The offi ces o f Ch airp ersons in th e Mun i cip ali ti es sh all b e r e s erv ed for th e S ch eduled Cast es , th e Sch edul ed Trib es and wo me n in su ch ma nner a s t h e L eg i s l atu r e o f a S t at e may , b y l a w , p r o v i d e . (5) Th e r es erv ation of s e ats under cl aus es (1) and (2) and th e res erv at ion of o ffi ces o f Ch airp er sons (oth er th an th e r es erv at ion for wo men) und er cl aus e (4) sh all ceas e to h ave ef f e ct on the exp ir ation o f t h e p eriod sp ecif i ed in ar ticl e 334 . (6) Nothing in thi s P art sh all pr ev en t th e Legis l atur e o f a S tat e fro m ma k ing an y provis ion fo r r e serv at ion of s e ats in an y Muni cip a lit y or offi ces of Ch airp ersons in th e Muni cip ali ti es in f avour o f b a ck ward cl ass o f cit i zen s. 243 U. Du ration of Muni cipa liti es , et c.(1) Ev er y Mu n i cip alit y, unl ess soon er dissolv ed und er an y l aw fo r th e ti me b eing in for ce, shall continu e for fiv e years fro m th e d a t e appoint ed for i ts first meeting and no long er: Provid ed th at a Muni cip ali t y shall b e giv en a reason abl e opportuni t y of b eing h eard b efor e its di ssolution . (2) No amend ment of an y l aw for th e ti me b eing in for ce sh all h av e th e eff e ct of causing dissolu tion of a Muni cip a lit y at an y l ev el , wh i ch i s fun ct ioning i mme d i at el y b efo re su ch amend ment , ti ll th e expir a tion of it s dur at ion sp ecified in cl aus e (1) . (3) An el ection to const itut e a M uni cip ali t y shall b e co mpl et ed , (a) b efor e th e expir y of it s dur ation sp ecifi ed in cl aus e (1); (b) b e for e th e expir a tion of a period of six months fro m th e dat e o f it s d issolut ion: Provid ed th at wh er e th e r e ma ind er o f th e p eriod fo r whi ch th e dis solv ed Muni cip ali t y would h av e continu ed i s l ess th an s ix months , it sh all not b e n ecess ar y to hold an y el ec tion und er th is cl au s e for constitu ting th e Muni cip ali t y for su ch p eriod . (4) A Muni cipali t y consti tut ed upon th e dissolut ion of a Muni cip a lit y b efor e th e expiration of its dur ation sh all cont inu e on l y for th e r e maind e r

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of th e p eriod for whi ch th e d isso lved M uni cip ali t y would h av e con tinu ed und er cl aus e (1) h ad it not b e en so disso lv ed. 243 V. Disqualif i cations fo r me mb ers hip . ( 1 ) A p er s o n s h all b e disqu alifi ed for b eing chos en as , and for b eing , a memb er of a M u n i cip al i t y (a) if h e i s so d isq u a lifi ed b y o r u n d er an y l a w fo r th e t i me b ein g in for ce fo r th e purpos es o f election s to th e Legisl atur e of th e S tat e con cern ed: Provid ed th at no p e rson sh al l b e d isqu alif i ed on th e ground th at h e is l ess th an t w en t y-fiv e y e a rs o f a g e , if h e h as at ta in ed th e ag e o f t w en t y -o n e years; (b) if h e is so di squ alifi ed b y or und er an y l a w ma d e b y th e Legisl atur e o f th e St at e. (2) I f an y qu estion ar is es as to w h eth er a me m b er of a Muni cip ali t y h as b e co me sub j ect to an y of th e disqu al ifi cations men tion ed in claus e (1) , th e q u est io n sh al l b e r ef err ed fo r th e d e cisio n o f s u ch au th o r it y a n d in su ch man n er as th e Legis l atur e of a St at e may, b y l aw, p rov id e. 243W. Pow ers, autho rity and respons ibilit i es of Mun i cipalit ies , et c. Subj ect to th e provis ions of this Const itution, th e Leg isl ature of a St at e ma y , b y l a w , en d o w (a) th e Mun i cip ali ti es with such po wers and author it y as may b e n ecess ar y to en abl e th em t o fun ction as inst itution s of s elf-gov ern ment and su ch l aw may cont ain provis ions for th e devolut ion of powers and r espons ibili ti es upon Muni cip a lit i es , subj ect to s u ch condit ions as ma y b e sp ecifi ed th er ein , with r esp ec t to (i) th e pr ep ar ation of pl ans for econo mi c dev elop ment and so ci al justi c e; (i i) th e p e rforman c e o f fun c tions and th e imp l e me nt ation of s ch emes as may b e entrus t ed to th em in clud ing thos e in r el ation to th e matt ers l ist ed in th e Twel fth S ch edul e; (b) th e Co mmi tt ees wi th su ch po wers an d au thor it y as may b e n ecess ar y to en ab l e th em to carr y out th e responsib ilit i es conf err ed upon th em in cluding thos e in r e l ation to the ma t t e rs l ist ed in th e T w elfth S ch edule. 243 X. Pow er to i mp os e tax es by , and Funds of , th e Muni cipali ti es . T h e L eg is l atu r e o f a S t at e ma y , b y l a w, (a) au th o ris e a M u n i cip al it y to l ev y , co l l e ct a n d ap p ro p r i at e su ch t ax es , d u ti es , to ll s an d f e es in a c co rd an c e w ith su ch p ro ce d u r e an d subj ect to su ch li mit s; (b) a ssig n to a M u n i cip ali t y su c h t ax es , d u ti es, to l ls an d f e es l ev i ed and col l ect ed by th e St at e Govern ment for su ch purpos es and subj ect to su ch condit ions and li mits ;

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( c) p rovid e for mak ing su ch gr an ts- in- aid to th e Muni cip a liti es fro m th e Consolid at ed Fund of th e S tat e; and (d) provid e for const itution of su ch Funds for cr ed i ting all mo n e ys r eceiv ed , r esp ectiv el y, b y or on b eh alf o f th e Muni cip aliti es and also for th e withdr awal of su ch mon e ys th er ef ro m, as may b e sp ecifi ed in th e l aw. 243 Y. Finan ce Co mmi s sion .(1) Th e F inan c e Co mmiss ion const itut ed und er art icl e 243-I sh al l also r evi ew th e fin an ci a l po sit ion of th e Muni cip ali ti es an d mak e r e co mmen d ations to th e Gov e rnor as to (a) th e prin cip l es whi ch should gov ern (i) th e dis tribution b et w een th e St at e and the Muni cip ali ti es of th e n et pro ceeds of th e t ax es , duti e s, tol ls and f ees l evi ab l e b y th e St at e, whi ch ma y b e divid ed b et w een th em under thi s P art and the allo cation b etween th e Muni cip aliti es at all l ev els o f th ei r r esp ect iv e shar es of su ch pro ceeds; (i i) th e d et er min ation of th e t ax es , duti e s, tolls an d fees whi ch may b e ass ign ed to , o r approp ri at ed b y , th e Muni cip a liti es ; (i ii) th e g r an ts- in- aid to th e Mun icip aliti es fro m th e Consolid at ed Fund of th e St at e; (b) th e measures n e ed ed to imp rov e th e finan ci al po sition of th e Muni cip ali ti es; ( c) an y o th er ma t t er r ef e rr ed to th e F in an ce C o mmi ssio n b y th e Gov ernor in th e int e r ests of sound fin an ce of the Mun i cip alit i es. (2) Th e Gov ernor shall cause ev er y r eco mmen d ation made b y th e Co mmi ssion und er this art i cl e tog eth er with an expl an ator y me mo r a ndu m as to th e action t ak en th er eon to b e l aid b efor e th e Legisl atur e of th e St at e. 243 Z. Au dit of a c counts o f Muni cipa liti es . Th e L eg i s l atu r e o f a S t at e ma y, b y l a w, ma k e provisions with r esp ect to th e ma int en an ce of accoun ts b y th e Mun i cip ali ti es and th e audit ing o f su ch accounts . 243 ZA . El ections to th e Muni cipa liti es . (1) Th e sup erint end en ce, dir ection an d contro l of th e pr ep ar at ion of el ecto r al roll s for , an d th e condu ct of , all el ect ions to th e Mu n i cip ali ti es sh al l b e v es t ed in th e St at e El ection Co mmi ss ion r ef err ed to in arti cl e 243K. (2) Subj ect to th e prov isions of this Cons titution , th e Legisl atur e of a St at e may, b y law, mak e provision with r esp ect to al l matt ers r el ating to , or in conn ection with , el ections to th e Muni cip ali ti es . 243 ZB . Appli cation to Union territo ri es. Th e provision s of thi s P ar t sh al l app l y to th e Union t erritor i es and sh all, in th eir application to a Union t errito r y, hav e eff ect as if th e r ef er en ces to th e Gov ernor of a St at e wer e r ef er en c es to th e Ad minis trator of th e Union t err itor y appoint ed und er art i cl e 239 and r ef er en c es to th e Legisl atur e or th e Legi sl ativ e Ass e mbl y of a St at e were r ef er en c es in r el ation to a Un ion t erritory h aving a Legisl ativ e As semb l y, to th at Legis l ativ e Ass emb l y:

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Provid ed th at th e Pr esid ent may, by publ i c no tif i c ation , d ir e ct th at th e provis ions of this P a rt sh all appl y to an y Un ion t er ritor y or part th er eo f subj ect to su ch ex cept ions and mo dif i cations as h e ma y s p ecif y in th e noti fi cation . 243 ZC . Pa rt not to apply to certain a reas . (1) Noth ing in this P art sh al l appl y to th e S ch edul ed Ar eas r ef err ed to in cl au s e (1) , and th e t rib al ar eas r ef err ed to in cl aus e (2) , of arti cl e 244 . (2) Nothing in thi s P art sh all b e constru ed to aff ect th e fun ction s and po wers of th e Darj eel ing Go rkh a Hil l Council constitu t ed und er an y l aw for th e ti me b e ing in for ce for th e hi ll ar eas of th e d istri ct of Darj eeling in t h e S t at e o f W e s t B en g al . (3) Not withst anding an ything in this Constitu tion , P arli ament may, b y l a w, ext end th e prov isions of thi s P art to th e S ch edul ed Ar ea s and the tr ib al ar eas r eferr ed to in claus e (1) subj ec t to su ch ex ce ption s and mo difi cat ions as ma y b e sp ecifi ed in su ch l a w, and no su ch law sh all b e d eemed to b e an amend ment of this Const itution for th e purpos es of arti cl e 368. 243 ZD . Co mmitt ee fo r di stri ct plann ing. (1) Th er e sh all b e const itut ed in ev er y St at e at th e d istri ct l ev el a Dis tri ct P l anning Co mmi tt ee to consol id at e th e pl ans pr ep ar ed b y th e P an ch ayats and th e M u n i cip ali ti es in th e d is tri ct an d to p r ep ar e a d r aft d ev elo p me n t p l an fo r th e d is tri ct as a w h o l e . (2) Th e Leg isl atur e of a S t at e may, b y l aw, make provision with r esp ect to (a ) t h e co mp o s i t i o n o f t h e Dis t r i c t P l an n i n g Commi t t e es; (b ) t h e ma nn er in whi ch th e s eats in su ch Co mmit t ees sh all b e fill ed : Prov id ed th at not l ess th an fou r-fifth s o f th e tot al nu mb er of memb er s of su ch Co mmi tt ee shall b e el ect ed by, and fro m amongst , th e el ect ed me mb ers of th e P an chayat at th e distr i ct l ev el and of th e Muni cip ali ti es in th e d istri ct in proportion to th e r atio b et ween th e popul at ion o f the rur al ar eas and of th e urb an ar eas in th e dist ri ct ; (c ) t h e fun c tions r el a ting to distr i ct pl anning wh i ch ma y b e assign ed to su ch Co mmi ttees; (d ) t h e ma nn er in wh i ch the Ch airp er sons of such Co mmi tt ees sh al l b e ch o s en . (3) Ev er y Dis tri ct Pl anning Co mmi tt ee sh all , in pr ep aring th e dr aft d ev elop me nt pl an , (a ) h av e r eg ard to (i ) ma t t e rs o f co mmo n in t er est b et w e en th e P an ch a y ats an d th e Muni cip ali ti es in clud ing sp atial p l anning , sharing of wat er and o th er p h ysi c al a n d n a tu r al r eso u r c es , th e in t eg r at ed d ev elo p me n t o f infr astru ctur e and environ mental cons erv at ion;

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(i i ) t h e ex t en t an d t yp e o f av aila b l e r eso u r c e s w h eth er fin an c ia l or oth er wis e; (b ) co nsul t su ch inst itutions and org anis at ions as th e Governor may, b y ord er , sp ecif y. (4) Th e Ch airp erson of ev er y Dis tri ct Pl anning C o mmi tt ee sh all for w ard th e d ev elop ment pl an , as r eco mmend ed b y su ch Co mmi tt ee, to th e Gov ern ment of th e St at e. 243 ZE . Co mmi tt ee fo r Met ropoli tan planning .(1 ) Th er e sh al l b e const itut ed in ev er y Metropoli tan ar ea a Metropoli t an Pl anning Co mmi tt ee to pr ep ar e a dr aft d ev elop ment pl an for th e Metropol it an ar ea as a who l e. (2) Th e Leg isl atur e of a S t at e may, b y l aw, make provision with r esp ect to (a ) t h e co mposition of th e Metropoli t an P l anning Co mmi tt ees; (b ) t h e ma nn er in whi ch th e s eats in su ch Co mmit t ees sh all b e fill ed : Provid ed th at not l ess th an t wo-th irds o f th e memb ers of such Co mmi tt ee sh al l b e elect ed b y, and f rom amo ngs t, the el ect ed memb ers of the Muni cip ali ti es an d Ch airp ersons of th e P an ch a ya ts in th e Me tropoli t an ar ea in propor tion to th e r at io b e twee n th e popul at ion of th e Muni cip ali ti es and of th e P an ch ayats in th at ar ea; ( c) th e r epr es en t at ion in su ch Co mmi tt ees of th e Go v ern me nt of Indi a and the Gov ern ment of th e St at e and of su ch org an is ation s and Inst itution s as ma y b e d eemed n ecess ar y for ca rr ying out th e fun ct ions assign ed to su ch Co mmi tt ees; (d) th e fun ctions r el ating to p l anning an d coordin a tion for th e Metropoli t an area wh i ch may be assign ed to such Co mmit t ees; ( e) th e ma nn er in wh i ch th e Ch airp er sons of such Co mmi tt ees sh al l b e ch o s en . (3) Ev er y Met ropoli t an P l anning Co mmi tt ee sh all , in pr ep aring th e dr aft d ev elop me nt pl an , (a) h av e r eg ard to (i) th e pl ans p rep ar ed b y th e Muni cip aliti es and th e P an ch ayats in th e Metropolit an ar ea; (ii) mat ters of co mmon int er est b et w een th e Muni cip aliti es and th e P an ch a yats, in cluding co -ordin at ed sp at ial p l anning of th e a r e a , sh ar in g o f w a t e r an d o th er p h y si c al an d n atu r a l r eso u r c es , th e in t eg r at ed d ev e lo p me n t o f in fr a stru ctu r e a n d en v iro n me n t al cons erv at ion; (ii i) th e ov er al l ob j ectiv es and priori ti es s et b y th e Gov ern ment of Indi a and th e Gov ern ment of th e St at e; (i v) th e ex t ent and n atur e of inv est ments lik el y to b e mad e in th e Metropolit an ar ea b y ag en ci es of th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a and

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of th e Gov e rnme n t of th e St at e and oth er av ail abl e r esour ces w h eth er fin an cia l or oth er wis e; (b) consu lt such in stitu tions and org an is ations as th e Governor may, b y ord er , sp ecif y. (4) Th e Ch airperson o f ev er y Metropoli t an Planning Co mmi ttee sh all fo r w ard th e d ev e lo p me n t p l an , a s r e co mme n d ed b y su ch Co mmi tt e e , to th e G o v er n me n t o f t h e S t at e . 243 ZF . Continuan ce of exist ing law s and Muni cipali ti es . Not withs t anding an ything in this P art , an y provis ion o f an y l aw r el at ing to Muni cip ali ti es in for ce in a S t ate i mme d i at el y befor e th e co mmen cement of th e Co n stitut ion (S ev en t y-fourth Amend ment) Act, 1992, whi ch is in cons ist ent with th e provis ions of this P ar t, shall cont inu e to b e in for c e unti l a mend ed or r ep e al ed b y a c o mp et ent L egis l atur e or othe r co mp et ent author it y or unti l th e expir at ion of on e year fro m su ch comme n cemen t , w h i ch ev er is e arli e r: Provid ed th at all th e Muni cipali ti es exi sting i mmed i at el y b efor e su ch co mmen cement sh al l continu e til l th e expir ation o f th ei r dur ation , unl ess soon er dissolv ed b y a r eso lution p a ss ed to that eff e ct b y th e Legi sl ativ e Ass embl y of that St at e or, in th e cas e of a St at e h av ing a Legisl ativ e Coun cil , b y each Hous e of th e Legisl atur e o f th at St at e. 243 ZG . Ba r to int erf eren ce by cou rts in el ecto ra l ma t t ers . Not withs t anding an ything in this Con stitut ion, (a) th e v alid it y of an y l aw r e lating to t h e d eli mi t ation of const itu en ci es or th e allot ment of s eats to su ch constitu en ci es, mad e or purport ing to b e ma de und er arti cl e 243 ZA sh all not b e call ed in qu est ion in an y court ; (b) no el ection to an y Municip al it y sh all be call ed in quest ion ex cept b y an election p eti tion pr es en t ed to such au thorit y an d in su ch man n er as is p rovid ed for b y or und er an y law mad e b y th e Legis l ature o f a S t at e .

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PART X THE SCHEDULED AND TRIBAL AREAS


244. Ad mi nistration of S ch edul ed Area s and t ribal area s.( 1 ) T h e provis ions of th e Fif th S ch edul e sh all appl y to th e ad min istr a tion and contro l of th e S ch edul ed Ar eas and S chedu l ed Trib es in an y St at e oth er t h an t h e S t at es o f Ass a m, M eg h a l a y a , Tri p u r a an d M i zo r a m. (2) Th e provis ions of th e Sixth S ch edul e sh all apply to th e ad minis tr ation of th e tr ib al ar eas in th e St at es of Ass am, Megh al aya, T ripur a and M i zor am. 244 A. Fo rmation o f an au tono mo us Stat e comp ri sing certain t ribal a r eas in Assam a nd creation of lo cal Le gis latu r e o r Coun cil of Minist ers o r both th erefo r. (1) No t withst anding an ything in this Consti tution , P arl i a ment may, b y l a w, for m within th e St at e of Ass a m an autono mous St at e co mpris ing (wh eth er wholl y or in p art ) all or an y of th e tr ib al ar eas sp ec if i ed in P art I of th e t abl e append ed to p ar ag raph 20 of the S i x t h S ch ed u l e a n d cr e at e t h er efo r (a) a bod y, wheth er elect ed or p art l y no minated and p art l y elect ed, to fun ct ion as a Legisl atur e for th e autono mous St at e, or (b) a Coun cil of Minist er s, or both wi th such const itution , po wers and function s, in each cas e, as may b e sp ecifi ed in th e l a w. (2 ) An y su ch l aw a s is r ef err ed to in cl au s e (1 ) ma y , in p art i cu la r , (a) sp ecif y the ma t t ers enumer at ed in th e St at e List or th e Con curr ent List with r esp ect to whi ch th e Legisl atu r e of th e autono mous St at e sh al l h av e pow e r to ma k e l a ws for th e whol e or an y p art th er eof , wh eth er to th e ex clus ion of the Legis l atur e of the St at e of Ass am or oth er wis e; (b) d efin e th e ma t t ers with r esp ect to wh i ch the ex ecutiv e power of th e autono mous St at e sh all ex t end; ( c) provid e that an y t ax l evied by th e St ate of Ass a m shall b e assign ed to th e autono mous St at e in so f ar as th e pro ceeds ther eof are att ribut abl e to th e autono mous St at e; (d) prov id e that an y r ef er en ce t o a S t at e in an y arti cl e of t his Consti tution shall b e const rued as in cluding a r ef er en c e t o th e autono mous St at e; and ( e) ma k e such suppl emental , in cid en t al and cons equ enti a l p r o v i s io n s as ma y b e d e e me d n e c e s s ar y . (3 ) An a men d me n t o f an y su ch l aw as afo r es aid in so f ar as su ch amen d men t r el at es to an y of th e mat t ers sp ecif i ed in sub- cl aus e ( a ) o r su b - cl au s e (b ) o f cl au s e (2 ) sh a ll h av e n o eff ec t u n l ess th e ame n d men t is p ass ed in each Ho u s e of P ar li a me nt b y not l ess th an t wo-thirds of th e memb er s p r es ent and voting . 104

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(4) An y su ch law as is r ef err ed to in this ar ticl e sh all not b e d eemed to b e an amend ment of th is Const itution for th e purpos es of art icl e 368 not with st anding t h at i t cont ains an y provision whi ch amends or h as th e eff e ct of amending this Const itution .

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P A R T XI R E L A TI O NS BE T W E E N T H E U N I O N AN D TH E S T A T ES C H A P T E R I . L E G I S L A T I V E R E L A T I O N S Dist ribution of L egis lati ve Po we rs 245. Ex t ent of law s ma d e by Pa rlia men t and by th e Leg islatu res of Stat es . (1) Subj ect to th e provis ions of this Consti tution , P arl i a ment ma y ma k e l a ws fo r th e wh o l e o r an y p ar t o f th e t err ito r y o f In d i a , an d th e Legisl atur e of a St at e may mak e l aws for the who le or an y p art o f th e S t at e . (2) No l a w ma d e b y P a rli a me nt sh al l b e d e eme d to b e inv alid on th e ground th at it would h av e ex tr a-t err itori al op er ation . 246. Subj ect-ma t t er o f laws mad e by Pa rlia men t and by th e Legisla tu res of Stat es . (1) Not withs t anding an ything in cl aus es (2) and (3) , P arli a ment h as ex clusiv e po wer to mak e laws with r esp ec t to an y of th e matt ers enu mer at ed in Lis t I in th e S ev enth S ch edul e (in thi s Consti tution r eferr ed to as th e Union List ) . (2) Not withst anding an ything in cl aus e (3) , Parl i a ment , and , subj ect to cl aus e (1) , th e Legisl atur e of an y S t at e also , hav e po wer to mak e l aws with r esp ect to an y of th e matt ers enu mer at ed in Li st III in th e Sev en th S ch edul e (in this Consti tution ref err ed to as th e Con curr ent List ) . (3) Subj ect to cl aus es (1) and (2), th e Legisl atur e of an y St at e h as e x clus iv e po w er to ma k e l a ws for su ch St at e or an y p art th er eof w ith r esp ect to an y of th e matt ers enu mer at ed in List II in th e S ev enth S ch edul e (in th is Cons titution r ef err ed to as th e St at e List ') . (4) P ar li a men t h as po wer to ma k e l a ws wi th resp ect to an y matt er for an y p art of th e t err itor y of Indi a not in clud ed in a St at e no twiths t anding th at su ch matt er is a matt er enumer at ed in th e St at e Lis t. 247 . Pow er of Pa rlia men t to p rovid e fo r th e establ ish men t of certain addit ional cou rts .No twi thst anding an ything in this Ch ap t er , P arl i a men t may b y l a w provid e for th e establi sh men t of an y ad d ition al courts for th e b ett e r ad min istra tio n o f l a ws ma d e b y P a rli a me n t o r o f an y ex is tin g l a ws with r esp ect to a mat t er en u merat ed in th e Union List . 248 . Residua ry pow ers of l egis lation .(1) Pa rl i a ment h as ex clus iv e po wer to mak e an y l a w wi th r esp ect to an y matt er not en u merat ed in th e C o n cu r r en t Lis t o r S t at e Lis t . (2) Su ch power sh all in clud e th e po wer of making an y l aw imp osing a t ax not me ntioned in eith er of thos e Lists . 249 . Pow er o f Pa rlia me n t to legis lat e w ith re sp ect to a ma tt er in th e Stat e List in th e nat ional in terest .(1) Notwiths t anding anything in th e for egoing provision s of th is Ch apt er , if th e Coun cil of St at es h as d e cl ar ed b y r esolution support ed b y not less th an two -thirds of th e me mb ers pr es en t and voting th at i t is n ecess ar y or ex p edi en t in th e n a tion al int er es t th at 106

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P arl i a ment should ma k e l a ws with r esp ect to an y ma tt er en u mer at ed in th e St at e List sp ecifi ed in th e r esolut ion, it sh all b e lawfu l for Parl i ament to ma k e l aws for th e whol e or an y p art of th e t err itor y of Indi a with r esp ect to th at matt er while th e r esolut ion r emains in for ce. (2 ) A r eso lu tio n p ass ed u n d er c l au s e (1 ) sh al l r e ma in in fo r ce fo r su ch p eriod not ex ceeding on e year as may b e sp eci fied th er ein: Provid ed th at , if and so of t en as a r esolution approving th e continu an ce in fo r ce of an y su ch r eso lution is p ass ed in th e man n er provided in cl aus e (1) , such r esolution sh all continu e in for ce for a f u rth er p eriod of on e year fro m th e d at e on wh i ch und er this cl au s e i t would oth er wis e hav e ceas ed to b e in for ce. (3) A l aw mad e b y P arli ament whi ch P arli ament would not but for th e p assing of a r esolu tion under cl au s e (1) h av e b e en co mp et en t to ma k e sh al l, to th e ext ent of th e inco mp et en cy, ceas e to h av e eff e ct on th e expir a tion of a p eriod of six months aft er th e resolu tion h as ceas ed to b e in for ce, ex cep t as r esp ects things don e or o mitt ed to b e don e b e for e th e expir ation o f the s aid p eriod . 250 . Pow er of Pa rlia men t to legis lat e w ith resp ect to any ma t t er in th e Stat e List if a Pro cla mation of Emerg en cy is in operation .(1) Not withs t anding an ything in thi s Ch apt er , P arl i a ment sh all , whil e a Pro cl a ma tion of E me r g en c y i s in op er a tion , h av e po w er to ma k e la ws for th e whol e or any p ar t of th e t erri tor y of Ind i a with r esp ect to an y o f th e mat t ers enu mer at ed in th e St at e L ist . (2) A l aw mad e b y P arli ament whi ch P arli ament would not but for th e is sue of a Pro cla ma t ion of E me rg en c y h av e b e en co mp et en t to ma k e sh a ll , to th e ex t ent of th e in co mp et en cy , cease to h av e eff e ct on th e expir a tion o f a p eriod o f six mo nths af te r th e Pro cl a ma t ion ha s c eas ed to op er at e , ex c ept as r e sp ects th ings don e or o mitt ed to b e don e b efor e th e expiration of th e s aid p eriod . 251 . In consis t en cy b etw een law s ma d e by Parlia men t und er a rti cl es 249 and 250 and law s ma d e by th e Legi slatu res of S tat es . Noth ing in art i cl es 249 and 250 sh all r estrict th e po we r of th e Legisl atu r e of a S t at e to mak e an y l a w whi ch und er th is Constitu tion it h as po wer to mak e , but if an y provi sion of a l aw mad e by th e Legi sl ature of a S tat e is repugn ant to an y p rovision of a l aw mad e by P arli ament whi ch P arli ament h as und er eith er of th e said art i cl es power to mak e , th e l a w mad e by P arli a ment , w h eth er p as s ed b efo r e o r aft er th e l a w ma d e b y th e L eg isla tu r e o f th e St at e, shall pr ev ail , and th e l aw mad e b y th e Legisl atur e of th e St at e sh all to th e ext ent of th e r epugn ancy, but so long onl y as th e l aw mad e b y P arl i a ment cont inu es to h av e effe c t , b e inop er ativ e . 252 . Pow er of Pa rlia men t to l eg islat e fo r tw o o r mo re Stat es by cons ent and adoption of su ch l egi slation by any o th er State. (1) If it app e ars to th e Legisl atur es of t wo or mo r e S tat es to b e d esirabl e th at an y of th e matt ers with r esp ect to whi ch P arli a ment h as no po wer to mak e l a ws for th e S t at es ex cept as provid ed in ar ti cl es 249 and 250 should b e

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r egul at ed in such St at es b y P arl i ament b y l aw, and if r esolutions to th at eff ect ar e p ass ed b y all th e Hous es of th e Legis l atur es of thos e St at es, i t sh al l b e l aw ful f or P ar li amen t t o p ass an act f or r egu lating t h at mat t er according ly, and an y Act so pass ed sh all apply to su ch St at es and to an y oth er S t at e b y whi ch it is adopt ed af t erwards b y r eso lution pass ed in th at b eh alf b y th e Hous e or , wh er e th er e ar e two Hous es , b y each o f th e Hous es of th e Legisl atur e of th at St at e. (2) An y A ct so p ass ed b y P arlia me n t ma y b e ame n d ed or r ep ea l ed b y a n Act of P arli ament p ass ed or adopt ed in l ik e man n er but sh all no t, as r esp ect s an y St at e to wh i ch i t appli es, b e amend ed or r ep eal ed b y an Act of th e Legisl atur e of th at St at e. 253 . Legis lation fo r giving eff e ct to int e rnationa l ag reemen ts . Not withs t anding an yth ing in th e for ego ing provis ions of this Ch ap t er , P arl i ament h as po wer to mak e an y l aw for th e whol e or an y p art o f th e t err itor y of Indi a for i mpl ementing an y tr eaty, agr eement or conv ention with an y oth er countr y or countr i es or an y d e cision ma d e at an y int ern ation al conf er en ce, asso ciation or oth er bod y. 2 5 4 . In co n s ist en cy b e tw e en la w s ma d e b y P a r lia me n t a n d la w s ma d e by th e Legi slatu res of S tat es . (1) If an y provis ion of a l aw mad e b y th e Legisl atur e of a St at e is r epugn ant to an y provis ion of a law mad e b y P arl i ament whi ch P ar li ament i s co mp et ent to enact , or to an y provis ion of an ex is ting l aw with r e sp ect to on e of th e mat t er s en u mer at ed in th e Con curr ent List , th en , sub ject to th e p rovisions of cl au s e (2) , the l a w ma d e b y P arli a me n t , wh e th er p ass ed b efo r e o r aft er th e l a w ma d e b y th e Legisl atur e of su ch St at e, or, as th e cas e may b e, th e ex isting l aw, sh al l p r ev ai l an d th e l a w mad e b y th e L e g isl atu r e o f th e St at e sh al l, to th e ex t en t of th e r epugn ancy, b e void . (2) Wh er e a l aw ma d e b y th e Legisl atur e of a St at e with r espect to on e of th e ma tt er s enu mer at ed in th e Con curr ent List con t ains an y provis ion r epugn ant to the provis ions of an earli er l aw ma d e b y P a rliame n t or an exis ting l a w with r e sp ect to th at matt er, th en , th e l a w so mad e b y th e L e g isl a tu r e o f su ch S t at e sh all , if it h as b een r es erv ed fo r th e co n sid er a tio n of th e Pr esid en t and h a s r eceiv ed his ass ent , pr ev ail in th at S t ate: Provid ed th at nothing in this cl aus e sh all pr ev en t P arli ame n t fro m en acting at an y t i me an y l aw with r esp ect to th e s ame mat t er i n cluding a l a w adding to , a me n ding , v a rying or r ep e al ing th e l a w so ma d e b y th e Legisl atur e o f th e St at e. 255 . Requ i rements as to recommen dat ions and p r evious san ction s to b e r eg a rd ed a s ma t t e rs o f p ro c ed u r e o n ly . No A ct o f P ar l i amen t o r o f th e Legisl atur e of a St at e, and no p rovision in an y su ch Act , sh all b e in v al id b y r e aso n o n l y th a t so me r e co mme n d atio n o r p r ev io u s s an ctio n r equir ed b y th is Consti tution was not giv en , if ass en t to th at Act was giv en (a) wh er e th e reco mmend ation r equir ed was th at of th e Governor , eith er b y th e Gov ernor or b y th e Pr esid en t ;

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(b) wh er e th e r eco mmend ation requir ed was th at of th e Rajpr amu kh, eith er b y th e Rajpr a mukh or b y th e Pr esid en t; ( c) wh er e th e reco mmend ation or pr evious s an ction r equi r ed was th at of th e Pr esid ent , b y th e P r esid en t. C H A P T E R I I. A D M I N I S T R A T I V E R E L A T I O N S G e n er a l 256 . Obligat ion o f Stat es and th e Union .T h e ex e cu t i v e p o w er o f e v er y St a t e sh all b e so ex er cise d as to ensur e c o mpli an c e with th e l a ws ma d e b y P arli ame n t and a n y exis ting la ws w hi ch a ppl y in tha t St at e , and th e ex ecut ive po wer of th e Union sh all ext end to th e g iving of su ch dir ections to a St at e as ma y app e ar to th e Gov ern me nt of Ind i a to b e n ecess ar y for that purpos e. 257 . Cont rol of th e Union ov er Sta t es in certain cas es . (1) The e x e cu tiv e p o wer o f ev er y St at e s h all b e so ex e r cis ed a s n o t to i mp ed e o r p r eju d i c e th e ex er cis e o f th e e x e cu tiv e p o w e r o f th e Un io n , an d th e ex ecutiv e power of th e Union sh all ext end to th e giv ing of such di r e ctions to a St at e as ma y app e ar to the Gov ern men t of Indi a to b e necess ar y for th at purpos e. (2) Th e ex ecut iv e po wer of th e Union sh all also ext end to th e giving of dir ections to a St at e as to th e constru c tion and ma int en an ce of means of co mmun i cation d ecl ar ed in th e dir ection to b e of n ation al or mi lit ar y i mport an ce: Provid ed th at nothing in this cl au s e sh al l b e t ak en as r estr icting th e po wer of P ar liamen t to d ecl ar e high ways or wat er w ays to b e n a tion al high ways or n ation al wat er w ays or th e power of th e Union with r esp ect to th e high ways or wat erways so d ecl ar ed or th e po wer of the Union to constru ct and mai nt ain means of co mmuni cation as p art of it s fun ction s with r esp ect to n av al , milit ar y and air for ce works . (3) Th e ex ecut iv e po wer of th e Union sh all also ext end to th e giving of dir ections to a St at e as to th e measur es to b e t ak en fo r th e protection of th e r ai lways with in th e St at e. (4) Wh er e in carr ying ou t an y dir e ction giv en to a St at e und er cl au s e (2) as to th e cons tru ction or ma inten an ce of an y mean s of co mmuni cat ion or u n d er cl au s e (3 ) as to th e me a su r es to b e t ak en fo r th e p ro t e ctio n o f an y r ai lway, costs h av e b e en in curr ed in ex cess of thos e whi ch would h av e b e en incu rr ed in th e dis ch arg e of th e nor ma l duti e s of th e St at e if su ch dir ection h ad not b een g iv en, th er e sh al l b e p aid b y th e Gov ern ment of Indi a to th e St at e su ch su m as may b e ag r eed, or , in d ef aul t of ag r eement , as ma y b e d e ter min ed b y an arbi tr ator appoint ed b y th e Ch i ef Just i c e o f Indi a, in r esp ect of th e extr a costs so in curr ed by th e St at e. 2 5 7 A . [ Assi stanc e t o Sta t es b y d ep lo ym en t of a rm ed for c es or oth er for ces of th e Union . ] Rep . b y th e Cons titut ion (F or t y-fourth Amend m ent ) A c t , 1 9 7 8 , s . 3 3 ( w.e. f. 2 0 - 6 - 1 9 7 9 ) .

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2 5 8 . Po w e r o f t h e Un i o n t o co n f e r p ow e rs , e t c . , o n S ta t es i n c e r t a i n cas es . (1) Notwiths t anding anything in this Consti tution , the Pr esid en t may, wi th th e cons ent of the Gov ern ment of a St ate, entrus t eith er condit ion all y or un cond ition all y to th at Govern ment or to it s offi cer s fun ct ions in r elation to an y matt er to wh i ch th e ex ecutiv e po wer of th e U n i o n ex t en d s . (2) A l aw mad e b y P arli ament wh i ch appli es in an y Stat e may, not with st anding th at it r el at es to a mat t er with r esp ect to whi ch th e Legisl atur e of th e St at e h as no po wer to make l aws , conf er po wers and i mpos e du ti es , or au thoris e th e conf erring of po wers and th e imp osit ion of duti e s, upon th e St at e or offi cers and authorit i es th er eof . (3) Wh er e b y virtu e of th is arti cl e po wers and dut i es h av e b e en conf err ed or i mpos ed upon a Stat e or offi cers or authori ti es th er eof , th er e sh al l b e p aid b y th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a to th e St a te su ch su m a s may b e agr eed , or, in def aul t of agr eemen t , as may be d et er min ed b y an arbitr ato r appoint ed b y the Chi ef Ju sti c e of Ind ia, in r esp ect of an y extr a cos ts of ad minis tr ation in cu rr ed b y th e S t at e in connection with th e ex er cis e of thos e po wers and duti es . 258 A. Pow er of th e Sta t es to ent rus t functions to th e Union . Not withs t anding an ything in this Constitu tion , t h e Gov ernor of a St at e may, wi th th e cons ent of th e Gov ern men t of Indi a, entrus t eith er condit ion all y or un cond ition all y to th at Govern ment or to it s offi cer s fun ct ions in r elation to an y matt er to wh i ch th e ex ecutiv e po wer of th e S t at e ex t en d s . 2 5 9 . [ Ar med For c es in Stat es in Part B of th e Firs t S ch edul e.] R ep . b y th e Consti tution (S eventh Am end m ent ) Act , 1956 , s. 29 a n d S ch . 260 . Ju risd i ction of th e Union in relation to t errito ri es outs id e India . Th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a ma y b y agr e emen t wi th th e Gov ern me nt of an y t erri tory no t b eing p art of th e t erri tor y o f Indi a und ert ak e an y ex ecutiv e, l egisl at iv e or judi cial fun ctions v est ed in th e Go v ern me nt of su ch t erri tor y, but ev er y su ch agr eement sh all b e subj ect to , and gov ern ed b y , an y l a w r elating to th e ex er cis e o f for eign jur isdi ction for th e ti me b eing in for ce. 261 . Publi c a cts , reco rds and judi cial p ro ceedings . (1) Full f aith and cr edi t sh all b e giv en throughout th e t erri tory of Indi a to publi c acts , r e cords and judici al pro ceeding s of th e Un ion and of ev er y S t at e. (2) Th e ma nn er in whi ch and th e condi tions und er whi ch th e acts , r e co rds an d proceedings r ef e rr ed to in cl au s e (1) sh al l b e prov ed an d th e eff ect th er eo f det er min ed sh al l b e as provid ed by l aw mad e b y Parl i ament . (3) F in al judg me nts o r ord ers de liv e r ed or p asse d b y civ il courts in an y p art of th e t erritor y of Indi a sh all b e cap abl e of ex ecution an ywh er e within th at t erritor y according to l aw.

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Disput es r elating to Wa t ers 262 . Adjud i cation of disput es relat ing to w aters of int er-Stat e riv ers o r riv e r v a ll ey s . (1) P ar li a ment ma y b y l a w provid e for th e adjudi cation of an y d isput e or co mp l aint with r esp ect to th e us e, dis tribut ion or co n trol o f th e w at ers o f, o r in , an y in t er-S t a t e r iv er o r riv er v al le y . (2) Not with st anding an yth ing in thi s Cons titution , P arl i ament may b e l a w prov id e that n eith er th e Supr eme Court nor an y oth er cour t sh al l ex er cis e jurisdiction in r esp ect of an y su ch dispu t e or co mp l ain t as is r ef err ed to in claus e (1) . Co-ordina tion bet w een Stat es 263 . Provisio ns w ith resp ect to an int er-Stat e Coun cil . If at an y ti me it app ears to the Pr esid ent th at th e pub li c int erests would b e serv ed b y th e est ab lish ment of a Coun cil ch arged with th e dut y of (a ) i nquir ing in to and advis ing upon disput es whi ch ma y h av e aris en b et w e en St at es; (b ) i n v est ig ating and dis cu ssing subj ects in wh i ch so me or all of th e St at es, or th e U nion and on e or mor e of the St at es , h av e a co mmon int e r est; or (c ) mak i ng r eco mmend ations upon an y such sub j ect and , in p art i cul ar , r e co mme n d a tions for th e b e tt er co -ordin ation of poli c y and action with r espect to th at subj ec t , it sh all b e l awful for th e Pr esid en t b y ord er to est ablish su ch a Coun cil , and to d efin e th e n atur e of th e duti es to be p erfor med b y it an d its org anis a tion and pro c edur e.

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P A R T XII F I N AN C E , P ROP E R TY , CO N TR A C TS A ND S U I TS C H A P T E R I . F I N A N C E G e n er a l 264 . Int e rp retation . In this P art , F in an ce Co mmi ss ion means a Fin an ce Co mmiss ion cons titut ed und er arti cl e 280 . 265 . Tax es not to b e i mpos ed sav e by aut hority of law .No t ax sh all b e l evi ed or collect ed ex cept b y author it y of l aw. 266 . Consolidat ed Funds and publ i c a ccounts o f India and of th e S t a t es . (1) Subj ect to th e provis ions of art i cle 267 and to the provi sions of this Ch apt er with r esp ect to th e assign ment of th e who l e or p art of th e n et pro ceeds o f cert ain t ax es and duti es to S t ates , all r ev enu es r eceiv ed b y th e Gov ern men t of Ind i a, all loa ns r ais ed b y tha t Gov ern men t b y th e issu e of tr easur y bi lls , lo ans or wa ys and me ans adv an c es and all mon e ys r eceiv ed b y that Gov ern ment in r ep ayment of lo ans sh all for m on e consol id at ed fund to b e en ti tl ed th e Consolid at ed Fund of Indi a, an d all r ev enu es r eceived b y th e Gov ern me nt of a St at e, all lo an s r ais ed b y th at Gov ern me nt b y th e issu e of tr easu r y bi lls , lo ans or ways and means a dv an c es and all mon e ys r e c eiv ed b y th a t Gov ern me nt in r ep a yme nt of lo an s sh all form o n e consolidat ed fund to b e ent itl ed th e Consolid at ed Fund of th e St ate. (2) All o th er publi c mo n e ys r e ce iv ed b y or on b eh alf of th e Go v ern me nt of Indi a or th e Gov ern me nt of a St at e sh all b e cr edit ed to t h e publi c account of Indi a or th e publi c account of th e St at e, as th e cas e may b e. (3) No mon e ys ou t of th e Conso lid at ed Fund of Indi a o r th e Consolid at ed Fund of a St at e sh al l b e appropri at ed ex cept in accord an ce with l a w an d for the purposes an d in th e man n er provid ed in th is Consti tution . 267 . Conting en cy Fund . (1) P arli a me nt ma y b y l a w e st ab lish a Conting en c y Fund in th e n atur e o f an i mpr est to b e en ti tl ed th e Conting en c y Fund o f Indi a into wh i ch sh al l b e p aid fro m ti me t o ti me su ch su ms as may b e d et er min ed b y su ch l aw , and th e s aid Fund sh all be pl aced at th e dispos al of th e Pr esid en t to en abl e adv an ces to b e ma d e b y hi m out of su ch Fund for th e purpos es of meeting unfor es een exp enditu re p ending authoris at ion of su ch exp enditur e by P arli a me nt by l a w und er a r t i cl e 1 1 5 o r art i c l e 1 1 6 . (2) Th e Legi sl atur e of a St at e may b y l aw es t abli sh a Conting en cy Fund in th e n atur e of an i mpr est to b e en titl ed the Conting en c y Fund of th e St at e into which sh all b e p aid fro m t i me to ti me su ch su ms as may b e d et er min ed b y su ch l a w , an d th e s aid F u n d sh all b e p l a c ed at th e d isp o s a l of th e Gov ernor of th e S t at e to en abl e adv an c es to b e ma d e b y hi m out of su ch Fund for th e purpos es o f meet ing unfores een exp enditur e p ending 112

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author is ation of su ch exp enditur e b y th e Legisl atu r e o f th e Stat e b y l a w und er arti cl e 205 or arti cl e 206 . Dist ribution of Revenu es b et w ee n th e Un ion and th e Stat es 268 . Duti es l evied by th e Union but col l ect ed and app rop riated by th e Stat es . (1) Such st amp dut i es and su ch du ti es of ex cis e on me d i cin al and toi l et pr ep ar ations as ar e mention ed in th e Union List sh al l be l evi ed b y th e Gov ern ment of Indi a but shall b e coll ected (a ) i n th e cas e wh er e su ch duti es ar e l evi abl e within an y Union t err itor y, b y th e Govern men t of Indi a, and (b ) i n oth er cas es , b y th e St at es within whi ch su ch duties ar e r esp ect iv el y l evi abl e. (2) Th e pro ceeds in an y fin an cial year of an y su ch dut y l evi abl e within an y St at e sh all not for m p ar t of th e Conso lid ated Fund of India, but sh al l b e assign ed to th at St at e. 269 . Tax es l evi ed and co ll ected by th e Union but a ssign ed to th e S t a t es . (1) Tax es on th e s ale or pur ch as e of goods and tax es on th e consign ment of goods sh al l b e levi ed and coll ec t ed b y th e Govern me nt of Indi a but sh al l b e ass ign ed and sh all b e d eemed to h av e b e en assign ed to th e St at es on or aft er th e 1st d ay of Ap ril , 1996 in th e mann er provid ed in cl aus e (2) . Explanation . For th e purpos es of this cl au s e,(a) t h e ex p r e s s i o n " t ax es o n t h e s al e o r p u r ch a s e o f g o o d s " s h all mean tax es on s al e or pur ch ase of goods oth er th an newsp apers , wh er e su ch s al e or pur ch as e t ak es place in th e cours e of int er-St a te tr ad e o r c o mme r c e ; (b) the exp r ession "t ax es on the consign ment of goods " sh all mean t ax es on th e consign ment of goods ( wh eth er th e consign ment is to th e p erson ma king it or to an y oth er p erson) , wh ere su ch cons ignmen t t ak es pl ace in th e cours e of int er -St ate tr ad e or co mmer ce. (2) Th e n et proceeds in an y finan ci al year of an y su ch t ax , except in so f ar as thos e proceeds r epr es ent pro ceeds attribut abl e to Union t er ritori es, sh al l not for m part of th e Consolid at ed Fund of Indi a, but sh all b e assign ed to th e St at es with in whi ch th at t ax is lev i able in th at year , and sh all b e dis tribut ed among thos e St at es in acco rd an ce with su ch prin cipl es o f dis tribution as ma y b e for mul ated b y P a rli a me nt b y l a w. (3 ) P ar li a men t ma y b y l a w fo rmu l at e p rin c ip le s fo r d e te r min in g wh en a s al e or pur ch ase of , or consignmen t of, goods t ak es pl ace in th e cours e o f int er-St at e tr ad e or co mmer ce. 270 . Tax es l evi ed and d ist ribut ed b etw ee n th e Union and th e Stat es . (1) All t ax es and du ti es r ef err ed to in th e Un ion List , ex cept th e duti e s and t ax es r ef er r ed to in art i cl es 268 and 269 , r esp e ct ive ly, sur ch arg e on t ax es and duti e s r ef err ed to in art i cl e 271 and an y cess l e vi ed for sp ecif i c purpo ses und er an y l aw mad e b y Parli ament sh all b e l evi ed and

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coll ect ed b y th e Gov ern me nt of I ndi a an d sh all b e dist ribut ed b et w een th e Union and th e St at es in the mann er provid ed in cl aus e (2) . (2) Su ch per cent ag e, as may b e pr es crib ed , of th e n et pro ceeds of an y su ch t ax or dut y in an y finan ci al year shall no t for m p art of th e Consolid at ed Fund of Indi a, but sh al l b e assign ed to th e St at es wi thin whi ch th at t ax or du t y is l eviabl e in th at year , and sh all be d istribut ed amo ng thos e St at es in su ch man n er and fro m su ch ti me as may b e pr es cr ib ed in the mann er prov ided in cl aus e (3) . (3) In this ar ti cle, "pr es cr ib ed" mean s , (i) until a Fin an c e Co mmi ssion h as b e en consti tut ed , pr es cr ibe d b y th e Pr esid en t b y ord er , an d (i i) aft er a F in an ce Co mmi ssion h as b een con stitut ed , pr es crib ed b y th e Pr esid en t by ord er aft er consid er ing th e r e co mme nd ations of th e Fin an ce Co mmiss ion. 271 . Surcha rge on certain duti es and taxes fo r pu rposes of th e Union .Not withst and ing an ything in arti cles 269 and 270 , P arli ament may at an y t i me in creas e an y of the duti e s or t ax es r ef err ed to in thos e art i cl es b y a sur ch arg e for purpos es of t h e Union and t h e whol e pro ceeds o f an y su ch sur ch arg e sh al l fo r m p art of th e Consolidat ed Fund of Indi a. 2 7 2 . [ Taxes whi ch ar e l evi ed and coll ected by th e Union and ma y b e dis tribut ed b etween the Union and th e Stat es.] Rep . b y th e Cons titut ion (E i g h t i eth A m en d m en t ) A c t , 2000 , s .4 . 2 7 3 . G ra n t s i n l i eu o f e x p o rt d u t y o n j u t e a n d j u t e p ro d u ct s . (1) Th er e sh all b e ch arg ed on th e Consolid at ed Fund of Indi a in each year as gr ants -in- aid of t h e r ev enu es of th e S tat es of Ass am, Bih ar, Oris s a and West Beng al , in l i eu of assign ment of an y sh ar e of th e n et pro ceeds in each year of expor t dut y on jut e and jut e p rodu cts to thos e S t at es , su ch su ms as ma y b e p r es c r i b e d . (2) Th e su ms so pr es crib ed sh all continue to b e ch arged on th e Consolid at ed Fund of Indi a so long as an y export du t y on jut e or jut e produ cts continu es to b e l evi ed b y th e Go v ern me nt o f Indi a or until th e expir ation of ten years fro m t h e co mmen cemen t of thi s Consti tution w h i ch ev er is e arli e r. (3) In this arti cle, th e expr ess ion pr es cr ib ed h as th e s ame meaning as in art i cl e 270 . 274 . Prio r reco mmen dat ion of Presid ent requi red to Bi lls a ff ecting taxation in whi ch Stat es a re i nt erest ed .(1) No Bill or amen d ment whi ch i mpos es or v ari es an y t ax or dut y in whi ch St at es ar e int er es t ed, or whi ch v ari es th e me an ing o f th e expr ession agri cul tur al in co me as d efin ed fo r th e purpos es of th e en act ments r elating to Indi an in co me-t ax , or whi ch aff ects the p rin ciples on whi ch und er an y of the for egoing provis ions of this Ch apt er mon eys ar e or may be d istribut ab l e to S t at es , or whi ch i mpo ses an y su ch sur charg e for th e purpos es of th e Union as is men tion ed in the for ego ing provis ions of th is Ch ap t er , sh al l be in trodu ced

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or mov ed in eith er Hous e of Parl i a ment ex cept on th e r e co mme n d ation of th e Pr esid en t. (2) In this articl e , th e ex p r ession t ax or dut y in whi ch St at es ar e int er est ed means (a) a t ax or duty th e who l e o r p art of th e n et pro ceeds wh er eof ar e assign ed to an y St at e; o r (b) a t ax o r d u ty b y r e f er en c e to th e n et p ro c eed s wh er eo f su ms ar e for th e ti me b eing p a yabl e ou t of th e Con solidat ed Fund o f Indi a to an y S t at e . 275 . Grant s f ro m t h e Union to certain Stat es . (1) Su ch su ms as P arl i a ment ma y b y l a w provid e sh all b e ch arg ed on th e Consolid at ed Fund of Indi a in each year as gr ants-in - aid of th e r ev enu es of su ch St at es as P arl i a ment ma y d et er min e to be in n e ed of assi st an ce, an d diff er en t su ms ma y b e f ixed for diff er en t S t at es: Provid ed th at ther e sh al l b e p aid out of th e Consol id at ed Fund of Indi a as gr an ts-in- aid o f th e r ev enu es o f a S t at e su ch cap it al an d r e cu rring su ms as ma y b e n ecess ar y to en ab l e th at St at e to meet th e co sts of such s ch e me s of d ev e lop ment a s ma y b e und e rt ak en b y th e St at e wi th th e approv al o f th e Gov ern me nt of Ind i a for the purpos e of pro moting th e we lf ar e of th e S ch edul ed Trib es in th at S t at e or r aising th e l evel of ad min istr ation of th e S ch edul ed Ar eas th er ein to th at of th e ad ministr ation of th e r est of th e ar eas of th at St at e: Provid ed fur th er th at th er e sh all b e p aid out of th e Consol idat ed Fund of Indi a as gr ants-in- aid of th e r ev enu es of th e St at e of Ass am su ms , capi t al and r ecurring , equiv al en t to (a) th e av e r ag e e x c ess o f ex p en d itu r e o v er th e r ev en u es d u r in g th e t wo years i mme di at el y pr eced ing th e co mme n c emen t of this Const itution in r esp ect of the ad ministr at ion of th e tr ib al areas sp ecifi ed in P art I of th e t abl e app ended to p ar agr aph 20 of th e Sixth S ch edul e; and (b) th e co sts o f su ch s ch e me s o f d ev elo p me n t as ma y b e u n d erta k en b y th at St at e with th e approv al of th e Govern me nt of Indi a for th e purpos e of r ais ing th e l ev el of ad minis tr ation of th e s aid ar eas to th at of th e ad minist r ation of th e r est of th e ar eas of th at St at e. (1 A) On and fro m th e for mation of th e au tono mous St at e und er arti cl e 2 4 4 A , (i) an y su ms payabl e und er cl aus e ( a) of the s e cond proviso to cl au s e (1) sh all, if th e au tonomo u s St at e co mp ris e s all th e trib al ar eas r ef err ed to th er ein , b e p aid to th e autonomo us S t at e, and , if the autono mous Stat e co mpris e s onl y so me of thos e trib al ar eas , b e apport ion ed b etween th e S t at e of Ass am and the autono mous Stat e as th e Pr esid en t may, b y ord er , sp ecify; (i i) th er e sh all b e p aid out of th e Consol idated Fund of Indi a as gr ants -in- aid of t h e r ev enu es of t h e autono mous St at e su ms , capit al and

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r e cu rr in g , eq u iv al en t to th e co st s o f su ch s ch e me s o f d ev elo p me n t as ma y b e und er t ak en b y th e autono mous St at e with th e approval of th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a for the purpos e of r ais ing th e l ev el of ad minis tr ation of th at St at e to th at of th e admi nis tr ation of th e r est of th e St at e of Assam. (2) Unt il provision is ma d e b y P arl i a ment und er cl au s e (1) , the po wers conf err ed on Parl i ament und er t h at cl aus e shall b e ex er cis abl e b y th e Pr esid en t b y o rd er an d an y o rd e r ma d e b y th e Pr esid en t u n d er th i s cl au s e sh al l h av e eff e ct subj ect to an y provis ion so ma d e b y P a rli a me nt: Provid ed th a t aft er a Fin an c e Co mmi ssion h as b e en consti tut ed no ord er sh al l b e ma d e u n d er th is cl au s e b y th e P r esid en t ex c ep t aft er c o n sid er in g th e r e co mmend ation s of th e Finan ce Co mmis sion . 276 . Ta x es on p rof essions , t rad es , ca llings and emp loymen ts . (1) Not with st anding an yth ing in art icl e 246, no l aw of th e Legis l atur e of a St at e r el at ing to t ax es for th e b en ef it of th e S t at e or of a mu ni cip al it y, dis tri ct bo ard , lo cal bo ard or oth er lo cal au thori t y th er ein in r esp ect of prof es sions , tr ad es , cal lings or emp lo yme nts shall b e inv a lid on th e ground th at i t re l at es to a t ax o n in co me . (2) Th e tot al amo unt p ayabl e in r esp ect o f any on e p erson to th e S tat e or to an y on e mu ni cip al it y, dis tri ct bo ard , lo cal bo ard or oth er lo cal author it y in th e St at e b y way of t ax es on prof ess ions, t r ad es, call ings and emp lo yments shall not ex ceed t wo thous and and f iv e hundr ed rup ees p er a n n u m. (3) Th e po wer of th e Legisl atur e of a St at e to mak e l aws as afor es aid with r esp ect to t ax es on profession s, tr ad es , callings and emp lo y me nts sh al l not be constru ed as li miting in an y way t h e po wer of Parl i a ment to ma k e l a ws with r esp ect to tax es on in co me accruing fro m or aris ing ou t of prof es sions , tr ad es , callings and emp lo ymen ts. 2 7 7 . S a v i n g s . An y t ax es , duti es, cess es or f ees wh i ch, immed i at el y b efor e th e co mmen c emen t of this Co n stitu tion, wer e b eing l awfull y l evi ed b y th e Go v ern me n t o f an y S ta t e o r b y an y mu n i cip al it y o r o th er lo c al author it y or bod y for th e purpos es o f th e St at e, muni cip al it y, dist ri ct or oth er lo cal ar ea ma y, n ot with standing th at thos e t ax es, duti es, cess es or f ees ar e mention ed in th e Union List , continu e to b e l evi ed and to b e appli ed to th e s a me purpos es unti l prov ision to th e contr ar y is mad e b y P arl i ament b y l aw . 2 7 8 . [ Agr eement with S tat es in Part B of th e Firs t S ch edu l e with r egard to certa in finan cial ma t t ers.] Rep. b y th e Consti tution (S eventh A m e n d m en t ) A ct , 1 9 5 6 , s . 29 a n d S ch . 279. Cal culation of n et p ro ceeds , et c. (1) In th e for egoing provis ions o f this Ch ap t er , net pro ceeds means in r el ation to an y t ax or dut y th e pro ceeds th er eo f r educed b y th e co st of co l l e ction , and for th e purpos es o f thos e prov isions the n et pro ceeds of an y t ax o r dut y, or of an y p art of an y t ax or dut y, in or att ribut abl e to an y ar ea sh all b e as cert ain ed

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and cert ifi ed by th e Co mptroll er and Audi tor- Gen er al of Indi a, whos e c e rt ifi c at e sh all b e fin al . (2) Subj ect as afor es aid , and to an y oth er expr ess provis ion of this C h apt er , a l aw ma d e b y P ar li ame n t or a n ord er o f th e Pr es id ent ma y, in a n y cas e wh er e under thi s P art th e pro ceeds of an y dut y or t ax ar e, or may b e, assign ed to an y St at e, provid e for th e mann er in wh i ch th e proceeds ar e to b e cal cul at ed , fo r th e ti me from o r at whi ch and th e mann er in whi ch an y p a yments ar e to b e ma d e, for th e ma king of adjust me nts bet w een on e fin an c i al year and anoth er , and for an y oth er in cid ent al or an ci ll ar y ma t t ers . 280. Finan ce Co mmi s sion .(1) Th e Pr esid ent sh all , within two years fro m th e co mmen cemen t of th is Consti tution and th er ea ft er at th e expir a tion of ev er y f ifth year or at su ch earl i er ti me as th e Pr es iden t consid er s n ecess ar y, b y ord er const itut e a Fin an ce Co mmi ssion whi ch sh all consis t of a Ch air man and four o th er me mbers to b e appoint ed b y th e P r esid en t. (2) P arli a ment may b y l aw d eter min e th e qu alif i c ations whi ch sh all b e r equis it e for appoint ment as memb ers of th e Commi s sion and the man n er in whi ch th ey sh all b e s el e ct ed . (3) It sh al l b e th e dut y of th e Co mmi ssion to mak e r eco mmend ation s to th e Pr esid en t as to (a) th e d istribution b etw een the U nion and the St at es o f th e n et pro ceeds of t axes whi ch ar e to b e, or may b e, divid ed b etween th em und er th is Ch apt er an d th e al lo cation b etween th e S tates of th e r esp ect iv e shar es of su ch pro ceeds; (b) th e pr in cipl es wh i ch should gov ern th e gr an ts-in - aid of th e r ev enu es of th e St at es ou t of th e Consolid at ed Fund of Indi a; (bb) th e measur es n e ed ed to aug ment th e Consol id at ed Fund of a St at e to suppl emen t th e r esources of th e P an ch a yats in th e Stat e on th e b asis of th e r eco mmend ations mad e b y th e Fin an ce Co mmiss ion of th e St at e; ( c) th e measur es n e ed ed to aug ment the Consol id at ed Fund of a St at e to suppl emen t th e r e sources of th e Municip al iti es in th e St at e on th e b asis of th e r e co mme nd at ions ma d e b y th e Fin an c e Co mmis sion o f th e St at e; (d) an y oth er ma t t er r ef err ed to th e Co mmi ssion b y th e P re side nt in th e int e rests of sound fin an ce. (4) Th e Co mmi ss ion sh all d et ermi n e th eir pro c edur e and sh all hav e su ch po wers in th e p erfor man ce of th eir fun ct ions as P arli ament may b y l aw conf er on th em. 281. Reco mme ndation s of the Finan c e Co mmi s s ion . Th e Pr esid ent sh al l caus e ev ery r eco mmend at ion mad e b y th e Fin an ce Co mmiss ion und er th e provisions o f thi s Const itution tog eth er with an exp l an ator y

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me mo r a ndu m as to th e act ion t ak en th er eon to be l aid befor e each Hous e of P arl i a ment . Mis cellan eou s Finan cia l Pro v isions 282. Exp endi tu re d ef rayabl e by th e Union o r a Stat e out of it s r e v en u es . Th e Union or a Stat e ma y ma k e an y g r ants for an y pub li c purpos e, not withst and ing th at th e purpos e is not on e with r espect to whi ch P arl i ament or th e Legis l atur e of th e St at e, as th e cas e may be, may mak e l a ws . 283. Custody , et c., o f Conso lidat ed Funds , Conting en cy Funds and mo n e ys credited to th e publi c a c counts . (1) Th e custod y of th e Consolid at ed Fund of Indi a and th e Con ting en c y Fund of Indi a, th e p a yment of moneys in to su ch Funds , th e withdr awal of mon eys th er efro m, th e cu stod y of publi c mo n e ys oth er th an thos e cr ed it ed to su ch Funds r eceiv ed b y or on b eh alf of th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a, th eir p a yment in to th e publi c account of Indi a and the withdr awal of mon eys fro m su ch account a nd a ll oth e r ma tt e rs conn e ct ed w i th or a n cill ar y to ma tt er s afor es aid sh all b e r eg u l at ed b y l a w mad e b y P arl i a men t , an d , u n ti l p ro v isio n in th at b eh alf is so ma d e, sh a ll b e r eg u l at ed b y ru l es ma d e b y th e P r esid en t . (2) Th e custod y of th e Consol id at ed Fund of a St at e and th e Conting en c y Fund of a St at e, th e p a yment of mo n e ys in to su ch Fund s, th e withdr awal of mo n e ys th er efrom, t h e custod y of publi c mon eys oth er th an thos e cr edit ed to su ch Funds r eceiv ed b y or on b eh alf of th e Gov ern ment of th e S t at e, th eir p a yment in to th e pub li c account of th e Stat e and th e withdr awal of mo n eys fro m s uch account and all oth er matt ers conn ect ed w ith o r an cill a ry to ma t t ers afo r es aid sh all b e r eg u l at ed b y la w ma d e b y th e Legisl atur e of th e S t at e, and , unt il prov ision in th at b eh alf i s so mad e , sh al l b e r egul ated b y rul es made b y th e Gov ernor of th e St at e. 284. Custody of suito rs' d eposi ts and other mo n eys receiv ed by publ ic s ervant s and courts . All mon eys r eceiv ed b y o r d eposit ed with (a) an y offi cer emplo yed in conn ection wi th th e aff airs of th e Union or o f a St at e in his cap a cit y as su ch , oth er th an r evenu es or publi c mon e ys r ais ed or r eceiv ed b y th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a or th e G o v er n me n t o f t h e S t at e , as t h e c a s e ma y b e , o r (b) an y court with in th e t erri tor y of Indi a to th e cr ed it of an y c a u s e , ma t t er , ac c o u n t o r p er s o n s , sh al l b e p aid into th e publi c account of India or the publi c account of S t at e , as t h e c as e ma y b e . 285. Ex empt ion of p rop erty of th e Union fro m S tat e taxation . (1) Th e prop ert y of th e Un ion sh all , s av e in so f ar as P arli a me nt ma y b y l a w o th er wis e p ro v id e , b e ex e mp t fro m a l l t ax es imp o s ed b y a Sta t e o r b y an y author it y within a S t at e. (2) Nothing in cl au s e (1) sh all , un til P ar li ament b y l aw oth erwis e provid es , p r ev ent an y authorit y with in a St at e fro m l ev ying any t ax on an y

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prop ert y o f th e Union to whi ch su ch prop ert y was i mme d i at ely b efor e th e co mmen cement of this Cons titution li abl e or treat ed as li ab l e, so long as th at t ax cont inues to b e l evi ed in th at St at e. 286. Rest ri ct ions as to i mp osition of tax on th e sal e o r pu rchas e of goods . (1) No l aw of a St at e sh all i mpos e, or author is e th e i mposi tion of , a t ax on th e s ale or pur ch as e of goods wh er e su ch s al e or purch as e t ak es place (a) ou tsid e th e St at e; or (b) in the cours e of th e i mport of th e goods into , or expo rt of th e goods out of , the t erri tor y of Indi a. (2 ) P ar li a men t ma y b y l a w fo rmu l at e p rin c ip le s fo r d e te r min in g wh en a s al e or pur ch ase of goods t akes pl ace in an y of th e wa ys me ntion ed in cl aus e (1) . (3) An y l aw of a S t at e sh all, in so f ar as it imp os es , or au thoris es th e i mposi tion of, (a) a t ax on th e s al e o r pur ch as e of good s decl ar ed b y P a rliame n t b y l a w to b e o f sp e ci a l i mp o r t an c e in in t er-S t ate tr ad e o r co mme r c e; o r (b) a t ax on the s al e or pu r chas e of goods, b eing a tax of th e n atur e r ef err ed to in su b - cl au s e (b) , su b - cl au s e ( c) or sub- cl aus e (d) o f cl au s e ( 2 9 A) o f art i cl e 3 6 6 , b e subj ect to su ch r est ri ctions and condit ions in r eg ard to the s ys t em of l ev y , r at es an d o th er in c id en ts o f th e t ax as P arli a me n t ma y b y l a w sp e cif y . 287. Ex emp tion f ro m t ax es on el ect ri city .S av e in so f ar a s P arl i ament may b y l aw oth erwis e prov id e, no law of a St at e sh all i mpo s e, or au thoris e the i mpos ition of , a t ax on the consu mpt ion o r s al e of el ect ri cit y ( wh eth er produ ced b y a Gov ern me nt or o th er p ersons) whi ch is (a) consu med b y th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a, or so ld to th e Gov ern ment of Indi a for consu mption b y th at Gov ern ment; or (b) consu med in th e constru ction , main t en an ce or op er ation of an y r ai lway b y th e Gov ern ment of Indi a o r a r ail way co mp an y op er at ing th at r ai lway, or so ld to th at Gov e rn me nt or an y su ch r ai lway comp an y for consu mption in th e constru ct ion , main t en an ce or op er ation of an y r ai lw a y, and an y su ch l aw i mpos ing, or author ising th e i mposi tion o f, a t ax on th e s al e of el ec tri cit y sh all s e cu r e th at th e p ri c e of el ect ri cit y sold to th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a for consump tion b y th at Gov ern me nt , or to an y su ch r ai lway co mp an y as afor es aid for consu mption in th e constru c tion , mai nt en an ce or op er at ion of an y r ail way, sh al l be l ess b y th e amount of th e t ax th an th e price ch arg ed to oth er consu mers of a subs t anti al quan tit y of el ect ri cit y. 288 . Ex emp tion f ro m t axation by Stat es in resp ect of w ater o r el ect ri c ity in certain ca s es.(1) S av e in so f ar as th e Pr es id ent may b y

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ord er oth erwis e provid e, no l aw of a St at e in for ce i mmed i at el y b efor e th e co mmen cement of this Const itution sh all i mpos e, or author is e th e i mposi tion of , a t ax in r esp ect of an y wat er or el ect ri cit y s tor ed, g en er at ed , consu med , di stribut ed or sold by an y au thorit y est ab lish ed b y an y ex ist ing l a w or an y l a w ma d e b y P arli ame n t for regu l ating or d ev eloping an y in t erSt at e r iv er or r iv er-v al l e y. Explanation . T h e ex p r es sio n l aw o f a S t ate i n fo r c e in th is c l au s e sh al l in clud e a law of a St at e pass ed o r mad e befor e th e co mmen cement of thi s Cons titut ion and not pr eviousl y r ep eal ed , not withs t anding th at it or p arts of i t ma y not b e th en in op er at ion ei th er at all or in p art icul ar ar eas . (2) Th e Legislatur e o f a St ate may b y l aw i mpos e, or authoris e th e i mposi tion o f, an y su ch t ax as is mention ed in cl aus e (1) , but no su ch l aw sh al l h av e an y e ff e ct u n l e ss it h as , aft e r h av in g b e en r es erv ed fo r th e consid er ation of th e P r esid ent , r eceiv ed h is ass ent ; and if an y su ch l aw p ro v id es fo r th e fix at io n o f th e r at es an d o th e r in cid en ts o f su ch t ax b y mean s of rul es or ord ers to b e mad e und er th e l aw b y an y au thorit y, th e l aw sh al l provid e for th e pr evious cons ent of th e Pr esid en t b eing obt ain ed to th e ma king of an y su ch rul e or ord er . 289. Ex emp tion o f p rop erty and in co me of a Stat e f rom Un ion taxation . (1) Th e prop ert y and in co me of a St at e sh all b e ex empt fro m U nion t ax ation . ( 2 ) Noth ing in cl aus e (1) sh all pr ev ent th e Union fro m i mposing , or author ising th e i mposi tion of , an y t ax to su ch ex t ent , i f an y, as P arl i a men t may b y l aw provid e in r esp ect of a tr ad e or busin es s of an y kind car ri ed on b y , o r o n b eh al f o f, t h e Go v er n me n t o f a S t at e, o r an y o p er a t i o n s c o n n ec t ed th er ewi th, or any prop ert y us ed or o c cupi ed for th e purpo s es of su ch tr ad e or busin ess , or an y in co me accruing or aris ing in conn ection ther ewith . (3) Noth ing in cl au s e (2) sh all appl y to an y trad e or bus in ess , or to an y cl ass of t r ad e or bu sin ess , whi ch P arli ament may b y l aw decl ar e to b e in cid en t al to th e ordin ar y fun ctions of Govern me nt . 290 . Adjus t me nt in re sp ect of certain exp ens es and p ens ions . Wh er e und er th e provision s o f this Const itution th e exp ens es of any court or Co mmi ssion , or th e p ension p ayabl e to or in resp ect of a p erson who h as s erv ed b efor e th e co mmen cement of th is Con stitu tion und er the Cro wn in Indi a o r aft er su ch co mmen c emen t in conn ection with th e aff ai rs of th e Union or of a St at e, ar e ch arg ed on th e Consolid at ed Fund of Indi a or th e Consolid at ed Fund of a S t at e, then , if (a) in th e cas e of a ch arg e on th e Consolid at ed Fund of Indi a, th e court or Co mmi ss ion s erv es any of th e s ep ar ate n e eds of a S t at e, or th e p erson h as s erved wholl y o r in p art in conn ection wi th th e affairs of a St at e; o r (b) in th e cas e of a ch arg e on th e Consol id at ed Fund of a St ate, th e court or Co mmis sion s erv es any of th e s ep ar ate n e eds of th e Union or anoth er St at e, or th e p erson h as s erv ed whol l y or in p art in conn ection with th e aff air s of th e Union or anoth er St at e,

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th er e sh al l b e ch arg ed on and p aid out of the Consolid at ed Fund of th e St at e o r, as the cas e may b e, th e Consol idat ed Fund of Indi a or th e Consolid at ed Fund of th e oth er St at e, su ch contr ibution in r esp ect of the exp ens es or p ension as may b e agr eed , or as may in d ef aul t o f agr eement b e d et er min ed b y an arbi tr ator to b e appointed b y th e Ch i ef Justi ce of India. 290 A. Annual pay men t to certain Devasw o m Fund s. A sum of fort ysix l akhs and fift y thous and rup ees sh all b e ch arg ed on, and p aid out of , th e Co n so lid at ed Fu n d o f th e St at e o f K er al a e v er y y e a r to th e T r av an co r e Dev as wo m Fund; and a su m of th irt e en l akhs and fi ft y thous and rup e es sh al l b e ch arg ed on , and p aid out of, th e Consolid at ed Fund of th e S t at e of Tami l Nadu ev er y year to th e Dev as wo m Fund est ab lish ed in th at St at e for th e main t enan ce of Hindu t emples and shrin es in th e t errito ri es t r ansf err ed to th at S t at e on th e 1st d ay of Nov emb er, 1956, fro m th e St at e of T r av an co r e- Co ch in . 291 . [ Pri v y purs e su ms o f Ru le rs . ] Rep . b y th e Const itution (T went ysi x th A m en d m en t ) A c t , 197l , s . 2 . C H A P T E R I I. B O R R O W I N G 292 . Bo rrow ing by th e Gov ernmen t of India .Th e ex ecut iv e po wer of th e Un ion ex t ends to borro wing upon th e s e cu rit y of th e Consolid at ed Fund of Ind i a within su ch li mits , if an y, as may from t i me t o ti me b e f ix ed b y P arl i a ment b y law and to th e giving of gu ar ant e es with in such li mit s, if an y, as may b e so fix ed . 293 . Bo rrow ing by Stat es .(1) Subj ect to th e provis ions of this arti cl e, th e ex ecut iv e po wer of a St at e ext ends to borrowing with in th e t er ritor y of Indi a upon th e s e curi t y o f th e Consolid at ed Fund of th e St at e within su ch li mi ts , if a n y, as ma y f ro m t i me t o t i me b e f ix ed b y th e L eg isl atur e of su ch St at e b y l a w and to th e giv ing of gu ar ant e es within su ch li mit s, if an y, as may b e so fix ed. (2) Th e Gov ernmen t of Indi a may, subj ect to su ch condit ions as may b e l aid do wn b y or und er an y l aw mad e b y P arli ament , mak e lo ans to any S t at e o r , so lo n g as an y l i mits fix ed u n d er a rti c l e 2 9 2 ar e n o t ex c e ed ed , g iv e g u ar an t e es in r esp e ct o f lo an s r ais ed b y a n y St a t e, an d an y su ms r equir ed for the pu rpos e of ma king su ch lo ans sh all b e ch arg ed on th e Consolid at ed Fund of Indi a. (3) A St at e may not wi thout th e cons ent o f th e Gov ern ment of Ind i a r ais e an y lo an if th er e is still outs t anding an y p art of a lo an which h as b e en ma d e to th e St at e b y th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a or b y its pr ed ecessor G ov ern me nt , o r in r esp e ct of w hi ch a gu ar ant e e h as b e en giv en b y th e Gov ern ment of Indi a or b y its pred ecessor Gov ern ment . (4) A cons ent und er cl aus e (3) ma y b e gr ant ed subj ect to su ch condit ions , if any, as th e Gov ernmen t of Indi a may think fit to imp os e.

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C H A P T E R I II.P R O P E R T Y . C O N T R A C T S , R I G H T S , L I A B I L I T I E S , OBLIGAT IONS AND SUITS 294 . Su cces sion to p rop erty , ass et s, rights , liabil iti es and obliga tions in certain cas es. As fro m th e co mmen cement of this Const itution (a ) a l l p ro p ert y an d ass ets w h i ch i mme d i at e l y b e fo r e su ch co mmen cement were v est ed in His Maj es t y for th e pu rpos es of th e Gov ern ment of th e Do min ion of Indi a and all prop ert y and ass ets whi ch i mmed i at el y b efor e su ch co mme n cement w er e vest ed in His M aj es t y for th e purpos es o f t h e Gov ern ment of each Gov e rnor's Provin c e sh all v est r esp ect iv el y in th e Un ion and the corr esponding St at e, and (b ) al l rights , li ab i liti es and oblig ations o f the Gov ern ment of th e Do minion of Indi a and of th e Gov ern ment of each Gov ernor's Prov in ce, wh eth er arising out of an y contr act or oth erwis e, shall b e th e rights , li ab ilit i es an d oblig ations r esp ec tiv el y of th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a an d th e Gov ern ment of each cor responding St at e, subj ect to an y adjus t ment ma de o r to b e ma de b y r e ason of th e cr eation b efor e th e co mmen cemen t of this Constitu tion of th e Do minion of P akist an o r o f t h e P r o v i n c es o f W e s t Be n g al , E as t B en g al , W es t P u n j ab an d E ast P u n j ab , 295 . Su cces sion to p rop erty , ass et s, rights , liabil iti es and obliga tions in oth er cas es . ( 1 ) As fro m th e co mmen cement of this Const itut ion (a ) a l l p ro p ert y an d ass ets w h i ch i mme d i at e l y b e fo r e su ch co mmen cement wer e v est ed in an y Indi an S t at e corr espond ing to a St at e sp ecif i ed in P art B of th e First S ch edu l e sh all v est in th e Union , if th e purpos es for whi ch su ch propert y and ass e ts wer e h eld i mme d i at el y b efor e su ch comme n cemen t wil l th er eaft er be purpos es of th e Union r el a ting to an y of th e matt ers en u mer at ed in the Un ion List , an d (b ) al l righ ts, li abi liti es and oblig ations of the Gov ern ment of an y Indi an S t at e corr espond ing to a St at e sp ecifi ed in P ar t B of th e Fi rst S ch edul e, wh ether arising out of an y contr act or oth er wis e, sh all b e th e righ ts, li ab ilit i es and obl ig ations of th e Go v ern me nt of Ind ia, if th e purpos es for whi ch su ch r ights wer e acquir ed o r li abili ti es or oblig ations w ere i n curr ed b efo re s u ch co mmencemen t wi ll th er eaft er b e purpos es of th e Go v e rn men t of Indi a r el at ing to an y o f th e ma t t ers enu mer at ed in th e Un ion List , subj ect to an y agr eement ent er ed into in th at beh alf b y th e Gov ern ment of Indi a with th e Gov ern me nt of that St at e. (2) Sub j ect as afor es aid, th e Gov ern me nt of each St at e sp ecifi ed in P a rt B of th e Fir st S ch edul e shall , as fro m th e co mme n cement of this Consti tution , be th e su ccessor of th e Go v ernme n t of th e co rr espond ing In d i an S t a t e as r eg ard s al l p ro p e rt y an d ass ets a n d all rig h ts, l ia b il iti es an d oblig ations , wheth er ari sing out of an y contr act or oth er wis e, oth er th an th o s e r ef er r ed to in cl au s e (1 ) .

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296 . Prop erty a ccruing by esch eat o r laps e o r a s bona va cantia . Subj ect as h er ein af t er provid ed , an y prop erty i n th e t erritor y o f Indi a whi ch , if thi s Cons titut ion h ad no t co me into op er ation , would h av e accru ed to His Maj est y or , as th e cas e may b e, to th e Rul er of an Indi an S t at e b y es ch e a t o r l ap s e , o r as bona va ca n tia for wan t of a rightfu l o wn er , sh al l, if it is prop ert y si tu at e in a St at e, v est in su ch St at e, and sh all , in an y oth er cas e , v est in th e Un ion: Provid ed th a t an y prop ert y whi ch at th e d at e w h en it wou ld h av e so accru ed to His Maj es t y or to t h e Rul er of an Ind i an St at e was in th e poss es sion or und er th e con trol of th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a or th e Gov ern ment of a St at e sh all , according as th e purpos es fo r whi ch i t was th en us ed or h eld wer e purpo ses of th e Union or of a St at e, v est in th e Union or in th at St at e. Explanation . In th is arti c l e, th e e x p r ess io n s R u l er an d In d i an S t at e h av e th e s ame mean ings as in art i cl e 363 . 297 . Things of valu e w ithin t errito r ial w aters o r contin ental sh elf and resou rces of th e ex clusiv e econo mi c zon e to v est in th e Union . (1) All l ands , min er als and o th er things of valu e und erl ying th e o cean wi thin th e t e rritori al wat ers , or th e contin en t al sh elf, or th e ex clus iv e econo mi c zon e , o f Indi a sh all v es t in th e Union and b e h eld for th e purpos es of th e Union . (2) All o th er resour ces of th e ex clusiv e econo mi c zon e of Indi a sh all also v est in th e Union and b e h eld for th e purpos es of th e Un ion. (3) Th e li mit s of th e t err itori al wat ers, the contin ent al sh elf , the ex clus iv e economi c zon e, and oth er mariti me zon es , o f Indi a sh all b e su ch as may b e sp ecif i ed, fro m ti me to ti me, b y or und er an y law mad e b y P arl i a ment . 2 9 8 . Pow e r t o c a r ry o n t ra d e , e t c . Th e ex ecutiv e po wer of th e Union and of each St at e sh all ext end to th e carr ying on of an y tr ad e or bu sin ess and to th e acquisi tion , hold ing and dispos al of prop ert y and the ma king of contr acts for any purpos e: Provid ed th at (a) th e s aid ex ecutiv e po wer of th e Union shall , in so f ar as su ch tr ad e or busin ess or su ch pu rpos e is not one wi th r esp ect to wh i ch P arl i a ment ma y ma k e l a ws , b e subj e ct in e a ch St at e to l egi sl ation b y th e S t at e ; an d (b) th e said ex ec utiv e po wer of each St at e sh all , in so f ar as su ch tr ad e or busin ess or su ch purpos e is not on e with r esp ect to wh i ch th e St at e Legisl atur e may mak e l aws, b e subj ect to l egis lation by P arl i a ment . 299 . Cont ra cts . (1) All co n tr acts ma d e in th e ex er cis e of th e ex ecutiv e po w er of th e Union or of a S ta t e sh a ll b e expr ess ed to b e ma d e b y the Pr esid en t, or b y th e Gov ernor of th e St at e, as th e cas e ma y b e , and all su ch contr acts and all assu r an c es of prop ert y ma d e in th e ex er ci s e of th at po wer

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sh al l b e ex ecuted on b eh a lf of th e Pr esid en t or th e Gov ernor b y su ch p ersons and in su ch mann er as he may di r ect o r author is e. (2) Neith er th e Pr esid en t nor the Gov erno r sh all b e p er son all y li ab l e in r esp ect of an y contr act or assuran ce mad e or ex ecut ed for th e purpos es of thi s Constitu tion , or for th e purpos es o f an y en act ment r e l ating to the Gov ern ment of Indi a h er etofor e i n for ce, nor sh all an y p erson mak ing or ex ecuting an y su ch contr a ct or assur an ce on b eh alf of an y of th em b e p erson al l y li ab le in r esp ect th ereof . 300 . Suits and p ro ceedings . (1) Th e Gov ernmen t of Indi a may s u e or b e su ed b y th e n ame of th e Union of Indi a and th e Gov ern ment of a St at e may su e or b e su ed b y th e name of th e St at e and may, subj ect to any provis ions whi ch may b e mad e b y Act of P arliamen t or of th e Legis l atur e of su ch S t at e en act ed b y vi rtue of po wers conf err ed b y this Consti tution , su e or b e su ed in r e l ation to th eir r esp ectiv e affairs in th e lik e cas es as th e Do minion of Indi a and th e corr esponding Provin c es or th e corr espond ing Indi an St at es might h av e su ed or b e en su ed if th is Const itution h ad no t b e en en a ct ed . (2) If at th e commen cemen t of thi s Cons titution (a) an y l eg al pro ceedings ar e p ending to wh ich th e Do minion of Indi a is a p art y, th e Union of Indi a sh all b e d e emed to b e subs titut ed for th e Do minion in thos e pro ceedings; and (b) an y l eg al pro ceedings ar e p ending to wh ich a Provin ce or an Indi an St at e is a p art y, th e corr esponding St ate sh all b e d eemed to b e subs titut ed for th e Provin ce or th e Indi an St at e in thos e pro c eedings . C H A P T E R I V .R I G H T
TO

PROPERTY

300A. Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law. No person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law.

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PART XIII TRADE, COMMERCE AND INTERCOURSE WITHIN THE TERRITORY OF INDIA
301 . Freedo m of t rad e, co mmerce and intercou rs e.Sub ject to th e oth er provis ions of th is P art , tr ad e, co mmer ce and in t er cours e throughout th e t err itor y of Indi a sh al l b e free. 302 . Pow er of Pa rlia men t to imp o s e rest ri ctions on t rad e, co mmerce and int ercou rse. P ar li amen t may b y l aw i mpos e su ch r estriction s on th e fr eedo m of tr ade, co mmer ce or int ercou rs e b etween on e St at e and anoth er or within an y p art of th e t errito r y of Indi a as ma y b e r e quir ed in th e publi c in t er est . 303 . Rest ri ctions on th e l egi slat iv e pow e rs of th e Union and of th e Stat es w ith rega rd to t rade a nd co mmerce. (1) No twiths t anding an ything in articl e 302 , n ei th er P arl i amen t nor th e Legi sl atur e of a S t at e sh al l h av e po wer to mak e an y law giving , or author ising th e giving of , any pr ef er en ce to one St at e ov er anoth er , or ma king , or au thorising th e ma king of , an y di scri min at ion b et w een on e S tat e and anoth er , b y vir tu e of an y entr y r el at ing to tr ad e and comme r ce i n an y of th e Lis ts in th e S ev enth S ch ed u l e . (2) Nothing in cl aus e (1) sh al l pr ev ent P arli amen t fro m making an y l aw giving , or authoris ing th e giving of, an y pr ef er en ce or mak ing , or author ising th e mak ing of , an y dis cr i min ation if i t is d e cl ared b y su ch l aw th at it is n ecess ar y to do so for th e purpos e of d ealing wi th a s itu ation aris ing fro m s c ar ci t y of goods in an y p a rt of the t erri tor y of Indi a. 304 . Rest ri ct ions on t rad e, co mmerce a nd i nt ercou rs e a mo ng Stat es . No twithst an d ing an ything in arti cl e 301 o r ar ti cl e 303 , th e L egisl atur e o f a St at e may b y law (a) i mpos e on good s i mported f ro m oth er S t at es or th e Union t err itori es an y tax to whi ch si mil a r goods ma nuf actur ed or p rodu ced in t h at S t at e a r e s u b j e ct , s o , h o w ev e r , as n o t t o d i s c r i min at e b et w ee n g o o d s so i mport ed and goods so manufactur ed or produ ced; and (b) i mpos e su ch r e ason ab l e r estr i ctions on the fr eedo m of tr ad e, co mmer ce or inter cours e with or within th at St ate as may b e r equir ed in th e publi c in t erest : Provid ed th at no Bill or amendmen t for the purpos es of cl aus e (b) shall b e introdu ced or mov ed in th e Legisl atur e of a St at e without th e pr evious s an ct ion of th e Pr esid en t. 305 . Saving of exist ing law s and laws p roviding fo r Stat e mo n opoli es . No thing in art i cl es 301 an d 303 sh al l aff e ct th e prov isions of an y existing l a w ex cep t in so f ar as the Pr es id en t may b y o rd er oth er wis e dir e ct; and noth ing in arti cl e 301 shall aff e ct th e op er at ion of an y l a w mad e b efor e th e co mmen cemen t of the Co n stitu tion ( F ourth Amend ment ) Act , 1955 , in so f ar as it r el at es to , or pr ev ent P arl i ament or 125

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th e Legis l atur e of a St at e fro m mak ing an y l aw r el ating to , an y su ch matt er as is r ef err ed to in sub- cl aus e ( ii) o f cl au s e (6 ) o f arti c l e 1 9 . 3 0 6 . [ Po wer o f certa in Stat es in Par t B of th e Firs t S ch edul e to impo se r est ri ctions on trad e and comm er ce. ] Rep. by th e Cons titution (S even th A m e n d m en t ) A ct , 1 9 5 6 , s . 29 a n d S ch . 307 . Appoin t ment of autho rity fo r ca rry ing out th e pu rpos es of a rti cl es 301 to 304 . P ar li a ment ma y b y l a w appoint su ch author it y as it consid er s appropri a t e for carr ying out th e purpos es of arti cles 301, 302 , 303 and 304 , and conf er on the author it y so appoint ed su ch po wers and su ch duti es as i t thinks n ecess ary.

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PART XIV SERVICES UNDER THE UNION AND THE STATES


CHAPTER I. SERVICES 3 0 8 . I n t e rp r et a t i o n . In th is P a rt, unl ess t h e cont ex t o th erwis e r equir e s, th e expr ess ion St ate do es not in clud e th e St at e of J a mmu and Kash mir . 309 . Recruit me nt and cond itions of s ervi ce of p ersons s erving th e U nion o r a Stat e.Sub j ect to th e prov isions of th is Constitu tion , Acts of th e appropr i at e Legisl atur e may r egul at e th e r ecrui t ment , and condit ions of s ervi ce of p ersons appoin t ed, to pub li c s ervi ces and pos ts in conn ect ion with th e aff air s of th e Un ion or of an y S t at e: Pro v id ed th a t it sh all b e co mp et en t fo r th e Pr esid en t o r su ch p erso n as h e ma y di r e ct in th e cas e of s ervi ces and post s in conn ect ion with th e aff ai rs of th e Union , and for the Gov ernor of a S t at e o r su ch person as h e may d ir e ct in the cas e of s ervi ces an d posts in conn ection with th e aff airs of th e S t at e, to ma k e rul es r egul at ing th e r e crui t men t, and the conditions of s ervi ce o f persons appoint ed , to su ch s ervices and posts unti l provis ion in th at b eh alf is mad e b y or und er an Act of th e appropri at e Leg isl atur e und er this arti cl e, an d an y rul es so mad e sh all h av e eff e ct subj ect to th e provis ions of any su ch Act. 310 . Tenu re of o ffi ce of p ersons s erving the Union o r a Stat e.(1) Ex cept as expr ess l y provid ed by t his Con stitution , ev er y p e rson who is a memb er of a def en ce s ervi ce or of a civ il servi ce of th e Union or of an all -Indi a s erv ice or ho lds an y post connect ed with d ef en ce or any civ il post und er th e Union holds offi ce during th e pl easur e of th e Pr esid en t, and ev er y p erson who is a memb er o f a civ il s ervi ce of a St at e or ho lds an y civi l po st und er a St at e holds offi ce during th e pl easur e of th e Gov ernor of th e St at e. (2) Not wi thst anding th at a p erson holding a civil po st und er th e Union or a S t at e holds off i ce during th e pl easu r e of th e Pr es id ent or , as th e cas e may b e, of th e Gov ernor o f th e S t at e, an y con tr act und er whi ch a p erson , not b eing a memb er of a d ef ence s ervi ce or of an all-Indi a s ervi ce or of a civi l s ervi ce of th e Union or a St at e, is appoint ed und er thi s Consti tution to hold su ch a post ma y, i f th e Pr esid en t or th e Gov ernor , as th e cas e ma y b e , d e e ms it n ec e ss ar y in o rd er t o s e cu r e th e se rv i c es o f a p erso n h av in g sp eci a l qu al ifi cation s, provid e for th e p a yment to hi m of co mp ens at ion, if b efor e th e expi ration of an agr eed p er iod th at post is abolish ed or h e is , for r easons not conn ect ed wi th an y mi s condu ct on hi s p art , r equ ired to v acat e th at pos t. 3 1 1 . D is mi ssa l , r e mo v a l o r r ed u ctio n in ra n k o f p e rso n s emp l o y ed in c ivi l capa citi es und e r th e Union o r a State . (1) No person who is a me mb er of a civil s e rvi ce of th e Un ion o r an all- Indi a s ervi c e or a civil s ervi ce o f a St at e or ho lds a civil po st und er the Union or a St at e sh all b e 127

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dis mis s ed or r emo v ed b y an au thor it y subordinat e to th at b y wh i ch h e was a p p o i n t ed . (2) No su ch person as afores aid sh al l b e dis mis s ed o r r emo v ed o r r edu ced in r ank ex cept aft er an inqu ir y in which h e h as b e en infor med of th e ch arg es ag ainst hi m and given a r eason abl e oppor tunit y of b eing h eard in r esp ect of thos e ch arg es: Provid ed th at wh er e i t is propos ed af t er su ch inqu ir y, to i mpos e upon hi m an y su ch pen alt y, su ch p en alt y ma y b e imp o s ed on th e b asis of th e evid en ce addu ced during su ch inquir y an d it shall not b e n ecess ar y to giv e su ch p erson any opportunit y of mak ing r epres ent a tion on th e p en alt y propos ed: Pro v id ed fu r th er th at th i s cl au s e sh all n o t ap p l y (a) wh er e a p erson i s dis miss ed or r emov ed or r edu ced in r ank on th e ground of condu ct whi ch h as l ed to his convi ct ion on a cri min al c h arg e; o r (b ) wh er e th e author it y empo we r ed to dis mis s or r e mov e a p erson or to r edu ce hi m i n r ank is s ati sfied th at fo r so me r eason, to be r ecord ed b y th at authority in wr iting , it is not r easonabl y pr acti cab le to ho ld su ch inquir y; o r ( c) wh er e th e Pr esid en t o r the Gov ernor, as th e cas e may b e , is s at isfi ed th at in th e int er e st of th e s e cu ri t y of th e St at e it is not exp edi ent to hold su ch inquir y. (3 ) If , in r esp ec t o f an y su ch p erso n as afo re s aid , a q u es tio n aris es wh eth er it is r e ason abl y pr acti c abl e to ho ld su ch inqui r y as is r ef err ed to in cl aus e (2), th e d e cis ion th er eon of th e authorit y empo wer ed to di s mi ss or r emov e su ch p erson or to r edu ce hi m in rank shall b e fin al . 3 1 2 . Al l - I n d ia s e r v i c es . (1) No t with st anding an ything in Ch ap t er VI of P art VI or P art XI, i f th e Coun cil of St at es h as d ecl ar ed by r esolut ion support ed b y not l ess th an t wo-th irds of th e me mb er s pr es en t an d voting th at it is n ecess ar y or exp edi ent in th e n ation al int er est so to do , P arl i ament may b y l aw prov id e f or th e cr eation o f on e or mor e all Indi a s erv i c e s (in clu d in g an a ll-In d i a ju d i ci al s erv i c e) co mmo n to th e U n io n an d th e St at es , and , subj ect to th e oth er provision s of this Ch apt er , regul at e th e r e crui t men t, and th e cond itions of s ervi c e o f p ersons appoint ed , to an y su ch s ervi ce. (2) Th e s ervi ces kno wn at th e co mmen cement of this Constitu tion as th e Indi an Ad min istr a tiv e S ervi c e and th e Ind i an Po li ce S erv ice sh all b e d eemed to b e s ervi ces cr eat ed by P arli ament und er this ar ti cl e. (3) Th e all-India jud i ci al s ervi ce r e f err ed to in cl au s e (1) sh al l not in clud e an y po st inf erio r to that of a dist ri ct judg e as d ef in ed in ar ti cl e 236. (4) Th e l a w providing fo r th e cr eat ion o f th e all -Indi a judi ci al s ervi c e afor es aid ma y cont ain su ch provis ions for th e amen d men t of Ch apt er VI of P art VI as may b e n eces sar y for g iving eff ect to th e provis ions of th at l aw

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and no su ch l aw sh all b e d e emed to b e an amen d men t of this Cons titution for th e purpos es of arti cl e 368 . 312 A. Pow er o f Parlia men t to va ry o r revo ke condit ions o f servi ce of offi cers of certain s ervi ces .(1) P arli ament may b y l aw (a) v ar y or r evok e, wh eth er prosp e ct iv el y or r et rosp e ctiv el y, th e condit ions o f s ervi c es as r esp ects r e mu n er ation, l e av e an d p ension an d th e rights as r esp ects dis cip linar y ma tt ers of p ersons wh o , h aving b e en appoint ed b y the S ecr et ar y of St at e or S ecr et ary of S t at e in Coun cil to a civi l s erv ice of t h e Cro wn in Indi a b efor e th e co mme n cemen t o f th is Consti tution , continu e on and af t er th e co mmen cement of th e Consti tution ( Twent y- eigh th Amen d men t) Act, 1972 , to s erv e und er th e Gov ern ment of Indi a or of a St at e in an y s ervi ce or post; (b) v ar y o r r evok e, wh eth er prosp e ct iv el y or r etrosp e ctiv ely, th e condit ions of s ervi ce as r espects p ension of persons who , h aving b een appoint ed b y the S ecr et ar y of St at e or S ecr et ary of S t at e in Coun cil to a civi l s ervi ce of th e Cro wn in Indi a b e for e the co mme n c ement of this Consti tution , r eti r ed or o therwis e ceas ed to be i n s ervi ce at an y t i me b efor e th e co mmen cement of th e Const itution ( T went y- eighth A me n d me n t ) A ct , 1 9 7 2 : Provid ed th at in th e cas e of any su ch p e rson wh o is holding or h as h e ld th e offi ce o f th e Ch i ef Justi c e or oth er Judg e of th e Supr eme Co u rt o r a High Court , th e Co mptroll er and Auditor- Gen er al of Ind i a, th e Ch air man or oth er me mb er of th e Un ion or a St at e Publ i c S ervi ce Co mmi ssion or th e Chi ef El ection Co mmi ssion er , nothing in sub-cl aus e (a) or sub- cl aus e ( b) sh al l b e construed as empo wering P ar li amen t to v ar y o r r evoke, aft er his appoint me nt to su ch post , th e condit ions of his s ervi ce to his dis adv an t age ex cept in so f ar as su ch condition s of s ervi c e ar e appli c ab l e to hi m b y r eason of hi s b eing a p erson appo int ed b y t h e S ecr et ar y o f St at e or S ecr et ar y of St at e in Coun cil to a civil s ervi ce of th e Cro wn in Indi a. (2) Ex cep t to th e ex t ent provid ed for b y P arli a me nt b y l a w und er this art i cl e, nothing in this art i cl e sh all aff ect th e po wer of an y Legis l atur e or oth er au thori t y und er an y oth er provi sion of this Consti tution to r egu l at e th e condit ions of s ervi ce of p ersons r ef er r ed to in cl aus e (1) . (3) Neith er the Supr eme Court nor an y oth er cour t shall h av e jur isdi ction in (a) an y dispu t e aris ing out of an y provis ion of, or an y endors eme n t on , an y cov en ant , agr eement or oth er si milar instru ment whi ch was ent er ed in to or ex ecut ed b y an y p e rson r ef err ed to in cl ause ( 1), or aris ing out of an y l e tt er is su ed to su ch person , in r el ation to h is appoint me nt to an y civil s e rvi ce of th e Cro wn in Indi a or his continu an ce in s ervi ce und er the Gov ern ment of th e Do minion o f Indi a or a Provin ce ther eof; (b) an y d isput e in r esp ect of an y right , li ab il ity or ob lig ation und er a rt i cl e 3 1 4 as o rig in a ll y en a ct ed .

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(4) Th e p rovisions of this arti cl e sh all h ave eff ect not withst and ing an ything in ar ticl e 314 as or igin all y en act ed or i n an y oth e r provis ion of thi s Cons titution . 313 . Trans itional p rovision s. Un t il oth er provis ion is ma d e in this b eh alf und er this Cons titution , all th e l aws in for ce i mmed i at ely b efor e th e co mmen cement of this Const itution and appli c ab l e to an y public s erv i ce or an y post wh i ch continu es to exist aft er th e co mmen cement of this Consti tution , as an al l-Indi a s ervi ce or as s e rvi ce or po st under th e Union or a S t at e sh al l continu e in for ce so far as consist en t with th e provis ions of thi s Cons titution . 3 1 4 . [ Pro vision for pro t ection of exis ting offi cers of cer tain ser vi ces .] Rep . b y the Const itution (T wenty- eigh th Amendment ) Act , 1 9 7 2 , s. 3 (w . e . f . 29-8-1972).

C HA P TE R II. P UB LIC S ER V I C E C O M M I S S I O N S
315 . Pub li c S e rvi ce Co mmi ss ions fo r th e Un ion and fo r th e Stat es . (1) Sub ject to th e prov isions of th is arti cl e, th er e sh al l b e a Publi c S ervi ce Co mmi ss ion for th e Union and a Publi c S erv i ce Co mmi ssion for e a c h S t at e . (2) T wo or mo re St at es ma y a gr e e th at th er e sh all b e on e Publi c S erv i c e Co mmi ssion for t h at group of St at es, and if a r e solution to th at eff e ct is p ass ed b y the Hous e or , wh er e th er e ar e t wo Hous es , b y each Hous e of the Legisl atur e of each o f thos e St at es , P arli ament may b y l aw provid e for th e appoint me nt of a J oint S t at e Publi c S ervi c e Commi s sion (r ef err ed to in this C h apt er as Joint C o mmis sion) to s erv e th e n eeds of thos e St at es. (3) An y su ch l aw as afo r es aid may co ntain su ch in cident al and cons equ ent ial provis ions as ma y b e n eces s ar y or d esir ab le for giving eff e ct to th e purpos es of th e l a w. (4) Th e Pub li c S ervi ce Co mmi ssion for th e Un ion , if r equ est ed so to do b y th e Gov ernor of a St at e ma y, with th e approv al of th e Pr esid ent , agr ee to s erv e all or an y of th e n eeds of th e St at e. (5) Ref er en ces in this Con sti tution to th e Un ion Publ i c S ervi ce Co mmi ssion or a St at e Pub li c Servi ce Co mmi ssion sh all , unl ess th e cont ex t oth er wis e r equir es , b e cons tru ed as r ef er en c es to th e Co mmi ssion s erving th e n eeds of the Union or , as th e cas e may b e, th e S t at e as r esp ect s th e p art i cul ar matt er in qu estion . 316 . Appoint ment and t erm of of fi ce of me mb ers . (1 ) Th e C h air man and oth er me mbers of a Pub li c S ervi ce Co mmiss ion sh all b e appoint ed , in th e cas e o f the Union Co mmi ssion or a Join t Co mmis sion , b y th e Pr esid en t, and in th e cas e of a St at e Co mmi ssion , b y th e Governor of th e St at e: Provid ed th at as n earl y as may b e on e-h al f of th e memb ers of ev er y Publi c S ervi ce Co mmi ssion shall b e p ersons who at the d ates of th eir r esp ect iv e appoint ments h av e h eld o ffi ce for at least t en years eith er und er

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th e Gov ern ment of Indi a or und er th e Govern ment of a St at e, and in co mputing th e s aid p e riod of t en years an y p er iod b efor e th e co mmen cement of this Constitution during which a p erson h as held off i ce und er th e Cro wn in Indi a or und er th e Gov ernme n t of an Indian St at e sh all b e in clud ed . (1 A) If th e office of the Ch airman of th e Co mmi ssion b e co mes v acant or if an y su ch Chair man is b y reason of abs ence or for an y oth er r eason un ab l e to p e rfor m th e dut i es of his offi ce, thos e dut i es sh all , until so me p erson appoint ed und er cl aus e (1) to th e v acant offi ce h as ent er ed on th e duti es th er eof or , as th e cas e may b e, unt il th e Ch air man h as resu med his duti es, b e p erfor med b y such on e of th e o th er memb er s of th e Co mmi ssion as th e Pr esident , in th e cas e of th e Union Co mmiss ion or a Join t Co mmi ssion , and th e Gov ernor of th e S t at e in th e cas e of a St at e Co mmi ssion , may appoint for the purpos e. (2) A memb er of a Publi c S ervi ce Co mmi ssion sh all hold offi ce for a t er m of six years fro m th e d at e on wh i ch h e en t ers upon h is offi ce or un til h e att ain s, in th e cas e of th e Union Co mmi ssion , th e ag e of six t y-five years , and in th e cas e of a Stat e Co mmi ss ion o r a Joint Co mmi ssion , th e ag e of s ixt y-t wo years , whi ch ev er is earl ier: Provid ed th at (a) a memb er of a Publi c S ervi ce Co mmis sion may, b y writ ing und er his h and addr ess ed , in th e cas e of th e Union Co mmis sion or a Join t Co mmis sion , to th e Presid en t, and in th e cas e of a S t at e Co mmi ssion , to th e Gov ernor of th e St at e, r esign his offi ce; (b) a memb er of a Pub li c Servi ce C o mmiss ion may b e r emov ed fro m his o ffi ce in the ma nn er provided in cl aus e (1) or clau s e (3) of arti cl e 317. (3) A p er son who holds o ffice as a memb er of a Publi c S ervi ce Co mmi ssion sh all , on th e expir ation of his t er m of o ffi ce, b e inelig ibl e for r e- appoin t men t to th at off i ce. 317 . Remova l and su sp ension of a me mb er of a Pu blic S ervi ce C o mmi s s i o n .(1) Subj ect to the provisions of cl aus e (3) , th e Ch air man or an y oth er member of a Pub li c Servi ce Co mmi ssion sh all onl y b e r emov ed fro m hi s offi ce b y o rd er of the Pr es id ent on th e g round of mi sb eh aviour aft er th e Supr eme Co urt , on ref er en ce b eing mad e to it b y th e Pr es id en t, h as , on inquir y h eld in accordan ce with th e pro c edur e pr es crib ed in th at b eh alf und er arti cl e 145, r eported th at th e Ch air man or su ch oth er memb er , a s t h e c as e ma y b e, o u g h t o n an y s u ch g r o u n d t o b e r e mo v ed . (2) Th e Pr esid ent , in th e cas e of th e Union Co mmi ssion or a Joint C o mmi ssio n , an d th e Go v ern o r in th e c as e o f a S t at e Co mm is sio n , ma y susp end fro m offi ce th e Ch air man or an y oth e r me mb er of th e Co mmi ssion i n r es p e ct o f wh o m a r e f er en c e h a s b e en ma d e t o t h e S u p r e me C o u r t u n d er cl au s e (1 ) until th e Pr es id en t h as p ass ed o rd ers on r eceip t of th e r eport o f th e Supr eme Court on su ch r ef er en ce.

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(3) No t withst anding an ything in cl au s e (1 ), the Pr esid en t ma y b y ord er r e mov e f ro m offi ce th e Ch air man or an y oth er me mb er of a Publi c S ervi c e Co mmi ssion if th e Ch air man or su ch oth er memb er , as th e case may b e, (a) is ad judged an insolv en t; or (b) eng ag es during hi s t er m of offi ce in an y p aid emplo yme nt outs id e th e duti e s of hi s offi ce; or ( c) is , in th e opinion of th e Pr esid en t, unf it to continu e in offi ce b y r eason of infi r mit y of mind or bod y. (4) If th e Chair man or an y oth er me mb er of a Publi c S ervi c e Co mmi ssion i s or beco mes in an y way con cern ed or int er est ed in an y contr act or agr eemen t mad e b y or on b eh alf o f th e Gov ern ment of Indi a o r th e Gov ern ment of a S t at e or part i cip at es in any way i n th e p rofi t th er eof or in an y b en efi t or emolu ment ar ising th erefro m oth er wi se th an as a me mb e r an d in c o mmo n with th e o th e r me mb e rs o f an in co rp o r a t ed co mp an y, h e shall , for th e purpos es of cl aus e (1) , b e d eemed to b e gui lty o f mis b eh av i o u r . 318 . Pow er to ma ke reg ulations a s to condit ions of s ervi ce of me mb ers and staf f o f th e Co mmi s sion .In th e cas e of th e Un ion Co mmi ssion or a Joint Co mmis sion, th e Pr esid ent and , in th e cas e of a St at e Co mmi ssion , th e Gov ernor of th e St at e may b y r egul ations (a) d et er min e th e nu mb er of memb ers of th e Co mmi ss ion and th eir condit ions of s ervi ce; and (b) ma k e provis ion with r esp ect to th e numb e r of me mb ers of th e st af f of th e Co mmi ssion an d th eir condit ions o f servi ce: Provid ed th at the cond itions of s ervi ce of a memb er of a Publ ic S ervi ce Co mmi ssion sh all not b e v ari ed to his dis adv an tag e aft er his appoint me nt . 319 . Prohibition as to th e holding of offi ces by me mb ers of Co mmi s sion on ceas ing to b e su ch me mb ers . On ceasing to hold office (a) th e Ch ai r man of th e Union Publi c S e rvi ce Co mmi ssion sh all b e in el igibl e for furth er emplo y me nt eith er und er th e Go v ern men t of Indi a or und er th e Gov ern ment of a St at e; (b) th e Ch ai r man o f a S t at e Publi c S ervi ce Co mmi ssion shall b e elig ibl e for appoint me nt as th e Ch air man or an y oth er me mb er of th e Union Publi c S ervi ce Co mmi ssion or as th e Chair man of an y oth er St at e Publi c S ervi ce Co mmi ssion , but not for an y oth er emplo yme nt eith er und er th e Gov ern ment of Indi a or und er th e Gov ern ment of a St at e; ( c) a me mb er oth er th an th e Ch air man of th e Union Publi c Servi ce Co mmi ssion shall b e eligibl e for appoint me nt as th e Ch air man o f th e Union Publi c Servi ce Co mmi ssion or as th e Ch air man of a Stat e Publi c S ervi ce Co mmi ssion , but not for an y oth er emplo yment ei th er und er th e Gov ern ment of Indi a or und er the Gov ern men t of a St at e;

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(d) a memb er oth er th an th e Ch air man of a St at e Publi c S ervi ce Co mmi ssion shall b e elig ibl e for appoint me nt as th e Ch air man or an y oth er me mb er of th e Un ion Publi c S ervi c e Co mmi ss ion or as the Ch air man o f th at or an y oth er St at e Publi c S ervi ce Co mmis sion, bu t not for an y oth er emp lo yment either und er th e Gov ern ment of Indi a or und er th e Gov ern ment of a S t at e. 320 . Fun ctions of Publi c S e rv i ce Co mmi s sions . (1) It shall b e th e dut y of th e Un ion and th e St ate Publi c S e rvi ce Co mmi ssions to condu ct ex amin ations for appoint me nts to th e s erv ices of th e Union and th e s ervi ces of th e St at e r esp ectiv el y. (2) It sh all also b e th e dut y of th e Un ion Public S erv i ce Co mmis sion, if r equ est ed b y an y t wo or mor e St at es so to do , to assi st thos e St at es in fr aming and oper at ing s ch e mes of joint r e cru it ment for an y servi c es for whi ch candid at es poss ess ing sp eci al qu al ifi c ations ar e r equir ed . (3) Th e Un ion Publi c S erv i ce Co mmi ssion or th e St at e Publ ic S ervi ce C o mmi s s i o n , as t h e c as e ma y b e, s h all b e co n s u l t ed (a) on al l ma tt ers r el ating to me thods of r e crui t men t to civi l s ervi ces and for civil pos ts; (b) on th e pr in cipl es to b e followed in ma king appoint me nts to ci vil s ervi ces an d post s an d in making pro motion s and tr an sf ers fro m on e s ervi ce to anoth er an d on th e sui t abilit y of candid a tes for su ch appoint me nts , pro motions or tr an sf er s; ( c) on all d is ciplin ar y matt er s aff e ct ing a p erson s erving und er th e Gov ern ment of Indi a or th e Gov ern ment of a St at e in a civil cap aci t y, in clud ing memo ri als o r p e titions r el at ing to such matt ers; (d) on an y cl aim b y o r in r espect of a p erson who i s s erving or has s erv ed und er the Gov ern ment of Indi a or th e Gov ern ment o f a St at e or und er th e Crown in Indi a o r und er th e Gov ernme n t of an Indian St at e, in a c i vil c ap a ci ty, th a t an y cost s in curr ed b y h i m in d ef ending l eg al pro ceedings insti tut ed ag ainst hi m in r esp ect of acts don e or purport ing to b e don e in th e ex ecut ion of hi s dut y should b e p a id out of th e Consolid at ed Fund of Ind i a, or , as th e case may b e, out of th e Consolid at ed Fund of th e St at e; ( e) on an y cl aim f or th e award of a p en sion in r esp ect of injur i es sus tain ed b y a p erson whil e s erving und er th e G ov ern ment of Indi a o r th e Gov ern me nt of a St at e or und er th e Cro wn in Indi a or und er th e G o v er n me n t o f a n I n d i an S t at e , i n a civ il c ap ac i t y , an d a n y q u est io n as to th e amount of an y su ch award, and it sh all b e th e dut y of a Publi c S ervi ce Co mmi ssion to advis e on an y mat t er so r ef er red to th em and on an y oth er matt er whi ch th e Pr esid en t, or , as th e cas e may b e, th e Gov ernor of th e St at e, may r ef er to th em: P ro v id ed th at th e P r esid en t as r esp e ct s th e all-In d i a s erv i c es an d a lso as r esp ect s oth er s ervi ces and post s in conn ection wi th th e aff air s of th e Union , and the Gov ernor , as r esp ects other servi c es and pos ts in

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conn ection wi th th e af f airs of a St ate, may mak e r egul ations specif y ing th e ma t t ers in wh i ch eith er g en er a ll y, or in an y p art i cul ar cl ass of cas e or in an y p art i cul ar cir cu mst an ces , it sh al l not b e n ecess ar y for a Publi c S ervi c e Co mmi ssion to b e consult ed . (4) No thing in cl aus e (3) sh all r equir e a Public S ervi ce Co mmi ssion to b e consu lt ed as r esp ects th e mann er in whi ch an y prov ision ref err ed to in cl aus e (4) of arti cl e 16 ma y b e ma d e or as r e sp ects th e ma nner in whi ch eff ect may b e g iv en to th e provision s of art i cl e 335 . (5) All r egul ations ma d e und er th e p roviso to cl au s e (3) b y th e Pr esid ent or th e Gov ernor of a St at e shall b e l aid for not l es s th an fourt e en d a ys b efor e each Hous e of P arl i amen t or th e Hous e or each Hous e of the Legisl atur e of th e S t at e, as th e cas e may b e, as s oon as possible af t er th ey ar e mad e, and sh all b e subj ect to su ch modif i cation s, wh eth er b y way of r ep eal or amend ment , as both Hous es o f P arliamen t or th e Hous e o r both Hous es of th e Legisl atur e of th e St at e ma y ma k e during the s ession in w hi ch th e y ar e so l aid . 321 . Pow er to ext end fun ct ions of Publi c S ervi ce Co mmi s sions . An Act mad e b y P arl i ament or , as th e cas e may b e, th e Legis l ature of a St at e ma y p rovid e for th e ex er cis e of addit ion al function s b y the Union Publ i c S ervi ce Co mmi ss ion or th e Stat e Publi c S ervi ce Co mmi ssion as r esp ects th e s ervi c es of th e Union or the S tat e and al so as r esp ects th e s e rvi c es of an y lo cal authori t y or o ther bod y corpor at e const itut ed b y l aw or o f an y publi c in stitut ion . 3 2 2 . Ex p en s es o f Pu b l i c S e rv i c e C o m mi ss io n s . Th e exp enses of th e Union or a Stat e Publi c S ervi ce Co mmi ssion , in cluding an y s al ari es , allo wan ces and p ensions p ayable to or in r esp ect of th e memb ers or st aff of th e Co mmi ss ion, sh al l b e ch arged on th e Consolid at ed Fund o f Indi a or , as th e cas e may b e, th e Conso lid ated Fund o f th e St at e. 3 2 3 . R ep o rts o f P u b li c S e rv i c e C o m mi s s i o n s . (1) It sh all be t h e dut y of th e Un ion Commi s sion to pr es ent annu all y to th e P r esid ent a r eport as to th e wo rk don e b y th e Co mm is sion an d on r eceip t of su ch r e port th e Pr esid en t sh all caus e a copy th er eo f tog eth er with a me mo r a ndu m e x p l ain in g , as r esp e cts th e c a s es , if an y , w h er e th e ad v i c e o f th e Co mmi ssion was not accept ed, th e r easons for su ch non- accept an ce to b e l ai d b ef o r e e a ch H o u s e o f P ar li ame n t . (2) I t sh all b e th e dut y of a S t at e Co mmi ss ion to pr es en t annu all y to th e Gov ernor of th e S t at e a r eport as to th e wo rk don e b y th e Co mm is sion, and it sh all b e th e du t y of a Joint Co mmi ss ion t o pr es en t annu all y to th e G o v ern o r o f e a ch o f th e St a t es th e n e ed s o f wh i ch ar e s erv ed b y th e Jo in t Co mmi ssion a report as to th e work don e b y the Co mmi ssion in r elation to th at St at e, and in ei ther cas e the Gov ernor , sh all , on r eceipt of su ch r epor t, caus e a cop y ther eof tog eth er w ith a memo r andu m exp l aining , as r esp ects t h e c a s es, i f an y , w h er e t h e ad v i c e o f t h e Co mmi s si o n w as n o t a c c ep t ed , th e r easons for su ch non- accep tan ce to b e l aid b efor e th e Legisl atu r e of th e S t at e .

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P A R T XI VA T R I BU N A LS 323 A. Ad min istrativ e t ribunals . (1) P arli ament may, b y l aw, provid e for th e ad judi ca tion or tri al by ad min istr at ive t ribun als of dispu t es and co mpl aints wi th r esp ect to r e cruit ment and condit ions of s ervi c e of p ersons appoint ed to publi c s ervi c es an d post s in conn ec tion wi th th e aff ai rs of th e Union or of an y St at e or of an y lo cal or oth er au thor it y wi thin th e t erri tor y of Indi a or und er th e control of th e Gov ern me nt of Ind i a or o f an y corpor at ion o wned or controll ed b y th e Gov ernmen t . (2 ) A l aw ma d e u n d er cl au s e (1 ) ma y (a) prov id e for th e es t ablish ment of an ad minis tr ativ e t ribun al fo r th e Un ion an d a s e p ar at e ad minis tr ativ e tribun al for each Stat e or fo r t wo o r mo r e St at es ; (b) sp ecif y th e jur isdi ction , powers (in c luding th e po wer to punish for c ont e mp t) and au thorit y whi ch ma y b e e x erc is ed b y e a ch of th e s aid tr ibun als; ( c) provid e for th e pro c edur e ( in cluding provisions as to l i mitation and rul es of ev id en ce) to b e follo wed b y th e s aid tribun als; (d) ex clud e th e jur isdi ction o f all courts , ex cept th e jurisd i ction of th e Supr eme Court und er ar ticl e 136, with resp ect to th e dispu t es or co mpl aints r ef err ed to in cl aus e (1); ( e) provid e for th e tr an sf er to each su ch ad minis tr ativ e tribun al of an y cas es p ending b efor e an y cour t or oth er au thorit y i mmed i at el y b efo r e th e es t ab li sh men t o f su ch trib u n al a s wo u ld h av e b e en with in th e jur isdi ction of su ch tribun al if th e caus es of action on whi ch such su its or pro ceedings ar e b as ed h ad aris en aft e r su ch est ab lish ment; (f) r ep eal or amend an y ord er mad e b y th e Pr esid ent und er cl ause (3) of arti cl e 371 D; (g) cont ain su ch suppl ement al , in cid en tal and cons equenti a l provis ions ( in cluding provisions as to f e es) as P arli a me nt ma y d eem n ecess ar y for th e eff e ctiv e function ing of , and f or th e sp eed y d ispos al of cas es b y, and th e enfor cement of th e ord ers of , su ch tribun als. (3) Th e p rovisions of this arti cl e sh all h ave eff ect not withst and ing an ything in an y oth er provision of this Co n stitution or in an y oth er l a w for th e ti me b eing in for ce. 323 B. Tribunals fo r oth er ma tt ers . (1) The appropri at e Legis l atur e ma y, b y l a w, provid e for th e adjudi cation or tri a l b y tr ibun als of an y dispu t es, co mplaint s, or off en ces with r esp ect to al l or an y of th e matt ers sp ecif i ed in cl au s e (2) with r esp ect to whi ch su ch Legisl atur e h as po wer to mak e l aw s . (2) Th e mat t ers r ef err ed to in claus e (1) ar e th e fol lowing, n a mel y: (a) l ev y, ass essmen t , co ll ection and en for cement of an y t ax; 135

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(b) for eign ex chang e , i mpo rt and export across custo ms front i ers; ( c) indus tri al and l abour disput es; (d) l and r efor ms b y way of acquis ition b y th e St at e of an y estat e as d efin ed in ar ti cle 31 A o r of an y right s th er ein or th e ex tingu ish ment or mo difi cat ion of an y su ch rights or b y way o f ceiling on agri cu ltur al l and or in an y oth er way; ( e) ceil ing on urb an prop ert y; (f) el ections to eith er Hous e of P arli a me nt or th e Ho u s e or eith er Hous e of th e Legis l atur e of a St at e, but ex cluding th e mat t ers r ef er r ed to in art icl e 329 and arti cl e 329A; (g) p rodu ction , pro cur ement , suppl y and distr ibution of food-s tuffs (in c luding edibl e oils eeds and o ils) and such o th er goods as th e Pr esid en t ma y, b y pub li c not ification , d ecl ar e to b e ess ent i al goods for th e purpos e of this art i cl e and contro l of pr i ces of su ch goods; (h) r ent , its regul at ion an d contro l an d t en an cy i ssu es in cluding th e righ t, t itl e and int er es t o f land lords and t en ants; (i) of f ences ag ains t l aws wi th resp ect to an y of th e matt ers sp ecif i ed in sub- cl au s es (a) to (h) and f e es in r esp ect of an y of thos e ma tters; (j) an y matt er in cid en t al to an y of th e mat ters sp ecif i ed in subcl aus es ( a) to ( i) . (3 ) A l aw ma d e u n d er cl au s e (1 ) ma y (a) provid e for th e est abl ish ment of a hi er ar ch y of tribun als; (b) sp ecif y th e jur isdi ction , powers (in c luding th e po wer to punish for c ont e mp t) and au thorit y whi ch ma y b e e x erc is ed b y e a ch of th e s aid tr ibun als; ( c) provid e for th e pro c edur e ( in cluding provisions as to l i mitation and rul es of ev id en ce) to b e follo wed b y th e s aid tribun als; (d) ex clud e th e jur isdi ction o f all courts , ex cept th e jurisd i ction of th e Supr eme Court und er ar ti cle 136 , with r esp ect to all or an y o f th e mat t ers f al ling within th e jur isdi ct ion o f th e s aid tr ibun als; ( e) provid e for th e tr an sf er to each su ch tribun al of an y cas es p ending b efor e an y court or any oth er authori ty i mmed i at el y befor e the est ab lish ment of su ch tr ibun al as would h av e b e en within th e jur isdi ction of su ch tribun al if th e caus es of action on whi ch such su its or pro ceedings ar e b as ed h ad aris en aft e r su ch est ab lish ment; (f) cont ain su ch supp l ement al , in cid ent al and cons equenti al provis ions (in cluding prov isions as to f ees) as th e appropri a t e Legisl atur e may d eem n eces s ar y fo r th e eff ective fun ctioning o f, and for th e sp eed y d ispos al of cas es by, and th e enfor cement of th e ord ers of , su ch tribun als .

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(4) Th e p rovisions of this arti cl e sh all h ave eff ect not withst and ing an ything in an y oth er provision of this Co n stitution or in an y oth er l a w for th e ti me b eing in for ce. Explanation . In this arti cl e, appropri a t e Legis l atur e, in rel at ion to a n y ma t t er , me a n s P ar li a me n t o r , as t h e c as e ma y b e , a S t at e L e g i s l atu r e co mp et en t to mak e l a ws with resp ect to su ch mat t er in accordan ce with th e provis ions of P art XI .

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PART XV ELECTIONS
324 . Sup erint end en ce, di rection and cont rol of el ect ions to b e v est ed in an El ection Co mmi s sion . (1) Th e sup erin t end ence, dir ection and contro l of th e pr ep ar at ion o f the el ector a l ro lls for , and th e condu ct of , all el ect ions to P arl i ament and to th e Legis latur e of ev er y St at e and of el ect ions to th e of fi ces of Pr esid en t an d Vi ce -Pr es id ent h eld und er this Consti tution shall b e v es t ed in a Co mmi ss ion (r ef err ed to in this Consti tution as th e El ection Co mmi s sion) . (2) Th e El ection Co mmi ssion sh all cons ist of th e Chi ef El ection Co mmi ssion er and su ch nu mb er of oth er El ection Co mmi ssion ers , if an y, as th e Pr esid ent ma y fro m t i me to t i me f ix and the appoint me nt of th e Ch i ef El ection Co mmi ss ioner and other El ection Commi s sion ers shall , subj ect to th e provision s of an y l a w ma de i n th at b eh alf b y P arli a me nt , b e ma d e b y th e Pr esid en t. (3) Wh en an y oth er El ection Co mmi ssion er is so appoin t ed th e Chi ef El ection Co mmi ssion er sh all act as th e Ch air man of th e El ect ion C o mmi ssio n . (4) Befor e each g en er a l el ection to th e Hou s e of th e P eopl e and to th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y of each St at e, and b e for e th e first g ener al el ection and th er eaft er befor e each bi enni al el ect ion to t h e Legis l ativ e Coun cil of each St at e h aving su ch Council , th e Pr esident may also appoint aft er consul t ation with th e El ect ion Co mmi ssion such Region al Commi s sion ers as h e ma y consid er n ecess ar y to ass ist th e El ection Co mm is sion in th e p erfor man ce of th e fun ct ions conf err ed on th e Co mmi ssion b y claus e (1) . (5) Subj ect to th e provisions of any l a w ma d e b y P arl i ame n t , th e condit ions of servi ce and t enur e of offi ce of th e Election Commi s sion ers and th e R egion al Co mmi ssion ers sh al l b e su ch as th e Pr es id ent may b y rul e d et er min e: Provid ed th at th e Chi ef El ection Co mmis sioner sh all not b e r e mov ed fro m h is off i ce ex cept in l ik e mann er and on the l ik e grounds as a Judg e o f th e Supr eme Court and th e condit ions of s ervi ce of th e Chi ef El ect ion Co mmi ssion er sh al l not b e v ar i ed to his dis adv ant age af t er hi s appoint ment : Provid ed furth er th at an y oth er El ection Co mmi ssion er or a Region al Co mmi ssion er sh al l not be r e mov ed from o ff i ce ex ce pt on th e r e co mme nd ation of th e Ch i ef Election Co mmi ssion er . (6) Th e Pr esid ent , or th e Gov ernor of a St at e, sh all , wh en so r equ est ed b y th e El ection Co mmi ssion , ma k e av ail abl e to th e El ection Co mmi s sion or to a R egion al C o mmi ssion er su ch s t aff as may b e n ecess ar y fo r th e dis ch arg e of th e f un ctions conf err ed on th e El ection Co mmi ssion b y cl aus e (1) . 138

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325 . No p erson to b e in eligibl e fo r in clus ion in , or to clai m t o b e in clud ed in a sp ecial , el ecto ral ro ll on g rounds of religion , ra ce, cast e o r s ex . Th ere sh all b e o n e g en e r al el e c to r al ro ll fo r ev er y t erri to ri al const itu en cy fo r el ection to either Hou s e of P arli a ment or to the Hous e or eith er Hous e o f th e Legisl atur e of a St at e an d no person sh all be in eligib l e for in clusion in an y su ch roll or cl ai m to b e in clud ed in an y sp eci al el ecto ral ro ll for an y su ch consti tu en cy on grounds onl y of r elig ion, r ace, c a s t e , s ex o r an y o f t h e m. 326 . El ections to th e Hous e of th e Peopl e and to th e Legis lativ e Ass emb li es of Stat es to b e on th e ba sis o f adult suff rag e. Th e el ections to th e Hous e of t h e P eopl e and t o th e Legisl at iv e Ass embl y of ev er y St at e sh al l b e on th e b asis of adult suffr ag e; th at i s to s a y, ev er y p erson who i s a cit i z en of Indi a and who is not less th an eight een years of ag e on su ch d at e as may b e fix ed i n th at b eh alf by or und er an y law mad e b y th e appropri at e Legisl atur e an d is no t oth er wis e disqu a lifi ed und er th is Consti tution or an y l aw mad e b y the app ropri at e Legis l atur e on the g round of non-r es id en ce, unsoundn ess o f mi nd , cri me or corrupt o r ill egal pr acti ce, sh all b e ent itl ed to b e r egist er ed a s a vot er at any su ch el e ction . 327 . Pow er of Pa rlia me n t to ma ke p rov ision w ith resp ect to el ection s to Legi slatu r es . Subj ect to the provisions o f this Consti tution , P arl i a ment ma y fro m t i me to ti me b y l a w ma k e provision with r esp ect to all mat t ers r el ating to , or in conn ection wi th, el ect ions to eith er Hous e of P arl i a ment or to th e Hous e or eith er Hou s e of th e Leg isl ature of a St at e in clud ing th e pr ep ar at ion of el ector al roll s, th e d elimi t at ion of c onst itu en ci es a nd a ll oth e r ma t t ers n e c ess ar y for s e cur ing th e du e const itution of su ch Hou s e or Hous es . 328 . Pow er of Legisla tu re of a Sta t e to ma ke p rov ision w ith resp ect to el ect ions to su ch Legislatu re.Sub j ect to th e prov isions of this Consti tution and in so f ar as prov ision in th at b eh alf i s not mad e b y P arl i ament , th e Legisl atur e of a St at e may fro m t i me to t i me by l aw mak e provis ion with resp ect to all matt ers r el at ing to , or in connection with , th e el ect ions to the Hous e or eith er Hou s e of th e Leg isl atur e of th e St at e in clu d in g th e p re p ar at io n o f e l ec to r a l ro l ls an d a ll o th er ma t t ers n e ce ss ar y for s ecuring th e du e con stitut ion of su ch Hous e or Hou ses. 329 . Ba r to int erferen ce by cou rts in electo ral ma t t ers . Not withs t anding an ything in this Constitu tion (a ) t h e v alid ity of an y l aw r el at ing to th e d eli mit ation of const itu en ci es or th e allot ment of s eats to su ch constitu en ci es, mad e or purport ing to be mad e und er art i cl e 327 or art i cl e 328 , sh all not b e call ed in qu est ion in an y cou rt; (b ) n o el ection to eith er House of P arli a me nt or to th e Hous e or eith er Hou se of th e Legi sl ature of a S t at e shall be call ed in qu est ion ex cept b y an election p eti tion pr es en t ed to such au thorit y an d in su ch ma n n er as ma y b e provid ed for b y or und e r a n y l aw ma d e b y th e a p p r o p r i a t e L eg i s l atu r e .

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3 2 9 A . [Sp ecial pro vis ion as to el ections to Parl iamen t in the cas e of Pri m e Min ist er and Sp ea ker .] Rep . b y th e Cons titut ion (F ort y- fourth A m e n d m en t ) A ct , 1978 , s . 36 (w . e . f . 20 -6-1979) .

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PART XVI SPECIAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO CERTAIN CLASSES


330 . Res ervation of s eat s fo r Sch edul ed Ca st es and S ch edul ed Trib es in th e Hous e of th e Peopl e.(1) S e ats sh all b e r e s erv ed in th e Hous e o f t h e P eo p l e f o r (a) th e S ch edul ed Cast es; (b) the S ch edul ed Trib es except th e Sch edul ed Trib es in th e autono mous distri cts o f Ass a m; and ( c) th e S ch edul ed Trib es in th e autono mous distri cts o f Ass a m. (2) Th e nu mb er of s eats r es erved in an y St at e or Union t erritor y fo r th e S ch edul ed Castes or th e S ch edul ed Trib es under cl aus e (1) shall b ear , as n e arl y as ma y be, th e s a me proport ion to the tot al nu mb er of s e ats al lott ed to th at St at e or Union t erritor y in th e Hous e of th e P eopl e as th e popul at ion of the S ch edu l ed Cast es in th e St at e or Union t err itor y o r of th e S ch edul ed Tribes in th e St at e o r Union t erritor y or p ar t of t h e St at e or Union t erritor y, as th e cas e may b e, in r esp ect of whi ch s eats ar e so r es erv ed , b e ars to th e tot a l popul at ion o f th e Stat e or Union t erri tor y. (3) Not withst anding an ything cont ain ed in claus e (2) , the nu mb er o f s e ats r es erv ed in the Hous e of th e P eop l e for th e S ch edul ed Trib es in th e autono mous distr i cts of Ass a m sh all b e ar to th e tot a l nu mb er of s e ats allo tt ed to th at St at e a proport ion not l ess th an th e population of th e S ch edul ed Tribes in th e s aid autono mous dis tri cts b ears to th e tot al popul at ion o f the St at e. Explanation . In this ar ti cl e and in articl e 332 , th e expr ess ion popul at ion means th e popu lation as as certain ed at th e l ast pr eceding census of whi ch th e r el ev ant figur es h av e b een publi sh ed: Provid ed th at th e r ef er en ce in th is Explanation to th e l ast pr eced ing c e nsus of wh ich th e r e l ev ant figur es h av e b e en publish ed sh all , until th e r el ev an t figur es for th e firs t ce nsus t ak en after th e year 2026 h av e b e en publi sh ed, b e constru ed as a r efer en ce to th e 2001 census . 331 . Rep res entation o f th e Anglo-I ndian Commu n i ty in th e Hous e of t h e P eo p l e . Not with st anding an ything in art icl e 81 , th e Pr esid ent may, if h e is of opinion th at th e Anglo-Ind i an co mmu n it y is not ad eq u at e l y r epr es en t ed in th e Hous e o f th e P eopl e, nomi n at e no t mor e th an t wo memb er s o f that co mmuni t y to th e Hou s e of th e P eopl e. 332 . Res ervation of s eat s fo r Sch edul ed Ca st es and S ch edul ed Trib es in th e Legisla tiv e Ass e mb li es of th e Stat es . (1 ) S e ats sh al l b e r es erv ed for th e S ch eduled Cas t es and th e S ch edu l ed Trib es , ex cept the S ch edu l ed Trib es in the autono mous d istri ct s of Ass a m, i n th e Legisl ative Ass e mbl y o f ev er y S t at e . 141

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(2) S eats sh all b e r es erv ed also for th e au tono mous dis tricts in th e Legisl ativ e As semb l y of th e St at e of Ass a m. (3) Th e nu mb er of s e ats r es erv ed for th e Sc h edul ed C as t es or th e S ch edul ed Trib es in th e Leg isl ativ e Ass e mbl y of an y St at e und er cl aus e (1 ) sh al l b ear , as nearl y as may b e, th e s ame proport ion to th e total nu mb er of s e ats in th e Ass e mb l y as the popul at ion of th e S ch edul ed Ca st es in th e St at e or of th e S ch edul ed Tr ibes in th e S t at e or p ar t of th e St at e, as th e cas e may b e, in r esp ect of which s eat s ar e so r es erv ed , b ears to th e tot al popul at ion o f the St at e. (3 A) No t withst anding an ything cont ain ed in cl au s e (3) , until the t aking eff e ct , und er arti cl e 170 , of the r e- adjust ment, on th e b asis of th e firs t census aft er the year 2026 , of th e nu mb er of s eats in th e Legi sl ativ e A ss embli es of th e St at es of Arun ach al Pr ad esh, M egh al aya, Mi zor am and Nag al and , th e seats whi ch sh al l b e r es erv ed for th e S ch edul ed Trib es in th e Legisl ativ e As semb l y of an y such St at e sh all be, (a) i f all th e s eat s in th e Legis l ativ e Ass embl y of su ch St at e in exis t en ce on the d at e of co ming in to for ce o f th e Cons titut ion (F ift ys ev enth Amendmen t) Act , 1987 (h er eaft er in thi s cl aus e r ef err ed to as th e existing Ass embl y) ar e h eld b y memb ers of th e S ch edul ed Tr ib es, a ll th e s e at s ex ce p t o n e; (b) in an y oth er c a s e, su ch nu mb er of s ea ts a s b e ars to t h e tot a l nu mb er of s e ats, a propo rtion not l ess th an th e nu mb er ( a s on th e s aid d at e) of me mb ers b elonging to th e S ch edul ed Trib es in th e exist ing Ass embl y b ears to th e tot al nu mb er of s eats in th e exist ing Ass emb l y. (3 B) No t with standing an yth ing cont ain ed in cl au s e (3), unti l th e r eadjus t ment , under art i cl e 170 , tak es eff ect on th e b asis o f th e fir st census aft er th e year 2026 , of th e nu mb er o f s eats in th e Legis l ativ e Ass embl y of th e St at e o f Tr ipur a, th e s e ats whi ch sh all b e r es erv ed for th e S ch edul ed Trib es in th e Legis l ativ e Ass embl y sh all b e, such nu mb er of s eats as b ear s to th e to t al nu mb er of s e ats , a proport ion no t l ess th an th e numb e r , as on th e d at e of co ming into for ce of th e Const itution (S ev ent y-s econd Amend ment ) Act , 1992, of memb ers b elonging to th e S ch edul ed Trib es in th e Leg isl ativ e Ass e mbl y in ex is t en ce on th e s aid d at e b e ars t o th e tot al n u mb er o f s e ats in th at Ass e mb ly . (4) Th e nu mb er of seats res erv ed for an au tono mous distr ict in th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y o f th e Stat e of Ass a m s h all b e ar to th e tot al nu mb er of s e ats in th at Ass e mbl y a proport ion not l ess t han th e population of th e dis tri ct b e ars to th e tot al popul ation of th e St at e. (5) Th e const ituen ci es for th e seats r es erv ed for an y autono mous distr i ct of Ass am shall not co mpris e any ar ea outsid e th at dis tri ct . (6) No p erson who is not a memb er o f a S ch edul ed Trib e of an y autono mous d istri ct of th e St at e of Ass a m sh all b e eligibl e for el ect ion to th e Legi sl ativ e Ass e mbl y of th e S t at e fro m an y cons titu en cy of th at dis tri ct:

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Provid ed th at for el ec tions to th e Legis l ativ e Ass e mbl y of th e St at e of Ass a m, th e r epr es ent a tion of th e S ch edul ed Trib es and non-S ch edul ed Trib es in the const itu en ci es includ ed in th e Bodol an d Territori al Ar eas Distr i ct , so notif i ed, an d ex isting pr ior to the const itution of Bodol an d Terri tori al Ar eas Distr i ct , sh all b e maint ain ed . 333 . Rep r es entation of th e Ang lo-Indian co mmu nity in th e Legisla tiv e Ass e mb li es of the Stat es . Not with st anding an ything in art i cl e 170 , th e Gov ernor of a St at e may, i f h e is o f opinion th at th e AngloIndi an co mmu nit y n e ed s r epr esent at ion in th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y of th e St at e and is not ad equ at el y r epr es ent ed th er ein, no min at e on e memb er of th at co mmu nit y to th e Ass embl y. 334. Reservation of seats and special representation to cease after sixty years. Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Part, the provisions of this Constitution relating to (a) the reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in the House of the People and in the Legislative Assemblies of the States; and (b) the representation of the Anglo-Indian community in the House of the People and in the Legislative Assemblies of the States by nomination, shall cease to have effect on the expiration of a period of sixty years from the commencement of this Constitution: Provided that nothing in this article shall affect any representation in the House of the People or in the Legislative Assembly of a State until the dissolution of the then existing House or Assembly, as the case may be. 335. Claims of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes to services and posts.The claims of the members of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes shall be taken into consideration, consistently with the maintenance of efficiency of administration, in the making of appointments to services and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or of a State: Provided that nothing in this article shall prevent in making of any provision in favour of the members of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes for relaxation in qualifying marks in any examination or lowering the standards of evaluation, for reservation in matters or promotion to any class or classes of services or posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or of a State. 336. Special provision for Anglo-Indian community in certain services. (1) During the first two years after the commencement of this Constitution, appointments of members of the Anglo-Indian community to posts in the railway, customs, postal and telegraph services of the Union shall be made on the same basis as immediately before the fifteenth day of August, 1947. During every succeeding period of two years, the number of posts reserved for the members of the said community in the said services shall, as nearly as possible, be less by ten per cent. than the numbers so reserved during the immediately preceding period of two years: Provided that at the end of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution all such reservations shall cease.

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(2) Nothing in clause (1) shall bar the appointment of members of the Anglo-Indian community to posts other than, or in addition to, those reserved for the community under that clause if such members are found qualified for appointment on merit as compared with the members of other communities. 337. Special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefit of AngloIndian community. During the first three financial years after the commencement of this Constitution, the same grants, if any, shall be made by the Union and by each State for the benefit of the Anglo-Indian community in respect of education as were made in the financial year ending on the thirty-first day of March, 1948. During every succeeding period of three years the grants may be less by ten per cent. than those for the immediately preceding period of three years : Provided that at the end of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution such grants, to the extent to which they are a special concession to the Anglo-Indian community, shall cease: Provid ed furth er th at no edu cation al in stitut ion sh all b e enti tl ed to r eceiv e an y gr ant und er this arti cl e unl ess at least fort y p er cent . of th e a n n u al ad missio n s th er ein ar e ma d e av a il ab l e to me mb e rs o f c o mmu n iti es oth er th an th e Anglo-Ind i an co mmu nit y. 338. National Commission for Scheduled Castes. (1) There shall be a Commission for the Scheduled Castes to be known as the National Commission for the Scheduled Castes. (2) Subject to the provisions of any law made in this behalf by Parliament, the Commission shall consist of a Chairperson, Vice- Chairperson and three other Members and the conditions of service and tenure of office of the Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and other Members so appointed shall be such as the President may by rule determine. (3) Th e Ch airp erson , Vi ce- Ch airp er son and oth er Memb ers of th e Co mmi ssion sh all b e appoint ed b y th e P r esid ent b y warr ant under hi s h and a n d s e al . (4) Th e Co mmi ssion sh al l h av e th e power to r egul at e i ts own pro cedur e. (5) It sh al l b e the dut y of th e Co mmi s sion (a) to inv estig at e and monitor all matt ers r el ating to th e s af egu ards provid ed for th e S ch edu l ed Castes und er this Const itution or und er an y oth er l a w for th e t i me b eing in for ce or und er an y ord er of th e Gov ern ment and to ev alu at e th e working of su ch s af egu ards; (b) to inquir e into sp ecifi c co mp l aints with r esp ect to th e d epriv ation o f right s and s af eguards of th e S ch edul ed Cast es ; ( c) to p arti cip at e an d ad v i s e o n th e p lan n in g p ro c ess o f so cio e c ono mi c d ev e lop me nt of th e S ch edul ed C aste s and to ev alu at e th e progr es s of th eir d ev elop ment und er th e Union and an y S t at e; (d) to p re s en t to th e Pr es id en t , a n n u all y an d at su ch o th e r ti me s as th e Co mmi ssion ma y d eem fit , r eport s upon th e working of thos e s af egu ards ; ( e) to mak e in su ch r epo rts r e commen d a tions as t o th e measur es t h at should b e t aken b y th e Un ion or an y St at e for th e eff e ct iv e

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i mpl ement at ion of thos e s afegu ards and oth er measur es for the prot ection, welfar e and so cio- econo mi c d ev elop ment of th e Sch edul ed C a st es ; and (f) to d is ch arg e su ch oth er function s in r el ation to th e prot ec tion , w e lf ar e and d ev elop me nt and a dv an c e me nt of th e S ch edul ed C a st es as th e P resid ent ma y, s ubj ect to th e provisions of an y l a w ma d e b y P arl i a men t , b y ru l e sp e cif y . (6) Th e Pr es id en t sh all caus e all su ch r eports to b e l aid b efor e each Hous e of P arli amen t along with a me mo r andu m expl aining th e action t ak en or propo s ed to b e t ak en on th e r e co mme n d ations r e l ating to the U nion and th e r e asons for th e non- accept an ce, if an y, of any of su ch r e co mme n d a t i o n s . (7) Wh er e an y su ch r eport , or an y p art th er eof , r el at es to an y matt er wi th w hi ch an y S t at e G ov ern men t is c on c ern ed , a cop y of su ch r eport sh al l b e for w ard ed to the Gov ernor of th e St at e who shall caus e i t to be l aid b efor e th e Legi sl atur e of th e St at e along wi th a memo r andu m expl ain ing th e a c tio n t ak en o r p ro p o s ed to b e t ak en o n th e re c o mme n d a tio n s r e l atin g to th e St at e and th e r easons for th e non- accept an ce, if an y, of an y of su ch r e co mme n d a t i o n s . (8) Th e Co mmi ssion sh all , wh ile i n v estig at ing an y mat t er r ef e rr ed to in su b - cl au s e (a) or inqu iring in to an y co mpl aint ref err ed to in sub- cl au s e (b) of cl aus e (5) , hav e all th e po we rs of a civil court tr ying a sui t and in p art i cul ar in r esp ect of th e following matt ers , namel y : (a) su mmoning and en for cing th e att end an ce of an y p erson from an y p art of Indi a and ex amining him on o ath ; (b) r equir ing the dis cov er y and produ ct ion of an y do cu men t; ( c) r eceiving evid en ce on affid avit s; (d) r equ isition ing an y publi c record or co p y th er eo f fro m an y court or offi ce; ( e) issuing commi s sions for t h e ex amin at ion o f witn es s es and do cu me nts; (f) an y oth er matt er whi ch th e Pr esid en t may, by rul e , d et er mine. (9) Th e Union and ev er y St at e G ov ern ment sh all consul t th e Co mmi ssion on all major poli cy matt es aff ecting S ch edul ed Cast es . (10) In this art i cl e, r ef er en ces to th e S chedul ed Cas t es sh al l b e constru ed as including r ef er ences to su ch other b a ckward class es as th e Pr esid en t may, on r eceipt of the r epo rt of a Co mmi ssion appoint ed und er cl aus e (1) of art i cl e 340 , b y ord er sp ecif y and also to th e Anglo-Indi an c o mmu n it y . 338A. National Commission for Scheduled Tribes.(1) There shall be a Commission for the Scheduled Tribes to be known as the National Commission for the Scheduled Tribes.

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(2) Subject to the provisions of any law made in this behalf by Parliament, the Commission shall consist of a Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and three other Members and the conditions of service and tenure of office of the Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and other Members so appointed shall be such as the President by rule determine. (3) The Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and other Members of the Commission shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal. (4) The Commission shall have the power to regulate its own procedure. (5) It shall be the duty of the Commission (a) to investigate and monitor all matters relating to the safeguards provided for the Scheduled Tribes under this Constitution or under any other law for the time being in force or under any order of the Government and to evaluate the working of such safeguards; (b) to inquire into specific complaints with respect to the deprivation of rights and safeguards of the Scheduled Tribes; (c) to participate and advise on the planning process of socio-economic development of the Scheduled Tribes and to evaluate the progress of their development under the Union and any State; (d) to present to the President, annually and at such other times as the Commission may deem fit, reports upon the working of those safeguards; (e) to make in such reports recommendation as to the measures that should be taken by the Union or any State for the effective implementation of those safeguards and other measures for the protection, welfare and socioeconomic development of the Scheduled Tribes; and (f) to discharge such other functions in relation to the protection, welfare and development and advancement of the Scheduled Tribes as the President may, subject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament, by rule specify. (6) The President shall cause all such reports to be laid before each House of Parliament along with a memorandum explaining the action taken or proposed to be taken on the recommendations relating to the Union and the reasons for the non-acceptance, if any, of any such recommendations. (7) Where any such report, or any part thereof, relates to any matter with which any State Government is concerned, a copy of such report shall be forwarded to the Governor of the State who shall cause it to be laid before the Legislature of the State along with a memorandum explaining the action taken or proposed to be taken on the recommendations relating to the State and the reasons for the non-acceptance, if any, of any of such recommendations. (8) The Commission shall, while investigating any matter referred to in sub-clause (a) or inquiring into any complaint referred to in sub-clause (b) of clause (5), have all the powers of a civil court trying a suit and in particular in respect of the following matters, namely: (a) summoning and enforcing the attendance of any person from any part of India and examining him on oath; (b) requiring the discovery and production of any document; (c) receiving evidence on affidavits;

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(d) requisitioning any public record or copy thereof from any court or office; (e) issuing commissions for the examination of witnesses and documents; (f) any other matter which the President may, by rule, determine. (9) The Union and every State Government shall consult the Commission on all major policy matters affecting Scheduled Tribes. 339 . Cont rol o f th e Un ion ov er th e ad mi nist ration of S ch eduled Areas a n d th e w elfa re o f S ch ed u l ed T r ib es . (1) The Pr esid ent may at an y ti me and sh all , at the expir ation of t en years fro m th e co mmen cemen t of this Consti tution b y ord er appo int a Co mmi ssion to r eport on th e admi nis tr ation of th e S ch eduled Ar eas and th e welf ar e of th e S ch edul ed Trib es in the S t at e s . Th e ord er may d ef in e th e comp osit ion, powers and pro cedur e o f th e Co mmi ssion and ma y cont ain su ch in cid ent al or an ci ll ar y provis ions as th e Pr esid en t ma y consid er n e cess ary or d esir abl e. (2) Th e ex ecu tiv e po wer of th e Union sh all ext end to th e giving of dir ections to a St at e as to th e d r aw ing up an d ex ecution of s ch e me s sp ecif i ed in th e di r e ction to b e ess en ti al fo r the welf ar e of th e S ch edul ed Trib es in th e Stat e. 340 . Appoint ment of a Co mmi s sion to investiga t e th e co ndit ions of b a c kw a rd cla sse s .(1 ) Th e Presid en t ma y b y ord er appoin t a Co mmi ssion consis ting of such p erson s as he th inks fi t to inv est ig at e th e condit ions of so ci all y an d edu c ation a ll y b a ck ward cl ass es within th e t erritor y of Ind i a and th e dif fi culti es und er wh i ch th ey l abour and to ma k e r e co mme n d a tions as to th e s tep s th at should b e tak en b y th e Un ion or an y St ate to r e mo v e su ch d iffi cu l ti es an d to i mprov e th eir condit ion an d as to the gr an ts th at should b e made for th e purpos e b y th e Union or an y St at e and th e condit ions subject to whi ch su ch gr an ts should b e ma de, and th e ord er appoint ing su ch Co mmi ssion shall d efin e th e pro c edur e to b e fol lowed b y th e Co mmi ssio n . (2) A Co mmi ssion so appoint ed s h all inv estig ate t h e ma tt ers r ef err ed to th em and pr es en t to the Pr esid en t a r eport s ett ing ou t th e f a cts as found b y th em and making su ch r eco mmend ation s as th ey think prop er . (3) Th e Pr esid ent shall caus e a cop y of th e r eport so pr es ent ed tog e th er with a memo r andu m expl ain ing th e action t ak en th er eon to b e l aid b efor e e a c h Ho u s e o f P a r l i a men t . 341 . S ch edul ed C ast es . (1) Th e Pr esid en t may wi th r esp ec t to an y St at e or Un ion terri tor y, and wher e it is a St at e, aft er consult at ion with th e Gov ernor th er eo f , b y pub li c no tif i c ation , sp ecify th e cast es , r a ce s or trib es or p arts of or groups within cast es , r aces or t rib es wh i ch sh all for th e purpos es of this Cons titut ion b e d eemed to b e Sch edul ed Cast es i n r el a tion to th at St at e or Union t erri tor y, as th e cas e may b e. (2) P ar li a men t ma y b y l a w in clud e in or ex clud e fro m th e li st of S ch edul ed Castes sp ecif i ed in a notif i c ation issu ed und er cl au s e (1) an y cast e, r ace or trib e or p art of or group within an y cast e, r ace or trib e, but

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s av e as afor es aid a notifi cation i ssu ed und er th e s a id cl au s e sh al l not b e v ari ed b y an y subs equ ent not ifi cation . 342 . S ch edul ed T rib es .(1) Th e Pr esid en t may wi th r esp ec t to an y St at e or Un ion terri tor y, and wher e it is a St at e, aft er consult at ion with th e Gov ernor th er eo f , b y pub li c noti fi c ation , specif y th e tr ib es o r trib al co mmun iti es or p arts of o r groups within trib es or trib al co mmun iti es whi ch sh all for th e purpos es of this Cons titu tion b e d e emed to b e S ch edul ed Tr ibes in r el ation to th at St at e or Union t er ritor y, as th e case ma y b e . (2) Parliament may by law include in or exclude from the list of Scheduled Tribes specified in a notification issued under clause (1) any tribe or tribal community or part of or group within any tribe or tribal community, but save as aforesaid a notification issued under the said clause shall not be varied by any subsequent notification.

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PART XVII OFFICIAL LANGUAGE C HA P TE R I.L A NG U A GE OF T H E U N I ON


343 . Offi cial languag e of th e Union .(1 ) The offi ci al l anguag e of th e U nion sh all b e H indi in D ev an ag ari s cr ipt . Th e for m of numer als to b e used for th e offi ci al purpos es of th e Union sh al l b e th e int ern at ion al for m of Indi an nu mer als . (2) Not withst anding an ything in cl aus e (1), for a p er iod of fift een years fro m th e co mmen cement of this Consti tution , th e English l angu ag e sh all continu e to b e us ed for all th e of fi ci al pu rposes o f th e Un ion fo r wh i ch it w a s b ein g u s ed i mme d i at el y b efo r e su ch co mme n c e me n t: Provid ed that th e Pr es id ent ma y, du ring the s aid p er iod, b y ord er author is e th e use of th e Hind i langu ag e in addition to th e English l angu ag e and of th e Devan ag ari for m of nu mer als in addit ion to th e int ern ation al for m of Indi an nu me r als for an y of th e offi ci al purpos es of th e Union . (3) No t withst anding an ything in this arti cl e, P arl i a ment ma y b y l aw provid e for th e us e, aft er th e s aid p eriod of fif teen years , o f (a) th e English langu ag e, o r (b) th e Dev an agari for m of nu mer als , for su ch purposes as may b e specif i ed in th e l aw. 344 . Co mmi s sion and Co mmi t t ee of Pa rlia me n t on offi cial languag e .(1) Th e Pr esid ent sh all , at th e expir at ion of fiv e years fro m th e co mmen cement of thi s Cons titution an d th er eaft er at th e expi ration of t en years fro m su ch co mme n cemen t, b y o rd er consti tut e a Co mmi ssion wh i ch sh al l consis t of a Ch air man and su ch oth er me mb ers r epres en t ing th e diff er en t l angu ag es sp ecif i ed in th e Eighth S chedul e as th e Presid en t ma y appoint , and the ord er sh all defin e th e pro c edur e to b e follo wed b y th e C o mmi ssio n . (2) It sh all b e th e du t y of th e Co mmi ssion to mak e r e co mmen d ation s to th e Pr esid en t as to (a) th e progr ess ive us e of th e Hindi l anguag e for th e offi ci al purpos es of th e Union; (b) r es tri ction s on th e us e of the English l anguag e for all o r an y of th e offi ci al purpos es of th e Union; ( c) th e l angu ag e to b e us ed fo r all o r an y of the purpos es me ntion ed in art i cl e 348 ; (d) th e fo r m of nu me r als to b e us ed for an y on e or mo r e sp ec if i ed purpos es of th e Union; ( e) an y oth er ma tt er r ef err ed to t h e Co mmi ssion b y th e Pr esident as r eg ards th e offi ci al l angu ag e of th e Un ion and th e l angu ag e for

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co mmun i cation b et w een th e Un ion and a St at e or b et w een on e St at e and anoth er and th eir us e. (3) In ma king th eir r e co mme n dation s und er cl aus e (2) , th e Commi s sion sh al l h av e du e reg ard to th e industr i al , cu l tur al and s ci entif i c ad v an c ement of Indi a, an d the just cl ai ms an d th e int er ests of p ersons b elonging to th e non- Hindi sp eaking ar eas in r egard to th e public s ervi ces . (4) Th er e sh all b e cons titut ed a Co mmi tt ee consi sting of thirt y me mb ers , of wh o m t w en t y sh all b e me mb ers of th e Hous e of th e P eop l e an d t en sh all b e memb ers of th e Coun cil of St at es to b e el ect ed r esp ectiv el y b y th e memb er s of th e Hous e o f th e P eopl e and th e memb er s of th e Coun ci l of St at es in accord an ce with th e s yst em of proport ion al r epr es ent a tion b y me a n s of th e singl e tr ans f er abl e vot e . (5) It shall b e th e dut y of th e Co mmi t t ee to ex amin e th e r eco mmend ations of th e Co mmis sion constitu ted und er cl aus e (1) and to r eport to th e Pr esid en t th eir opinion th er eon . (6) No t withst anding an ything in arti cl e 343 , th e Pr esid en t ma y, af t er consid er ation of th e r epor t r eferr ed to in cl au s e (5) , issu e dir ections in accord an ce with th e who l e o r any p art of th at r eport . C H A P T E R I I. R E G I O N A L L A N G U A G E S 345 . Off i cial languag e o r languag es of a Stat e.Subj ect to th e provis ions o f arti cl es 346 and 347 , the Legislatur e of a St at e may b y l aw adopt an y on e or mo r e of th e l angu ag es in u s e in th e St at e or Hindi as th e l angu ag e o r l angu ag es to b e used fo r all or any of th e off i ci al purpo s es of th at St a t e: Provid ed th at , unti l th e Legislatur e of th e St at e oth er wis e provid es b y l a w, th e Eng lish l angu ag e sh all cont inu e to b e us ed for thos e offi ci al p u rp o s es w ith in t h e St a t e fo r wh i ch it w as b ein g u s ed i mme d ia t el y b efo r e th e co mmen cement of this Consti tution . 346 . Off i cial languag e fo r co mmu ni ca tion b etw een one Stat e and anoth er o r b etw een a Stat e and th e Union . Th e l angu ag e for th e ti me b eing au thoris ed for u se in the Un ion for offi ci al purpos es sh all b e th e offi c i al l angu age f or co mmu ni ca tion b et w e en on e S t at e and a noth er St at e and b et w een a St at e and th e Union: Provid ed th at if t wo or mor e Stat es agr ee th at th e Hind i l angu ag e shou ld b e th e off ici al l angu ag e for co mmun i cation b et w een su ch St at es , th at l angu ag e may be us ed for su ch co mmun i cation . 347 . Sp ecial provis ion rela ting to languag e spo ken by a s e ction of th e populat ion of a Stat e. On a d emand b eing mad e in th at b eh alf th e Pr esid en t ma y, if h e is s at isfi ed th at a subst an ti al proport ion o f th e popul at ion of a St at e d esir e th e us e of an y l angu ag e spok en by th em to b e r e cognis ed b y th at St at e, dir e ct th at su ch l anguag e sh all also be offi ci all y r ecognis ed throughout th at St ate or an y p art ther eof for su ch purpos e as h e may s p ecif y.

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C H A P T E R I II.L A N G U A G E O F T H E S U P R E M E C O U R T , HIGH COURTS, ETC. 348 . Languag e to b e us ed in th e Sup reme Cou rt and in th e High C o u rt s a n d f o r A c t s , Bil ls , e t c .(1 ) No twiths t anding an ything in th e for egoing provis ions of th is P art , un til Parl i a ment b y law oth er wis e provid es (a) all pro ceedings in th e Supr eme Cour t and in ev er y High Court , (b) th e au thori t ativ e t ex ts (i) of al l Bills to b e introdu ced or amend ments th er eto to b e mo v ed in eith er Hous e of P arli a me nt or in th e Hous e or eith er H o u s e o f t h e L eg i s l atu r e o f a S t a t e , (i i) of all Acts p ass ed b y P ar li ament or th e Legisl atur e of a St at e a nd of a ll Ord in an c es pro mulg at ed b y th e Pr e sid ent or t h e G ov ernor of a St at e , and (i ii) o f al l o rd ers , ru l e s, r eg u l atio n s an d b y e-l aw s issu ed u n d e r thi s Cons titut ion or und er any l a w mad e by P arli a ment or th e L e g isl a tu r e o f a S t at e , sh all b e in th e English l angu ag e. (2) No t with st anding an yth ing in sub- cl au s e (a) o f cl au s e (1 ) , th e Gov ernor of a S t at e may, with th e pr eviou s cons en t of the Pr esid ent, author is e th e use o f th e Hindi langu ag e, or an y o th er l anguag e us ed for an y offi ci al purpo s es of th e St at e, in p roceed ings in th e High Court h aving its prin cip al s eat in th at St at e: Provid ed th at nothing in this claus e sh all app l y t o an y judg ment , d e cr ee or ord er p ass ed or mad e b y su ch High Cour t. (3) No t withs t anding an yth ing in sub- cl au s e (b ) o f cl au s e (1 ) , w h er e th e Legisl atur e of a S t at e h a s pr es crib ed an y languag e o th er th an th e Eng lish l angu ag e for u se in Bi lls introdu ced in, or Acts p ass ed b y, th e Legisl atur e of th e S t at e or in Ordin an ces pro mulg at ed b y the G ov ernor of th e St at e o r in an y o rd er , ru l e , r eg u l atio n o r b y e -l aw r ef erre d to in p ar ag ra p h (iii) o f th at sub- cl aus e, a tr ansl ation o f th e s a me in th e English l angu age publish ed und er th e authori t y of th e Gov ernor of th e St ate in th e Of fi ci al Gazett e of th at S t at e sh all b e d eemed to b e th e authorit ativ e t ext th er eof in th e English l angu age und er this articl e . 349 . Sp ecial pro cedu re fo r ena ct men t of certain law s relat ing to languag e .During th e p eriod of fift een years fro m the co mm en cement of thi s Constitu tion , no Bil l or amend ment making prov ision for th e l angu ag e to b e us ed for an y of th e purpos es me ntion ed in cl aus e (1) o f arti cl e 348 sh al l b e introdu ced o r mov ed i n ei th er House o f P arl i a ment wi thout th e pr ev ious s an ct ion of th e Pr esid en t , an d th e Pr esid en t sh all not giv e h is s an ct ion to th e in trodu ction of an y su ch Bill or th e moving of an y su ch amen d men t ex cept af t er he h as t ak en in to consider at ion th e r eco mmend ations of th e Co mmi ssion cons titut ed und er cl aus e (1) of art icl e

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344 and th e r eport of th e Co mmi tt ee const ituted und er cl aus e (4) of th at a rt i cl e. C H A P T E R I V .S P E C I A L D I R E C T I V E S 350 . Language to b e us ed i n rep res entation s fo r red ress of g ri ev a n c es . Ev er y person sh all b e ent itl ed to s ub mit a r epr es ent ation for th e r edr ess of an y gri ev an ce to an y of fi cer or author it y o f th e Un ion or a St at e in an y o f th e l angu ag es us ed in th e Union or in th e St ate, as th e cas e ma y b e . 350 A. Fa ciliti es fo r in st ru ction in mo th er-tongu e at p ri ma ry stag e. It sh all b e th e end e avour of ev er y St at e and of ev er y lo cal au thori t y within th e St at e to provid e ad eq u at e f acil iti es for instru ction in th e mo th er- tongu e at th e pri mar y s t ag e of education to ch ildren b e longing to linguist i c mi nori t y groups; and the Pr es ident ma y issu e su ch dir e ctions to an y St at e as h e consid ers n eces s ar y or prop er for s e cu ring th e prov ision of su ch f a ci liti es . 350 B. Sp ecia l Offi cer fo r linguis ti c mi no riti es .(1 ) Th er e sh al l b e a Sp eci al Offi cer for lingu isti c minori ti es to b e appoint ed b y th e Pr esid en t. (2) I t sh all b e th e dut y of th e Sp eci al Of fi cer to inv estig at e all mat t ers r el a ting to th e s af egu ards provid ed for linguis ti c minor iti es und er this Consti tution an d r eport to the Pr esid en t upon thos e ma tt ers at su ch in t e rv als as th e Pr esid en t ma y d ir e c t, an d th e Pre sid en t sh all c au s e al l su ch r eport s to b e laid b efor e each Hous e of P arl i a ment , and sent to th e G ov ern ments of th e St at es con cern ed . 351 . Di rectiv e fo r d ev elop men t of th e Hindi languag e.I t sh all b e th e dut y of th e Un ion to p ro mo t e th e spr e ad o f th e Hindi l angu ag e, to d ev elop it so th at i t may s erv e as a mediu m of expr ession for al l th e el emen ts of th e co mposit e cultur e of Ind i a and to s ecur e it s enri ch ment b y assi mi l ating without in t erf ering with it s g en ius , th e for ms , s tyl e an d expr essions us ed in Hindust an i and in th e o th er langu ag es of Indi a sp ecifi ed in th e Eigh th S ch edul e, and b y dr awing , wh er ev er n ecess ar y or d esi r abl e, fo r it s vo cabul ar y, primar il y on S anskri t and s econd aril y on oth er l angu ag es .

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P A R T XV I I I E M E R G E NC Y P R O V I S I O NS 3 5 2 . P ro c l a ma t i o n o f E me r g e n c y .(1) I f th e Pr esid en t is s atisfi ed th at a g rav e emer g en c y ex ists wh ereb y th e s e curi ty o f Indi a or of an y p art of th e t err ito r y th e r eo f is th r e at en ed , wh e th e r b y w a r o r ex t ern al ag g r ess io n or ar med r eb ellion , h e may, by Pro cl a mation , mak e a d e cl aration to th at eff e ct in r e sp ec t of th e whole of Indi a or of su ch p art of th e t err itor y th er eof as may b e sp ecifi ed in th e Pro cl amation. Explanation . A Pro cl a ma tio n o f E me rg en c y d e cl ar in g th at th e s e cu ri t y of Indi a or an y p ar t of th e t erri tor y th er eof is thr e at en ed b y war or b y ext ern al aggr ession or b y ar me d r eb ell ion ma y b e mad e b efore th e actu al o c cu rr en ce of war or of an y such aggr es sion or r eb e llion , if th e Pr es id en t is s at isfi ed th at th er e is i mmi n ent d ang er th er eo f . (2) A Pro cl amation i ssu ed und er cl aus e (1) may b e v ari ed or revok ed b y a subs equ ent Pro cl a ma tion . (3) Th e Pr esid ent sh all no t issu e a Pro cl a ma tion und er c l aus e (1 ) or a Pro cl a ma tion v ar ying su ch Pro cl a ma tion unl ess th e d e c ision of th e Union Cabin et (th a t is to s a y, th e Coun cil cons isting of th e Pri me Minist er an d oth er Min ist ers of Cabin e t r ank appoin t ed und er ar ti cl e 75) th at su ch a Pro cl a ma tion ma y b e issu ed h as b e en co mmu ni ca t ed to hi m in wri ting . (4) Ev er y Pro clamat ion issu ed und er thi s ar ti cle sh all b e l aid befor e each Hous e of P arl i ame n t and sh all , ex cept wh ere it is a Pro c l a ma tion r evoking a pr evious Pro cl a ma tion , ceas e to op er at e at th e expir at ion of on e mon th unl ess b efor e th e expir ation of th at p eriod it h as b e en approv ed b y r esolu tions of both Hous es of Parl i a ment : Provid ed th a t if an y su ch Pro cl a ma tion (not b eing a Pro cl a ma tion r evoking a pr evious Pro cl a ma t ion) is is su ed at a ti me wh en th e Hous e of th e P eopl e h as b e en disso lv ed , or th e d issolut ion of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e t ak es place during th e p eriod of on e mo nth r ef err ed to in this c l aus e , and if a r e solution a pproving th e Pro c la ma t ion h a s b e en p as s ed b y th e Coun cil of St at es, but no resolu tion with resp ect to su ch Pro cl a mation h as b e en p ass ed b y th e Hous e of th e P eopl e befor e th e expir ation of th at p eriod , th e Pro cl a ma tion sh all ceas e to op er at e at th e expir at ion of thirt y d ays fro m th e d at e on whi ch th e Hous e of th e P eop l e firs t s its aft er i ts r econst itution , unl ess b efor e the expi r ation of th e s aid p eriod of thirt y d ays a r esolut ion approving th e Pro cl a ma tion h as b een also p ass ed by th e Hou s e of th e P eopl e. (5) A Pro cl a ma tion so approv ed sh all , unl es s re vok ed , c e as e to op er at e on th e ex p ir ation of a p eriod of six mo n ths f rom t h e d at e of the p assing of th e s e cond of the r esolut ions approving th e Procl a ma tion und er cl aus e (4): Provid ed th at if and so oft en as a r esolution approving th e continu an ce in for ce of su ch a P ro cl a ma tion i s p ass ed b y both Hous es of P arl i a ment th e Pro cl a ma tion shall , unl ess r evok ed , continu e in for ce fo r a furth er period 153

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o f six mo n th s fro m th e d at e o n wh i ch it wo u ld o th er wi se h av e c e as ed to o p er at e u n d er th is cl au s e : Provid ed fur th er th at if th e dissolu tion of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e t ak es pl ace during any su ch p eriod of six months and a r esolution approving th e c ontinu an c e in for c e of su ch Pro cl a ma tion h as b e en p as sed b y th e Coun c il of St at es but no r esolu tion with r esp ect to th e continu an ce in for ce of su ch Pro cl a ma tion h as b e en p ass ed by t h e Hous e o f th e P eopl e dur ing th e s aid p eriod , th e P rocl a ma tion sh all ceas e to op erate at th e expir ation of thirt y d ays fro m th e d at e on whi ch th e Hous e of th e P eop l e firs t s its aft er i ts r e const itution unl ess b efor e the expir ation of th e s aid p er iod of thi rt y d a ys , a r esolu tion approving the continu an ce in for ce of th e Pro cl a mation h as b een also p ass ed b y th e Hous e of th e P eopl e. (6) For th e purpos es of cl aus es (4) and (5), a r esolu tion ma y b e p ass ed b y eith er Hous e of P a rli a me nt onl y b y a ma jorit y of th e tot al me mb er ship of th at Hous e and b y a ma j ority of not l ess th an t wo- thirds of th e Memb ers of th at Hous e pres ent and voting. (7) No twithst anding an ything cont ain ed in the fo r egoing cl au s es , th e Pr esid en t sh all r ev o k e a Pro c l a ma tio n is su ed u n d er cl au s e (1 ) o r a Pro cl a mation v ar ying su ch Pro cl a mation if th e Hous e of th e P eopl e p a ss es a r esolut ion dis approving , or , as th e cas e may b e, dis approving th e continu an ce in for ce of, su ch Pro cl amation . (8) Wh er e a noti ce in writing sign ed b y no t less th an on e-t enth of th e tot al nu mb er o f me mb ers of the Hous e of th e P eopl e h as b een g iv en, of th ei r int ent ion to mov e a r esolution for dis approving , or , as the cas e may b e , for dis approving th e cont inu an ce in for c e of , a Pro cl a ma tion issu ed u n d er cl au s e (1 ) o r a P ro c l a ma tio n v a r yin g su ch P ro cl a ma tio n , (a) to th e Sp eaker , if th e Hou s e is in s ess ion; or (b) to th e Pr esident , if th e House is not in s ession , a sp eci al si tting of th e Hous e sh all b e h eld within fourt een d ays fro m th e d at e o n wh i ch su ch n o ti c e is r ec e iv ed b y th e Sp e ak er , o r, as th e c as e ma y b e , b y th e Pr es id ent , for th e purpos e of con sid ering su ch r esolution . (9) Th e po wer conf err ed on th e Pr esid en t b y th is arti cl e sh all includ e the po wer to issu e diff er en t Pro cl a ma tions on diff er ent grounds, b eing war or ext ern al aggr ess ion o r ar med r eb ell ion o r immi n ent d ang er of war or ext ern al aggr ession or ar med r e bellion , wheth er or not th er e is a Pro cl a ma tio n alr e ad y is su ed b y th e Pr esid en t u n d er cl au s e (1 ) an d su ch Pro cl a mation is in op er ation . * * * * *

353 . Eff ect of Pro cla ma tion o f E me r g e n cy .Whil e a Pro cl a ma tion o f E me r g en c y i s i n o p er at i o n , t h e n (a) not wi thst anding an ything in thi s Cons titution , th e ex ecutiv e po wer of th e Union sh all ext end to th e g iving of dir e ct ions to an y St at e

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as to th e mann er in whi ch th e ex ecutiv e po wer th er eof is to b e e x er cis ed ; (b) th e po wer of P arli a ment to mak e l aws with r esp ect to an y mat t er sh al l in clud e po wer to ma k e l a ws conf er ring po wers and imp osing duti e s, o r authoris ing th e conf err ing of po wers and th e i mposi tion of duti es, upon the Union or of fi cers and authori ti es of th e Union as r esp ect s th at mat t er , no twithst and ing th at it is on e whi ch is not enu mer at ed in th e Un ion List: Provid ed th at wh er e a Pro c l a ma tion of Emergen c y is in op er ation onl y in an y p art of the t erri tor y of Indi a, (i) the ex ecut ive po wer o f th e Union to giv e dir ections und er cl aus e (a) , an d (i i) th e po wer of P arli ament to mak e l aws under cl aus e (b ), sh al l also ext end to an y St at e oth er th an a S t ate i n whi ch or in an y p art of whi ch th e Pro clamat ion of Emerg en c y is in op er at ion if and in so f ar as th e s e cu ri t y o f In d i a o r an y p art o f th e t err ito r y th er eo f is th r e at en ed b y activ iti es in or in r el ation to th e p ar t of th e t erri tor y of Indi a in whi ch th e Pro cl a ma tion of E me rg en cy i s in op er ation . 354 . Appl i cation of p rov isions relating to dis tribution of rev enu es w hile a Pro clama t ion of Emerg en cy is in operation .(1) Th e Pr esid ent may, whi l e a Pro cl amation of Emer g en cy is in op er at ion, b y ord er di r ect th at all or an y of th e provis ions of arti cl es 268 to 279 shall for su ch p eriod , not extending in an y cas e b e yond the expir at ion o f th e fin an ci a l year in wh i ch su ch Pro cl amation ceas es to oper at e, as may b e sp ecifi ed in th e ord er , h av e e ff e ct subj e ct to su ch ex c ep tions o r mod ifi ca tion s as h e think s f it . (2) Ev er y ord er mad e und er cl aus e (1) sh all , as soon as may b e aft er it is ma d e , b e l aid b efo r e e a ch Ho u s e o f P arli a me n t . 355 . Duty of the Union to prot ect Stat es agains t ext erna l agg ression and int ernal dist urbance.It sh all b e th e dut y of th e Un ion to prot ect ev er y St at e agains t ext ern al aggr ess ion and int ern al dis turb an ce and to e n su r e th at th e g o v ern me n t o f ev er y St at e is c arri ed o n in a c co rd an c e with th e provis ions of this Const itution . 356 . Provisions in cas e of failu re of constitu tional ma chin ery in S t a t es . (1) I f th e P r esid ent , on r eceipt of a r eport fro m th e Gov ernor of a St at e o r oth er wis e, is s atisf i ed th at a situ ation h as ari s en in whi ch th e Gov ern me nt of th e St at e cannot b e carri ed on in accord ance with th e provis ions of this Const itution , th e Pr esid en t may b y P ro cl amation (a ) as su me to hims elf all or an y of th e fun ctions of th e Governme n t of th e S t at e and all or an y of the po wers v est ed in or ex er cis abl e b y the Gov ernor o r an y bod y or author it y in th e S t at e oth er t h an th e L e g isl a tu r e o f th e S t at e; (b ) d ecl ar e th at th e po wers of th e Legis l atur e of th e S t at e sh all b e ex er cis ab l e b y or und er th e authori t y of P ar li a me nt;

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( c) ma k e su ch in cid ent al and cons equ ent i al provis ions as appear to th e Pr esid en t to b e n ecess ar y o r d esir ab l e for giving eff e ct to th e obj ect s of th e Pro cl a ma tion , in clud ing p rovision s fo r su sp ending in whol e or in p a rt th e op er ation of an y provisions of this Const itution r el a ting to an y bod y or au thority in th e St at e: Provid ed th at nothing in th is cl au s e sh all au thor is e th e Presid en t to assu me to hi mself an y of th e po wers vest ed in o r ex er ci s able b y a High Court , or to susp end in whol e or in p art th e oper at ion of an y provis ion of thi s Cons titution r el at ing to High Courts . (2) An y su ch Pro cl amation may b e r evok ed or v ar i ed b y a subs equ ent Pro cl a ma tio n . (3) Ev er y Pro cl amation und er th is arti cl e shall b e l aid b efor e each Hous e of P arl i ame n t and sh all , ex cept wh ere it is a Pro c l a ma tion r evoking a pr ev ious Pro cl a ma tion , ceas e to oper at e at th e expir ation of t wo months unl ess b efor e th e expir ation of th at p eriod it h as b e en approv ed b y r esolu tions of both Hous es of Parl i a ment : Provid ed th a t if an y su ch Pro cl a ma tion (not b eing a Pro cl a ma tion r evoking a pr evious Pro cl a ma t ion) is is su ed at a ti me wh en th e Hous e of th e P eopl e i s d isso lved o r th e dis solution of the Hous e of th e P eopl e t ak es pl ace during the p er iod of t wo mo nths r ef err ed to in this cl aus e , and if a r esolu tion approving th e Pro c lama t ion has b een p as s ed b y the Coun ci l of St at es, but no r eso lution wi th r esp ect to such Pro cl amat ion h as b een p ass ed b y th e Hous e of th e P eopl e b e for e th e expir a tion of th at p e riod , th e Pro cl a ma tion shall ceas e to oper at e at th e expir a tion of th irt y d a ys fro m th e d at e on which th e Hou se of th e P eopl e fi rst s its aft er its r econst itution unl ess b efor e the exp ir ation o f th e s aid p er iod of thirt y d a ys a r e solution approving th e Pro cl a ma tion has b e en also pass ed b y th e Hous e of th e P eo p l e . (4) A P ro cl amation so approv ed sh all , unl ess revok ed , ceas e to op er at e on th e ex p ir ation of a p eriod of six mo n ths fro m th e d at e of is sue of th e P ro cl a ma tio n : Provid ed th at if and so oft en as a r esolution approving th e continu an ce in fo r c e o f su ch a Pro cl a ma tio n is p as s ed b y b o th Ho u s es o f P a rli a me n t , th e P ro cl a mation sh all , unl ess r evok ed , co n tinu e in for c e for a furth er p eriod of six months fro m th e d at e on whi ch und er this cl au s e it would oth er wis e h av e ceas ed to operat e , bu t no su ch P ro cl a ma tion sh all in an y cas e r e ma in in for ce for mor e th an thr ee years: Provid ed fur th er th at if th e dissolu tion of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e t ak es pl ace during any su ch p eriod of six months and a r esolution approving th e c ontinu an c e in for c e of su ch Pro cl a ma tion h as b e en p as sed b y th e Coun c il of St at es , but no r eso lution with r e sp ect to the continu an ce in fo r ce of su ch Pro cl amation h as b een p ass ed b y th e Hous e of th e P eople during th e s aid p eriod , th e Pro cl a mation sh all ceas e to op er at e at th e expir a tion o f thi rt y d ays f ro m th e d at e on whi ch th e Hous e of th e P eopl e f irst sits aft er it s r e cons titution un l ess b e for e t h e expir a tion of th e s a id p eriod o f thi rt y

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d a ys a r eso lution approving th e continu an c e in for c e of th e Pro cl a mation h as b een also p ass ed b y th e Hous e of th e P eopl e: Provid ed also th at in th e cas e of th e Pro cl a ma tion issu ed under cl au s e (1) on th e 11th d ay o f May, 1987 wi th r esp ect to th e S tat e of Punj ab , th e r ef er en ce in the first proviso to this cl au se to thr ee years sh all b e constru ed as a ref er en ce to fiv e years . (5) Not withst anding an ything cont ain ed in cl aus e (4) , a r esolution with r esp ect to th e continu an ce in fo r ce of a Pro cl a ma tion approv ed und er cl aus e (3) for an y p er iod b e yond th e expir ation of on e year fro m th e d a t e of issu e of su ch Pro cl a ma tion sh all not b e p ass ed b y either Hous e of P arl i ament unl ess (a ) a P rocl amat ion of Emerg en cy i s in oper at ion, in th e whol e of Indi a or , as th e cas e may b e, in th e whol e or any p art of th e S t at e, at th e ti me of th e p assing of su ch r esolut ion, and (b) th e El ection Co mmi ssion certi fi es th at the continu an ce in for ce of th e Pro c lama t ion approv ed under cl au s e (3 ) during th e p e riod sp ecif i ed in su ch r eso lution is n ecess ary on account of diffi cu l ti es in ho lding g en er al el ect ions to th e Legisl ativ e Ass e mbl y of th e St at e con c ern ed: Provid ed th at nothing in this cl au s e sh all appl y to th e Procl a ma tion is sued und er claus e (1 ) on th e 11th d a y of Ma y, 1987 with resp ect to th e St at e of Punj ab . 357 . Ex ercis e of l egislat iv e pow ers und er Pro cla ma tion issued und er a rt i c l e 3 5 6 . (1 ) Wh er e b y a P ro cl a ma tio n issu ed u n d er c l au s e (1 ) o f art i cl e 356 , it has b een decl ar ed th at th e po wers of th e Legislatur e of th e St at e sh all b e ex er cis ab l e b y o r u n d er th e au th o ri t y o f P arl ia me n t , i t sh all b e co mp e t en t (a) for P arl i a me nt to conf er on th e Pr esid ent th e po wer of th e Legisl atur e of th e St at e to make l a ws , an d to au thor is e th e Pr esid en t to d el eg at e , subj ect to su ch conditions as h e ma y think fi t to i mpos e, th e po w er so con fe rr ed to an y oth er a utho rit y to b e sp ec ifi ed b y him i n th at b eh alf ; (b) for P ar li a me nt , or for th e Pr esid en t or o ther au thorit y in who m su ch po wer to ma k e l a ws is vest ed und er sub- cl aus e (a ), to mak e l a ws conf err ing powers and i mpos ing dut ies, o r authoris ing th e conferring of po wers and th e i mposit ion of duti e s, upon the Union or officers and author iti es th er eof; ( c) for th e Pr esid ent to authoris e wh en th e Hous e of th e P eopl e is not in s es sion exp enditu re f rom t h e Consolidat ed Fund of th e St at e p ending th e s anction of su ch exp enditu r e b y P arl i a ment . (2) An y l aw mad e in ex er cis e of th e po wer of th e Legisl atur e of th e St at e b y Parli ame n t or th e Pr esid en t or oth er author it y r ef erred to in subc l au s e (a) of claus e (1) wh i ch P arl i a ment or th e Pr esid en t or su ch oth e r author it y would not , but for th e issu e o f a P ro cl a ma tion und er art i cl e 356, h av e b e en co mp et en t to mak e sh al l, af t er th e Pro cl a ma tio n h as c e as ed to

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op er at e , continu e in for c e unti l a lt er ed or re p e al ed or a mend ed b y a co mp et ent Legisl atu r e or oth er author it y. 358 . Susp en sion of p rovi sions of a rt i cl e 19 du ring emerg enci es .(1) Wh il e a Pro c l ama t ion of Emerg en c y d e cl ar ing th at th e s e cur ity of Indi a or an y p ar t of the t e rritor y th ereof is th r eat ened b y war or b y ex t ern al aggr ess ion is in op er ation , nothing in art i cl e 19 sh all r es tri ct the po wer of th e S t at e as d efin ed in P art I II to ma k e an y l aw o r to t ak e an y e x e cu t iv e action wh i ch the S t at e would but for th e provision s cont ain ed i n th at P art b e co mp et en t to mak e or to t ake, but an y l aw so mad e sh all , to th e ext en t of th e in co mp et en cy, ceas e to h av e eff e ct as soon as th e Pro cl ama tion ceas es to op er at e, ex cept as r esp ects th ings don e or o mitt ed to b e don e b efo r e th e l a w so c e as es to h av e e ff e ct: Provid ed th at wh er e su ch Procl a mation of Emer g en c y is in op er ation o n l y i n an y p ar t o f t h e t er ri t o r y o f I n d i a , an y s u c h l a w ma y b e ma d e , o r an y su ch ex ecutiv e action may be tak en , und er th is arti cl e in r el a tion to or in an y St at e o r Union t errito r y in whi ch or in an y p ar t of wh i ch th e Pro cl a mation of Emerg en c y i s not in op er at ion , if and in so f ar as th e s e cu ri t y o f Indi a or an y p art of th e t erri tory th er eo f is thr e at en ed b y activ iti es in o r in r el ation to the p art of th e t erri tor y of Indi a in whi ch th e Pro cl a mation of Emerg en c y is in op er ation . (2) Nothing in cl aus e (1) sh al l appl y (a) to an y l a w whi ch do es not con t ain a r e cital to th e eff ect th at su ch l aw is in r el ation to th e Pro cl amation of Emerg en cy in op er at ion wh en it is made; or (b) to an y ex ecutiv e action t ak en oth e rwise th an und er a l a w cont ain ing such a r ecit al . 359 . Susp en sion o f th e enfo rce men t of th e right s conf erred by Pa rt III du ring eme r g en ci es . (1) Wh er e a P rocl ama t ion of Emerg en c y is in op er at ion, th e Pr esid en t ma y b y ord er d e cl are t h at th e right t o mov e an y court for th e enfor cement of su ch of th e rights conf er r ed b y P art III ( ex c ept a rti cl es 20 a nd 21) as ma y b e me n t ion ed in th e ord er and a ll pro ceedings p ending in an y court for th e enfor cement of th e rights so me n tion ed sh all r e ma in su spe nd ed for th e p e riod dur ing w hi ch th e Pro cl a mation is in for ce or for su ch short er p eriod as may b e sp ecif i ed in th e ord er . (1 A) Whi l e an ord er ma de under cl aus e (1) me ntion ing an y of th e right s conf err ed b y P art II I (ex c ep t arti cl es 20 an d 21) is in op er ation, nothing in th at P art conf erring thos e righ ts sh all r est ri ct th e po wer of the St at e as d efin ed in th e said P art to make an y l a w or to t a k e an y ex ecutiv e action whi ch th e S t at e would but for th e p rovisions cont ained in th at P ar t b e co mp et en t to mak e o r to t ak e , but an y l a w so mad e sh al l, to th e ex t ent of th e in co mp et en c y , c e as e to h a v e eff e ct as so o n as th e o rd e r afo r es aid ceas es to op er at e, ex cept as r esp ects th ings don e or o mitt ed to b e don e b efo r e th e l a w so c e as es to h av e e ff e ct:

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Provid ed th at wh er e a Pro cl amation of Emerg ency i s in oper ation on l y in a n y p art o f th e t err ito r y o f In d ia , an y su ch l aw ma y b e ma d e , o r an y su ch ex ecutiv e action may b e t ak en, und er this articl e in r e l ation to o r in an y St at e o r Un io n te rri to r y in wh i ch o r in a n y p ar t o f wh i ch th e Pro cl a ma tio n of Emerg en c y is not in op er at ion , if and in so far as th e s e cur ity of Indi a or an y p art of th e t err itor y th er eo f is thr eat en ed by activi ti es in or in r el a tion to th e p art of th e t erritor y of Indi a in whi ch th e Pro clamat ion of Emer g en c y is in op er ation . (1 B) Nothing in cl aus e (1 A) sh all appl y (a) to an y l a w whi ch do es not con t ain a r e cital to th e eff ect th at su ch l aw is in r el ation to th e Pro cl amation of Emerg en cy in op er at ion wh en it is made; or (b) to an y ex ecutiv e action t ak en oth e rwise th an und er a l a w cont ain ing such a r ecit al . (2) An ord er mad e as afor es aid may ex t end to th e whol e or an y p art of th e t err itor y of Indi a: Provid ed th at wh er e a Pro cl amation of Emerg ency i s in oper ation on l y in a part of th e t erri tor y of Indi a, an y su ch ord er sh all not ext end to an y oth e r p art o f th e t err itor y o f Indi a unl ess th e Pr esid en t , b eing s atisfied th at th e s e cu ri t y o f In di a o r an y p art o f th e t erri to ry th er eo f is th r e at en ed b y activ iti es in o r in r el ation to the p art of th e t erri tor y of Indi a in whi ch th e Pro cl amation o f Emer g en cy is in op er ation , consid er s su ch ext ension to b e n ecess ar y. (3) Ev er y ord er mad e und er cl aus e (1) sh all , as soon as may b e aft er it is ma d e , b e l aid b efo r e e a ch Ho u s e o f P arli a me n t . 3 5 9 A . [App li cation o f this Part to th e S tat e of Punjab .] Rep . b y th e Consti tution (Sixt y- third Amendment ) Act , 1989, s. 3 (w . e . f . 6 - 1 - 1 9 9 0 ) . 360 . Provisions as to finan cial emerg en cy .(1) If th e Presid en t is s at isfi ed th at a si tu ation h as aris en wh er eb y th e f in an ci al st abilit y or cr ed it of Indi a or of an y p art of th e terri tor y th er eof is thr eat en ed, h e ma y b y a Pro cl a mation mak e a d ecl ar ation to th at eff e ct . (2) A Pro cl amation issu ed und er cl aus e (1) (a) may b e r evok ed or v ari ed b y a subs equ ent Pro cl amation ; (b) sh al l b e l aid b efor e each Hous e of P arli ament; ( c) sh all ceas e to op er at e at the expir ation of t wo months , unl ess b efor e th e expi ration of th at p eriod i t h as b e en approv ed b y r esolu tions of both Hous es of P arli ame nt : Provid ed th at if an y su ch Procl a mation is issu ed at a ti me wh en th e Hous e of th e P eopl e h as b e en dis solv ed or th e dis solution of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e t ak es pl ace du ring th e p eriod o f t wo months r ef e rred to in subc l au s e ( c), and if a r e solution approving th e Pro cl a ma tion h as b e en p ass ed b y th e Coun cil of St at es , but no r eso lution wi th r esp ec t to su ch Pro cl a ma tion ha s b e en p ass ed b y th e Hous e of th e P eopl e b efor e th e

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expir a tion of that p eriod , th e Pro cl a mation shall ceas e to oper at e at th e expir ation of thir t y d ays fro m th e d at e on whi ch th e Hou s e of th e P eopl e fir st s its af t er it s r e const itution un l ess b efor e t h e expir at ion of th e s a id p eriod o f thirt y d ays a r esolution approving th e Pro cl amation h as b een al so p ass ed b y th e Hous e of th e P eopl e. (3) Du r ing th e p eriod an y su ch Pro c l a mat ion as is me ntion ed in cl au s e (1) is in op er ation , th e ex ecu tive autho rit y of th e Union sh all ext end to th e giving of dir e ction s to an y St at e to obs erv e su ch canons of fin an ci a l propri e t y as ma y b e sp ecifi ed in th e d ir e ctions, an d to th e giving of su ch oth er dir e ctions as th e Pr esid en t ma y d eem n e ce ss ar y and ad eq u at e fo r th e purpose. (4) Not withs t anding an ything in this Const itution (a) an y su ch direction ma y in clud e (i) a provis ion r equiring th e r edu ction of s al ar i es an d al lowa n c es of all or an y class of p erson s serving in conn ec tion with th e aff ai rs o f a S t at e; (ii) a provis ion r equiring al l Mon e y Bil ls o r oth er Bills to whi ch th e provisions of arti cl e 207 ap p l y to b e r e s erv ed for th e consid er ation of th e Pr es iden t aft e r th ey ar e p ass ed b y th e L e g isl a tu r e o f th e S t at e; (b) it sh al l b e co mp et ent for th e Pr esid ent during th e p eriod an y Pro cl amation issu ed und er this art i cl e is in op er at ion to is su e dir ections fo r th e r ed u ctio n o f s a la ri es a n d a llo w an c es o f al l o r an y c l ass o f p ersons s erv ing in conn ection with th e aff air s of th e Union in cluding th e Judg es of the Supr eme Court and th e High Courts .

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PART XIX MISCELLANEOUS


361 . Prot ection of Presid ent and Gov erno rs and Rajp ra mu kh s . (1) Th e Pr esid en t, or th e Gov ernor or Rajpr amukh of a St at e, sh all no t b e a n s w er ab l e to an y co u rt fo r th e e x er cis e an d p erfo r ma n c e o f th e p o w ers an d duti es of hi s o ffi ce or for an y act don e or purport ing to b e done b y hi m in th e ex er cis e and p erfor man ce o f thos e po wers and duti es : Provid ed th at the condu ct of the P r esid ent may b e brought under r evi ew b y an y court , tribun al or bod y appoint ed or d esign at ed b y ei ther Hous e of P arl i a ment for th e inv est igation of a ch arg e under arti cl e 61 : Provid ed furth er th at nothing i n th is cl au se s h all be constru ed as r est ri cting th e right of an y p er son to bring appropri a t e p ro c eed ings ag ains t th e Gov ern ment of Indi a or th e Gov ern ment of a St at e. (2) No cri min al p roceed ings wh atso ev er sh all b e institu t ed or continu ed ag ains t th e Pr esid ent , or th e Gov ernor of a Stat e, in an y court dur ing his t er m o f o f f i c e . (3) No p ro c ess for th e arr es t or i mprison me nt of th e Pr esid en t , or th e Gov ernor of a St at e, sh all i ssu e fro m an y cou rt during his t er m of offi ce. (4) No civil proceedings in wh ich r e li ef is cl aime d ag ains t th e Pr esid en t, or th e Gov erno r of a St at e, sh all b e institu t ed during his t er m of offi ce in an y court in r esp ect of an y act don e or purporting to b e don e by hi m in h is p erson al cap acit y, wh eth er b efor e or aft er h e ent er ed upon his offi ce as Pr esid en t, or as Gov ernor of such S t at e, unt il th e exp ir ation of t wo mo nths n ext aft er notice in wri ting has b e en d el iv ered to th e Pr es id en t or th e Gov ernor , as the cas e may b e, or l eft at his offi ce st ating th e n atur e of th e pro ceedings , the caus e of act ion th er efo r, th e n ame, d escription and pl ace of r esid en ce of t h e p art y b y who m su ch p roceedings ar e to b e inst itut ed a n d th e r eli ef wh i ch h e cl ai ms . 361 A. Prot ection of publi cation o f p ro ceedings of Pa rliamen t and Stat e Legis latures .(1 ) No person sh al l be li ab l e to an y pro ceedings , civi l or cri min al , in an y court in r esp ect of th e publi cation in a n e wsp ap er of a sub st anti all y tru e r eport of an y pro c ee dings of eith er Ho u s e of P arl i ament or th e Legisl ativ e Ass embl y, or , as th e cas e may b e, eith er Hous e of th e Le gis l atur e, of a St at e, un l ess th e publi c ation is prov ed to h av e b e en ma d e w ith ma li c e: Provid ed that nothing in this claus e sh al l appl y to th e publ i c ation of an y r eport of th e pro c eedings of a s e cr et sit ting of ei th er Hous e of P a rli a me nt or th e Legisl at iv e Ass emb l y, or , as th e cas e may b e, eith er Hous e of th e Legisl atur e, of a St at e. 161 165

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(2) Cl au s e (1) sh all appl y in r el at ion to r eports or ma tt ers broad c ast b y mean s of wir el ess t el egr aph y as p art of an y progr amme o r s ervice provid ed b y means of a bro ad c ast ing station as i t appli es in r el a tion to r epor ts or ma t t ers publ ish ed in a n e wsp ap er . Explanation.In this article, newspaper includes a news agency report containing material for publication in a newspaper. 3 6 1 B. Di squali fi ca tion fo r appoint men t on remun erativ e politi ca l p o s t . A member of a Hous e belonging to an y po liti cal part y who is disqu alifi ed for b eing a memb er o f th e Hou se und er p ar agr aph 2 of th e T e n th S ch ed u l e s h all a lso b e d isq u alif i ed to h o ld an y r emu n er ativ e poli ti c al post for dur ation of the p eriod co mme n cing fro m th e d at e o f hi s disqu a lifi c at ion ti ll th e d at e on whi ch th e t er m of his offi ce as su ch me mb er would expir e or t ill th e d a t e on whi ch h e con tests an el ect ion to a H o u s e an d is d ec l ar ed el e ct ed , w h i ch ev er is e arli e r. Explanation .- For th e purpos es of this ar ti cl e, (a ) th e expression Hous e h as th e meaning assign ed to it in cl aus e ( a) of p aragr aph 1 of th e Tenth S ch edul e; (b ) t h e expression r emun er at iv e polit i cal post means an y offi ce (i ) u nd er th e Gov ern ment of Indi a or th e Gov ern ment of a St at e wh er e th e s al ar y or r emuner at ion for such off i ce is p aid out of th e publ i c r ev enu e of th e Gov ern men t of Indi a or th e G o v er n me n t o f t h e S t at e , as t h e c a s e ma y b e; o r (i i ) u nd er a bod y, wh eth er in corpor at ed or no t, whi ch is w holl y o r p artiall y own ed b y th e Gov ern ment o f Indi a or th e G o v ern me n t o f th e S t at e, a n d th e s al a r y o r r emu n er atio n fo r su ch o ffi c e i s p aid b y su ch b o d y, ex cept wh er e such s al ar y or r e mun er at ion p aid is co mp en s ator y in n atur e . 362. [Rights and privileges of Rulers of Indian States.] Rep. by the Constitution (Twentysixth Amendment) Act, 1971, s. 2. 363. Bar to interference by courts in disputes arising out of certain treaties, agreements, etc.(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution but subject to the provisions of article 143, neither the Supreme Court nor any other court shall have jurisdiction in any dispute arising out of any provision of a treaty, agreement, covenant, engagement, sanad or other similar instrument which was entered into or executed before the commencement of this Constitution by any Ruler of an Indian State and to which the Government of the Dominion of India or any of its predecessor Governments was a party and which has or has been continued in operation after such commencement, or in any dispute in respect of any right accruing under or any liability or obligation arising out of any of the provisions of this Constitution relating to any such treaty, agreement, covenant, engagement, sanad or other similar instrument.

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(2) In this article (a) Indian State means any territory recognised before the commencement of this Constitution by His Majesty or the Government of the Dominion of India as being such a State; and (b) Ruler includes the Prince, Chief or other person recognised before such commencement by His Majesty or the Government of the Dominion of India as the Ruler of any Indian State. 363A. Recognition granted to Rulers of Indian States to cease and privy purses to be abolished.Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution or in any law for the time being in force (a) the Prince, Chief or other person who, at any time before the commencement of the Constitution (Twenty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1971, was recognised by the President as the Ruler of an Indian State or any person who, at any time before such commencement, was recognised by the President as the successor of such ruler shall, on and from such commencement, cease to be recognised as such Ruler or the successor of such Ruler; (b) on and from the commencement of the Constitution (Twenty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1971, privy purse is abolished and all rights, liabilities and obligations in respect of privy purse are extinguished and accordingly the Ruler or, as the case may be, the successor of such Ruler, referred to in clause (a) or any other person shall not be paid any sum as privy purse. 364 . Sp ecial provis ions as to ma jo r po rts and a erod romes .(1) Not withs t anding an ything in this Cons titut ion, th e Pr esid en t may b y publi c noti fi cation di rect th at as from s u ch d at e as may b e sp ecif i ed in th e n o ti fi c atio n (a) an y l aw mad e b y P arli ament or b y th e Legis l atur e of a St at e sh al l not appl y to an y ma jor port or aerodrome or sh al l appl y th er eto subj ect to su ch ex ception s or modif i cations as ma y b e s p ecifi ed in th e noti fi c ation , or (b) an y exis ting l aw sh all ceas e t o h av e eff ect in an y major port or aerodro me ex cept as r esp ects things don e or omi tt ed to b e don e b efo r e th e s aid d at e , or shall in its appli cation to su ch por t or aerodro me h av e eff ect subj ect to su ch ex cept ions or modif i cations as may b e specif i ed in th e noti fi c ation . (2) In this ar ti cle (a) major por t mean s a por t d ecl ar ed to b e a maj or po rt b y o r und er an y l aw mad e b y P ar li amen t or an y ex ist ing l aw and in clud es al l ar eas for th e time b eing in cluded within th e limi ts of su ch port; (b) aerodro me mean s aerodrome as d ef in ed for th e purpos es of th e en act ments r el a ting to air w ays , air cr a ft and ai r n avig at ion. 365 . Eff ect of failu re to co mp ly w ith, o r to giv e ef f ect to , di rect ions giv en by th e Union . Wh er e an y S t at e h as f ail ed to co mp l y w ith , o r to

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giv e eff e ct to , an y d ir e ctions giv en in th e ex ercis e of th e ex ecutiv e po wer of th e Union und er an y of th e prov isions o f this Constitu tion, it sh all b e l awful for th e Pr esid en t to hold th at a s itu ation h as aris en in whi ch th e Gov ern me nt of th e St at e cannot b e carri ed on in accord an ce with th e provis ions of this Const itution . 366 . Def initions . In th is Const itution , unl ess th e cont ex t oth er wis e r equir e s, th e follo wing expr essions h av e th e meanings h er eb y r esp ect iv el y assign ed to th em, th at is to s ay (1 ) ag ri cu ltu r al in co me me a n s ag r i cu ltu r al in co me a s d ef in e d fo r th e purpos es of th e en act ments rel at ing to Ind i an in co me -t ax ; (2) an Anglo -Indi an me an s a p erson whos e f ath er or an y of whos e oth er ma l e progenito rs in the ma l e l in e is or was of Eu rop e an d es c en t but who is do mi ci l ed within the t err itor y of Indi a and is or was born within su ch t erri tor y of p ar ents h ab itu all y resid en t th er ein and not est ab lish ed th ere for t e mpor ar y purpos es onl y; (3) art i cl e means an arti cl e of this Const itution; (4) borro w in clud es th e r ais ing of mon ey b y th e gr ant of annuit i es , and lo an sh all b e constru ed accordingl y; * * * * * (5) cl au s e means a cl aus e o f th e ar ti cl e in whi ch th e expression o c cu rs; (6) corpor ation t a x means an y t a x on in co me , s o f ar as th at tax is p a yabl e b y co mp ani es and is a t ax in th e cas e of whi ch th e follo wing condit ions ar e fulf ill ed : (a) th at i t is no t ch arg e abl e in resp ect of agri cultu r al in co me; (b) th at no d eduction in r esp ect of th e t ax p aid b y co mp ani es is, b y an y en act men ts wh i ch ma y appl y to th e t ax , au thor is ed to b e ma d e fro m div idends p a yabl e b y th e co mp an i es to individu als; ( c) th at no provis ion ex ists for t ak ing th e tax so p aid in to account in co mputing for th e purpos es of Indi an in co me -t ax th e tot a l in co me of ind ividu als r eceiving su ch divid end s, or in co mputing th e Indi an in co me-t ax p ayabl e b y, or r efund abl e to , su ch indiv idu als; (7) co rr esponding P rovin ce, corr espond ing Ind i an St ate or corr espond ing St at e mean s in cas es of doubt su ch Provin ce, Indi an St at e o r St at e a s ma y b e d e t er min ed b y th e Pr esid en t to b e th e corr espond ing Provin ce, th e co rr esponding I ndi an St at e o r th e corr espond ing St at e, as th e case may b e, for th e p ar ti cul ar purpos e in qu est ion; (8) d eb t in clud es an y l i abilit y in r esp ect of an y obl ig ation to r ep a y capit al su ms b y way of annuiti es and an y li abi lit y und er an y gu ar ant ee, and d ebt ch arg es sh all b e constru ed accordingl y; (9) e st at e du ty mean s a dut y to b e ass ess ed on or b y r ef er en ce to th e prin cip al v alu e, as cert ain ed i n accord an ce with su ch rul e s as ma y b e

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pr es cr ib ed b y or und er l aws mad e b y P ar li ament or th e Legi sl atur e of a St at e r el ating to th e dut y, of all prop er t y p assing upon d e ath or d eemed , und er th e provisions of th e s aid l a ws , so to p a ss; (10) exist ing law means an y l aw, Ord in ance, ord er , b ye- l aw, rul e or r egul ation p ass ed or made b efor e th e co mme n cement of this Consti tution b y an y Legisl atu re, author it y or p erson h aving po wer to ma k e su ch a l a w, Ord in an c e, o rd e r , b y e-l a w, ru le o r r eg u l atio n ; (11) F ed er al Court means th e F ed er al Cou rt const itut ed under th e G o v er n me n t o f I n d i a A ct , 1 9 3 5 ; (12) goods includ es al l mat eri al s, co mmod ities , and ar ti cl es; (13) gu ar an t e e in clud e s an y oblig a tion und ert ak en b efo re th e co mmen cement of th is Constitution to mak e paymen ts in th e ev ent of th e profi ts of an und ert aking f alling shor t o f a sp ecif i ed amount; (14) High Court mean s any Cour t whi ch i s d eemed for th e purpos es of th is Cons titut ion to be a High Court for an y St at e and in clud es (a) an y Co u rt in th e t erritor y of Indi a constitu t ed or r e const itut ed und er this Const itution as a High Court , and (b) an y o th er C o u rt in th e t erri to r y o f In d i a w h i ch ma y b e d ecl ar ed b y P arli ament b y l aw to b e a High Court for al l or any of th e purpos es of thi s Cons titution; (15) Indi an St at e mean s an y terri tor y whi ch th e Gov ern ment of th e Do minion of Indi a r ecognis ed as su ch a S t at e; (16) P art means a P art of this Constitu tion; (17) p ens ion mean s a p ension, wh eth er contributor y or no t, of an y kind wh atso ev er p a yabl e to or in r esp ect of an y p erson , and in clud es r et ir ed p a y so p a yabl e; a gr atuit y so p a yabl e and an y su m or su ms so p a yabl e b y way of th e r etu rn, with or withou t int er e st th er eo n or an y oth er addit ion th er eto , of subs crip tions to a p rovid ent fund ; (18) Pro cl a ma tion of E me rg en c y me ans a Pro cl a ma tion issu ed und er cl aus e (1) of arti cl e 352; (19) publ i c noti fi c ation means a noti fi c ation in th e Gazette of Indi a, or , as th e cas e may b e, the Offi ci al Gazett e of a St at e; (20) r ai lway do es not in clud e (a) a tr amway wholl y with in a muni cip al ar ea, or (b) an y oth er lin e of co mmun i cation whol l y situ at e in on e S t ate a n d d e cl ar ed b y P arl i a men t b y l aw n o t to b e a r ail w a y; * * * * * (22) Rul er means th e Prin ce, Ch i ef or oth er p erson who , at an y ti me b e for e the co mmen cement of th e Const itution ( Twent y-s ixth A me n d me n t ) A ct , 1 9 7 1 , w as r e co g n i s ed b y t h e P r esi d en t as t h e R u l er o f a n Ind i an St at e o r an y p erson who , at a n y ti me b efor e su ch co mme n cement , was r e cogn is ed b y th e Pr esid ent as th e su ccessor of su ch Rul er;

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(23) S ch edul e mean s a S ch edul e to thi s Consti tution; (24) S ch edul ed Cas t es means su ch cast es , r aces o r trib es or p arts of or group s with in su ch cast es , r aces or tribes as ar e d eemed und er art i cl e 341 to b e S ch edul ed Castes for th e purpos es of this Consti tution; (25) S ch edul ed T r ib es me a ns su ch trib es o r trib al c o mmuni ti es o r p arts of or groups wi thin such t rib es or trib al co mmuni ties as ar e d eemed und er arti cl e 342 to b e S ch edul ed Tr ib es fo r th e purposes of this Consti tution; (26) s ecuri ti es in clud es sto ck; * * * * * (27) sub- cl ause mean s a sub- cl aus e of th e cl aus e in which th e expr ess ion o ccurs; (28) t ax at ion in clud es th e i mposi tion of an y t ax or i mpost , wh eth er g en er al or lo cal or sp eci al, and tax shall b e constru ed according ly; (29) t ax on in co me in clud es a t ax in th e n atur e of an ex cess profi ts t ax; ( 2 9 A) t ax o n t h e s al e o r p u r ch as e o f g o o d s i n clu d es (a) a t ax on th e tr an sf er , oth er wis e th an in pursu an ce of a contr act, of prop ert y in an y goods for cash , def err ed p ayment or oth er v alu ab l e consid er ation; (b) a t ax on th e tr ans f er of p ropert y in goods (wh eth er as goods or in so me other for m) involv ed in th e ex ecution of a wo rks contr act; ( c) a t ax on th e d el iv er y of goods on h ir e-pur ch as e or any s ys tem of p ayment b y inst al ments ; (d) a t ax on th e tr ansf er of th e right to us e any goods for an y purpos e (wh ether o r not for a sp ecif i ed p eriod) for cash , d ef err ed p a yment or oth er v alu abl e consid er at ion; ( e) a t ax on th e suppl y of goods b y any un inco rpor ated asso ci ation or bod y of p ersons to a me mb er th er eo f for ca sh , d ef err ed p a yment or oth er v aluabl e consid er ation; (f) a t ax o n t h e s u p p l y , b y w a y o f o r a s p ar t o f a n y s er v i c e o r i n an y oth er manner wh atso ev er , of goods , b eing food or an y oth er art i cl e fo r human consu mpt ion or an y drink (wh e th er or not intox i cating) , wh er e su ch supply or s ervi ce, is fo r cash , d ef err ed p a yment or oth er v alu abl e consid er at ion; and su ch tr ansfer , d eliv er y or suppl y of an y goods sh all b e deemed to b e a s a l e of thos e goods b y th e p erson ma king th e tr ansf er , d eliv er y o r suppl y and a pur ch as e of those goods b y th e p erson to whom s u ch tr ans f er, d el iv ery or suppl y is mad e; (30) " Union t erri tor y" means an y Union t erri tor y sp ecifi ed in th e Fir st S ch edu l e and in clud es any oth er t erri tory co mp r is ed within th e t err itor y of India but not sp ecified in th at S ch edul e.

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367 . In t e rp retation . (1) Unless th e cont ext oth er wis e r equir es , th e G e n er al C l au s es A c t , 1 8 9 7 , s h all , s u b j e ct t o an y a d ap t at io n s an d mo difi cat ions th at ma y b e ma d e th er ein und er art i cl e 372 , appl y for th e int e rpr et ation of this Cons titution as it appli es for th e int erpr et at ion o f an Act of th e Leg isl atu r e of th e Domi nion of Indi a. (2) An y r ef er ence in th is Consti tution to Acts or l aws of , or mad e b y, P arl i ament , or to Acts o r l aws of , or mad e b y, th e Leg isl atur e of a St at e, sh al l b e construed as in cluding a r ef e r en ce to an Ordin an ce ma d e b y th e Pr esid en t o r, to an O rdin an ce mad e b y a Gov ernor , as th e cas e may b e. (3) For th e purpos es of th is Const itution for eign St at e means an y St at e oth er th an Indi a: Provid ed th at, subj ect to th e p rovis ions of an y l aw mad e b y P arl i ament , th e Pr esid en t ma y b y ord e r d e cl ar e an y St at e not to b e a for e ign St at e for su ch purpos es as ma y b e sp eci fied in th e ord er .

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PART XX AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION


368 . Po w er of Pa rlia me n t to a men d th e Co nsti tution and pro c edu re t h e r ef o r . (1) Not withs t anding an ything in this Cons titut ion, P arl i amen t may i n ex er cise of i ts constitu ent po wer amen d b y way of addi tion, v ari ation or repeal an y provision of this Consti tution in accord an ce with th e pro c edur e l aid do wn in this art i cl e. (2) An amend ment of thi s Const itution may b e init i at ed only b y th e int rodu ction of a Bill fo r th e purpos e in ei th er Hous e of P arliamen t , an d wh en th e Bi ll is p ass ed in each Hous e b y a ma jor it y of th e tot al me mb er ship of th at Hous e and by a ma j o rit y of not l ess th an t wo-th irds of th e memb ers of th at Hous e pr es ent and voting , it sh al l b e pr esent ed to th e Pr esid en t who sh all g iv e his ass en t to the Bill an d ther eupon th e Consti tution sh all s t and amend ed in accord an ce with th e t er ms of th e Bill : Provid ed th a t i f su ch a me nd ment s e eks to mak e an y ch ang e in (a) arti cl e 54 , art i cl e 55 , art i cle 73, ar ti cl e 162 or arti cl e 241 , or (b) Ch apt er IV of P art V , Ch apt er V of P art VI , or Ch apt er I of P art XI , o r ( c) an y of th e List s in th e S eventh S ch edul e, or (d) th e r epr es en t at ion o f S tat es in P arli a me nt , or ( e) th e p rovisions of this art i cl e , th e amend ment sh al l also r equir e to b e r atifi ed b y th e Legi sl atur es of not l ess th an on e-half of th e St ates b y r esolutions to th at ef f ect p a ss ed b y thos e Legisl atures b efor e th e Bill ma king p rovision for su ch amen d men t i s p r es en t ed to th e Pr esid en t fo r ass en t . (3) Nothing in art i cl e 13 sh all appl y to an y amend ment mad e und er thi s a rt i cl e. 1 [(4 ) No amendmen t of this Const itution (in cluding th e provis ions o f P art III) mad e or purpo rting to h av e b e en made und er this arti cl e wh eth er b efor e o r aft er th e co mmen cement o f s ection 55 of th e Const itution (Fort ys econd Amend ment) Act, 1976 sh al l b e call ed in qu estion in an y cou rt on any ground. (5) Fo r th e r emo v al of doubts, i t is h er eb y decl ar ed th at th er e sh all b e no li mit ation wh at ev er on th e const itu ent po wer o f P arl i ament to amend b y way o f ad d ition , v a ri ation or r ep e al th e provis ions o f this Constitu tion und er this ar ti cle.]

1. Cls. (4) and (5) were ins. in article 368 by s. 55 of the Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976. This section has been declared invalid by the Supreme Court in Minerva Mills Ltd. and Others Vs. Union of India and Others (1980 ) 2 S.C.C. 591.

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PART XXI TEMPORARY, TRANSITIONAL AND SPECIAL PROVISIONS


369 . Tempo ra ry pow er to Parlia men t to ma ke l aw s w ith resp ect to certain ma tt ers in th e Stat e Lis t as if th ey w ere ma tt ers in th e C on cu rrent List . Notwithst anding an ything in this Const itution , P arl i a ment sh al l, du ring a p eriod of fiv e year s fro m th e co mme n cement of thi s Const itution , h av e power to mak e l a ws with r esp ect to the follo wing mat t ers as if th ey wer e enu mer ated in th e Concurr ent Lis t, n amel y: (a) tr ad e and co mmer ce within a S t at e in , and th e produ ction , suppl y and d istribu tion of, cotton and wooll en t exti l es, r aw cotton (including ginn ed cotton and unginn ed cotton or kapas) , cotton s e ed, p ap e r (in c luding n e wsprin t), food-stuffs (in cluding edibl e oils eeds and oi l) , c a tt l e fo d d er (in c lu d in g o il-c a k es an d o th e r co n c en tr a t es) , co al (in cluding cok e and d eriv ativ es of co al) , iron , steel and mi ca; (b) off en ces ag ain st l aws with r esp ect to an y of the mat t er s men tion ed in claus e ( a ), jurisdiction and powers of all cour ts ex cept th e Supr eme Court with r esp ect to an y of thos e ma tt ers, and f e es in r esp ect of an y of thos e mat t ers but not in clud ing fees tak en in an y court ; but an y l aw mad e b y P arli ament , whi ch P arli amen t would not bu t for th e provis ions o f this art i cl e h av e been co mp et en t to mak e, sh all , to th e ex t ent of th e in co mp et en cy, ceas e to hav e eff e ct on th e expi r ation of th e s aid p eriod , ex cept as r e sp ec ts things don e o r o mitt ed to b e don e b efor e th e expir a tion th er eo f .
1 370 . Temp o rary p rovis ions w ith resp ect to th e S tat e of Ja mmu and K a s h mi r . (1) Not withs t anding an ything in this Constitu tion , (a) th e provis ions of arti cl e 238 sh all not appl y in r el at ion to th e S t at e o f J a mmu a n d K as h mir ; (b) th e power of P ar li a men t to mak e l a ws for th e s aid S t at e shall be li mi t ed to (i) thos e matt ers in th e Union List and th e Con curr ent List whi ch , in consult ation with th e Gov ern ment o f th e St at e, ar e d ecl ar ed b y th e Pr esid en t to corr espond to matt ers sp ecifi ed in th e Inst ru men t of Accession gov erning th e accession of th e St at e to th e Do minion of Indi a as th e ma t t ers wi th resp ect to whi ch th e Do minion Legisl atu r e may mak e l aws for th at Stat e; and (i i) su ch oth e r mat t ers in th e said Li sts as , wi th th e con curr ence of th e Gov ern me nt of th e St at e, th e Pr esid ent ma y b y o rd er sp ecif y.

________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. In exercise of the powers conferred by this article the President, on the recommendation of the Constituent Assembly of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, declared that, as from the 17th day of November, 1952, the said art. 370 shall be operative with the modification that for the Explanation in cl. (1) thereof, the following Explanation is substituted, namely:Explanation For the purposes of this article, the Government of the State means the person for the time being recognised by the President on the recommendation of the Legislative Assembly of the State as the *Sadar-I Riyasat of Jammu and Kashmir, acting on the advice of the Council of Ministers of the State for the time being in office.. (Ministry of Law Order No. C.O. 44, dated the 15th November, 1952). *Now Governor.

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Explanation . F or th e purpos es o f this art i cl e, th e Gov ern ment of th e S t at e me ans th e p erson for th e ti me b e ing r e cognis ed b y the Pr esid en t as th e M ah ar aj a of J ammu an d K ashmi r acting on th e adv i ce of th e Coun cil of Minist ers for the t i me b eing in offi ce und er th e Mah ar aj a s Pro cl amation d at ed th e fif th d ay of Mar ch , 1948; ( c) th e prov isions of art i cl e 1 an d of this art i cl e sh all appl y in r el ation to th at St at e; (d) su ch of th e oth er prov isions of th is Constitut ion sh all appl y in r el a tion to th at St at e sub j ect to su ch ex ceptions and modi fi cations as th e Pr esid en t ma y by ord er sp ecif y: P ro v id ed th at n o su ch o rd er wh i ch re l at es to th e ma t t er s sp e cifi ed in th e Inst ru men t of Accession of the S t at e r ef er r ed t o in p a r agr aph ( i) of subc l au s e (b) sh al l b e issu ed ex cept in consul t ation with th e Gov ern ment of th e St at e: Provid ed furth er th at no su ch ord er wh i ch r e lat es to ma tt ers oth er th an thos e r ef err ed to in th e l ast preceding proviso s h all b e issu ed ex cep t with th e con curr en c e of th at Gov ernme n t . (2) If th e con curr en ce of th e Gov ern me nt of t h e St at e r ef err ed to in p ar agr aph ( ii) of sub- cl aus e ( b) of cl au s e (1) or in th e s e cond proviso to su b - cl au s e (d) o f th a t cl au s e b e g iv en b efo r e th e C o n sti tu en t Ass e mb l y fo r th e purpo se of fr aming th e Const itution o f th e St ate is conv en ed , it sh all b e pl aced b efore su ch As s emb ly for su ch d ecision as it may t ak e th er eon . (3) No t with st anding an yth ing in th e for ego ing provis ions of this ar ti cl e, th e Pr es id en t ma y, b y publi c noti fi c ation , d e cl ar e th at this art i cl e sh all ceas e to b e op er at iv e or sh all b e op er ativ e onl y with su ch exception s and mo difi cat ions and fro m su ch d at e as h e may specif y: Provid ed th at th e r e co mmen d ation of th e Const itu ent Ass e mbl y o f th e S t at e r ef err ed to in cl au se (2 ) sh al l b e n e c ess ar y b efo r e th e P r esid en t is sues such a noti fi c ation . 371 . Sp ecial p rovis ion w ith re sp ect to th e Stat es of Maha rasht ra and G u j a ra t . * * * * * (2) Not withs tanding an ything in this Consti tution , th e Pr esid ent may b y ord er mad e with r esp ect to th e St at e of Mah ar ashtr a or Guj ar a t, provid e for an y sp eci al r esponsib ilit y of th e Governor for (a) th e est ab lish me n t o f s ep ar at e d ev e lo p men t b o ard s fo r Vid arb h a , M a r at h w ad a, a n d t h e r es t o f M a h ar as h t ra o r , as t h e c as e ma y b e , S aur asht r a, Kutch and th e r est of Guj ar at with th e prov ision th at a r eport on th e working of each of th es e bo ard s will b e p l aced each year b efor e th e St at e L egisl at iv e Assemb l y; (b) th e equi t able allo cation of funds for d ev e lop ment al ex p enditu r e ov er th e s aid areas , subj ect to th e r equir e me nts of th e S t at e as a who l e; and

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( c) an equit able ar rang ement provid ing ad equ at e f a cilit i es fo r t e chni cal edu c ation and vo cation al tr aining , and ad equ at e opportun iti es for emp lo yment i n s ervi ces under th e contro l of th e St ate Govern ment , in r esp ect o f all th e s aid ar eas , subj ect to th e requir e me nts of th e St at e a s a who l e. 371 A. Sp ecial p rovis ion w ith resp ect to th e Stat e o f Nagaland . (1) Not withs t anding an ything in this Constitu tion , (a) n o Ac t o f P ar l i a men t i n r es p e c t o f (i) r eligious or so ci al pr acti ces of th e Nag as, (i i) N ag a cu s t o ma r y l a w an d p r o c ed u r e , (i ii) ad mini str ation of civ il and cr i min al just i ce involv ing d e cis io n s a c co r d i n g t o N ag a cu s t o ma r y l a w , (i v) o wn ership an d tr an sf er of l and and its r esour ces , sh al l appl y to th e S t at e o f Nagal and unl ess th e Leg isl ativ e Ass e mbl y of N a g al and b y a re solu tion so d e cid es ; (b) th e Gov ernor o f Nag al and sh all h av e sp eci al r esponsibi lit y with r esp ect to l a w and ord er in th e St at e of Nag al and for so long as in his opinion int ern al di sturb an ces o ccurring in th e Nag a Hil ls- Tu ensang Ar ea i mmed i at el y b efor e th e for mation of th at S tat e continu e th er ein or in an y p a rt th er eo f and in th e di s ch arg e of his function s in r el ation th er eto th e Gov ernor sh all , aft er consult ing th e Council of Minist ers, ex er cis e his ind ividu al judg ment as to th e action to b e tak en: Provid ed th at if an y qu est ion aris es wh eth er an y ma tt er is or i s not a ma t t er as r e spects wh i ch th e Go v ernor i s und er thi s sub- cl au s e r equir ed to act in th e ex er cis e of his indiv idu al judg ment , the d ecision o f the Gov ernor in h is d is cr et io n sh al l b e fin al , an d th e v al id it y o f an yth in g d o n e b y th e Gov ernor sh all not b e call ed in qu estion on th e ground th at h e ought or ought not to h ave act ed in th e ex er cis e of his individu al judg ment: Provid ed fur th er th at i f th e Presid en t on r eceipt of a r eport fro m th e Gov ernor or oth er wis e i s s atisfi ed th at it is no long er n ecess ar y for th e Gov ernor to h ave sp eci a l r esponsib ilit y with r esp ect to l aw and ord er in th e St at e of Nag al and , h e ma y b y ord er dir e ct th at th e Gov ernor shall ceas e to h av e su ch r esponsib ilit y with eff e ct fro m su ch d at e as may b e sp ecif i ed in th e ord er; ( c) in mak ing his r e co mmend ation wi th r esp ect to an y d e mand for a gr ant , th e Gov ernor of Nag al and sh all ensur e th at an y mo n ey provid ed b y th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a out of th e Conso lid at ed Fund of Indi a for an y sp ecifi c s ervi ce o r purpos e i s in clud ed in th e d e ma nd fo r a g r ant r el a ting to th at s ervi ce or purpos e and not in any oth er d e mand ; (d) as fro m su ch d at e as th e Gov ernor of Nagal and may b y publi c noti fi c ation in this b eh alf sp ecif y , th er e sh all b e es t ablish ed a r eg ion al coun cil for th e Tu ens ang d istrict consist ing of thirt y-fiv e me mb ers and th e Gov ernor shall in hi s di s cr etion ma k e rul es provid ing fo r

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(i) th e co mp o sition o f th e r egion al coun ci l an d th e mann er in whi ch th e members of th e r egion al coun cil sh all b e chos en: Provided that the Deputy Commissioner of the Tuensang district shall be the Chairman ex officio of the regional council and the Vice-Chairman of the regional council shall be elected by the members thereof from amongst themselves; (ii) the qualifications for being chosen as, and for being, members of the regional council; (iii) the term of office of, and the salaries and allowances, if any, to be paid to members of, the regional council; (iv) the procedure and conduct of business of the regional council; (v) the appointment of officers and staff of the regional council and their conditions of services; and (vi) any other matter in respect of which it is necessary to make rules for the constitution and proper functioning of the regional council. (2) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, for a period of ten years from the date of the formation of the State of Nagaland or for such further period as the Governor may, on the recommendation of the regional council, by public notification specify in this behalf, (a) the administration of the Tuensang district shall be carried on by the Governor; (b) where any money is provided by the Government of India to the Government of Nagaland to meet the requirements of the State of Nagaland as a whole, the Governor shall in his discretion arrange for an equitable allocation of that money between the Tuensang district and the rest of the State; (c) no Act of the Legislature of Nagaland shall apply to Tuensang district unless the Governor, on the recommendation of the regional council, by public notification so directs and the Governor in giving such direction with respect to any such Act may direct that the Act shall in its application to the Tuensang district or any part thereof have effect subject to such exceptions or modifications as the Governor may specify on the recommendation of the regional council: Provided that any direction given under this sub-clause may be given so as to have retrospective effect; (d) the Governor may make regulations for the peace, progress and good government of the Tuensang district and any regulations so made may repeal or amend with retrospective effect, if necessary, any Act of Parliament or any other law which is for the time being applicable to that district; (e) (i) one of the members representing the Tuensang district in the Legislative Assembly of Nagaland shall be appointed Minister for Tuensang affairs by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister and the Chief Minister in tendering his advice shall act on the recommendation of the majority of the members as aforesaid; (i i) th e Minis ter for Tu ens ang aff airs sh al l d eal w ith, and h av e dir ect access to th e Go v ernor on , al l ma tt er s r el a ting to th e Tu en s ang dis tri ct but h e sh all k e ep th e Chi ef Minis t er infor med about th e s a me ; (f) not wi thst anding an ything in th e for egoing provision s of this cl aus e , th e f in al d ecision on all ma t t ers r el at ing t o th e Tu ens ang d istri ct sh al l b e ma d e by th e Go v e rnor in his dis cr e tion;

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(g ) in ar ti cl es 5 4 an d 5 5 an d c la u s e (4 ) o f art ic l e 8 0 , r ef er en ce s to th e el ect ed memb ers of th e Legis l ativ e Ass embl y of a St at e or to each su ch me mb er sha ll in clud e r ef ere n c es to th e me mb e rs o r me mb e r of th e Legisl ativ e Assemb l y o f Nag al and el ect ed by th e r eg ion al council est ab lish ed under this ar ti cl e; (h) i n art i cl e 1 7 0 (i) cl aus e (1) sh al l, in r el at ion to th e Legisl at iv e Ass embl y of Nag al and , h av e eff ect as if for th e word sixt y, th e word fort ysix h ad b e en subst itut ed; (i i) in th e s a id cl au s e, th e r ef er en c e to dir ect el ection fro m t err itori al constitu en ci es in th e St at e sh all in clud e el ection by th e me mb er s o f the r egion al coun ci l est abl ish ed under this ar ti cl e; (i ii) in cl au s es (2) and (3) , r ef er en c es to terri tori al c o n st itu en ci es sh all me a n r ef e re n c es to t errito ri a l co n st itu en ci es in th e Kohi ma and Mokok chung d istr i cts . (3) If an y dif fi cul t y ar is es in giving eff e ct to an y of th e for egoing provis ions of thi s arti cl e, the Pr es id ent may b y o rd er do an yth ing (in c lu d in g an y a d ap t atio n o r mo d ifi c atio n o f an y o th er art i cl e) wh i ch app e ars to hi m to b e n ecess ar y for th e purpos e of r e moving th at diff i cult y: Provid ed th at no su ch ord er shall b e ma d e after th e expir at ion of thr e e years fro m th e dat e of th e for mation of th e St at e of Nag al and. E xp lanation ..In th is ar ti cl e, th e Kohi ma, Mokok chung and Tu ens ang dis tri cts sh all hav e th e s ame meanings as in th e St at e of Nag al and Act, 1962. 3 7 1 B . Sp ecial p rovi sion w ith resp ect to th e S tat e of Assa m. Not withs t anding an yth ing in this Cons titut ion, th e Pr es id en t may, b y ord er mad e wi th r espect to th e St at e of Ass am, provid e for th e const itution and fun ct ions o f a co mmi tt ee o f th e Leg isl ativ e Ass e mb l y of th e St at e consis ting of memb er s of that Ass e mbl y elect ed fro m th e tr ib al ar eas sp ecif i ed in P art I of th e t able app end ed to p ar agr ap h 20 of th e Sixth S ch edul e and su ch nu mb er o f oth er me mb ers of th at Ass e mbly as ma y b e sp ecif i ed in th e ord er and for th e mod ifi cations to b e mad e in th e rul es of pro c edur e of that Ass e mbl y for th e co n stitut ion an d prop er fun ction ing of su ch co mmi tt e e . 371 C. Sp ecial p rovis ion w ith resp ect to t he Sta t e of Manipu r. (1) Not withs t anding an yth ing in this Cons titut ion, th e Pr es id en t may, b y ord er mad e with r esp ec t to th e St at e of Manipur , provid e fo r th e consti tution an d fun ct ions of a co mmi tt ee of th e Leg isl ativ e Ass e mbl y of th e St at e consis ting of memb ers of th at Ass embl y el ect ed fro m th e Hi ll Ar eas of th at St at e, for th e mo difi cat ions to b e mad e in th e rul es of busin ess of th e Gov ern me nt and in th e rul es of pro c edur e of th e Legisl at iv e Ass e mbl y of th e St at e and for an y sp eci al r espons ibili t y of th e Go v ernor in ord e r to s ecur e th e prop er fun ction ing o f su ch co mmit t ee.

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(2) The Governor shall annually, or whenever so required by the President, make a report to the President regarding the administration of the Hill Areas in the State of Manipur and the executive power of the Union shall extend to the giving of directions to the State as to the administration of the said areas. Explanation.In this article, the expression Hill Areas means such areas as the President may, by order, declare to be Hill areas. 371D. Special provisions with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh.(1) The President may by order made with respect to the State of Andhra Pradesh provide, having regard to the requirements of the State as a whole, for equitable opportunities and facilities for the people belonging to different parts of the State, in the matter of public employment and in the matter of education, and different provisions may be made for various parts of the State. (2) An order made under clause (1) may, in particular, (a) require the State Government to organise any class or classes of posts in a civil service of, or any class or classes of civil posts under, the State into different local cadres for different parts of the State and allot in accordance with such principles and procedure as may be specified in the order the persons holding such posts to the local cadres so organised; (b) specify any part or parts of the State which shall be regarded as the local area (i) for direct recruitment to posts in any local cadre (whether organised in pursuance of an order under this article or constituted otherwise) under the State Government; (ii) for direct recruitment to posts in any cadre under any local authority within the State; and (iii) for the purposes of admission to any University within the State or to any other educational institution which is subject to the control of the State Government; (c) specify the extent to which, the manner in which and the conditions subject to which, preference or reservation shall be given or made (i) in the matter of direct recruitment to posts in any such cadre referred to in sub-clause (b) as may be specified in this behalf in the order; (ii) in the matter of admission to any such University or other educational institution referred to in sub-clause (b) as may be specified in this behalf in the order, to or in f avour of candid at es who h av e r esid ed o r stud i ed for an y p e riod sp ecif i ed in th e ord er in th e lo cal ar ea in r espect of su ch cadr e, Un iv ersit y or oth er ed u c ation al ins titution , as th e cas e may b e. (3) The Pr esident may, b y ord er , prov id e for th e const itution o f an Ad ministr a tiv e Tribun al for the St at e of Andhr a Pr ad esh to ex er cis e su ch jur isdi ction , powers and au thori t y [in clud ing an y ju risdi ct ion, po wer and author it y whi ch i mme d i at el y b efor e the co mme n cement of th e Consti tution ( Th i r t y-s e co n d A me n d me n t ) A ct , 1 9 7 3 , w as ex er cis ab l e b y an y c o u r t ( o t h er th an th e Supr eme Cour t) o r by an y tribun al or oth er authorit y] as ma y b e sp ecif i ed in th e ord er with r esp ec t to th e follo wing matt ers , n a me l y:

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(a) appoin t men t, allot ment or pro motion to su ch cl ass o r cl asses of post s in an y civil s ervi ce of th e St ate, or to su ch cl as s or cl ass es of civil post s und er th e St at e, or to su ch cl as s or class es o f posts und er th e contro l of an y lo cal au thorit y within th e St at e, as may b e sp ec if i ed in th e ord er; (b) s eniorit y of p er sons appoint ed , allott ed or pro mot ed to su ch cl ass or cl ass es of pos ts in any civil s ervi ce of th e S t at e, or to su ch cl ass or cl as ses of civil pos ts und er th e St at e, or to su ch cl ass or cl ass es of posts und er th e control of any lo cal author ity within th e St at e, as may b e sp ecifi ed in th e ord er; ( c) su ch oth er condit ions of s ervi ce o f p ersons appoint ed , allott ed or pro mot ed to such cl ass or cl ass es of po sts in an y civil s ervi ce of th e St at e or to su ch cl ass or cl ass es of civil posts und er th e St at e or to su ch cl ass or class es of posts und er th e control o f an y lo cal author it y within th e St at e, as may b e sp ecifi ed in th e ord er . ( 4 ) An o r d er ma d e u n d er cl au s e ( 3 ) ma y (a) au thoris e th e Ad mini str ativ e Tribun al to r e ce iv e r epr es en t ations for th e r edr es s of g ri ev an c es rel at ing to an y ma t t er within i ts jurisdi ct ion as th e Presid en t may sp ecif y in th e ord er and to mak e su ch ord ers th er eon as th e Ad ministrativ e Tribun al d eems fi t; (b) cont ain su ch prov isions with r esp ect to th e po wers and author iti es and pro c edur e of the Ad minist r ative Tribun al (in cluding provis ions with r esp ect to th e po wers of th e Ad mi nis tr ativ e Tribun al to punish for cont empt of it s elf) as th e Pr esid en t ma y d eem n ecess ar y; ( c) prov id e for th e tr ansf er to th e Ad minis tr ativ e Tribunal of su ch cl ass es of pro c eedings , b eing pro ceedings r e l ating to ma tt ers within its jurisdi ct ion an d p end ing b efo r e an y court (oth er th an t h e Supr eme Cour t) o r tr ibun al or oth er authori t y i mme d i at el y b efor e th e co mme n cement of su ch ord er , as ma y b e sp ec if i ed in th e order; (d) cont ain su ch suppl ement al , in cid ent al and cons equenti al provis ions (in cluding provis ions as to f e es an d as to li mit at ion , evid en ce or for th e app li cation of an y l aw fo r th e ti me b eing in for ce subj ect to an y ex ceptions or modifi cat ions) as th e Pr es id ent ma y d e e m n e c es s ar y . 1 (5) Th e Ord er of th e Ad minis tr at iv e Tr ibun al fin a ll y disposing of an y cas e sh all b e co me eff ectiv e upon its confir ma tion b y th e St at e Go v ern me nt or on th e expir y of thr ee months fro m th e d at e on whi ch th e ord er is mad e , w h i ch ev er is e arli e r: Provid ed th a t th e St at e Gov ern me nt ma y, b y sp e ci al ord er ma d e in writ ing and fo r r e asons to b e sp ecif i ed th er ein, mod if y or annul an y ord er of th e Ad ministr at iv e Tr ibunal b efor e it b e co me s eff e ct iv e and in su ch a cas e, th e o rder of th e Ad ministr a tiv e Tribun al sh all h av e effect onl y in s u ch mo d i f i ed f o r m o r b e o f n o e f f e ct , as t h e c as e ma y b e .

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1. In P. Sambamurthy and others vs. State of Andhara Pradesh and other (1987) 1SCC, p. 362, the Supreme Court declared clause (5) of art. 371D along with the proviso to be unconstitutional and void.

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(6) Ev er y sp ecial ord er mad e by t h e St at e Govern ment und er th e prov iso to cl aus e (5) shall b e l aid , as soon as ma y b e aft er it i s ma de, b efor e both Hous es of th e Stat e Legisl atur e. (7) Th e High Court for the St at e sh all not h av e an y po wers of sup erin t en d en c e over th e Ad minis tr ativ e Tribun al and no court (oth er th an th e Supr eme Court) or tribun al shall ex er cis e an y ju risdi ct ion , po wer or author it y in r esp ect of an y ma tt er subj ect to th e ju risdi ct ion, po wer or author it y of, or in r el ation to, the Ad min istr at ive Tribun al . (8) If th e Pr esid en t i s s atisf ied th at th e continu ed ex i st ence of th e Ad ministr a tiv e Tribun al is not n ecess ar y, th e Pr esid en t ma y b y ord e r aboli sh th e Ad mi nis tr ativ e Tribun al an d ma ke su ch prov isions in su ch ord er as h e ma y d eem fi t fo r th e tr an sf er and dispos al of cas es p ending b efor e th e Tribun al i mmed i at el y b efor e su ch aboli tion . (9) Not withst anding an y judg ment , d ecr ee or ord er of an y court , tribun al or oth er authorit y, (a) no appoint ment , posting , pro motion or tr ansf er of an y p erson (i) mad e b efor e th e 1st d ay of Nov emb er , 1956 , to an y post und er th e Gov ern ment o f, or any lo cal au thority wi thin , th e Stat e of H y d er ab ad as it e x is t ed b efo re th at d at e; o r (i i) ma d e b efor e t h e co mme n c emen t of th e Const itution ( Thirt ys econd Amend ment) Act , 1973, to an y post und er th e Gov ernmen t of , or an y lo cal or oth er authori t y wi thin , the St at e of Andhr a P r ad esh ; an d (b) no action t ak en or thing don e b y or b efor e an y p er son r ef err ed to in sub- cl au s e (a) , sh al l b e d e e med to b e ill eg al o r v o id o r e v er to h av e b e co me il le g al o r v o id me r e l y on th e ground th at th e appoint me nt , posting , pro motion or tr ansf er of su ch p erson was no t mad e in acco rdan ce with an y l aw, then in for ce, provid ing for an y r equ ir emen t as to r e sid en ce with in th e St at e of Hyd er ab ad or , as th e cas e may b e, with in an y p art of th e St ate o f Andhra Pr ad esh , in r espect of su ch appoint ment , posting, p ro mo tion or tr ansf er . (10) Th e provis ions of thi s art i cl e and of an y ord er made b y th e P r esid en t th er eu n d er sh al l h av e eff e ct n o tw ith s t an d in g an yth in g in an y oth er provision of this Const itution or in an y oth er l aw for th e t i me being in for ce. 371 E. Estab lish men t o f Central Univ ersity in Andh ra Prad esh . P arl i a ment ma y b y l a w provid e for th e est ab lishmen t of a Un iv ersi t y in th e S t at e o f An d h r a P r ad esh . 371 F. Sp ecia l p rovis ions w ith resp ect to th e Stat e of Si kki m. Not withs t anding an ything in this Constitu tion , (a) th e Legis lativ e Ass e mb l y of th e St at e of Sikki m sh all consis t o f not l ess th an th irt y memb ers;

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(b) as fro m th e d at e of co mmen cement of th e Consti tution ( Thir t ysix th Amend ment) Act , 1975 (h er eaft er in this art i cl e r ef err ed to as th e a p p o i n t ed d ay) (i) th e Ass embly for Sikki m for med as a r esu lt of th e el ections h eld in Sikk i m in Ap r il , 1974 with thirt y- two me mb er s el ect ed in th e s a id el ections (h er ein aft er r ef err ed to as th e si tting memb ers) sh al l b e d eemed to b e th e Legis l ativ e Ass e mbl y of th e St ate of Sikki m dul y const itut ed und er this Const itution; (i i) th e si tting memb er s sh all b e d eemed to be th e memb ers of th e Legisl at iv e Ass e mbl y o f th e S t at e o f Sikkim d ul y el ect ed und er thi s Cons titution; and (i ii) th e s aid Legis l ativ e As s embl y of th e S tat e of S ikki m sh al l ex er cis e th e powers and p erform t h e fun ction s of th e Legi sl ativ e Ass embl y of a St at e und er thi s Consti tution; ( c) in th e case of th e Ass emb l y d eemed to b e th e Legisl at iv e A ss e mb l y o f th e S t at e o f S ik k im u n d er cl au s e (b) , th e r ef e r en c e s to th e p erio d o f fiv e ye a rs , in c l au s e (1 ) o f arti cl e 1 7 2 sh a ll b e co n stru ed a s r ef er en c es to a p eriod of four years and th e said p er iod o f four years sh al l b e d eemed to co mme n ce fro m th e appo int ed d a y; (d) unt il oth er provi sions ar e ma d e b y P arliame n t b y l a w, th er e sh al l b e allot t ed to th e St at e of Sikk i m on e s e at in th e Hous e of th e P eopl e and the St at e of Sikki m sh al l for m on e p a rliame n t ar y const itu en cy to b e call ed th e p arl i ament ar y const itu en cy for Sikki m; ( e) th e r epr es ent at iv e of th e St at e of Sikki m in th e Hous e of th e P eopl e in ex ist en ce on th e appoint ed d a y sh all b e el ect ed b y th e me mb er s o f the Legisl ativ e As semb l y of th e St at e of Sikki m; (f) P arli a me nt ma y, f or th e purpos e o f prot ec ting th e righ ts and int e r ests of th e diff er en t s e ct ions of th e popul at ion of Sikki m ma k e provis ion for th e nu mb er of seats in th e Legis l ativ e Ass e mb l y o f th e St at e of Sikki m whi ch ma y b e f ill ed b y candid at e s b elonging to su ch s e ct ions an d for th e d eli mit at ion of th e as s emb l y constitu en ci es fro m whi ch cand idates b e longing to such s e ctions alon e ma y st and for el ect ion to th e Legisl ativ e As semb l y of th e St at e of Sikki m; (g) the Governor of Sikkim shall have special responsibility for peace and for an equitable arrangement for ensuring the social and economic advancement of different sections of the population of Sikkim and in the discharge of his special responsibility under this clause, the Governor of Sikkim shall, subject to such directions as the President may, from time to time, deem fit to issue, act in his discretion; (h) all property and assets (whether within or outside the territories comprised in the State of Sikkim) which immediately before the appointed day were vested in the Government of Sikkim or in any other authority or in any person for the purposes of the Government of Sikkim shall, as from the appointed day, vest in the Government of the State of Sikkim;

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(i) the High Court functioning as such immediately before the appointed day in the territories comprised in the State of Sikkim shall, on and from the appointed day, be deemed to be the High Court for the State of Sikkim; (j) all courts of civil, criminal and revenue jurisdiction, all authorities and all officers, judicial, executive and ministerial, throughout the territory of the State of Sikkim shall continue on and from the appointed day to exercise their respective functions subject to the provisions of this Constitution; (k) all laws in force immediately before the appointed day in the territories comprised in the State of Sikkim or any part thereof shall continue to be in force therein until amended or repealed by a competent Legislature or other competent authority; (l) for the purpose of facilitating the application of any such law as is referred to in clause (k) in relation to the administration of the State of Sikkim and for the purpose of bringing the provisions of any such law into accord with the provisions of this Constitution, the President may, within two years from the appointed day, by order, make such adaptations and modifications of the law, whether by way of repeal or amendment, as may be necessary or expedient, and thereupon, every such law shall have effect subject to the adaptations and modifications so made, and any such adaptation or modification shall not be questioned in any court of law; (m) neither the Supreme Court nor any other court shall have jurisdiction in respect of any dispute or other matter arising out of any treaty, agreement, engagement or other similar instrument relating to Sikkim which was entered into or executed before the appointed day and to which the Government of India or any of its predecessor Governments was a party, but nothing in this clause shall be construed to derogate from the provisions of article 143; (n) the President may, by public notification, extend with such restrictions or modifications as he thinks fit to the State of Sikkim any enactment which is in force in a State in India at the date of the notification; (o) if any difficulty arises in giving effect to any of the foregoing provisions of this article, the President may, by order, do anything (including any adaptation or modification of any other article) which appears to him to be necessary for the purpose of removing that difficulty: Provid ed th at no su ch ord er shall b e ma d e after th e expir y of two years fro m th e appoint ed d a y; (p) all things done and all actions taken in or in relation to the State of Sikkim or the territories comprised therein during the period commencing on the appointed day and ending immediately before the date on which the Constitution (Thirty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1975, receives the assent of the President shall, in so far as they are in conformity with the provisions of this Constitution as amended by the Constitution (Thirty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1975, be deemed for all purposes to have been validly done or taken under this Constitution as so amended. 371G. Special provision with respect to the State of Mizoram.Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, (a) no Act of Parliament in respect of (i) religious or social practices of the Mizos, (ii) Mizo customary law and procedure,

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(iii) administration of civil and criminal justice involving decisions according to Mizo customary law, (iv) ownership and transfer of land, shall apply to the State of Mizoram unless the Legislative Assembly of the State of Mizoram by a resolution so decides : Provided that nothing in this clause shall apply to any Central Act in force in the Union territory of Mizoram immediately before the commencement of the Constitution (Fifty-third Amendment) Act, 1986; (b) th e Legi sl ativ e Ass e mbl y of th e St at e of Mi zor a m sh all consis t of not l ess th an fort y me mb ers . 371H. Special provision with respect to the State of Arunachal Pradesh. Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, (a) the Governor of Arunachal Pradesh shall have special responsibility with respect to law and order in the State of Arunachal Pradesh and in the discharge of his functions in relation thereto, the Governor shall, after consulting the Council of Ministers, exercise his individual judgment as to the action to be taken: Provided that if any question arises whether any matter is or is not a matter as respects which the Governor is under this clause required to act in the exercise of his individual judgment, the decision of the Governor in his discretion shall be final, and the validity of anything done by the Governor shall not be called in question on the ground that he ought or ought not to have acted in the exercise of his individual judgment: Provided further that if the President on receipt of a report from the Governor or otherwise is satisfied that it is no longer necessary for the Governor to have special responsibility with respect to law and order in the State of Arunachal Pradesh, he may by order direct that the Governor shall cease to have such responsibility with effect from such date as may be specified in the order; (b) th e Legis l ativ e Ass e mbl y of th e St at e of Arun ach al Pr ad esh sh al l consis t o f no t l ess th an thi rt y me mb ers . 371-I . Sp ecial p rov ision w ith resp e ct to t h e Stat e of Goa . Not withs t anding an ything in this Constitu tion , th e Leg isl ativ e Ass e mbl y of th e St at e of Go a sh all consi st of not l ess th an thir t y me mb ers . 372 . Continuance in fo rce of exist ing law s and th ei r adaptation . (1) Not withs t anding th e r ep e al b y this Consti tution of th e en act ments r ef err ed to in art i cl e 395 but subj ect to th e oth er provis ions of thi s Consti tution , all th e l a w in for ce in th e t erri tor y of India i mmed i at el y b e for e th e co mmen cement of this Const itution sh all continu e in for ce th er ein until alt er ed o r rep eal ed or amended b y a co mpet ent Legis l atur e or oth er co mp et ent authori t y. (2) For th e purpos e of brining th e p rovisions of an y l a w in force in th e t err itor y of Ind ia into accord with th e provis ions of this Constitu tion , th e Pr esid en t ma y b y ord er mak e su ch ad ap t ations and modif i cations of su ch l a w , wh eth er b y w a y o f r ep e al o r a men d me n t , as ma y b e n e c e s s ar y o r e xp edi ent , and provid e th at the l a w sh all , as f ro m su ch d ate a s ma y b e sp ecif i ed in th e ord er, h ave eff e ct subj ec t to th e ad ap t at ions an d

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mo difi cat ions so ma d e , and any su ch ad apt a tion or modif i cation sh all not b e q u estio n ed in a n y co u rt o f l aw . (3) Nothing in cl aus e (2) sh al l be d eemed (a) to empo wer th e Pr esid en t to mak e an y ad ap tation or mo d ifi ca tion of an y l aw aft er th e expir ation of thr ee years fro m th e co mmen cemen t of thi s Cons titution; or (b) to pr ev en t a n y co mp et ent L egis l atur e or oth er comp e t ent author it y fro m r ep e al ing or amending an y l a w ad apt ed or modif i ed b y th e Pr esid en t und er th e s aid cl au s e . Explanation I. Th e ex p r ession l aw in force in this arti cl e sh all in clud e a l aw p ass ed or mad e b y a Legis l atur e or oth er co mp et ent au thorit y in th e t errito ry of Indi a b efor e th e co mmen cement of this Consti tution and not p r ev iousl y r ep e al ed , not wi thst an d ing th at it o r p arts of it ma y n o t b e th en in op er ation eith er at all or in p arti cul a r are a s . Explanation II . An y l aw p ass ed or mad e by a Legi sl atur e or oth er co mp et en t au thori t y in th e t errito r y of Indi a wh i ch i mme di at ely b efor e th e co mmen cement of this Cons titution h ad extr a- terri tori al eff ect as well as e ff e ct in th e t erri to r y o f In d i a sh al l, su b j e ct to an y su ch ad ap t at io n s an d mo difi cat ions as afor es aid , contiu e to h av e su ch extr a- t erritor i al eff ect . Explanation III . Noth ing in th is arti cl e sh al l b e constru ed as continu ing an y t e mpor ar y l aw in fo r ce b eyond th e d at e fix ed for it s expir a tion or the d at e on wh i ch it would h av e expir ed i f this Consti tution h ad no t co me into for ce. Explanation I V. An Ordin an ce pro mulg at ed b y th e Governor of a Provin ce und er s ect ion 88 of th e Gov ern ment of Ind i a Act, 1935 , and in for ce i mmed i atel y b efor e th e co mmen cement of thi s Cons titution sh all , unl ess wi thdr awn b y th e Gov ernor of th e corr esponding St at e earl i er, ceas e to op er at e at the expi r ation of six w eek s fro m th e first meet ing af t er su ch co mme n cement of th e Legis l ativ e Ass e mbl y of th at S t at e fun ctioning und er cl aus e (1) of arti cl e 382 , and nothing in th is art i cl e sh all b e constru ed as continu ing an y su ch Ordin an ce in for c e b e yond th e s aid p eriod . 372 A. Pow er of th e Presid ent to adapt law s.(1) For th e purpos es of bring ing th e provis ions o f an y law in fo r ce in Indi a or in an y part th er eof , i mmed i at el y b efor e th e co mmen cemen t of th e Con stitu tion (S ev enth Amend ment ) Act , 1956 , into accord with th e provi sions of th is Consti tution as amen d ed b y th at Act , th e Presid en t may b y ord er mad e b efor e the first d ay of Nov emb er , 1957, mak e su ch ad aptation s and mo difi cat ions of th e l aw, wh eth er b y way of rep eal o r amendmen t , as may b e n ecess ar y or exp edi ent , and provid e th at th e l a w sh all , as fro m su ch d at e as ma y be sp ecif i ed in th e ord er , hav e eff e ct subj ect to th e ad apt at ions and mod ifi cations so mad e, and an y su ch ad apt at ion or mo difi cat ion shall not b e qu estion ed in an y court of l aw. (2) No thing in cl au s e (1 ) shall b e d eemed to pr ev en t a co mp et en t Legisl atur e or oth er co mp et en t autho rit y fro m r ep ealing or amen ding an y l aw ad apt ed or mo difi ed b y th e Pr esid en t und er th e s aid cl aus e.

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373 . Pow er of Presid ent to ma ke o rd er in resp ect of p ersons und er p r ev entiv e d ete ntion in c e rtain c as es . Un ti l provis ion is ma d e b y P arl i ament under cl aus e (7) of ar ti cl e 22 , o r unt il th e expiration of on e year f ro m th e co mmen cement of this Const itution , whi ch ev er i s earli er, th e s aid ar ti cl e sh all h av e eff ec t as if fo r an y r ef er en c e to P arl i a men t in c l au s es (4 ) an d (7 ) th er eo f th er e w er e su b sti tu t ed a r ef er en c e to th e Pr esid en t and for an y r ef er en ce t o an y l aw mad e b y P arli ament in thos e cl au s es th er e wer e substitu t ed a r e f er en c e to an ord er mad e b y the P r esid en t. 374 . Provis ions a s to Judg es of th e Fed eral Cou rt and p ro ceedings p en d in g in th e F e d e ra l Co u r t o r b efo r e His M a j esty in Co u n cil .(1) Th e Judg es of th e F ed er al Court hold ing offi ce i mmed i at el y b efor e th e co mmen cement of th is Consti tution sh all , unl ess th ey h av e el ect ed oth er wis e, b ecome o n su ch commen cemen t the Judg es of the Supr eme Court an d sh all th er eupon b e en ti tl ed to su ch s al ar i es an d al lo wan c es and to su ch righ ts in r esp ect of l e av e of ab s en ce an d p ension as ar e provid ed for und er arti cl e 125 in r esp ect of th e Judg es of th e Supr eme Court . (2) All suit s, app e als and pro c ee dings , civil or cri min al , p ending in th e F ed er al Court at th e co mmencemen t of this Constitu tion sh al l s t and r e mov ed to the Sup re me C ourt , and th e Supr e me C ourt s h all h av e jur isdi ction to hear an d d et er min e th e s a me, and th e judg ments and ord ers of th e F ed er al Court d eliv er ed or mad e b efo r e th e co mmen cemen t of this C o n sti tu tio n sh a ll h av e th e s ame f o r c e an d e ff e ct as i f th ey h ad b e en d eliv er ed or mad e b y th e Sup r eme C our t. (3) Nothing in this Consti tution s h all op er at e to inv alid at e th e ex er cis e of jurisdi c tion b y His Maj est y in Coun ci l to dispos e o f app e als and p eti tions fro m, or in r esp ect of , an y judg men t, d ecr ee or ord er of an y cou rt within th e t er ritor y of Indi a in so f a r as th e exer cis e of su ch jurisd i ction is a u th o r is ed b y la w , a n d an y o rd er o f His M aj est y in Co u n ci l ma d e o n an y su ch app eal or p eti tion af t er the co mmen cemen t of this Cons titut ion sh all for all purpos es h av e eff ect as if it wer e an ord er or decr ee mad e b y th e Supr eme Co u rt in th e ex er cis e of th e jurisdi c tion conf err ed on su ch Co u rt b y this Const itution . (4) On and from t h e co mmen cemen t of this Const itution th e jurisd i ction of th e au thorit y fun c tioning as th e Priv y Coun cil in a St at e sp ecif i ed in P art B of th e Fir st S ch edul e to ent ert ain and d ispos e of app eals and p eti tions fro m or in r esp ect of an y judg ment , decr ee or ord er of an y court w ith in th at St ate sh al l c e as e, an d all ap p e a ls an d o th er p ro c e ed in g s p en d in g b efor e th e s a id au thorit y at such co mme n cement sh all b e tr ansf err ed to , and dispos ed of b y, th e Sup r eme Court . (5 ) Fu rth er p ro v is io n ma y b e ma d e b y P a rli ame n t b y l a w to g iv e e ff e ct to th e provis ions of this art i cl e . 375 . Cou rts , autho rit i es and offi cers to con tinu e to fun ct ion subj ect to th e p rovisions of th e Co nstitu tion . All courts of civ il , cri min al and r ev enu e jurisdi ction , all au thoriti es and al l officers , judi ci al , ex ecutiv e and

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mi nis t eri al , throughout th e t erri tor y of Indi a, s h all con tinu e t o ex er ci s e th ei r r esp ectiv e fun ct ions subj ect to th e provis ions of this Constitu tion . 376 . Prov isions as to Judg es of High Cou rts .(1) No twithst and ing an ything in cl aus e (2 ) of arti cl e 217 , th e Judg es of a High Court in an y Provin ce ho lding offi ce i mmedi at el y b efor e th e co mmen cemen t of thi s Consti tution shall , unl ess th ey h av e el ect ed oth er wis e, b e come on su ch co mme n cement th e Judg es of th e High Court in th e corr esponding St at e, and sh all th er eupon b e en ti tl ed to su ch s a l ari es and allo wan c es and to su ch righ ts in r e sp ect of l eav e of absen ce and p ension as ar e provid ed for und er art i cl e 221 in resp ect o f th e Judg es of su ch High Court . Any su ch Judg e sh al l, no twithstanding th at h e is no t a citi zen of Ind i a, b e elig ibl e for appoint ment as Chi ef Just i ce of su ch High Court , or as Chief Just i ce o r oth er Judg e of an y oth er High Court . (2) Th e Judg es of a High Court in an y Indi an St at e corr espond ing to an y St at e sp ecifi ed in P art B of th e Firs t S ch edu le holding off i ce imme d i at el y b efor e th e co mmen cemen t o f thi s Cons titut ion sh all , unl ess th ey h av e el ect ed oth er wis e, b eco me on su ch co mmen cemen t th e Judg es of th e High Court in th e St at e so sp ecifi ed an d sh al l, not with st anding an ything in cl aus es (1) and (2) of arti cl e 217 but subj ect to th e proviso to cl aus e (1) of th at art i cl e , continu e to hold offi ce unt il th e expir a tion of such p eriod as th e Pr esid en t ma y b y o rd er d e t er min e . (3) In thi s articl e , th e expr ession Judg e does not in clude an acting Judg e or an add ition al Judg e. 377 . Provisions as to Co mpt roll er and Audito r- Gen eral of Ind ia. Th e Auditor- Ge n er al of Ind ia holding off ice i mme d i at el y b efor e th e co mmen cement of this Consti tution sh al l, unl ess h e h as el ect ed oth er wis e, b e co me o n su ch co mme n c e me n t th e Co mp tro ll e r an d Au d ito r- G en er al o f Indi a an d sh all th er eupon b e en ti tl ed to su ch s al ar i es an d to such rights in r esp ect of l eav e of abs en ce and p ension as ar e provid ed for und er cl aus e (3) of ar ti cl e 148 in r esp ect of th e Co mptrol ler and Auditor -Gen er al of Indi a and b e enti tl ed to continu e to hold offi ce un til th e expir at ion of his t er m of offi ce as d e t er min ed und er th e provis ions whi ch were appli c ab l e to h i m i mme d i at ely b efo r e su ch co mme n c e me n t . 378 . Provision s as to Publi c Servi ce Co mmi s sion s.(1 ) Th e me mb e rs of th e Pub li c S ervi ce Co mmi ssion for th e Do minion of Indi a holding offi ce i mmed i at el y b efor e th e co mmen cement of this Const itution sh all , un l ess th ey h av e el ected oth er wis e, beco me on su ch co mme n cement th e memb ers of th e Publi c S ervi c e Co mmi ssion for th e Un ion and sh al l, notwiths t anding an ything in cl aus es (1) and (2) of arti cl e 316 but subj ect to the prov iso to cl aus e (2) of that art icl e, cont inu e to hold offi ce unti l th e expir a tion of th ei r t er m o f o ffi c e as d et er min ed u n d er th e ru l es wh i ch w ere a p p li c ab l e i mme d i at el y b efo r e su ch co mme n c e me n t to su ch me mb e rs . (2) Th e Memb ers o f a Pub li c S ervi ce Co mmiss ion of a Prov ince or of a Publi c S ervi ce Co mmi ssion s erving th e n e eds of a group of Prov in ces holding o ffi ce imme d i at el y b efor e th e co mme n cemen t of thi s Consti tution

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sh al l, unl ess they h av e el ect ed o th er wis e, b eco me on su ch commen cemen t th e me mb ers of th e Publi c S erv ice Co mmi ssion for th e corr esponding St at e or th e me mb ers o f th e Joint Stat e Publi c S ervice Co mmi ssion s e rving th e n eeds o f th e corr espond ing St at es, as th e cas e may b e, and sh all , not with st anding an ything in cl aus es (1) and (2) of art i cl e 316 but subj ect to th e p roviso to cl au s e (2 ) of th at arti cl e, continu e to ho ld offi ce until th e expir a tion of th eir t er m of o ffi ce as d et er min ed und er th e rul es whi ch w e r e ap p li c ab l e i mme d i at el y b efo r e su ch co mme n c e me n t to su ch me mb e rs . 378 A. Sp ecial provis ion as to du ration of Andh ra Prad esh Legis lativ e A s s e mb l y . Notwiths t anding an ything cont ain ed in ar ti cl e 172, th e Legisl ativ e As semb l y of th e Stat e of Andh ra Pr ad esh as constitut ed und er th e provis ions of s ections 28 and 29 of th e St at es Reorg anis at ion Act , 1956 , sh al l, unless soon er di ssolv ed , cont inu e fo r a p er iod of fiv e years fro m th e d a t e ref err ed to in th e s aid s e ction 29 an d no long er and th e expir a tion of th e said p eriod s h all op er at e as a di ssolution of th at Legisl ativ e As semb l y. 379 .391 . Rep . b y th e Consti tution (S eventh Amendmen t ) Act, 1956 , s . 29 and S ch . 392 . Pow er of th e Presid ent to re mo v e diffi cult i es.(1 ) Th e Pr esid en t ma y, f or th e purpos e of r e mov ing an y di ffi culti es , p ar ti cul arl y in r el ation to th e tr ansi tion fro m t h e provisions of th e Govern me nt of India Act , 1935 , to th e provis ions of this Consti tution , b y ord er dir e ct th at this Consti tution sh al l, during su ch period as may b e sp ecified in th e ord er, h av e eff e ct subj ect to su ch ad ap t ations , wh eth er b y way of mo d ifi cation, ad d ition or o mission , as h e ma y d e e m to b e n e c ess ar y or exp edi ent : Pro v id ed th at n o su ch o rd er sh all b e ma d e aft er th e firs t me e tin g o f P arl i ament dul y consti tut ed under Ch apt er II of P art V. (2 ) Ev er y o rd er ma d e u n d e r cl au s e (1 ) sh all b e la id b efo r e P arlia me n t . (3) The po wers conf err ed on the P r esid ent b y this arti cl e, b y art i cl e 324 , b y cl au s e (3 ) o f a rti cl e 3 6 7 an d b y a rtic l e 3 9 1 sh all , b efo r e th e co mmen cement of this Constitu tion , b e ex er cis ab l e b y the Gov ernorG e n er al o f t h e D o min i o n o f I n d i a .

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PART XXII SHORT TITLE, COMMENCEMENT, AUTHORITATIVE TEXT IN HINDI AND REPEALS
393 . Sho rt tit le. This Constitut ion may be call ed th e Consti tution of India. 3 9 4 . Co mme n c e me n t. Th i s art i c l e an d art i cl es 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 6 0 , 3 2 4 , 3 6 6 , 3 6 7 , 3 7 9 , 3 8 0 , 3 8 8 , 3 9 1 , 3 9 2 an d 3 9 3 s h a l l co me i n t o f o r c e at o n c e, and th e r e maining provis ions of thi s Cons titut ion sh all co me into for c e on th e t w en t y- sixth d a y of J anu ar y, 1950 , wh i ch d a y is r ef er red to in th is Consti tution as th e co mmen cement of this Consti tution . 394 A. Autho ritativ e t ext in th e Hindi languag e .(1 ) Th e P r esid en t sh al l caus e to be publish ed under his author it y, (a) th e tr an sl ation of this Constitu tion in th e Hindi l angu ag e, sign ed b y th e memb ers of th e Consti tu ent As s embl y, with su ch modifi cation s as ma y b e n eces s ary to bring i t in confor mit y with th e l angu ag e, st yl e and t er mino logy adopt ed in th e au thor it ativ e t exts of Centr al Acts in th e Hindi l angu ag e, and in co rpor ating th er ein al l th e amend men t s of this Consti tution ma d e b efor e su ch publi cation; an d (b) th e tr an sl ation in th e Hindi l angu ag e of ev er y amend ment of this Consti tution mad e in th e Eng lish l angu ag e. (2) Th e tr ansl ation of this Consti tution and of ev er y amend ment th er eof publi sh ed und er cl aus e (1) shall b e cons tru ed to h av e th e s a me mean ing as th e origin al th ereof and i f an y diff i cult y aris es in so cons truing an y p art o f su ch tr ans l ation, th e P r esid ent sh all caus e th e same t o b e r evi s ed suit ab l y. (3) Th e tr ansl ation of this Consti tution and of ev er y amend ment th er eof publi sh ed und er this arti cl e sh all b e d eemed to b e, for all purpos es , th e author it ativ e t ext th er eof in th e Hindi l angu ag e. 3 9 5 . R ep ea l s . Th e Ind i an Ind ep end en ce Act , 1947 , and th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a Act , 1935 , tog ether wi th all en act ments amending or suppl ementing th e l a tt er Act , but not in cluding th e Abol ition of Pr iv y C o u n cil J u r is d i ct i o n A ct , 1 9 4 9 , a r e h er eb y r ep ea l ed .

184

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FIRST SCHEDULE [Articles 1 and 4]


I . T H E S TA T ES

Name 1. Andhra Pradesh

Territories The territories specified in sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Andhra State Act, 1953, sub-section (1) of section 3 of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the First Schedule to the Andhra Pradesh and Madras (Alteration of Boundaries) Act, 1959, and the Schedule to the Andhra Pradesh and Mysore (Transfer of Territory) Act, 1968, but excluding the territories specified in the Second Schedule to the Andhra Pradesh and Madras (Alteration of Boundaries) Act, 1959. The territories which immediately before the commencement of this Constitution were comprised in the Province of Assam, the Khasi States and the Assam Tribal Areas, but excluding the territories specified in the Schedule to the Assam (Alteration of Boundaries) Act, 1951 and the territories specified in sub-section (1) of section 3 of the State of Nagaland Act, 1962 and the territories specified in sections 5, 6 and 7 of the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971. The territories which immediately before the commencement of this Constitution were either comprised in the Province of Bihar or were being administered as if they formed part of that Province and the territories specified in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Bihar and Uttar Pradesh (Alteration of Boundaries) Act, 1968, but excluding the territories specified in sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Bihar and West Bengal (Transfer of Territories) Act, 1956, and the territories specified in clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 3 of the first mentioned Act and the territories specified in section 3 of the Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000. The territories referred to in sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Bombay Reorganisation Act, 1960. The territories specified in sub-section (1) of section 5 of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956. The territories specified in sub-section (1) of section 9 of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 and the First Schedule to the Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh (Transfer of Territories) Act, 1959 but excluding the territories specified in section 3 of the Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000. 185

2. Assam

3. Bihar

4. Gujarat 5. Kerala 6. Madhya Pradesh

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7. Tamil Nadu

8. Maharashtra

9. Karnataka

10. Orissa

11. Punjab

12. Rajasthan

13. Uttar Pradesh

The territories which immediately before the commencement of this Constitution were either comprised in the Province of Madras or were being administered as if they formed part of that Province and the territories specified in section 4 of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, and the Second Schedule to the Andhra Pradesh and Madras (Alteration of Boundaries) Act, 1959, but excluding the territories specified in sub-section (1) of section 3 and sub-section (1) of section 4 of the Andhra State Act, 1953 and the territories specified in clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 5, section 6 and clause (d) of sub-section (1) of section 7 of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 and the territories specified in the First Schedule to the Andhra Pradesh and Madras (Alteration of Boundaries) Act, 1959. The territories specified in sub-section (1) of section 8 of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, but excluding the territories referred to in sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Bombay Reorganisation Act, 1960. The territories specified in sub-section (1) of section 7 of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 but excluding the territory specified in the Schedule to the Andhra Pradesh and Mysore (Transfer of Territory) Act, 1968. The territories which immediately before the commencement of this Constitution were either comprised in the Province of Orissa or were being administered as if they formed part of that Province. The territories specified in section 11 of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 and the territories referred to in Part II of the First Schedule to the Acquired Territories (Merger) Act, 1960 but excluding the territories referred to in Part II of the First Schedule to the Constitution (Ninth Amendment) Act, 1960 and the territories specified in subsection (1) of section 3, section 4 and sub-section (1) section 5 of the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966. The territories specified in section 10 of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956 but excluding the territories specified in the First Schedule to the Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh (Transfer of Territories) Act, 1959. The territories which immediately before the commencement of this Constitution were either comprised in the Province known as the United Provinces or were being administered as if they formed part of that Province, the territories specified in clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Bihar and Uttar Pradesh (Alteration of Boundaries) Act, 1968, and the territories specified in clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 4 of the Haryana and Uttar Pradesh (Alteration

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14. West Bengal

15. Jammu and Kashmir

16. Nagaland 17. Haryana

18. Himachal Pradesh

19. Manipur

20.Tripura

21. Meghalaya 22. Sikkim

of Boundaries) Act, 1979, but excluding the territories specified in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Bihar and Uttar Pradesh (Alteration of Boundaries) Act, 1968, and the territories specified in section 3 of the Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000 and the territories specified in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 4 of the Haryana and Uttar Pradesh (Alteration of Boundaries) Act, 1979. The territories which immediately before the commencement of this Constitution were either comprised in the Province of West Bengal or were being administered as if they formed part of that Province and the territory of Chandernagore as defined in clause (c) of section 2 of the Chandernagore (Merger) Act, 1954 and also the territories specified in subsection (1) of section 3 of the Bihar and West Bengal (Transfer of Territories) Act, 1956. The territory which immediately before the commencement of this Constitution was comprised in the Indian State of Jammu and Kashmir. The territories specified in sub-section (1) of section 3 of the State of Nagaland Act, 1962. The territories specified in sub-section (1) of section 3 of the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966 and the territories specified in clause (a) of sub-section (1) of section 4 of the Haryana and Uttar Pradesh (Alteration of Boundaries) Act, 1979, but excluding the territories specified in clause (v) of subsection (1) of section 4 of that Act. The territories which immediately before the commencement of this Constitution were being administered as if they were Chief Commissioners Provinces under the names of Himachal Pradesh and Bilaspur and the territories specified in sub-section (1) of section 5 of the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966. The territory which immediately before the commencement of this Constitution was being administered as if it were a Chief Commissioners Province under the name of Manipur. The territory which immediately before the commencement of this Constitution was being administered as if it were a Chief Commissioners Province under the name of Tripura. The territories specified in section 5 of the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971. The territories which immediately before the commencement of the Constitution (Thirty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1975, were comprised in Sikkim.

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23. Mizoram 24. Arunachal Pradesh 25. Goa 26. Chhattisgarh 27. Uttaranchal 28. Jharkhand

The territories specified in section 6 of the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971. The territories specified in section 7 of the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971. The territories specified in section 3 of the Goa, Daman and Diu Reorganisation Act, 1987. The territories specified in section 3 of the Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000. The territories specified in section 3 of the Uttar Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2000. The territories specified in section 3 of the Bihar Reorganisation Act, 2000. I I . TH E UN I O N T E R RI T O RI ES Extent The territory which immediately before the commencement of this Constitution was comprised in the Chief Commissioners Province of Delhi. * * * * * * The territory which immediately before the commencement of this Constitution was comprised in the Chief Commissioners Province of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The territory specified in section 6 of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956. The territory which immediately before the eleventh day of August 1961 was comprised in Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The territories specified in section 4 of the Goa, Daman and Diu Reorganisation Act, 1987. The territories which immediately before the sixteenth day of August, 1962, were comprised in the French Establishments in India known as Pondicherry, Karikal, Mahe and Yanam. The territories specified in section 4 of the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966.

Name 1. Delhi

* * 2.The Andaman and Nicobar Islands

* *

3. Lakshadweep 4. Dadra and Nagar Haveli 5. Daman and Diu 6. Pondicherry

7. Chandigarh

* *

* *

* *

* *

* *

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SECOND SCHEDULE
[ Ar t i c l es 5 9 ( 3 ) , 6 5 ( 3 ) , 7 5 ( 6 ) , 9 7 , 1 2 5 , 1 4 8 ( 3 ) , 1 5 8 ( 3 ) , 1 6 4 ( 5 ) , 1 8 6 an d 2 2 1 ] PART A PROVISIONS AS TO THE PRESIDENT AND THE GOVERNORS OF STATES 1. There shall be paid to the President and to the Governors of the States the following emoluments per mensem, that is to say: The President .. 10,000 rupees*. The Governor of a State .. 5,500 rupees**. 2. There shall also be paid to the President and to the Governors of the States such allowances as were payable respectively to the Governor-General of the Dominion of India and to the Governors of the corresponding Provinces immediately before the commencement of this Constitution. 3. The President and the Governors of the States throughout their respective terms of office shall be entitled to the same privileges to which the Governor-General and the Governors of the corresponding Provinces were respectively entitled immediately before the commencement of this Constitution. 4. While the Vice-President or any other person is discharging the functions of, or is acting as, President, or any person is discharging the functions of the Governor, he shall be entitled to the same emoluments, allowances and privileges as the President or the Governor whose functions he discharges or for whom he acts, as the case may be. * * * PART C PROVISIONS AS TO THE SPEAKER AND THE DEPUTY SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF THE PEOPLE AND THE CHAIRMAN AND THE DEPUTY CHAIRMAN OF THE COUNCIL OF STATES AND THE SPEAKER AND THE DEPUTY SPEAKER OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY AND THE CHAIRMAN AND THE DEPUTY CHAIRMAN OF THE LEGISLAT IVE COUNCIL OF A STATE 7. There shall be paid to the Speaker of the House of the People and the Chairman of the Council of States such salaries and allowances as were payable to the Speaker of the Constituent Assembly of the Dominion of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, and there shall be paid to the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People and to the Deputy Chairman of the Council of States such salaries and allowances as were payable to the Deputy Speaker of the Constituent Assembly of the Dominion of India immediately before such commencement. 8. There shall be paid to the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and to the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council of a State such salaries and allowances as were payable respectively to the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the President and the Deputy President of the Legislative
________________________________________________________________________________________________

* Now 50,000 rupees, vide Act 25 of 1998, s. 2 (w.e.f. 1.1.1996). ** Now 36,000 rupees, vide Act 27 of 1998, s. 2 (w.e.f. 1.1.1996)

189

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

Council of the corresponding Province immediately before the commencement of this Constitution and, where the corresponding Province had no Legislative Council immediately before such commencement, there shall be paid to the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council of the State such salaries and allowances as the Governor of the State may determine. PART D PROVISIONS
AS TO THE

JUDGES

OF THE SUPREME COURTS

COURT

AND OF THE

HIGH

9. (1) There shall be paid to the Judges of the Supreme Court, in respect of time spent on actual service, salary at the following rates per mensem, that is to say: T h e Ch i ef J u s t i ce .. 1 0 ,0 0 0 r u p e es* . A n y o t h er J u d g e .. 9 ,0 0 0 r u p e es* * : Provided that if a Judge of the Supreme Court at the time of his appointment is in receipt of a pension (other than a disability or wound pension) in respect of any previous service under the Government of India or any of its predecessor Governments or under the Government of a State or any of its predecessor Governments, his salary in respect of service in the Supreme Court shall be reduced (a) b y th e amount of th at p ension , and (b) i f h e h as , befor e su ch appo int ment , r eceiv ed in l i eu of a port ion of the p ension du e to hi m in r esp ect of su ch pr eviou s servi ce th e co mmu t ed v alu e th er eof , b y th e amoun t of th at portion of th e p ension , and ( c) i f h e h as, b efor e su ch appoint ment , receiv ed a r et iremen t gr atu it y in r espect of su ch pr evious s erv i c e, by th e p ension equiv al en t of th at gr atu it y . (2) Every Judge of the Supreme Court shall be entitled without payment of rent to the use of an official residence. (3) Nothing in sub-paragraph (2) of this paragraph shall apply to a Judge who, immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, (a) was holding offi ce as th e Chi ef Jus ti ce of th e F ed er al Court and h as b e co me on su ch co mme n cemen t th e Chi ef Just i c e o f th e Supr eme C o u r t u n d er cl au s e ( 1 ) o f art i cle 3 7 4 , o r (b) was holding o ffi ce as an y oth er Judg e of the F ed eral Court and h as on su ch co mme n cement b e co me a Judge (oth er th an th e Chi ef Jus ti ce) of th e Supr eme Cou rt und er th e s aid claus e, during the period he holds office as such Chief Justice or other Judge, and every Judge who so becomes the Chief Justice or other Judge of the Supreme Court shall, in respect of time spent on actual service as such Chief Justice or other Judge, as the case may be, be entitled to receive in addition to the salary specified in sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph as special pay an amount equivalent to the difference between the salary so specified and the salary which he was drawing immediately before such commencement.

__________________________________________________________
*Now 33.000 rupees, vide Act 18 of 1998, s. 7 (w.e.f. 1-1-1996) ** Now 30.000 rupees, vide s. 7, ibid (w.e.f. 1-1-1996).

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

(4) Every Judge of the Supreme Court shall receive such reasonable allowances to reimburse him for expenses incurred in travelling on duty within the territory of India and shall be afforded such reasonable facilities in connection with travelling as the President may from time to time prescribe. (5) The rights in respect of leave of absence (including leave allowances) and pension of the Judges of the Supreme Court shall be governed by the provisions which, immediately before the commencement of this Constitution, were applicable to the Judges of the Federal Court. 10. (1) There shall be paid to the Judges of High Courts, in respect of time spent on actual service, salary at the following rates per mensem, that is to say, T h e Ch i ef J u s t i ce .. 9 ,0 0 0 r u p e es* . A n y o t h er J u d g e .. 8 ,0 0 0 r u p e es* * : Provided that if a Judge of a High Court at the time of his appointment is in receipt of a pension (other than a disability or wound pension) in respect of any previous service under the Government of India or any of its predecessor Governments or under the Government of a State or any of its predecessor Governments, his salary in respect of service in the High Court shall be reduced (a ) b y th e amo unt of th at pension , and (b ) if h e h as , b e for e su ch appoint me nt , r e ce iv ed in li eu of a po rtion of th e p ension du e to hi m in r esp ect of su ch pr evious servi ce th e co mmu t ed v alu e t h er eof , b y th e amo unt of th at por tion of th e p ension , and ( c) if h e h as , b efor e such appoin t men t, r eceiv ed a reti r e ment gr atu it y in r espe c t o f su ch pr evious s ervi c e , b y t he p ension equiv al en t of th at gr atuit y. (2) Every person who immediately before the commencement of this Constitution (a) was holding o ffi ce as th e Chi ef Just ice of a High Court in an y Provin c e and has on su ch co mme n c e me n t b eco me th e Ch i ef Jus ti c e o f th e High Cour t in th e co rr esponding S t at e und er cl au s e (1) of ar ti cl e 376 , o r (b) was ho lding offi ce as an y oth er Judg e of a High Court in an y Provin ce and h as on su ch co mm en cement b eco me a Judg e (oth er th an th e Chi ef Justi c e) of th e High Court in th e corr esponding St at e und er th e s aid cl au s e , shall, if he was immediately before such commencement drawing a salary at a rate higher than that specified in sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph, be entitled to receive in respect of time spent on actual service as such Chief Justice or other Judge, as the case may be, in addition to the salary specified in the said sub-paragraph as special pay an amount equivalent to the difference between the salary so specified and the salary which he was drawing immediately before such commencement.

____________________________________________________________
* Now 30,000 rupees, vide Act 18 of 1988, s. 4 (w.e.f. 1.1.1996) ** Now 26,000 rupees, vide s. 4, ibid. (w.e.f. 1.1.1996)

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(3) Any person who, immediately before the commencement of the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act, 1956, was holding office as the Chief Justice of the High Court of a State specified in Part B of the First Schedule and has on such commencement become the Chief Justice of the High Court of a State specified in the said Schedule as amended by the said Act, shall, if he was immediately before such commencement drawing any amount as allowance in addition to his salary, be entitled to receive in respect of time spent on actual service as such Chief Justice, the same amount as allowance in addition to the salary specified in subparagraph (1) of this paragraph. 11. In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, (a) th e expr es sion Chi ef Just ice i nclud es an act ing Chi ef Just i c e, a n d a Ju d g e in clu d es an a d h o c Judg e; (b) a ctu al s er v i c e i n clu d es (i) t i me sp ent b y a Judg e on dut y as a Judg e or in the p erfor man ce o f su ch oth er fun c tions as h e ma y at th e r equ est of th e Pr esid en t und ertak e to dis ch arg e; (ii) v a cations , ex cluding an y ti me during wh i ch th e Judg e is a b s en t o n l e av e; a n d (iii) join ing t ime on tr ansf er fro m a High Court to th e Supr eme Court or fro m on e High Cour t to anoth er .

PART E PROVISIONS AS TO THE COMPTROLLER AND A U D I T O R -G E N E R A L O F I N D I A


12. (1) There shall be paid to the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India a salary at the rate of *four thousand rupees per mensem. (2) The person who was holding office immediately before the commencement of this Constitution as Auditor-General of India and has become on such commencement the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India under artcle 377 shall in addition to the salary specified in sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph be entitled to receive as special pay an amount equivalent to the difference between the salary so specified and the salary which he was drawing as Auditor-General of India immediately before such commencement. (3) The rights in respect of leave of absence and pension and the other conditions of service of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India shall be governed or shall continue to be governed, as the case may be, by the provisions which were applicable to the AuditorGeneral of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution and all references in those provisions to the Governor-General shall be construed as references to the President.

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

* The Comptroller and Auditor-General of India shall be paid a salary equal to the salary of the Judges of the Supreme Court vide s. 3 of Act 56 of 1971. The salary of Judges of the Supreme Court has been raised to Rs. 30,000 per mensem by Act 18 of 1998, s. 7 (w.e.f.1.1.1996).

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

THIRD SCHEDULE [Articles 75(4), 99, 124(6), 148(2), 164(3), 188 and 219]*
F o r ms o f Oa t h s o r Aff i r ma t i o n s I Form of oath of office for a Minister for the Union: I, A.B., do swear in the name of God
solemnly affirm

that

will bear true faith and

allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established, that I will uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India, that I will faithfully and conscientiously discharge my duties as a Minister for the Union and that I will do right to all manner of people in accordance with the Constitution and the law, without fear or favour, affection or ill-will. II Form of oath of secrecy for a Minister for the Union: I, A.B., do swear in the name of God that I will not directly or indirectly
solemnly affirm

communicate or reveal to any person or persons any matter which shall be brought under my consideration or shall become known to me as a Minister for the Union except as may be required for the due discharge of my duties as such Minister. III A Form of oath or affirmation to be made by a candidate for election to Parliament: I, A.B., having been nominated as a candidate to fill a seat in the Council of States (or the House of the People) do swear in the name of God that I will bear true faith
solemnly affirm

and allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established and that I will uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India. B Form of oath or affirmation to be made by a member of Parliament: I, A.B., having been elected (or nominated) a member of the Council of States (or the House of the People) do swear in the name of God that I will bear true faith and allegiance
solemnly affirm

to the Constitution of India as by law established, that I will uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India and that I will faithfully discharge the duty upon which I am about to enter.

______________________________________________________
*See also arts. 84(a) and 173(a).

193

194

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

IV Form of oath or affirmation to be made by the Judges of the Supreme Court and the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India: I, A.B., having been appointed Chief Justice (or a Judge) of the Supreme Court of India (or Comptroller and Auditor-General of India) do swear in the name of God that I
solemnly affirm

will bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established, that I will uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India, that I will duly and faithfully and to the best of my ability, knowledge and judgment perform the duties of my office without fear or favour, affection or ill-will and that I will uphold the Constitution and the laws. V Form of oath of office for a Minister for a State: I, A.B., do swear in the name of God that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the
solemnly affirm

Constitution of India as by law established, that I will uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India, that I will faithfully and conscientiously discharge my duties as a Minister for the State of ..........and that I will do right to all manner of people in accordance with the Constitution and the law without fear or favour, affection or ill-will. VI Form of oath of secrecy for a Minister for a State: I, A.B., do swear in the name of God that I will not directly or indirectly
solemnly affirm

communicate or reveal to any person or persons any matter which shall be brought under my consideration or shall become known to me as a Minister for the State of ....................except as may be required for the due discharge of my duties as such Minister. VII A Form of oath or affirmation to be made by a candidate for election to the Legislature of a State: I, A.B., having been nominated as a candidate to fill a seat in the Legislative Assembly (or Legislative Council), do swear in the name of God that I will bear true
solemnly affirm

faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established and that I will uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India. B Form of oath or affirmation to be made by a member of the Legislature of a State: I, A.B., having been elected (or nominated) a member of the Legislative Assembly (or Legislative Council), do swear in the name of God that I will bear true faith and
solemnly affirm

195

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established, that I will uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India and that I will faithfully discharge the duty upon which I am about to enter. VIII Form of oath or affirmation to be made by the Judges of a High Court: I, A.B., having been appointed Chief Justice (or a Judge) of the High Court at (or of) ..........do swear in the name of God that I will bear true faith and allegiance to
solemnly affirm

the Constitution of India as by law established, that I will uphold the sovereignty and integrity of India, that I will duly and faithfully and to the best of my ability, knowledge and judgment perform the duties of my office without fear or favour, affection or ill-will and that I will uphold the Constitution and the laws.

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FOURTH SCHEDULE
[Articles 4(1) and 80(2)] Allo cat ion of s eats in th e Coun cil of St ates To each State or Union territory specified in the first column of the following table, there shall be allotted the number of seats specified in the second column thereof opposite to that State or that Union territory, as the case may be. TABLE
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Andhra Pradesh Assam .. Bihar.. Jharkhand.. Goa.. Gujarat. Haryana Kerala.. Madhya Pradesh. Chhattisgarh Tamil Nadu Maharashtra Karnataka. Orissa Punjab Rajasthan.. Uttar Pradesh. Uttaranchal West Bengal.. Jammu and Kashmir. Nagaland. Himachal Pradesh. Manipur.. Tripura. Meghalaya. Sikkim. Mizoram.. Arunachal Pradesh.. Delhi Pondicherry Total 196 18 7 16 6 1 11 5 9 11 5 18 19 12 10 7 10 31 3 16 4 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 233

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FIFTH SCHEDULE
[Article 244(1)] Provisions as to the Ad min istration and Con tro l of Scheduled Areas and Schedu led Tribes PART A GENERAL
1. Interpretation.In this Schedule, unless the context otherwise requires, the expression State does not include the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram. 2. Executive power of a State in Scheduled Areas.Subject to the provisions of this Schedule, the executive power of a State extends to the Scheduled Areas therein. 3. Report by the Governor to the President regarding the administration of Scheduled Areas.The Governor of each State having Scheduled Areas therein shall annually, or whenever so required by the President, make a report to the President regarding the administration of the Scheduled Areas in that State and the executive power of the Union shall extend to the giving of directions to the State as to the administration of the said areas. ADMINISTRATION PART B CONTROL OF SCHEDULED AREAS TRIBES SCHEDULED

AND

AND

4. Tribes Advisory Council.(1) There shall be established in each State having Scheduled Areas therein and, if the President so directs, also in any State having Scheduled Tribes but not Scheduled Areas therein, a Tribes Advisory Council consisting of not more than twenty members of whom, as nearly as may be, three-fourths shall be the representatives of the Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative Assembly of the State: Provided that if the number of representatives of the Scheduled Tribes in the Legislative Assembly of the State is less than the number of seats in the Tribes Advisory Council to be filled by such representatives, the remaining seats shall be filled by other members of those tribes. (2) It shall be the duty of the Tribes Advisory Council to advise on such matters pertaining to the welfare and advancement of the Scheduled Tribes in the State as may be referred to them by the Governor. (3) The Governor may make rules prescribing or regulating, as the case may be, (a) the number of members of the Council, the mode of their appointment and the appointment of the Chairman of the Council and of the officers and servants thereof; (b) the conduct of its meetings and its procedure in general; and (c) all other incidental matters. 5. Law applicable to Scheduled Areas.(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the Governor may by public notification direct that any particular Act of Parliament or of the Legislature of the State shall not apply to a Scheduled Area or any part thereof in the State or shall apply to a Scheduled Area or any part thereof in the State subject to such exceptions and modifications as he may specify in the notification and

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any direction given under this sub-paragraph may be given so as to have retrospective effect. (2) The Governor may make regulations for the peace and good government of any area in a State which is for the time being a Scheduled Area. In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such regulations may (a) prohibit or restrict the transfer of land by or among members of the Scheduled Tribes in such area; (b) regulate the allotment of land to members of the Scheduled Tribes in such area; (c) regulate the carrying on of business as money-lender by persons who lend money to members of the Scheduled Tribes in such area. (3) In making any such regulation as is referred to in sub-paragraph (2) of this paragraph, the Governor may repeal or amend any Act of Parliament or of the Legislature of the State or any existing law which is for the time being applicable to the area in question. (4) All regulations made under this paragraph shall be submitted forthwith to the President and, until assented to by him, shall have no effect. (5) No regulation shall be made under this paragraph unless the Governor making the regulation has, in the case where there is a Tribes Advisory Council for the State, consulted such Council.

PART C SCHEDULED AREAS


6. Scheduled Areas.(1) In this Constitution, the expression Scheduled Areas means 1 such areas as the President may by order declare to be Scheduled Areas. (2) The President may at any time by order (a) direct that the whole or any specified part of a Scheduled Area shall cease to be a Scheduled Area or a part of such an area; (aa) increase the area of any Scheduled Area in a State after consultation with the Governor of that State; (b) alter, but only by way of rectification of boundaries, any Scheduled Area; (c) on any alteration of the boundaries of a State or on the admission into the Union or the establishment of a new State, declare any territory not previously included in any State to be, or to form part of, a Scheduled Area; (d) rescind, in relation to any State or States, any order or orders made under this paragraph, and in consultation with the Governor of the State concerned, make fresh orders redefining the areas which are to be Scheduled Areas; and any such order may contain such incidental and consequential provisions as appear to the President to be necessary and proper, but save as aforesaid, the order made under subparagraph (1) of this paragraph shall not be varied by any subsequent order.
2

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1. See the Scheduled Areas (Part A States) Order, 1950 (C.O. 9), the Scheduled Areas (Part B States) Order, 1950 (C.O.26), the Scheduled Areas (Himachal Pradesh) Order, 1975 (C.O. 102) and the Scheduled Areas (States of Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa) Order, 1977 (C.O. 109) 2. See the Madras Scheduled Areas (Cessor) Order, 1950 (C.O. 30) and the Andhra Scheduled Areas (Cessor) Order, 1955 (C.O. 50).

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PART D AMENDMENT OF THE SCHEDULE


7. Amendment of the Schedule.(1) Parliament may from time to time by law amend by way of addition, variation or repeal any of the provisions of this Schedule and, when the Schedule is so amended, any reference to this Schedule in this Constitution shall be construed as a reference to such Schedule as so amended. (2) No such law as is mentioned in sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph shall be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368.

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SIXTH SCHEDULE
[ Arti cl es 244(2) and 275 (1) ] Provision s as to th e Ad mi ni stration of Tribal Areas in th e Stat es of Assa m, Meghalaya , Tripu ra and Mizo ra m
1 1. Autonomous districts and autonomous regions.(1) Subject to the provisions of this paragraph, the tribal areas in each item of Parts I, II and IIA and in Part III of the table appended to paragraph 20 of this Schedule shall be an autonomous district. (2) If there are different Scheduled Tribes in an autonomous district, the Governor may, by public notification, divide the area or areas inhabited by them into autonomous regions. (3) The Governor may, by public notification, (a) include any area in any of the Parts of the said table, (b) exclude any area from any of the Parts of the said table, (c) create a new autonomous district, (d) increase the area of any autonomous district, (e) diminish the area of any autonomous district, (f) unite two or more autonomous districts or parts thereof so as to form one autonomous district, (ff) alter the name of any autonomous district, (g) define the boundaries of any autonomous district: Provided that no order shall be made by the Governor under clauses (c), (d), (e) and (f) of this sub-paragraph except after consideration of the report of a Commission appointed under sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 14 of this Schedule: Provided further that any order made by the Governor under this sub-paragraph may contain such incidental and consequential provisions (including any amendment of paragraph 20 and of any item in any of the Parts of the said table) as appear to the Governor to be necessary for giving effect to the provisions of the order. 2 2. Constitution of District Councils and Regional Councils.(1) There shall be a

1. Paragraph 1 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 2003 (44 of 2003),s. 2 , so as to insert the following proviso after sub-paragraph (2), namely: Provided that nothing in this sub-paragraph shall apply to the Bodoland Territorial Areas District.\ *2. Paragraph 2 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by s. 2,ibid., so as to insert the following proviso after sub-paragraph (1), namely: Provided that the Bodoland Territorial Council shall consist of not more than forty-six members of whom forty shall be elected on the basis of adult suffrage, of whom thirty shall be reserved for the Scheduled Tribes, five for non-tribal communities, five open for all communities and the remaining six shall be nominated by the Governor having same rights and privileges as other members, including voting rights, from amongst the unrepresented communities of the Bodoland Territorial Areas District, of which at least two shall be women. *Paragraph 2 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1995 (42 of 1995), s.2 so as to insert the following proviso after sub-paragraph (3), namely,Provided that the District Council constituted for the North Cachar Hills District shall be called as the North Cachar Hills Autonomous Council and the District Council constituted for the Karbi Anglong District shall be called as the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council. *Paragraph 2 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 2003 (44 of 2003)s. 2 , so as to insert the following proviso after the proviso in sub-paragraph (3), namely: Provided further that the District Council constituted for the Bodoland Territorial Areas District shall be called the Bodoland Territorial Council.

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District Council for each autonomous district consisting of not more than thirty members, of whom not more than four persons shall be nominated by the Governor and the rest shall be elected on the basis of adult suffrage. (2) There shall be a separate Regional Council for each area constituted an autonomous region under sub-paragraph (2) of paragraph 1 of this Schedule. (3) Each District Council and each Regional Council shall be a body corporate by the name respectively of the District Council of (name of district) and the Regional Council of (name of region), shall have perpetual succession and a common seal and shall by the said name sue and be sued. (4) Subject to the provisions of this Schedule, the administration of an autonomous district shall, in so far as it is not vested under this Schedule in any Regional Council within such district, be vested in the District Council for such district and the administration of an autonomous region shall be vested in the Regional Council for such region. (5) In an autonomous district with Regional Councils, the District Council shall have only such powers with respect to the areas under the authority of the Regional Council as may be delegated to it by the Regional Council in addition to the powers conferred on it by this Schedule with respect to such areas. (6) The Governor shall make rules for the first constitution of District Councils and Regional Councils in consultation with the existing tribal Councils or other representative tribal organisations within the autonomous districts or regions concerned, and such rules shall provide for (a) the composition of the District Councils and Regional Councils and the allocation of seats therein; (b) the delimitation of territorial constituencies for the purpose of elections to those Councils; (c) the qualifications for voting at such elections and the preparation of electoral rolls therefor; (d) the qualifications for being elected at such elections as members of such Councils; (e) the term of office of members of Regional Councils; (f) any other matter relating to or connected with elections or nominations to such Councils; (g) the procedure and the conduct of business (including the power to act notwithstanding any vacancy) in the District and Regional Councils; (h) the appointment of officers and staff of the District and Regional Councils. (6A) The elected members of the District Council shall hold office for a term of five years from the date appointed for the first meeting of the Council after the general elections to the Council, unless the District Council is sooner dissolved under paragraph 16 and a nominated member shall hold office at the pleasure of the Governor: Provided that the said period of five years may, while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation or if circumstances exist which, in the opinion of the Governor, render the holding of elections impracticable, be extended by the Governor for a period not exceeding one year at a time and in any case where a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation not extending beyond a period of six months after the Proclamation has ceased to operate:

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Provided further that a member elected to fill a casual vacancy shall hold office only for the remainder of the term of office of the member whom he replaces. (7) The District or the Regional Council may after its first constitution make rules with the approval of the Governor with regard to the matters specified in sub-paragraph (6) of this paragraph and may also make rules with like approval regulating (a) th e for mation of subordinat e lo cal Coun cil s or Bo ards an d th eir pro c edur e and th e condu ct of their busin ess; and (b ) g en er all y all matt ers r el at ing to th e trans act ion of busin es s p ert aining to the ad ministr at ion of th e d istri ct or r egion , as th e cas e ma y b e: Provided that until rules are made by the District or the Regional Council under this subparagraph the rules made by the Governor under sub-paragraph (6) of this paragraph shall have effect in respect of elections to, the officers and staff of, and the procedure and the conduct of business in, each such Council. * * * * * 3. Powers of the District Councils and Regional Councils to make laws.(1) The Regional Council for an autonomous region in respect of all areas within such region and _________________________________________________________________
*1. Paragraph 3 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 2003 (44 of 2003), s. 2 , so as to substitute sub-paragraph (3) as under, (3) Save as otherwise provided in sub-paragraph (2) of paragraph 3A or sub-paragraph (2) of paragraph 3B , all laws made under this paragraph or sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 3A or subparagraph (1) of paragraph 3B shall be submitted forthwith to the Governor and, until assented to by him, shall have no effect. After paragraph 3, the following paragraph has been inserted in its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1995 (42 of 1995), s.2 , namely: 3A. Additional powers of the North Cachar Hills Autonomous Council and the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council to make laws.(1) Without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 3, the North Cachar Hills Autonomous Council and the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council within their respective districts, shall have power to make laws with respect to (a) industries, subject to the provisions of entries 7 and 52 of List I of the Seventh Schedule; ( b ) c o m m u n i c a t i o n s , t h a t i s t o s a y, r o a d s , b r i d g e s , f e r r i e s a n d o t h e r means of communication not specified in List I of the Seventh Schedule; m u n i c i p a l t r a m w a y s , r o p e w a ys , i n l a n d w a t e r w a ys a n d t r a f f i c t h e r e o n s u b j e c t t o the provisions of List I and List III of the Seventh Schedule with regard to s u c h w a t e r w a ys ; v e h i c l e s o t h e r t h a n m e c h a n i c a l l y p r o p e l l e d v e h i c l e s ; (c) preservation, protection and improvement of stock and prevention of animal diseases; veterinary training and practice; cattle pounds; (d) primary and secondary education; (e) agriculture, including agricultural education and research, protection against pests and prevention of plant diseases; (f) fisheries; ( g ) w a t e r , t h a t i s t o s a y, w a t e r s u p p l i e s , i r r i g a t i o n a n d c a n a l s , d r a i n a g e and embankments, water storage and water power subject to the provisions of entry 56 of List I of the Seventh Schedule;
1

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( h ) s o c i a l s e c u r i t y a n d s o c i a l i n s u r a n c e ; e m p l o y m e n t a n d u n e m p l o ym e n t ; (i) flood control schemes for protection of villages, paddy fields, markets, towns, etc. (not of technical nature); (j) theatre and dramatic performances, cinemas subject to the provisions of entry 60 of List I of the Seventh Schedule; sports entertainments and amusements; (k) public health and sanitation, hospitals and dispensaries; (l) minor irrigation; (m) trade and commerce in, and the production supply and distribution of, food stuffs, cattle fodder, raw cotton and raw jute; (n) libraries, museums and other similar Institutions controlled or financed by the State; ancient and historical monuments and records other than those declared by or under any law made by Parliament to be of national importance; and (o) alienation of land. (2) All laws made by the North Cachar Hills Autonomous Council and the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council under paragraph 3 or under this paragraph shall, in so far as they relate to matters specified in List III of the Seventh Schedule, be submitted forthwith to the Governor who shall reserve the same for the consideration of the President. (3) When a law is reserved for the consideration of the President, the President shall declare either that he assents to the said law or that he withholds assent therefrom: Provided that the President may direct the Governor to return the law to the North Cachar Hills Autonomous Council or the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council, as the case may be, together with a message requesting that the said Council will reconsider the law or any specified provisions thereof and, in particular, will, consider the desirability of introducing any such amendments as he may recommend in his message and, when the law is so returned, the said Council shall consider the law accordingly within a period of six months from the date of receipt of such message and, if the law is again passed by the said Council with or without amendment it shall be presented again to the President for his consideration.. *After paragraph 3A, the following paragraph has been inserted in its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 2003, (44 0f 2003), s. 2 , namely: 3B. Additional powers of the Bodoland Territorial Council to make laws.(1) Without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 3, the Bodoland Territorial Council within its areas shall have power to make laws with respect to :- (i) Agriculture, including agricultural education and research, protection against pests and prevention of plant diseases; (ii) Animal husbandry and veterinary, that is to say, preservation, protection and improvement of stock and prevention of animal diseases, veterinary training and practice, cattle pounds; (iii) Co-operation; (iv) Cultural affairs; (v) Education, that is to say, primary education, higher secondary including vocational training, adult education, college education (general); (vi) Fisheries; (vii) Flood control for protection of village, paddy fields, markets and towns (not of technical nature); (viii) Food and civil supply; (ix) Forests (other than reserved forests); (x) Handloom and textile; (xi) Health and family welfare, (xii) Intoxicating liquors, opium and derivatives, subject to the provisions of entry 84 of List I of the Seventh Schedule; (xiii) Irrigation; (xiv) Labour and employment; (xv) Land and Revenue; (xvi) Library services (financed and controlled by the State Government); (xvii) Lotteries (subject to the provisions of entry 40 of List I of the Seventh Schedule), theatres, dramatic performances and cinemas (subject to the provisions of entry 60 of List I of the Seventh Schedule); (xviii) Markets and fairs; (xix) Municipal corporation, improvement trust, district boards and other local authorities; (xx) Museum and archaeology institutions controlled or financed by the State, ancient and historical monuments and records other than those declared by or under any law made by Parliament to be of national importance; (xxi) Panchayat and rural development; (xxii) Planning and development; (xxiii) Printing and stationery; (xxiv) Pubic health engineering; (xxv) Public works department; (xxvi) Publicity and public relations; (xxvii) Registration of births and deaths; (xxviii) Relief and rehabilitation; (xxix) Sericulture; (xxx) Small, cottage and rural industry subject to the provisions of entries 7 and 52 of List I of the Seventh Schedule; (xxxi) Social Welfare; (xxxii) Soil conservation; (xxxiii) Sports and youth welfare; (xxxiv) Statistics; (xxxv) Tourism; (xxxvi) Transport (roads, bridges, ferries and other means of communications not specified in List I of the Seventh Schedule, municipal tramways, ropeways, inland waterways and traffic thereon subject to the provision

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of List I and List III of the Seventh Schedule with regard to such waterways, vehicles other than mechanically propelled vehicles); (xxxvii) Tribal research institute controlled and financed by the State Government; (xxxviii) Urban developmenttown and country planning; (xxxix) Weights and measures subject to the provisions of entry 50 of List I of the Seventh Schedule; and (xl) Welfare of plain tribes and backward classes: Provided that nothing in such laws shall-(a) extinguish or modify the existing rights and privileges of any citizen in respect of his land at the date of commencement of this Act; and (b) disallow and citizen from acquiring land either by way of inheritance, allotment, settlement or by any other way of transfer if such citizen is otherwise eligible for such acquisition of land within the Bodoland Territorial Areas District. (2) All laws made under paragraph 3 or under this paragraph shall in so far as they relate to matters specified in List III of the Seventh Schedule, be submitted forthwith to the Governor who shall reserve the same for the consideration of the President. (3) When a law is reserved for the consideration of the President, the President shall declare either that he assents to the said law or that he withholds assent therefrom: Provided that the President may direct the Governor to return the law to the Bodoland Territorial Council, together with the message requesting that the said Council will reconsider the law or any specified provisions thereof and, in particular, will consider the desirability of introducing any such amendments as he may recommend in his message and, when the law is so returned, the said Council shall consider the law accordingly within a period of six month from the date of receipt of such message and, if the law is again passd by the said Council with or without amendments it shall be presented again to the President for his consideration.

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the District Council for an autonomous district in respect of all areas within the district except those which are under the authority of Regional Councils, if any, within the district shall have power to make laws with respect to (a) th e al lot ment , o c cu p a tion or us e, or th e sett ing ap art , of l a nd, oth er th an any l a nd wh i ch is a r es erv ed for est for th e purpos es of agri cu ltur e or gr azing o r for r es id enti al o r oth er non- agri cul tur al purpos es or fo r an y oth er purpos e l ik el y to pro mot e th e in ter est s of th e inh abi t ants of an y vill ag e or to wn : Provid ed th at nothing in su ch l a ws sh all pr ev en t th e co mpulsor y acquis ition of an y l and, wh eth er o ccupi ed or uno ccupi ed , for publi c purpos es b y th e Gov ern me nt of th e St at e con cern ed in accordan ce with th e l a w for th e ti me b eing in force authoris ing su ch acquisit ion; (b) th e ma n ag eme n t o f an y fo re st n o t b ein g a re s erv ed fo r es t; ( c) th e us e of an y can al or wat er- cours e for th e purpos e of agri cu ltur e; (d) th e r egul at ion of th e pr actice of jhu m or oth er for ms of shif ting cult iv ation; ( e) th e es tab lishmen t of vill ag e or to wn co mmi tt ees or coun ci ls and th ei r po wers ; (f) an y oth er ma t t er r el at ing to vill ag e or to wn ad mini str at ion, in clud ing v ill age or to wn po li ce and pub li c h e alth and s anit at ion; (g) th e appointmen t or su ccession of Chi efs or Head men; (h) th e inh eri t ance of prop ert y; (i) marri ag e and divor ce; (j) so c i al cu sto ms . (2) In this paragraph, a reserved forest means any area which is a reserved forest under the Assam Forest Regulation, 1891, or under any other law for the time being in force in the area in question. (3) All laws made under this paragraph shall be submitted forthwith to the Governor and, until assented to by him, shall have no effect. 1 4. Administration of justice in autonomous districts and autonomous regions.(1) The Regional Council for an autonomous region in respect of areas within such region and the District Council for an autonomous district in respect of areas within the district other than those which are under the authority of the Regional Councils, if any, within the district may constitute village councils or courts for the trial of suits and cases between the parties all of whom belong to Scheduled Tribes within such areas, other than suits and cases to which the provisions of sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 5 of this Schedule apply, to

________________________________________________________
1. Paragraph 4 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 2003 (44 of 2003), s. 2 , so as to insert the following sub-paragraph after sub-paragraph (5), namely: (6) Nothing in this paragraph shall apply to the Bodoland Territorial Council constituted under the proviso to sub-paragraph (3) of paragraph 2 of this Schedule.

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the exclusion of any court in the State, and may appoint suitable persons to be members of such village councils or presiding officers of such courts, and may also appoint such officers as may be necessary for the administration of the laws made under paragraph 3 of this Schedule. (2) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the Regional Council for an autonomous region or any court constituted in that behalf by the Regional Council or, if in respect of any area within an autonomous district there is no Regional Council, the District Council for such district, or any court constituted in that behalf by the District Council, shall exercise the powers of a court of appeal in respect of all suits and cases triable by a village council or court constituted under sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph within such region or area, as the case may be, other than those to which the provisions of sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 5 of this Schedule apply, and no other court except the High Court and the Supreme Court shall have jurisdiction over such suits or cases. (3) The High Court shall have and exercise such jurisdiction over the suits and cases to which the provisions of sub-paragraph (2) of this paragraph apply as the Governor may from time to time by order specify. (4) A Regional Council or District Council, as the case may be, may with the previous approval of the Governor make rules regulating (a) th e cons titution of vi ll ag e coun cil s an d courts and th e po wers to b e ex er cis ed b y th e m und er this p ar agr aph; (b) th e pro c edure to b e fo llo wed b y v ill ag e coun cil s or court s in th e tr i al of suits and cas es und er sub-p ar agr aph (1) of this p ar agr aph; ( c) the pro c edure to b e follo wed b y th e Region al or Di stri ct Coun cil or an y court const itut ed b y su ch Coun cil in ap p e als an d oth er pro ceedings under sub-p ar agr aph (2) of this p aragr aph; (d) th e en fo r c eme n t o f d e cis io n s an d o rd er s o f su ch co u n ci ls an d courts ; ( e) all oth er an cil l ar y mat t ers for th e carr ying out of th e provision s of sub-p ar agr aphs (1) and (2) of this p ar agr aph. (5) On and from such date as the President may, after consulting the Government of the State concerned, by notification appoint in this behalf, this paragraph shall have effect in relation to such autonomous district or region as may be specified in the notification, as if (i) in sub-p ar agr aph (1) , for the w ords b et w een th e p art i es all of who m b elong to S ch edul ed Trib es within su ch ar eas, oth er th an suits and cas es to whi ch th e provisions of sub-p ar agraph (1) of p ar agr aph 5 o f thi s S ch edul e appl y,, th e words no t b eing suits and cas es of th e n atur e r ef err ed to in sub-p ar agr aph (1) of p ar agr aph (5) of thi s S ch edul e, whi ch th e Gov ernor may sp ecif y in this b eh alf , h ad b een subs titut ed ; (i i) su b -p ar ag r ap h s (2 ) an d (3 ) h ad b e en o mi tt ed ; (i ii) in su b -p ar ag r ap h (4 ) (a) for th e words A Region al Coun cil o r Distr i ct Coun ci l, as th e cas e may be, may wi th th e pr evious app rov al of the Gov ernor ma k e ru l es r eg u l at in g , th e wo rd s th e Go v ern o r ma y ma k e ru l es r egul a ting h ad b e en substi tut ed; and

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(b) for cl aus e (a) , th e fo l lo w in g cl au s e h ad b e e n su b st itu t ed , n a me l y: (a) th e const itution of vill ag e coun ci ls and courts , th e po w ers to b e ex er cis ed b y th em u nd er th is par agr aph and the courts to wh i ch app e als fro m th e d e cisions of vill ag e coun cils and courts sh al l li e; ; ( c) for cl aus e ( c) , th e fo llo wing cl aus e h ad been substitu t ed, n a me l y: ( c) th e tr ansf er o f app eals and oth er pro ceedings p end ing b efor e th e Region al or Distri ct Coun cil or an y court const itut ed b y su ch Coun cil i mme di atel y befor e th e d at e appoint ed b y th e Pr esid en t und er sub-p ar agr aph (5); ; and (d) in cl aus e (e) , for th e words , b r ackets and figur es subp ar agr aphs (1) and (2) , th e word , br ack ets and figur e subp ar agr ap h (1) h ad b e en substitut ed . 5. Conferment of powers under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, and the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 , on the Regional and District Councils and on certain courts and officers for the trial of certain suits, cases and offences.(1) The Governor may, for the trial of suits or cases arising out of any law in force in any autonomous district or region being a law specified in that behalf by the Governor, or for the trial of offences punishable with death, transportation for life, or imprisonment for a term of not less than five years under the Indian Penal Code or under any other law for the time being applicable to such district or region, confer on the District Council or the Regional Council having authority over such district or region or on courts constituted by such District Council or on any officer appointed in that behalf by the Governor, such powers under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, or, as 1 the case may be, the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 , as he deems appropriate, and thereupon the said Council, court or officer shall try the suits, cases or offences in exercise of the powers so conferred. (2) The Governor may withdraw or modify any of the powers conferred on a District Council, Regional Council, court or officer under sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph. (3) Save as expressly provided in this paragraph, the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, and 1 the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 , shall not apply to the trial of any suits, cases or offences in an autonomous district or in any autonomous region to which the provisions of this paragraph apply. (4) On and from the date appointed by the President under sub-paragraph (5) of paragraph 4 in relation to any autonomous district or autonomous region, nothing contained in this paragraph shall, in its application to that district or region, be deemed to authorise the Governor to confer on the District Council or Regional Council or on courts constituted by the District Council any of the powers referred to in sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph. 6. Powers of the District Council to establish primary schools, etc. (1) The District Council for an autonomous district may establish, construct, or manage primary schools, dispensaries, markets, cattle pounds, ferries, fisheries, roads, road transport and waterways in the district and may, with the previous approval of the Governor, make regulations for the regulation and control thereof and, in particular, may prescribe the language and the manner in which primary education shall be imparted in the primary schools in the district.
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1. See now the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 (Act 2 of 1974).

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(2) The Governor may, with the consent of any District Council, entrust either conditionally or unconditionally to that Council or to its officers functions in relation to agriculture, animal husbandry, community projects, co-operative societies, social welfare, village planning or any other matter to which the executive power of the State extends. 7. District and Regional Funds.(1) There shall be constituted for each autonomous district, a District Fund and for each autonomous region, a Regional Fund to which shall be credited all moneys received respectively by the District Council for that district and the Regional Council for that region in the course of the administration of such district or region, as the case may be, in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution. (2) The Governor may make rules for the management of the District Fund, or, as the case may be, the Regional Fund and for the procedure to be followed in respect of payment of money into the said Fund, the withdrawal of moneys therefrom, the custody of moneys therein and any other matter connected with or ancillary to the matters aforesaid. (3) The accounts of the District Council or, as the case may be, the Regional Council shall be kept in such form as the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India may, with the approval of the President, prescribe. (4) The Comptroller and Auditor-General shall cause the accounts of the District and Regional Councils to be audited in such manner as he may think fit, and the reports of the Comptroller and Auditor-General relating to such accounts shall be submitted to the Governor who shall cause them to be laid before the Council. 8. Powers to assess and collect land revenue and to impose taxes.(1) The Regional Council for an autonomous region in respect of all lands within such region and the District Council for an autonomous district in respect of all lands within the district except those which are in the areas under the authority of Regional Councils, if any, within the district, shall have the power to assess and collect revenue in respect of such lands in accordance with the principles for the time being followed by the Government of the State in assessing lands for the purpose of land revenue in the State generally. (2) The Regional Council for an autonomous region in respect of areas within such region and the District Council for an autonomous district in respect of all areas in the district except those which are under the authority of Regional Councils, if any, within the district, shall have power to levy and collect taxes on lands and buildings, and tolls on persons resident within such areas. (3) The District Council for an autonomous district shall have the power to levy and collect all or any of the following taxes within such district, that is to say (a) t ax es on prof ess ions, t r ad es, calling s and emplo yments ; (b) t ax es o n an ima l s , v eh i cl es an d b o ats; ( c) t ax es on th e entr y of goods into a ma rk et for s a le th er ein, and tol ls on p as s engers and goods carri ed in f err i es; and (d) t ax es for th e ma i nt en an ce of s chools , disp ens ari es or ro ads . (4) A Regional Council or District Council, as the case may be, may make regulations to provide for the levy and collection of any of the taxes specified in sub-paragraphs (2) and (3) of this paragraph and every such regulation shall be submitted forthwith to the Governor and, until assented to by him, shall have no effect.

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9. Licences or leases for the purpose of prospecting for, or extraction of, minerals. (1) Such share of the royalties accruing each year from licences or leases for the purpose of prospecting for, or the extraction of, minerals granted by the Government of the State in respect of any area within an autonomous district as may be agreed upon between the Government of the State and the District Council of such district shall be made over to that District Council. (2) If any dispute arises as to the share of such royalties to be made over to a District Council, it shall be referred to the Governor for determination and the amount determined by the Governor in his discretion shall be deemed to be the amount payable under sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph to the District Council and the decision of the Governor shall be final. 10. Power of District Council to make regulations for the control of money-lending and trading by non-tribals.(1) The District Council of an autonomous district may make regulations for the regulation and control of money-lending or trading within the district by persons other than Scheduled Tribes resident in the district. (2) In particular and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing power, such regulations may (a) prescribe that no one except the holder of a licence issued in that behalf shall carry on the business of money-lending; (b) prescribe the maximum rate of interest which may be charged or be recovered by a money-lender; (c) provide for the maintenance of accounts by money-lenders and for the inspection of such accounts by officers appointed in that behalf by the District Council;
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1. Paragraph 9 has been amended in its application to the States of Tripura and Mizoram by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1988 (67 of 1988), s.2, so as to insert the following sub-paragraph after sub-paragraph (2), namely: ( 3 ) T h e G o v e r n o r m a y, b y o r d e r , d i r e c t t h a t t h e s h a r e o f r o ya l t i e s t o b e m a d e over to a District Council under this paragraph shall be made over to that Council w i t h i n a p e r i o d o f o n e ye a r f r o m t h e d a t e o f a n y a g r e e m e n t u n d e r s u b - p a r a g r a p h ( 1 ) or, as the case may be, of any determination under sub-paragraph (2).. *2. Paragraph 10 has been amended in its application to the States of Tripura and Mizoram by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1988 (67 of 1988), s.2, as underin the heading, the words by non-tribals shall be omitted; in sub-paragraph (1), the words other than Scheduled Tribes shall be omitted; (c) in sub-paragraph (2), for clause (d), the following clause shall be substituted, namely:(d) prescribe that no person resident in the district shall carry on any trade, whether wholesale or retail, except under a licence issued in that behalf by the District Council.. *Paragraph 10 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 2003 (44 of 2003), s. 2 , so as to insert the following sub-paragraph after sub-paragraph (3), namely: (4) Nothing in this paragraph shall apply to the Bodoland Territorial Council constituted under the proviso to sub-paragraph (3) of paragraph 2 of this Schedule. (a) (b)

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(d) prescribe that no person who is not a member of the Scheduled Tribes resident in the district shall carry on wholesale or retail business in any commodity except under a licence issued in that behalf by the District Council : Provided that no regulations may be made under this paragraph unless they are passed by a majority of not less than three-fourths of the total membership of the District Council: Provided further that it shall not be competent under any such regulations to refuse the grant of a licence to a money-lender or a trader who has been carrying on business within the district since before the time of the making of such regulations. (3) All regulations made under this paragraph shall be submitted forthwith to the Governor and, until assented to by him, shall have no effect. 11. Publication of laws, rules and regulations made under the Schedule.All laws, rules and regulations made under this Schedule by a District Council or a Regional Council shall be published forthwith in the Official Gazette of the State and shall on such publication have the force of law. 12. Application of Acts of Parliament and of the Legislature of the State of Assam to autonomous districts and autonomous regions in the State of Assam. (1) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution (a) no Act of the Legislature of the State of Assam in respect of any of the matters specified in paragraph 3 of this Schedule as matters with respect to which a District Council or a Regional Council may make laws, and no Act of the Legislature of the State of Assam prohibiting or restricting the consumption of any non-distilled alcoholic liquor shall apply to any autonomous district or autonomous region in that State unless in either case the District Council for such district or having jurisdiction over such region by public notification so directs, and the District Council in giving such direction with respect to any Act may direct that the Act shall in its application to such district or region or any part thereof have effect subject to such exceptions or modifications as it thinks fit; (b) the Governor may, by public notification, direct that any Act of Parliament or of the Legislature of the State of Assam to which the provisions of clause (a) of this sub-paragraph do not apply shall not apply to an autonomous district or an autonomous region in that State, or shall apply to such district or region or any part thereof subject to such exceptions or modifications as he may specify in the notification. (2) Any direction given under sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph may be given so as to have retrospective effect. 12A. Application of Acts of Parliament and of the Legislature of the State of Meghalaya to autonomous districts and autonomous regions in the State of Meghalaya.Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, ( a ) i f a n y p r o v i si o n o f a l a w ma d e b y a Di s t r i c t o r R e g i o n a l C o u nc i l i n t h e S t a t e o f M e g h a l a ya wi t h r e s p e ct t o a n y ma t t e r s p e c i f i e d i n s u b p a r a g r a p h ( 1 ) o f p a r a g r a p h 3 o f t h i s S c h e d u l e o r i f a n y p r o v i s io n o f a n y r e g u l a t i o n ma d e b y a Di s t r i c t C ou n c i l o r a R e g i o n a l C o u n c i l i n t h a t S t a t e u n d e r p a r a g r a p h 8 o r p a r a g r a p h 1 0 o f t h i s S c h e d u l e , i s r e p u g na n t t o a n y p r o v i s i o n o f a l a w ma d e b y t h e L e g i s l at u r e o f t h e S t a t e o f M e g h a l a ya w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h a t ma t t e r , t h e n , t h e l a w o r r e g u l a t i o n ma d e b y t h e Di s t r i c t C o u n c i l o r , a s t h e c a s e ma y b e , t h e R e g i o n a l C o u n c i l wh eth er mad e b efor e
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1. Paragraph 12 has been amended to its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1995 (42 of 1995), s.2, as under,in paragraph 12, in sub-paragraph (1), for the words and figure matters specified in paragraph 3 of this Schedule, the words, figures and letter matters specified in paragraph 3 or paragraph 3A of this Schedule shall be substituted.; Paragraph 12 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 2003 (44 of 2003), s. 2, as under, in paragraph 12, in sub-paragraph (1), in clause (a), for the words, figures and letter matters specified in paragraph 3 or paragraph 3A of this Schedule, the words, figures and letter matters specified in paragraph 3 or paragraph 3A or paragraph 3B of this Schedule shall be substituted.

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or aft er th e l aw mad e b y th e Legi sl atur e o f t h e St at e of Megh al aya, sh al l, to th e ext ent of r epugn an cy, b e void and th e l aw ma de b y th e Legisl atur e o f th e St at e of Megh al aya sh all pr ev ail ; (b) th e Pr esid ent may, with resp ect to an y Act of P ar li ament , b y noti fi c ation , direct th at it sh all not ap p l y to an au tono mous dis tri ct or an autono mous r egion in th e Stat e o f Meghal aya, or sh all app ly t o su ch dis tri ct or r egion or an y p art th er eo f sub j ect to su ch ex ception s o r mo difi cat ions as h e ma y sp ecif y in th e no tifi cation an d an y su ch dir ection may be giv en so as to h av e r etrosp ect iv e eff ect . 12AA. Application of Acts of Parliament and of the Legislature of the State of Tripura to the autonomous districts and autonomous regions in the State of Tripura. Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, (a) no Act of th e Legis l atur e of th e St at e of Tripur a in r espect o f an y of th e ma tters sp ecif i ed in p ar agr aph 3 of this S ch edul e as ma tt ers with r esp ect to wh i ch a Distr ict Coun cil or a Region al Council ma y mak e l aws , and no Act of th e Leg isl atur e of th e St at e of Tripur a prohib iting or restr i cting th e consu mption of any non-dis till ed al cohol i c liquo r sh all appl y to th e au tonomo u s distr i ct o r an au tono mous r egion in th at St at e u n l ess , in ei th er c as e, th e Dist ri ct Co u n cil fo r th at d is tri ct o r h aving juri sdi ction ov er su ch region b y publi c notif ication so dir e cts , and th e Distr i ct Coun cil in g iving su ch dir ect ion wi th r esp ect to an y Act may d ir ect th at th e Act sh all , in its appli cation to th at distr i ct or su ch r eg io n o r an y p art th er eo f , h av e eff e ct su b j ec t to su ch ex c ep tio n s o r mo difi cat ions as it think s f it; (b) th e Governor ma y, b y publi c noti fi c ation , d ir e ct th at an y Act of th e Leg isl atur e of th e St at e of Tripur a to whi ch th e provis ions of cl aus e ( a) o f this sub-par agr aph do not appl y, sh all not appl y to th e au tono mous dis tri ct or an y autono mous r egion in th at St ate, or sh all ap p ly to th at dis tri ct or su ch r egion , or an y part th er eof , subject to su ch ex ception s or mo difi cat ions , as h e ma y sp eci fy in th e notifi c ation ; ( c) the Pr esid ent ma y, w i th r e sp e ct to a ny A ct of P arl i ame n t , by noti fi c ation , direct th at it sh al l not appl y to the autono mous dis tri ct or an au tono mous r egion in th e St at e of Tr ipur a, o r sh al l appl y t o su ch d is tri ct o r r eg io n o r an y p ar t th er eo f, su b j ec t to su ch ex ce p tio n s or mo difi cat ions as h e ma y s p ec if y in th e noti fi c ation an d an y su ch dir ection may be giv en so as to h av e r etrosp ect iv e eff ect . 12B. Application of Acts of Parliament and of the Legislature of the State of Mizoram to autonomous districts and autonomous regions in the State of Mizoram. Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, (a) no Act of th e Legisl atu r e of th e St at e of Mi zor am in r esp ect of an y of th e ma tters sp ecif i ed in p ar agr aph 3 of this S ch edul e as ma tt ers with r esp ect to wh i ch a Distr ict Coun cil or a Region al Council ma y ma k e l aw s , an d n o A ct o f t h e L e g i s l atu r e o f t h e S t at e o f M i zo r a m prohib iting or restr i cting th e consu mption of any non-dis till ed al cohol i c liquo r sh all appl y to an y autono mous distr i ct or autono mous r egion in th at St at e u n l ess , in ei th er c as e, th e Dist ri ct Co u n cil fo r su ch d is tri ct o r

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h aving ju risdi ction ov er su ch region , b y public noti fi c ation , so dir ects, and th e Distr i ct Coun ci l, in g iving su ch dir ection with r esp ect to an y Act , may dir ect th at th e Act shall , in it s ap p lication to su ch dis tri ct or r eg io n o r an y p art th er eo f , h av e eff e ct su b j ec t to su ch ex c ep tio n s o r mo difi cat ions as it think s f it; (b) th e Gov ernor ma y, b y public no tifi c at ion, dir ect th at an y Ac t of th e Leg isl atur e of th e S t at e of Mi zor am t o whi ch th e provis ions of c l au s e (a) of this sub-p ar agr aph do not apply, shall not appl y to an autono mous distr i ct o r an au tono mous r egion in th at St at e, or sh all appl y to su ch dis tri ct or r egion , o r an y p art th er eo f , subj ect to su ch ex ception s or modif i cations , as h e may sp eci f y in th e notifi cation; ( c) th e Pr esid en t may, with resp ect to an y Act of P a rli a ment , b y noti fi c ation , direct th at it sh all not ap p l y to an au tono mous dis tri ct or an au tono mou s r egion in th e Stat e of Mi zor a m, or sh all appl y t o su ch d is tri ct o r r eg io n o r an y p art th er eo f , su b j ec t to su ch ex ce p tio n s o r mo difi cat ions as h e ma y sp ecif y in th e no tifi cation an d an y su ch dir ection may be giv en so as to h av e r etrosp ect iv e eff ect . 13. Estimated receipts and expenditure pertaining to autonomous districts to be shown separately in the annual financial statement.The estimated receipts and expenditure pertaining to an autonomous district which are to be credited to, or is to be made from, the Consolidated Fund of the State shall be first placed before the District Council for discussion and then after such discussion be shown separately in the annual financial statement of the State to be laid before the Legislature of the State under article 202. 14. Appointment of Commission to inquire into and report on the administration of autonomous districts and autonomous regions.(1) The Governor may at any time appoint a Commission to examine and report on any matter specified by him relating to the administration of the autonomous districts and autonomous regions in the State, including matters specified in clauses (c), (d), (e) and (f) of sub-paragraph (3) of paragraph 1 of this Schedule, or may appoint a Commission to inquire into and report from time to time on the administration of autonomous districts and autonomous regions in the State generally and in particular on (a) th e provision of edu cation al and me di cal f a cil iti es and co mmu n i cations in su ch distr i cts an d r egions; (b) th e n e ed for an y n ew or sp e ci al l egisl a tion in r esp e ct of su ch dis tri cts an d r egions ; an d ( c) th e ad ministr at ion of th e l aws , ru l es an d r egul at ions ma d e b y th e D i s t r i ct an d R eg i o n al Co u n cil s; and define the procedure to be followed by such Commission. (2) The report of every such Commission with the recommendations of the Governor with respect thereto shall be laid before the Legislature of the State by the Minister concerned together with an explanatory memorandum regarding the action proposed to be taken thereon by the Government of the State.
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1. Paragraph 14 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1995 (42 of 1995) , s. 2, as under,In paragraph 14 , in sub-paragraph (2), the words with the recommendations of the Governor with respect thereto shall be omitted.

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(3) In allocating the business of the Government of the State among his Ministers the Governor may place one of his Ministers specially in charge of the welfare of the autonomous districts and autonomous regions in the State. 15. Annulment or suspension of acts and resolutions of District and Regional Councils. (1) If at any time the Governor is satisfied that an act or resolution of a District or a Regional Council is likely to endanger the safety of India or is likely to be prejudicial to public order, he may annul or suspend such act or resolution and take such steps as he may consider necessary (including the suspension of the Council and the assumption to himself of all or any of the powers vested in or exercisable by the Council) to prevent the commission or continuance of such act, or the giving of effect to such resolution. (2) Any order made by the Governor under sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph together with the reasons therefor shall be laid before the Legislature of the State as soon as possible and the order shall, unless revoked by the Legislature of the State, continue in force for a period of twelve months from the date on which it was so made: Provided that if and so often as a resolution approving the continuance in force of such order is passed by the Legislature of the State, the order shall unless cancelled by the Governor continue in force for a further period of twelve months from the date on which under this paragraph it would otherwise have ceased to operate. 16. Dissolution of a District or a Regional Council.(1) The Governor may on the recommendation of a Commission appointed under paragraph 14 of this Schedule by public notification order the dissolution of a District or a Regional Council, and (a) d ir e ct th at a f r esh g en er al e l e ct io n sh al l b e h eld i mme d i a t ely fo r th e r econst itution of th e Coun cil, o r (b) subj ect to th e pr eviou s approv al o f th e Legis l atur e of th e St at e assu me th e admi nis tr ation of th e ar ea und er th e author it y of su ch Coun cil hi ms elf or pl ace th e ad min istr ation o f su ch ar ea und er th e Co mmi ssion appoint ed und er th e s aid p ar agraph or an y oth er bod y consid er ed su it abl e b y hi m for a p eriod not ex ceeding t w elv e months : Provided that when an order under clause (a) of this paragraph has been made, the Governor may take the action referred to in clause (b) of this paragraph with regard to the administration of the area in question pending the reconstitution of the Council on fresh general election: Provided further that no action shall be taken under clause (b) of this paragraph without giving the District or the Regional Council, as the case may be, an opportunity of placing its views before the Legislature of the State.
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1. Paragraph 15 has been amended in its application to the States of Tripura and Mizoram by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1988 (67 of 1988), s. 2, as under,(a) in the opening paragraph, for the words by the Legislature of the State, the words by him shall be substituted; (b) the proviso shall be omitted. 2. Paragraph 16 has been amended in its application to the States of Tripura and Mizoram by s. 2, ibid., as under,(a) in sub-paragraph (1), the words subject to the previous approval of the Legislature of the State occurring in clause (b), and the second proviso shall be omitted; (b) for sub-paragraph (3), the following sub-graph shall be substituted, namely:(3) Every order made under sub-paragraph (1) or sub-paragraph (2) of this paragraph, along with the reasons therefor shall be laid before the Legislature of the State..

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(2) If at any time the Governor is satisfied that a situation has arisen in which the administration of an autonomous district or region cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of this Schedule, he may, by public notification, assume to himself all or any of the functions or powers vested in or exercisable by the District Council or, as the case may be, the Regional Council and declare that such functions or powers shall be exercisable by such person or authority as he may specify in this behalf, for a period not exceeding six months: Provided that the Governor may by a further order or orders extend the operation of the initial order by a period not exceeding six months on each occasion. (3) Every order made under sub-paragraph (2) of this paragraph with the reasons therefor shall be laid before the Legislature of the State and shall cease to operate at the expiration of thirty days from the date on which the State Legislature first sits after the issue of the order, unless, before the expiry of that period it has been approved by that State Legislature. 1 17. Exclusion of areas from autonomous districts in forming constituencies in such districts.For the purposes of elections to the Legislative Assembly of Assam or Meghalaya or Tripura or Mizoram, the Governor may by order declare that any area within an autonomous district in the State of Assam or Meghalaya or Tripura or Mizoram, as the case may be, shall not form part of any constituency to fill a seat or seats in the Assembly reserved for any such district but shall form part of a constituency to fill a seat or seats in the Assembly not so reserved to be specified in the order. * * * * * 2 19. Transitional provisions.(1) As soon as possible after the commencement of this Constitution the Governor shall take steps for the constitution of a District Council for each autonomous district in the State under this Schedule and, until a District Council is so constituted for an autonomous district, the administration of such district shall be vested in the Governor and the following provisions shall apply to the administration of the areas within such district instead of the foregoing provisions of this Schedule, namely: (a) no Act of Parliament or of the Legislature of the State shall apply to any such area unless the Governor by public notification so directs; and the Governor in giving such a direction with respect to any Act may direct that the Act shall, in its application to the area or to any specified part thereof, have effect subject to such exceptions or modifications as he thinks fit;

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1. Paragraph 17 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 2003 (44 of 2003), s. 2 , so as to insert the following proviso, namely: Provided that nothing in this paragraph shall apply to the Bodoland Territorial Areas District. 2. Paragraph 19 has been amended in its application to the State of Assam by s. 2 , ibid., so as to insert the following sub-paragraph after sub-paragraph (3), namely: (4) As soon as possible after the commencement of this Act, and Interim Executive Council for Bodoland Territorial Areas District in Assam shall be formed by the Governor from amongst leaders of the Bodo movement, including the signatories to the Memorandum of Settlement, and shall provide adequate representation to the non-tribal communities in that area: Provided that Interim Council shall be for a period of six months during which endeavour to hold the election to the Council shall be made. Explanation.---For the purposes of this sub-paragraph, the expression Memorandum of Settlement means the Memorandum signed on the 10th day of February, 2003 between Government of India, Government of Assam and Bodo Liberation Tigres.

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(b) th e Gov ernor may ma k e r egul ations for the peace and good gov ern ment o f an y su ch ar ea and an y r egul at ions so mad e may r ep eal or amen d an y Act of P arl i amen t or of th e Legi sl atur e of th e St ate or any exis ting l a w whi ch is for th e time b e ing app li cabl e to su ch ar ea . (2) Any direction given by the Governor under clause (a) of sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph may be given so as to have retrospective effect. (3) All regulations made under clause (b) of sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph shall be submitted forthwith to the President and, until assented to by him, shall have no effect. 20. Tribal areas.(1) The areas specified in Parts I, II, IIA and III of the table below shall respectively be the tribal areas within the State of Assam, the State of Meghalaya, the State of Tripura and the State of Mizoram. (2) Any reference in Part I, Part II or Part III of the table below to any district shall be construed as a reference to the territories comprised within the autonomous district of that name existing immediately before the day appointed under clause (b) of section 2 of the North-Eastern Areas (Reorganisation) Act, 1971: Provided that for the purposes of clauses (e) and (f) of sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 3, paragraph 4, paragraph 5, paragraph 6, sub-paragraph (2), clauses (a), (b) and (d) of subparagraph (3) and sub-paragraph (4) of paragraph 8 and clause (d) of sub-paragraph (2) of paragraph 10 of this Schedule, no part of the area comprised within the municipality of Shillong shall be deemed to be within the Khasi Hills District. (3) The reference in Part IIA in the table below to the "Tripura Tribal Areas District" shall be construed as a reference to the territory comprising the tribal areas specified in the First Schedule to the Tripura Tribal Areas Autonomous District Council Act, 1979. TABLE PART I 1. 2. 3. The North Cachar Hills District. The Karbi Anglong District. Th e Bodol and Terri tori al Ar eas Distr i ct . P A R T II Khasi Hills District. Jaintia Hills District. The Garo Hills District. PART IIA Tripura Tribal Areas District P A R T III ** * 1. 2. 3. The Chakma District. The Mara District. The Lai District.

1. 2. 3.

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20A. Dissolution of the Mizo District Council.(1) Notwithstanding anything in this Schedule, the District Council of the Mizo District existing immediately before the prescribed date (hereinafter referred to as the Mizo District Council) shall stand dissolved and cease to exist. (2) The Administrator of the Union territory of Mizoram may, by one or more orders, provide for all or any of the following matters, namely: (a) th e tr an sf er , in who l e or in p art , of th e ass ets , right s an d li ab ilit i es of th e Mi zo Distri ct Coun cil (in cluding th e right s an d li ab ilit i es und er an y contr act ma d e b y i t) to the Union or to an y oth er author it y; (b) th e substitu tion o f th e Union or an y other authorit y for th e Mi zo Distr i ct Coun cil, or th e addit ion of th e Union or an y o th er authori t y, as a p a rt y to an y leg al pro ceedings to whi ch th e Mi zo Dis tri ct Coun cil is a p art y; ( c) th e t r ansf er or r e- emplo yment of an y emp lo yees of t h e Mi zo Distr i ct Coun cil to o r b y th e Union or an y oth er author it y, th e ter ms an d condit ions of s ervi ce appli c abl e to su ch emplo yees aft er su ch t ransf er or r e- e mplo yment; (d ) th e continu an ce of an y l aws , mad e b y the Mi zo Dist ri ct Coun cil a n d in fo r c e i mme d i at el y b efo r e i ts d isso lu tio n , su b j e c t to su ch ad apt at ions and mo difi cations , wh eth er b y way of r ep eal or amen d men t, as th e Ad ministr a tor may mak e in this b ehalf , unt il su ch l a ws ar e alt er ed, r ep eal ed or amend ed b y a co mp etent Legisl atur e or oth er c o mp et en t au th o ri t y; ( e) su ch in cid ent al , con s equenti al and suppl ement ar y mat ters as th e Ad ministr ator consid er s n eces sar y. Explanation.In this paragraph and in paragraph 20B of this Schedule, the expression "prescribed date" means the date on which the Legislative Assembly of the Union territory of Mizoram is duly constituted under and in accordance with the provisions of the Government of Union Territories Act, 1963. 1 20B. Autonomous regions in the Union territory of Mizoram to be autonomous districts and transitory provisions consequent thereto. (1) Notwithstanding anything in this Schedule,

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1. After paragraph 20B, the following paragraph has been inserted in its application to the State of Assam by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1995 (42 of 1995), s. 2, namely:20BA. Exercise of discretionary powers by the Governor in the discharge of his functions.-The Governor in the discharge of his functions under sub-paragraphs (2) and (3) of paragraph 1, sub-paragraphs (1), (6), sub-paragraph (6A) excluding the first proviso and sub-paragraph (7) of paragraph 2, sub-paragraph (3) of paragraph 3, sub-paragraph (4) of paragraph 4, paragraph 5, sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 6, sub-paragraph (2) of paragraph 7, sub-paragraph (4) of paragraph 8, sub-paragraph (3) of paragraph 9, sub-paragraph (3) of paragraph 10, sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 14, sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 15 and sub-paragraphs (1) and (2) of paragraph 16 of this Schedule, shall, after consulting the Council of Ministers and the North Cachar Hills Autonomous Council or the Karbi Anglong Autonomous Council, as the case may be, take such action as he considers necessary in his discretion. 2. After paragraph 20B, the following paragraph has been inserted in its application to the States of Tripura and Mizoram, by the Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Act, 1988 (67 of 1988), s. 2, namely:20BB. Exercise of discretionary powers by the Governor in the discharge of his functions.-The Governor, in the discharge of his functions under sub-paragraphs (2) and (3) of paragraph 1, sub-paragraphs (1) and (7) of paragraph 2, sub-paragraph (3) of paragraph 3, sub-paragraph (4) of paragraph 4, paragraph 5, subparagraph (1) of paragraph 6, sub-paragraph (2) of paragraph 7, sub- paragraph (3) of paragraph 9, subparagraph (1) of paragraph 14, sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 15 and sub-paragraphs (1) and (2) of paragraph 16 of this Schedule, shall, after consulting the Council of Ministers, and if he thinks it necessary, the District Council or the Regional Council concerned, take such action as he considers necessary in his discretion.

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(a) ev er y autono mous region exis ting i mme d i at el y b efor e th e pr es cr ib ed d at e in th e Union t e rri tor y of Mi zo r am s h al l, on an d fro m th at d at e , b e an au tono mous d istri ct in th at Union t erri tor y (h er eaf t er r ef err ed to as th e co rr esponding n ew di stri ct) and th e Ad mini str ator th er eof may, by on e or mor e ord ers , d ir ect th at su ch cons equ ent i al amen d men ts as ar e n eces s ar y to giv e eff ect to th e p rovisions of this cl au s e sh all b e mad e in p a r agr ap h 20 of thi s S ch edul e (in cluding P ar t III of th e t abl e app end ed to that p ar agr aph) and th er eupon th e s aid p ar agr aph and th e s aid P art III s hall b e d eemed to h av e b een amen d ed according ly; (b) ev er y Region al Coun cil of an autonomo us r egion in th e Union t err itor y of Mizor a m exist ing i mme d i at el y befor e th e pr es crib ed d a t e (h er e af t er re f err ed to as th e ex is tin g R eg io n al Co u n cil) sh all , o n an d fro m th at d at e and unt il a Di str i ct Coun cil is du ly consti tut ed fo r th e corr espond ing new distri ct, b e d eemed to b e the Distri ct Council of th at dis tri ct (h er eaft er r ef e rr ed to as th e co rresponding n e w Distr i ct Coun cil) . (2) Every member whether elected or nominated of an existing Regional Council shall be deemed to have been elected or, as the case may be, nominated to the corresponding new District Council and shall hold office until a District Council is duly constituted for the corresponding new district under this Schedule. (3) Until rules are made under sub-paragraph (7) of paragraph 2 and sub-paragraph (4) of paragraph 4 of this Schedule by the corresponding new District Council, the rules made under the said provisions by the existing Regional Council and in force immediately before the prescribed date shall have effect in relation to the corresponding new District Council subject to such adaptations and modifications as may be made therein by the Administrator of the Union territory of Mizoram. (4) The Administrator of the Union territory of Mizoram may, by one or more orders, provide for all or any of the following matters, namely: (a) th e tr an sf er in whol e or in p art of th e ass ets , rights and li ab ilit i es of the exist ing Reg ion al Coun cil ( in cluding the r ights and li ab ilit i es und er an y contr act ma d e b y i t) to th e corr esponding n ew Distr i ct Coun cil; (b) th e subs titu tion of th e co rr espond ing n ew Distri ct Council for the exis ting Regional Coun cil as a p ar t y to th e l eg al pro ceedings t o whi ch th e exis ting Region al Coun cil i s a p art y; ( c) th e tr ansf er or r e- e mploymen t of an y emp lo yees of the exist ing Region al Coun cil to or b y th e corr espond ing new Distri ct Coun cil , th e t er ms an d condition s of s e rvi c e appli c ab l e to su ch emp lo y ees aft er su ch tr an s f er o r r e - emp lo yment; (d) th e continu an ce of an y l a ws ma d e by th e ex isting Reg ion al C oun cil and in for c e i mme d i at el y b efor e th e p re s crib ed d at e, subj ect to su ch ad ap t ations and mod ification s, wh ether b y way of r ep eal or amen d men t, as th e Ad mini str ator may mak e i n this b eh al f unti l su ch

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l aws ar e alt er ed , r ep eal ed or amen d ed b y a co mp et ent Legisl atur e or oth er co mp et ent authori t y; ( e) su ch in cid ent al , cons equenti a l and suppl ement ar y ma tt ers as th e Ad ministr ator consid er s n eces sar y. 20C. Interpretation.Subject to any provision made in this behalf, the provisions of this Schedule shall, in their application to the Union territory of Mizoram, have effect (1) as if ref er en ces to the Gov erno r and Gov ern ment of th e S t at e wer e r ef er en c es to th e Ad min istr a tor of th e Union t er ritor y appoint ed und er art i cl e 239 , r ef er en ces to St at e ( except in th e expr ess ion " Gov ern ment of th e St at e") w er e r ef er en ces to th e Un ion t erri tor y of M i zor am a nd r ef er en ces to th e St at e L egi sl ature w er e r ef er en ces to th e Legisl ativ e As semb l y of th e Union t err itor y of Mi zo r a m; ( 2 ) as i f (a) in sub-p ar agr aph (5) of p ar agraph 4 , th e provis ion for consul t ation with th e Gov ern ment of th e St at e con cern ed h ad b een o mitt ed ; (b) in sub-p ar agr ap h (2) of p a r agraph 6 , for th e words "to whi ch th e ex ecutiv e power of th e S t at e ext ends ", th e words "with r esp ect to whi ch th e Legisl at ive Ass embl y of th e Union t erritor y of M i zo r a m h a s p o w e r to mak e l a ws " h ad b e en su b st itu t ed ; ( c) in p ar agr ap h 13, th e wo rds and figur es "und er arti cl e 202" h ad b e en o mi tt ed . 21. Amendment of the Schedule.(1) Parliament may from time to time by law amend by way of addition, variation or repeal any of the provisions of this Schedule and, when the Schedule is so amended, any reference to this Schedule in this Constitution shall be construed as a reference to such Schedule as so amended. (2) No such law as is mentioned in sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph shall be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368.

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SEVENTH SCHEDULE
( Arti c l e 246 ) L i s t I Un i o n Lis t 1. Defence of India and every part thereof including preparation for defence and all such acts as may be conducive in times of war to its prosecution and after its termination to effective demobilisation. 2. Naval, military and air forces; any other armed forces of the Union. 2A. Deployment of any armed force of the Union or any other force subject to the control of the Union or any contingent or unit thereof in any State in aid of the civil power; powers, jurisdiction, privileges and liabilities of the members of such forces while on such deployment. 3. Delimitation of cantonment areas, local self-government in such areas, the constitution and powers within such areas of cantonment authorities and the regulation of house accommodation (including the control of rents) in such areas. 4. Naval, military and air force works. 5. Arms, firearms, ammunition and explosives. 6. Atomic energy and mineral resources necessary for its production. 7. Industries declared by Parliament by law to be necessary for the purpose of defence or for the prosecution of war. 8. Central Bureau of Intelligence and Investigation. 9. Preventive detention for reasons connected with Defence, Foreign Affairs, or the security of India; persons subjected to such detention. 10. Foreign affairs; all matters which bring the Union into relation with any foreign country. 11. Diplomatic, consular and trade representation. 12. United Nations Organisation. 13. Participation in international conferences, associations and other bodies and implementing of decisions made thereat. 14. Entering into treaties and agreements with foreign countries and implementing of treaties, agreements and conventions with foreign countries. 15. War and peace. 16. Foreign jurisdiction. 17. Citizenship, naturalisation and aliens. 18. Extradition. 19. Admission into, and emigration and expulsion from, India; passports and visas. 20. Pilgrimages to places outside India. 21. Piracies and crimes committed on the high seas or in the air; offences against the law of nations committed on land or the high seas or in the air. 22. Railways. 23. Highways declared by or under law made by Parliament to be national highways.

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24. Shipping and navigation on inland waterways, declared by Parliament by law to be national waterways, as regards mechanically propelled vessels; the rule of the road on such waterways. 25. Maritime shipping and navigation, including shipping and navigation on tidal waters; provision of education and training for the mercantile marine and regulation of such education and training provided by States and other agencies. 26. Lighthouses, including lightships, beacons and other provision for the safety of shipping and aircraft. 27. Ports declared by or under law made by Parliament or existing law to be major ports, including their delimitation, and the constitution and powers of port authorities therein. 28. Port quarantine, including hospitals connected therewith; seamen's and marine hospitals. 29. Airways; aircraft and air navigation; provision of aerodromes; regulation and organisation of air traffic and of aerodromes; provision for aeronautical education and training and regulation of such education and training provided by States and other agencies. 30. Carriage of passengers and goods by railway, sea or air, or by national waterways in mechanically propelled vessels. 31. Posts and telegraphs; telephones, wireless, broadcasting and other like forms of communication. 32. Property of the Union and the revenue therefrom, but as regards property situated in a State subject to legislation by the State, save in so far as Parliament by law otherwise provides. * * * * * 34. Courts of wards for the estates of Rulers of Indian States. 35. Public debt of the Union. 36. Currency, coinage and legal tender; foreign exchange. 37. Foreign loans. 38. Reserve Bank of India. 39. Post Office Savings Bank. 40. Lotteries organised by the Government of India or the Government of a State. 41. Trade and commerce with foreign countries; import and export across customs frontiers; definition of customs frontiers. 42. Inter-State trade and commerce. 43. Incorporation, regulation and winding up of trading corporations, including banking, insurance and financial corporations, but not including co-operative societies. 44. Incorporation, regulation and winding up of corporations, whether trading or not, with objects not confined to one State, but not including universities. 45. Banking. 46. Bills of exchange, cheques, promissory notes and other like instruments. 47. Insurance. 48. Stock exchanges and futures markets. 49. Patents, inventions and designs; copyright; trade-marks and merchandise marks.

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50. Establishment of standards of weight and measure. 51. Establishment of standards of quality for goods to be exported out of India or transported from one State to another. 52. Industries, the control of which by the Union is declared by Parliament by law to be expedient in the public interest. 53. Regulation and development of oilfields and mineral oil resources; petroleum and petroleum products; other liquids and substances declared by Parliament by law to be dangerously inflammable. 54. Regulation of mines and mineral development to the extent to which such regulation and development under the control of the Union is declared by Parliament by law to be expedient in the public interest. 55. Regulation of labour and safety in mines and oilfields. 56. Regulation and development of inter-State rivers and river valleys to the extent to which such regulation and development under the control of the Union is declared by Parliament by law to be expedient in the public interest. 57. Fishing and fisheries beyond territorial waters. 58. Manufacture, supply and distribution of salt by Union agencies; regulation and control of manufacture, supply and distribution of salt by other agencies. 59. Cultivation, manufacture, and sale for export, of opium. 60. Sanctioning of cinematograph films for exhibition. 61. Industrial disputes concerning Union employees. 62. The institutions known at the commencement of this Constitution as the National Library, the Indian Museum, the Imperial War Museum, the Victoria Memorial and the Indian War Memorial, and any other like institution financed by the Government of India wholly or in part and declared by Parliament by law to be an institution of national importance. 63. The institutions known at the commencement of this Constitution as the Benares Hindu University, the Aligarh Muslim University and the Delhi University; the University established in pursuance of article 371E; any other institution declared by Parliament by law to be an institution of national importance. 64. Institutions for scientific or technical education financed by the Government of India wholly or in part and declared by Parliament by law to be institutions of national importance. 65. Union agencies and institutions for ( a) prof es sion al , vo cation al or t echni cal tr aining , in cluding the tr aining of po li ce offi cers ; o r (b) th e pro motion of sp eci a l stud i es o r r e s e ar ch; or ( c) s ci entif i c or t e chni cal assi st an ce in th e inv est ig ation or d et e ct ion o f cri me . 66. Co-ordination and determination of standards in institutions for higher education or research and scientific and technical institutions. 67. Ancient and historical monuments and records, and archaeological sites and remains, declared by or under law made by Parliament to be of national importance.

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68. The Survey of India, the Geological, Botanical, Zoological and Anthropological Surveys of India; Meteorological organisations. 69. Census. 70. Union Public Service; All-India Services; Union Public Service Commission. 71. Union pensions, that is to say, pensions payable by the Government of India or out of the Consolidated Fund of India. 72. Elections to Parliament, to the Legislatures of States and to the offices of President and Vice-President; the Election Commission. 73. Salaries and allowances of members of Parliament, the Chairman and Deputy Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the House of the People. 74. Powers, privileges and immunities of each House of Parliament and of the members and the Committees of each House; enforcement of attendance of persons for giving evidence or producing documents before committees of Parliament or commissions appointed by Parliament. 75. Emoluments, allowances, privileges, and rights in respect of leave of absence, of the President and Governors; salaries and allowances of the Ministers for the Union; the salaries, allowances, and rights in respect of leave of absence and other conditions of service of the Comptroller and Auditor-General. 76. Audit of the accounts of the Union and of the States. 77. Constitution, organisation, jurisdiction and powers of the Supreme Court (including contempt of such Court), and the fees taken therein; persons entitled to practise before the Supreme Court. 78. Constitution and organisation (including vacations) of the High Courts except provisions as to officers and servants of High Courts; persons entitled to practise before the High Courts. 79. Extension of the jurisdiction of a High Court to, and exclusion of the jurisdiction of a High Court from, any Union territory. 80. Extension of the powers and jurisdiction of members of a police force belonging to any State to any area outside that State, but not so as to enable the police of one State to exercise powers and jurisdiction in any area outside that State without the consent of the Government of the State in which such area is situated; extension of the powers and jurisdiction of members of a police force belonging to any State to railway areas outside that State. 81. Inter-State migration; inter-State quarantine. 82. Taxes on income other than agricultural income. 83. Duties of customs including export duties. 84. Duties of excise on tobacco and other goods manufactured or produced in India except (a) al cohol i c liquo rs for hu ma n consu mption; (b) opiu m, Indi an h emp and oth er n ar cot i c drugs and n ar coti cs , but including medicinal and toilet preparations containing alcohol or any substance included in sub-paragraph (b) of this entry. 85. Corporation tax.

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86. Taxes on the capital value of the assets, exclusive of agricultural land, of individuals and companies; taxes on the capital of companies. 87. Estate duty in respect of property other than agricultural land. 88. Duties in respect of succession to property other than agricultural land. 89. Terminal taxes on goods or passengers, carried by railway, sea or air; taxes on railway fares and freights. 90. Taxes other than stamp duties on transactions in stock exchanges and futures markets. 91. Rates of stamp duty in respect of bills of exchange, cheques, promissory notes, bills of lading, letters of credit, policies of insurance, transfer of shares, debentures, proxies and receipts. 92. Taxes on the sale or purchase of newspapers and on advertisements published therein. 92A. Taxes on the sale or purchase of goods other than newspapers, where such sale or purchase takes place in the course of inter-State trade or commerce. 92B. Taxes on the consignments of goods (whether the consignment is to the person making it or to any other person), where such consignment takes place in the course of interState trade or commerce. 93. Offences against laws with respect to any of the matters in this List. 94. Inquires, surveys and statistics for the purpose of any of the matters in this List. 95. Jurisdiction and powers of all courts, except the Supreme Court, with respect to any of the matters in this List; admiralty jurisdiction. 96. Fees in respect of any of the matters in this List, but not including fees taken in any court. 97. Any other matter not enumerated in List II or List III including any tax not mentioned in either of those Lists. L ist II St at e Lis t 1. Public order (but not including the use of any naval, military or air force or any other armed force of the Union or of any other force subject to the control of the Union or of any contingent or unit thereof in aid of the civil power). 2. Police (including railway and village police) subject to the provisions of entry 2A of List I. 3. Officers and servants of the High Court; procedure in rent and revenue courts; fees taken in all courts except the Supreme Court. 4. Prisons, reformatories, Borstal institutions and other institutions of a like nature, and persons detained therein; arrangements with other States for the use of prisons and other institutions. 5. Local government, that is to say, the constitution and powers of municipal corporations, improvement trusts, districts boards, mining settlement authorities and other local authorities for the purpose of local self-government or village administration. 6. Public health and sanitation; hospitals and dispensaries. 7. Pilgrimages, other than pilgrimages to places outside India. 8. Intoxicating liquors, that is to say, the production, manufacture, possession, transport, purchase and sale of intoxicating liquors.

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9. Relief of the disabled and unemployable. 10. Burials and burial grounds; cremations and cremation grounds. * * * * * 12. Libraries, museums and other similar institutions controlled or financed by the State; ancient and historical monuments and records other than those declared by or under law made by Parliament to be of national importance. 13. Communications, that is to say, roads, bridges, ferries, and other means of communication not specified in List I; municipal tramways; ropeways; inland waterways and traffic thereon subject to the provisions of List I and List III with regard to such waterways; vehicles other than mechanically propelled vehicles. 14. Agriculture, including agricultural education and research, protection against pests and prevention of plant diseases. 15. Preservation, protection and improvement of stock and prevention of animal diseases; veterinary training and practice. 16. Pounds and the prevention of cattle trespass. 17. Water, that is to say, water supplies, irrigation and canals, drainage and embankments, water storage and water power subject to the provisions of entry 56 of List I. 18. Land, that is to say, rights in or over land, land tenures including the relation of landlord and tenant, and the collection of rents; transfer and alienation of agricultural land; land improvement and agricultural loans; colonization. * * * * * 21. Fisheries. 22. Courts of wards subject to the provisions of entry 34 of List I; encumbered and attached estates. 23. Regulation of mines and mineral development subject to the provisions of List I with respect to regulation and development under the control of the Union. 24. Industries subject to the provisions of entries 7 and 52 of List I. 25. Gas and gas-works. 26. Trade and commerce within the State subject to the provisions of entry 33 of List III. 27. Production, supply and distribution of goods subject to the provisions of entry 33 of List III. 28. Markets and fairs. * * * * * 30. Money-lending and money-lenders; relief of agricultural indebtedness. 31. Inns and inn-keepers. 32. Incorporation, regulation and winding up of corporations, other than those specified in List I, and universities; unincorporated trading, literary, scientific, religious and other societies and associations; co-operative societies.
33. Theatres and dramatic performances; cinemas subject to the provisions of entry 60 of List I; sports, entertainments and amusements.

34. Betting and gambling. 35. Works, lands and buildings vested in or in the possession of the State. * * * *

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37. Elections to the Legislature of the State subject to the provisions of any law made by Parliament. 38. Salaries and allowances of members of the Legislature of the State, of the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and, if there is a Legislative Council, of the Chairman and Deputy Chairman thereof. 39. Powers, privileges and immunities of the Legislative Assembly and of the members and the committees thereof, and, if there is a Legislative Council, of that Council and of the members and the committees thereof; enforcement of attendance of persons for giving evidence or producing documents before committees of the Legislature of the State. 40. Salaries and allowances of Ministers for the State. 41. State public services; State Public Service Commission. 42. State pensions, that is to say, pensions payable by the State or out of the Consolidated Fund of the State. 43. Public debt of the State. 44. Treasure trove. 45. Land revenue, including the assessment and collection of revenue, the maintenance of land records, survey for revenue purposes and records of rights, and alienation of revenues. 46. Taxes on agricultural income. 47. Duties in respect of succession to agricultural land. 48. Estate duty in respect of agricultural land. 49. Taxes on lands and buildings. 50. Taxes on mineral rights subject to any limitations imposed by Parliament by law relating to mineral development. 51. Duties of excise on the following goods manufactured or produced in the State and countervailing duties at the same or lower rates on similar goods manufactured or produced elsewhere in India: ( a) al coholic liquors for human con su mp tion; (b) op iu m, Indi an h emp and oth er n ar cot i c drugs and n ar cotics , but not including medicinal and toilet preparations containing alcohol or any substance included in sub-paragraph (b) of this entry. 52. Taxes on the entry of goods into a local area for consumption, use or sale therein. 53. Taxes on the consumption or sale of electricity. 54. Taxes on the sale or purchase of goods other than newspapers, subject to the provisions of entry 92A of List I. 55. Taxes on advertisements other than advertisements published in the newspapers and advertisements broadcast by radio or television. 56. Taxes on goods and passengers carried by road or on inland waterways. 57. Taxes on vehicles, whether mechanically propelled or not, suitable for use on roads, including tramcars subject to the provisions of entry 35 of List III. 58. Taxes on animals and boats. 59. Tolls. 60. Taxes on professions, trades, callings and employments.

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61. Capitation taxes. 62. Taxes on luxuries, including taxes on entertainments, amusements, betting and gambling. 63. Rates of stamp duty in respect of documents other than those specified in the provisions of List I with regard to rates of stamp duty. 64. Offences against laws with respect to any of the matters in this List. 65. Jurisdiction and powers of all courts, except the Supreme Court, with respect to any of the matters in this List. 66. Fees in respect of any of the matters in this List, but not including fees taken in any court.

List IIICo ncu rrent List


1. Criminal law, including all matters included in the Indian Penal Code at the commencement of this Constitution but excluding offences against laws with respect to any of the matters specified in List I or List II and excluding the use of naval, military or air forces or any other armed forces of the Union in aid of the civil power. 2. Criminal procedure, including all matters included in the Code of Criminal Procedure at the commencement of this Constitution. 3. Preventive detention for reasons connected with the security of a State, the maintenance of public order, or the maintenance of supplies and services essential to the community; persons subjected to such detention. 4. Removal from one State to another State of prisoners, accused persons and persons subjected to preventive detention for reasons specified in entry 3 of this List. 5. Marriage and divorce; infants and minors; adoption; wills, intestacy and succession; joint family and partition; all matters in respect of which parties in judicial proceedings were immediately before the commencement of this Constitution subject to their personal law. 6. Transfer of property other than agricultural land; registration of deeds and documents. 7. Contracts, including partnership, agency, contracts of carriage, and other special forms of contracts, but not including contracts relating to agricultural land. 8. Actionable wrongs. 9. Bankruptcy and insolvency. 10. Trust and Trustees. 11. Administrators-general and official trustees. 11A. Administration of Justice; constitution and organisation of all courts, except the Supreme Court and the High Courts. 12. Evidence and oaths; recognition of laws, public acts and records, and judicial proceedings. 13. Civil procedure, including all matters included in the Code of Civil Procedure at the commencement of this Constitution, limitation and arbitration. 14. Contempt of court, but not including contempt of the Supreme Court. 15. Vagrancy; nomadic and migratory tribes.

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16. Lunacy and mental deficiency, including places for the reception or treatment of lunatics and mental deficients. 17. Prevention of cruelty to animals. 17A. Forests. 17B. Protection of wild animals and birds. 18. Adulteration of foodstuffs and other goods. 19. Drugs and poisons, subject to the provisions of entry 59 of List I with respect to opium. 20. Economic and social planning. 20A. Population control and family planning. 21. Commercial and industrial monopolies, combines and trusts. 22. Trade unions; industrial and labour disputes. 23. Social security and social insurance; employment and unemployment. 24. Welfare of labour including conditions of work, provident funds, employers' liability, workmen's compensation, invalidity and old age pensions and maternity benefits. 25. Education, including technical education, medical education and universities, subject to the provisions of entries 63, 64, 65 and 66 of List I; vocational and technical training of labour. 26. Legal, medical and other professions. 27. Relief and rehabilitation of persons displaced from their original place of residence by reason of the setting up of the Dominions of India and Pakistan. 28. Charities and charitable institutions, charitable and religious endowments and religious institutions. 29. Prevention of the extension from one State to another of infectious or contagious diseases or pests affecting men, animals or plants. 30. Vital statistics including registration of births and deaths. 31. Ports other than those declared by or under law made by Parliament or existing law to be major ports. 32. Shipping and navigation on inland waterways as regards mechanically propelled vessels, and the rule of the road on such waterways, and the carriage of passengers and goods on inland waterways subject to the provisions of List I with respect to national waterways. 33. Trade and commerce in, and the production, supply and distribution of, (a) th e produ cts of an y industry wh er e th e contro l of su ch industr y b y th e Un io n is d e cl a r ed b y P arl i a men t b y l a w to b e ex p ed i en t in th e publi c in t er est , and i mport ed goods of th e s ame kind as su ch produ cts ; (b ) foods tuffs , in clud ing edibl e oi ls eeds and oils ; ( c) c at tl e fo d d er , in clu d in g o il c ak es an d o th er co n c en tr at es; (d) r aw cotton , wh eth er ginn ed or unginn ed , and cot ton s eed; and ( e) r a w ju te . 33A. Weights and measures except establishment of standards. 34. Price control.

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35. Mechanically propelled vehicles including the principles on which taxes on such vehicles are to be levied. 36. Factories 37. Boilers. 38. Electricity. 39. Newspapers, books and printing presses. 40. Archaeological sites and remains other than those declared by or under law made by Parliament to be of national importance. 41. Custody, management and disposal of property (including agricultural land) declared by law to be evacuee property. 42. Acquisition and requisitioning of property. 43. Recovery in a State of claims in respect of taxes and other public demands, including arrears of land-revenue and sums recoverable as such arrears, arising outside that State. 44. Stamp duties other than duties or fees collected by means of judicial stamps, but not including rates of stamp duty. 45. Inquiries and statistics for the purposes of any of the matters specified in List II or List III. 46. Jurisdiction and powers of all courts, except the Supreme Court, with respect to any of the matters in this List. 47. Fees in respect of any of the matters in this List, but not including fees taken in any court.

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EIGHTH SCHEDULE [Articles 344 (1) and 351]


Lang uag es
1. Assamese. 2. Bengali. 3. Bodo. 4. Dogri. 5. Gujarati. 6. Hindi. 7. Kannada. 8. Kashmiri. 9. Konkani. 10. Maithili. 11. Malayalam. 12. Manipuri. 13. Marathi. 14. Nepali. 15. Oriya. 16. Punjabi. 17. Sanskrit. 18. Santhali. 19. Sindhi. 20. Tamil. 21. Telugu. 22. Urdu.

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NINTH SCHEDULE
(Article 31B)
1. The Bihar Land Reforms Act, 1950 (Bihar Act XXX of 1950). 2. The Bombay Tenancy and Agricultural Lands Act, 1948 (Bombay Act LXVII of 1948). 3. The Bombay Maleki Tenure Abolition Act, 1949 (Bombay Act LXI of 1949). 4. The Bombay Taluqdari Tenure Abolition Act, 1949 (Bombay Act LXII of 1949). 5. The Panch Mahals Mehwassi Tenure Abolition Act, 1949 (Bombay Act LXIII of 1949). 6. The Bombay Khoti Abolition Act, 1950 (Bombay Act VI of 1950). 7. The Bombay Paragana and Kulkarni Watan Abolition Act, 1950 (Bombay Act LX of 1950). 8. The Madhya Pradesh Abolition of Proprietary Rights (Estates, Mahals, Alienated Lands) Act, 1950 (Madhya Pradesh Act I of 1951). 9. The Madras Estates (Abolition and Conversion into Ryotwari) Act, 1948 (Madras Act XXVI of 1948). 10. The Madras Estates (Abolition and Conversion into Ryotwari) Amendment Act, 1950 (Madras Act I of 1950). 11. The Uttar Pradesh Zamindari Abolition and Land Reforms Act, 1950 (Uttar Pradesh Act I of 1951). 12. The Hyderabad (Abolition of Jagirs) Regulation, 1358F (No. LXIX of 1358, Fasli). 13. The Hyderabad Jagirs (Commutation) Regulation, 1359F (No. XXV of 1359, Fasli). 14. The Bihar Displaced Persons Rehabilitation (Acquisition of Land) Act, 1950 (Bihar Act XXXVIII of 1950). 15. The United Provinces Land Acquisition (Rehabilitation of Refugees) Act, 1948 (U.P. Act XXVI of 1948). 16. The Resettlement of Displaced Persons (Land Acquisition) Act, 1948 (Act LX of 1948). 17. Sections 52A to 52G of the Insurance Act, 1938 (Act IV of 1938), as inserted by section 42 of the Insurance (Amendment) Act, 1950 (Act XLVII of 1950). 18. The Railway Companies (Emergency Provisions) Act, 1951 (Act LI of 1951). 19. Chapter III-A of the Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951 (Act LXV of 1951), as inserted by section 13 of the Industries (Development and Regulation) Amendment Act, 1953 (Act XXVI of 1953). 20. The West Bengal Land Development and Planning Act, 1948 (West Bengal Act XXI of 1948), as amended by West Bengal Act XXIX of 1951. 21. The Andhra Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings Act, 1961 (Andhra Pradesh Act X of 1961). 22. The Andhra Pradesh (Telangana Area) Tenancy and Agricultural Lands (Validation) Act, 1961 (Andhra Pradesh Act XXI of 1961). 23. The Andhra Pradesh (Telangana Area) Ijara and Kowli Land Cancellation of Irregular Pattas and Abolition of Concessional Assessment Act, 1961 (Andhra Pradesh Act XXXVI of 1961).

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24. The Assam State Acquisition of Lands belonging to Religious or Charitable Institution of Public Nature Act, 1959 (Assam Act IX of 1961). 25. The Bihar Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1953 (Bihar Act XX of 1954). 26. The Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling Area and Acquisition of Surplus Land) Act, 1961 (Bihar Act XII of 1962), except section 28 of this Act. 27. The Bombay Taluqdari Tenure Abolition (Amendment) Act, 1954 (Bombay Act I of 1955). 28. The Bombay Taluqdari Tenure Abolition (Amendment) Act, 1957 (Bombay Act XVIII of 1958). 29. The Bombay Inams (Kutch Area) Abolition Act, 1958 (Bombay Act XCVIII of 1958). 30. The Bombay Tenancy and Agricultural Lands (Gujarat Amendment) Act, 1960 (Gujarat Act XVI of 1960). 31. The Gujarat Agricultural Lands Ceiling Act, 1960 (Gujarat Act XXVI of 1961). 32. The Sagbara and Mehwassi Estates (Proprietary Rights Abolition, etc.) Regulation, 1962 (Gujarat Regulation I of 1962). 33. The Gujarat Surviving Alienations Abolition Act, 1963 (Gujarat Act XXXIII of 1963), except in so far as this Act relates to an alienation referred to in sub-clause (d) of clause (3) of section 2 thereof. 34. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) Act, 1961 (Maharashtra Act XXVII of 1961). 35. The Hyderabad Tenancy and Agricultural Lands (Re-enactment, Validation and Further Amendment) Act, 1961 (Maharashtra Act XLV of 1961). 36. The Hyderabad Tenancy and Agricultural Lands Act, 1950 (Hyderabad Act XXI of 1950). 37. The Jenmikaram Payment (Abolition) Act, 1960 (Kerala Act III of 1961). 38. The Kerala Land Tax Act, 1961 (Kerala Act XIII of 1961). 39. The Kerala Land Reforms Act, 1963 (Kerala Act I of 1964). 40. The Madhya Pradesh Land Revenue Code, 1959 (Madhya Pradesh Act XX of 1959). 41. The Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings Act, 1960 (Madhya Pradesh Act XX of 1960). 42. The Madras Cultivating Tenants Protection Act, 1955 (Madras Act XXV of 1955). 43. The Madras Cultivating Tenants (Payment of Fair Rent) Act, 1956 (Madras Act XXIV of 1956). 44. The Madras Occupants of Kudiyiruppu (Protection from Eviction) Act, 1961 (Madras Act XXXVIII of 1961). 45. The Madras Public Trusts (Regulation of Administration of Agricultural Lands) Act, 1961 (Madras Act LVII of 1961). 46. The Madras Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Act, 1961 (Madras Act LVIII of 1961). 47. The Mysore Tenancy Act, 1952 (Mysore Act XIII of 1952). 48. The Coorg Tenants Act, 1957 (Mysore Act XIV of 1957). 49. The Mysore Village Offices Abolition Act, 1961 (Mysore Act XIV of 1961).

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50. The Hyderabad Tenancy and Agricultural Lands (Validation) Act, 1961 (Mysore Act XXXVI of 1961). 51. The Mysore Land Reforms Act, 1961 (Mysore Act X of 1962). 52. The Orissa Land Reforms Act, 1960 (Orissa Act XVI of 1960). 53. The Orissa Merged Territories (Village Offices Abolition) Act, 1963 (Orissa Act X of 1963). 54. The Punjab Security of Land Tenures Act, 1953 (Punjab Act X of 1953). 55. The Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955 (Rajasthan Act III of 1955). 56. The Rajasthan Zamindari and Biswedari Abolition Act, 1959 (Rajasthan Act VIII of 1959). 57. The Kumaun and Uttarakhand Zamindari Abolition and Land Reforms Act, 1960 (Uttar Pradesh Act XVII of 1960). 58. The Uttar Pradesh Imposition of Ceiling on Land Holdings Act, 1960 (Uttar Pradesh Act I of 1961). 59. The West Bengal Estates Acquisition Act, 1953 (West Bengal Act I of 1954). 60. The West Bengal Land Reforms Act, 1955 (West Bengal Act X of 1956). 61. The Delhi Land Reforms Act, 1954 (Delhi Act VIII of 1954). 62. The Delhi Land Holdings (Ceiling) Act, 1960 (Central Act 24 of 1960). 63. The Manipur Land Revenue and Land Reforms Act, 1960 (Central Act 33 of 1960). 64. The Tripura Land Revenue and Land Reforms Act, 1960 (Central Act 43 of 1960). 65. The Kerala Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1969 (Kerala Act 35 of 1969). 66. The Kerala Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1971 (Kerala Act 25 of 1971). 67. The Andhra Pradesh Land Reforms (Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings) Act, 1973 (Andhra Pradesh Act 1 of 1973). 68. The Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling Area and Acquisition of Surplus Land) (Amendment) Act, 1972 (Bihar Act 1 of 1973). 69. The Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling Area and Acquisition of Surplus Land) (Amendment) Act, 1973 (Bihar Act IX of 1973). 70. The Bihar Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1972 (Bihar Act V of 1972). 71. The Gujarat Agricultural Lands Ceiling (Amendment) Act, 1972 (Gujarat Act 2 of 1974). 72. The Haryana Ceiling on Land Holdings Act, 1972 (Haryana Act 26 of 1972). 73. The Himachal Pradesh Ceiling on Land Holdings Act, 1972 (Himachal Pradesh Act 19 of 1973). 74. The Kerala Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1972 (Kerala Act 17 of 1972). 75. The Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1972 (Madhya Pradesh Act 12 of 1974). 76. The Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings (Second Amendment) Act, 1972 (Madhya Pradesh Act 13 of 1974). 77. The Mysore Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1973 (Karnataka Act 1 of 1974). 78. The Punjab Land Reforms Act, 1972 (Punjab Act 10 of 1973).

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79. The Rajasthan Imposition of Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings Act, 1973 (Rajasthan Act 11 of 1973). 80. The Gudalur Janmam Estates (Abolition and Conversion into Ryotwari) Act, 1969 (Tamil Nadu Act 24 of 1969). 81. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1972 (West Bengal Act XII of 1972). 82. The West Bengal Estates Acquisition (Amendment) Act, 1964 (West Bengal Act XXII of 1964). 83. The West Bengal Estates Acquisition (Second Amendment) Act, 1973 (West Bengal Act XXXIII of 1973). 84. The Bombay Tenancy and Agricultural Lands (Gujarat Amendment) Act, 1972 (Gujarat Act 5 of 1973). 85. The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1974 (Orissa Act 9 of 1974). 86. The Tripura Land Revenue and Land Reforms (Second Amendment) Act,1974 (Tripura Act 7 of 1974). * * * * * 88. The Industries (Development and Regulation) Act, 1951 (Central Act 65 of 1951). 89. The Requisitioning and Acquisition of Immovable Property Act, 1952 (Central Act 30 of 1952). 90. The Mines and Minerals (Regulation and Development) Act, 1957 (Central Act 67 of 1957). 91. The Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act, 1969 (Central Act 54 of 1969). * * * * * 93. The Coking Coal Mines (Emergency Provisions) Act, 1971 (Central Act 64 of 1971). 94. The Coking Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act, 1972 (Central Act 36 of 1972). 95. The General Insurance Business (Nationalisation) Act, 1972 (Central Act 57 of 1972). 96. The Indian Copper Corporation (Acquisition of Undertaking) Act, 1972 (Central Act 58 of 1972). 97. The Sick Textile Undertakings (Taking Over of Management) Act, 1972 (Central Act 72 of 1972). 98. The Coal Mines (Taking Over of Management) Act, 1973 (Central Act 15 of 1973). 99. The Coal Mines (Nationalisation) Act, 1973 (Central Act 26 of 1973). 100. The Foreign Exchange Regulation Act, 1973 (Central Act 46 of 1973). 101. The Alcock Ashdown Company Limited (Acquisition of Undertakings) Act, 1973 (Central Act 56 of 1973). 102. The Coal Mines (Conservation and Development) Act, 1974 (Central Act 28 of 1974). 103. The Additional Emoluments (Compulsory Deposit) Act, 1974 (Central Act 37 of 1974). 104. The Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act, 1974 (Central Act 52 of 1974). 105. The Sick Textile Undertakings (Nationalisation) Act, 1974 (Central Act 57 of 1974).

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106. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Amendment) Act, 1964 (Maharashtra Act XVI of 1965). 107. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Amendment) Act, 1965 (Maharashtra Act XXXII of 1965). 108. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Amendment) Act, 1968 (Maharashtra Act XVI of 1968). 109. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Second Amendment) Act, 1968 (Maharashtra Act XXXIII of 1968). 110. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Amendment) Act, 1969 (Maharashtra Act XXXVII of 1969). 111. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Second Amendment) Act, 1969 (Maharashtra Act XXXVIII of 1969). 112. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Amendment) Act, 1970 (Maharashtra Act XXVII of 1970). 113. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Amendment) Act, 1972 (Maharashtra Act XIII of 1972). 114. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Amendment) Act, 1973 (Maharashtra Act L of 1973). 115. The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1965 (Orissa Act 13 of 1965). 116. The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1966 (Orissa Act 8 of 1967). 117. The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1967 (Orissa Act 13 of 1967). 118. The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1969 (Orissa Act 13 of 1969). 119. The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1970 (Orissa Act 18 of 1970). 120. The Uttar Pradesh Imposition of Ceiling on Land Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1972 (Uttar Pradesh Act 18 of 1973). 121. The Uttar Pradesh Imposition of Ceiling on Land Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1974 (Uttar Pradesh Act 2 of 1975). 122. The Tripura Land Revenue and Land Reforms (Third Amendment) Act, 1975 (Tripura Act 3 of 1975). 123.The Dadra and Nagar Haveli Land Reforms Regulation, 1971 (3 of 1971). 124. The Dadra and Nagar Haveli Land Reforms (Amendment) Regulation, 1973 (5 of 1973). 125. Section 66A and Chapter IVA of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1939* (Central Act 4 of 1939). 126. The Essential Commodities Act, 1955 (Central Act 10 of 1955). 127. The Smugglers and Foreign Exchange Manipulators (Forfeiture of Property) Act, 1976 (Central Act 13 of 1976). 128. The Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976 (Central Act 19 of 1976). 129. The Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities (Amendment) Act, 1976 (Central Act 20 of 1976). * * * * * 131. The Levy Sugar Price Equalisation Fund Act, 1976 (Central Act 31 of 1976).
__________________________________________________________________________________________

* See now the relevant provisions of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988 (59 of 1988).

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132. The Urban Land (Ceiling and Regulation) Act, 1976 (Central Act 33 of 1976). 133. The Departmentalisation of Union Accounts (Transfer of Personnel) Act, 1976 (Central Act 59 of 1976). 134. The Assam Fixation of Ceiling on Land Holdings Act, 1956 (Assam Act 1 of 1957). 135. The Bombay Tenancy and Agricultural Lands (Vidarbha Region) Act, 1958 (Bombay Act XCIX of 1958). 136. The Gujarat Private Forests (Acquisition) Act, 1972 (Gujarat Act 14 of 1973). 137. The Haryana Ceiling on Land Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1976 (Haryana Act 17 of 1976). 138. The Himachal Pradesh Tenancy and Land Reforms Act, 1972 (Himachal Pradesh Act 8 of 1974). 139. The Himachal Pradesh Village Common Lands Vesting and Utilization Act, 1974 (Himachal Pradesh Act 18 of 1974). 140. The Karnataka Land Reforms (Second Amendment and Miscellaneous Provisions) Act, 1974 (Karnataka Act 31 of 1974). 141. The Karnataka Land Reforms (Second Amendment) Act, 1976 (Karnataka Act 27 of 1976). 142. The Kerala Prevention of Eviction Act, 1966 (Kerala Act 12 of 1966). 143. The Thiruppuvaram Payment (Abolition) Act, 1969 (Kerala Act 19 of 1969). 144. The Sreepadam Lands Enfranchisement Act, 1969 (Kerala Act 20 of 1969). 145. The Sree Pandaravaka Lands (Vesting and Enfranchisement) Act, 1971 (Kerala Act 20 of 1971). 146. The Kerala Private Forests (Vesting and Assignment) Act, 1971 (Kerala Act 26 of 1971). 147. The Kerala Agricultural Workers Act, 1974 (Kerala Act 18 of 1974). 148. The Kerala Cashew Factories (Acquisition) Act, 1974 (Kerala Act 29 of 1974). 149. The Kerala Chitties Act, 1975 (Kerala Act 23 of 1975). 150. The Kerala Scheduled Tribes (Restriction on Transfer of Lands and Restoration of Alienated Lands) Act, 1975 (Kerala Act 31 of 1975). 151. The Kerala Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1976 (Kerala Act 15 of 1976). 152. The Kanam Tenancy Abolition Act, 1976 (Kerala Act 16 of 1976). 153. The Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1974 (Madhya Pradesh Act 20 of 1974). 154. The Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1975 (Madhya Pradesh Act 2 of 1976). 155. The West Khandesh Mehwassi Estates (Proprietary Rights Abolition, etc.) Regulation, 1961 (Maharashtra Regulation 1 of 1962). 156. The Maharashtra Restoration of Lands to Scheduled Tribes Act, 1974 (Maharashtra Act XIV of 1975). 157. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Lowering of Ceiling on Holdings) and (Amendment) Act, 1972 (Maharashtra Act XXI of 1975).

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158. The Maharashtra Private Forest (Acquisition) Act, 1975 (Maharashtra Act XXIX of 1975). 159. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Lowering of Ceiling on Holdings) and (Amendment) Amendment Act, 1975 (Maharashtra Act XLVII of 1975). 160. The Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) (Amendment) Act, 1975 (Maharashtra Act II of 1976). 161. The Orissa Estates Abolition Act, 1951 (Orissa Act I of 1952). 162. The Rajasthan Colonisation Act, 1954 (Rajasthan Act XXVII of 1954). 163. The Rajasthan Land Reforms and Acquisition of Landowners Estates Act, 1963 (Rajasthan Act 11 of 1964). 164. The Rajasthan Imposition of Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1976 (Rajasthan Act 8 of 1976). 165. The Rajasthan Tenancy (Amendment) Act, 1976 (Rajasthan Act 12 of 1976). 166. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Reduction of Ceiling on Land) Act, 1970 (Tamil Nadu Act 17 of 1970). 167. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1971 (Tamil Nadu Act 41 of 1971). 168. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1972 (Tamil Nadu Act 10 of 1972). 169. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Second Amendment Act, 1972 (Tamil Nadu Act 20 of 1972). 170. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Third Amendment Act, 1972 (Tamil Nadu Act 37 of 1972). 171. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Fourth Amendment Act, 1972 (Tamil Nadu Act 39 of 1972). 172. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Sixth Amendment Act, 1972 (Tamil Nadu Act 7 of 1974). 173. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Fifth Amendment Act, 1972 (Tamil Nadu Act 10 of 1974). 174. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1974 (Tamil Nadu Act 15 of 1974). 175. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Third Amendment Act, 1974 (Tamil Nadu Act 30 of 1974). 176. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Second Amendment Act, 1974 (Tamil Nadu Act 32 of 1974). 177. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1975 (Tamil Nadu Act 11 of 1975). 178. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Second Amendment Act, 1975 (Tamil Nadu Act 21 of 1975). 179. Amendments made to the Uttar Pradesh Zamindari Abolition and Land Reforms Act, 1950 (Uttar Pradesh Act I of 1951) by the Uttar Pradesh Land Laws (Amendment) Act, 1971 (Uttar Pradesh Act 21 of 1971) and the Uttar Pradesh Land Laws (Amendment) Act, 1974 (Uttar Pradesh Act 34 of 1974).

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180. The Uttar Pradesh Imposition of Ceiling on Land Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1976 (Uttar Pradesh Act 20 of 1976). 181. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Second Amendment) Act, 1972 (West Bengal Act XXVIII of 1972). 182. The West Bengal Restoration of Alienated Land Act, 1973 (West Bengal Act XXIII of 1973). 183. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1974 (West Bengal Act XXXIII of 1974). 184. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1975 (West Bengal Act XXIII of 1975). 185. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1976 (West Bengal Act XII of 1976). 186. The Delhi Land Holdings (Ceiling) Amendment Act, 1976 (Central Act 15 of 1976). 187. The Goa, Daman and Diu Mundkars (Protection from Eviction) Act, 1975 (Goa, Daman and Diu Act 1 of 1976). 188. The Pondicherry Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Act, 1973 (Pondicherry Act 9 of 1974). 189. The Assam (Temporarily Settled Areas) Tenancy Act, 1971 (Assam Act XXIII of 1971). 190. The Assam (Temporarily Settled Areas) Tenancy (Amendment) Act, 1974 (Assam Act XVIII of 1974). 191. The Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling Area and Acquisition of Surplus Land) (Amendment) Amending Act, 1974 (Bihar Act 13 of 1975). 192. The Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling Area and Acquisition of Surplus Land) (Amendment) Act, 1976 (Bihar Act 22 of 1976). 193. The Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling Area and Acquisition of Surplus Land) (Amendment) Act, 1978 (Bihar Act VII of 1978).

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194. The Land Acquisition (Bihar Amendment) Act, 1979 (Bihar Act 2 of 1980). 195. The Haryana Ceiling on Land Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1977 (Haryana Act 14 of 1977). 196. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1978 (Tamil Nadu Act 25 of 1978). 197. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1979 (Tamil Nadu Act 11 of 1979). 198. The Uttar Pradesh Zamindari Abolition Laws (Amendment) Act, 1978 (Uttar Pradesh Act 15 of 1978). 199. The West Bengal Restoration of Alienated Land (Amendment) Act, 1978 (West Bengal Act XXIV of 1978). 200. The West Bengal Restoration of Alienated Land (Amendment) Act, 1980 (West Bengal Act LVI of 1980). 201. The Goa, Daman and Diu Agricultural Tenancy Act, 1964 (Goa, Daman and Diu Act 7 of 1964). 202. The Goa, Daman and Diu Agricultural Tenancy (Fifth Amendment) Act, 1976 (Goa, Daman and Diu Act 17 of 1976). 203. The Andhra Pradesh Scheduled Areas Land Transfer Regulation, 1959 (Andhra Pradesh Regulation 1 of 1959). 204. The Andhra Pradesh Scheduled Areas Laws (Extension and Amendment) Regulation, 1963 (Andhra Pradesh Regulation 2 of 1963). 205. The Andhra Pradesh Scheduled Areas Land Transfer (Amendment) Regulation, 1970 (Andhra Pradesh Regulation 1 of 1970). 206. The Andhra Pradesh Scheduled Areas Land Transfer (Amendment) Regulation, 1971 (Andhra Pradesh Regulation 1 of 1971). 207. The Andhra Pradesh Scheduled Areas Land Transfer (Amendment) Regulation, 1978 (Andhra Pradesh Regulation 1 of 1978). 208. The Bihar Tenancy Act, 1885 (Bihar Act 8 of 1885). 209. The Chota Nagpur Tenancy Act, 1908 (Bengal Act 6 of 1908) (Chapter VIII sections 46, 47, 48, 48A and 49; Chapter Xsections 71, 71A and 71B; and Chapter XVIII sections 240, 241 and 242). 210. The Santhal Parganas Tenancy (Supplementary Provisions) Act, 1949 (Bihar Act 14 of 1949) except section 53. 211. The Bihar Scheduled Areas Regulation, 1969 (Bihar Regulation 1 of 1969). 212. The Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling Area and Acquisition of Surplus Land) (Amendment) Act, 1982 (Bihar Act 55 of 1982). 213. The Gujarat Devasthan Inams Abolition Act, 1969 (Gujarat Act 16 of 1969).

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214. The Gujarat Tenancy Laws (Amendment) Act, 1976 (Gujarat Act 37 of 1976). 215. The Gujarat Agricultural Lands Ceiling (Amendment) Act, 1976 (President's Act 43 of 1976). 216. The Gujarat Devasthan Inams Abolition (Amendment) Act, 1977 (Gujarat Act 27 of 1977). 217. The Gujarat Tenancy Laws (Amendment) Act, 1977 (Gujarat Act 30 of 1977). 218. The Bombay Land Revenue (Gujarat Second Amendment) Act, 1980 (Gujarat Act 37 of 1980). 219. The Bombay Land Revenue Code and Land Tenure Abolition Laws (Gujarat Amendment) Act, 1982 (Gujarat Act 8 of 1982). 220. The Himachal Pradesh Transfer of Land (Regulation) Act, 1968 (Himachal Pradesh Act 15 of 1969). 221. The Himchal Pradesh Transfer of Land (Regulation) (Amendment) Act, 1986 (Himachal Pradesh Act 16 of 1986). 222. The Karnataka Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prohibition of Transfer of Certain Lands) Act, 1978 (Karnataka Act 2 of 1979). 223. The Kerala Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1978 (Kerala Act 13 of 1978). 224. The Kerala Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1981 (Kerala Act 19 of 1981). 225. The Madhya Pradesh Land Revenue Code (Third Amendment) Act, 1976 (Madhya Pradesh Act 61 of 1976). 226. The Madhya Pradesh Land Revenue Code (Amendment) Act, 1980 (Madhya Pradesh Act 15 of 1980). 227. The Madhya Pradesh Akrishik Jot Uchchatam Seema Adhiniyam, 1981 (Madhya Pradesh Act 11 of 1981). 228. The Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings (Second Amendment) Act, 1976 (Madhya Pradesh Act 1 of 1984). 229. The Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1984 (Madhya Pradesh Act 14 of 1984). 230. The Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1989 (Madhya Pradesh Act 8 of 1989). 231. The Maharashtra Land Revenue Code, 1966 (Maharashtra Act 41 of 1966), sections 36, 36A and 36B. 232. The Maharashtra Land Revenue Code and the Maharashtra Restoration of Lands to Scheduled Tribes (Second Amendment) Act, 1976 (Maharashtra Act 30 of 1977). 233. The Maharashtra Abolition of Subsisting Proprietary Rights to Mines and Minerals in certain Lands Act, 1985 (Maharashtra Act 16 of 1985). 234. The Orissa Scheduled Areas Transfer of Immovable Property (by Scheduled Tribes) Regulation, 1956 (Orissa Regulation 2 of 1956). 235. The Orissa Land Reforms (Second Amendment) Act, 1975 (Orissa Act 29 of 1976). 236. The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1976 (Orissa Act 30 of 1976). 237. The Orissa Land Reforms (Second Amendment) Act, 1976 (Orissa Act 44 of 1976).

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238. The Rajasthan Colonisation (Amendment) Act, 1984 (Rajasthan Act 12 of 1984). 239. The Rajasthan Tenancy (Amendment) Act, 1984 (Rajasthan Act 13 of 1984). 240. The Rajasthan Tenancy (Amendment) Act, 1987 (Rajasthan Act 21 of 1987). 241. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Second Amendment Act, 1979 (Tamil Nadu Act 8 of 1980). 242. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1980 (Tamil Nadu Act 21 of 1980). 243. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1981 (Tamil Nadu Act 59 of 1981). 244. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Second Amendment Act, 1983 (Tamil Nadu Act 2 of 1984). 245. The Uttar Pradesh Land Laws (Amendment) Act, 1982 (Uttar Pradesh Act 20 of 1982). 246. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1965 (West Bengal Act 18 of 1965). 247. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1966 (West Bengal Act 11 of 1966). 248. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Second Amendment) Act, 1969 (West Bengal Act 23 of 1969). 249. The West Bengal Estate Acquisition (Amendment) Act, 1977 (West Bengal Act 36 of 1977). 250. The West Bengal Land Holding Revenue Act, 1979 (West Bengal Act 44 of 1979). 251. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1980 (West Bengal Act 41 of 1980). 252. The West Bengal Land Holding Revenue (Amendment) Act, 1981 (West Bengal Act 33 of 1981). 253. The Calcutta Thikka Tenancy (Acquisition and Regulation) Act, 1981 (West Bengal Act 37 of 1981). 254. The West Bengal Land Holding Revenue (Amendment) Act, 1982 (West Bengal Act 23 of 1982). 255. The Calcutta Thikka Tenancy (Acquisition and Regulation) (Amendment) Act, 1984 (West Bengal Act 41 of 1984). 256. The Mahe Land Reforms Act, 1968 (Pondicherry Act 1 of 1968). 257. The Mahe Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1980 (Pondicherry Act 1 of 1981). 257A. The Tamil Nadu Backward Classes, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Reservation of Seats in Educational Institutions and of appointments or posts in the Services under the State) Act, 1993 (Tamil Nadu Act 45 of 1994). 258. The Bihar Privileged Persons Homestead Tenancy Act, 1947 (Bihar Act 4 of 1948). 259. The Bihar Consolidation of Holdings and Prevention of Fragmentation Act, 1956 (Bihar Act 22 of 1956).

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260. The Bihar Consolidation of Holdings and Prevention of Fragmentation (Amendment) Act, 1970 (Bihar Act 7 of 1970). 261. The Bihar Privileged Persons Homestead Tenancy (Amendment) Act, 1970 (Bihar Act 9 of 1970). 262. The Bihar Consolidation of Holdings and Prevention of Fragmentation (Amendment) Act, 1973 (Bihar Act 27 of 1975). 263. The Bihar Consolidation of Holdings and Prevention of Fragmentation (Amendment) Act, 1981 (Bihar Act 35 of 1982). 264. The Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling Area and Acquisition of Surplus Land) (Amendment) Act, 1987 (Bihar Act 21 of 1987). 265. The Bihar Privileged Persons Homestead Tenancy (Amendment) Act, 1989 (Bihar Act 11 of 1989). 266. The Bihar Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1989 (Bihar Act 11 of 1990). 267. The Karnataka Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prohibition of Transfer of Certain Lands) (Amendment) Act, 1984 (Karnataka Act 3 of 1984). 268. The Kerala Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1989 (Kerala Act 16 of 1989). 269. The Kerala Land Reforms (Second Amendment) Act, 1989 (Kerala Act 2 of 1990). 270. The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1989 (Orissa Act 9 of 1990). 271. The Rajasthan Tenancy (Amendment) Act, 1979 (Rajasthan Act 16 of 1979). 272. The Rajasthan Colonisation (Amendment) Act, 1987 (Rajasthan Act 2 of 1987). 273. The Rajasthan Colonisation (Amendment) Act, 1989 (Rajasthan Act 12 of 1989). 274. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1983 (Tamil Nadu Act 3 of 1984). 275. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment Act, 1986 (Tamil Nadu Act 57 of 1986). 276. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Second Amendment Act, 1987 (Tamil Nadu Act 4 of 1988). 277. The Tamil Nadu Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling on Land) Amendment (Amendment) Act, 1989 (Tamil Nadu Act 30 of 1989). 278. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1981 (West Bengal Act 50 of 1981). 279. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1986 (West Bengal Act 5 of 1986). 280. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Second Amendment) Act, 1986 (West Bengal Act 19 of 1986). 281. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Third Amendment) Act, 1986 (West Bengal Act 35 of 1986). 282. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1989 (West Bengal Act 23 of 1989). 283. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1990 (West Bengal Act 24 of 1990).

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284. The West Bengal Land Reforms Tribunal Act, 1991 (West Bengal Act 12 of 1991). Explanation.Any acquisition made under the Rajasthan Tenancy Act, 1955 (Rajasthan Act III of 1955), in contravention of the second proviso to clause (1) of article 31A shall, to the extent of the contravention, be void.

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TENTH SCHEDULE [Articles 102(2) and 191(2)]


Provisions as to disqua lifica tion on ground of defectio n
1. Interpretation.In this Schedule, unless the context otherwise requires, ( a) "Hous e" means eith er Hous e of P ar li ament or th e Legisl at iv e Ass embl y or , as th e case may be, eith er Hous e of th e Leg isl atur e of a St at e; (b) "l egisl a tur e p art y", in r el ation to a me mb er of a Hous e b elonging to an y poli ti c al p ar t y in accordan ce wi th th e provis ions of p aragr aph 2 or p a rag r ap h 4 , mean s th e group cons isting of all th e me mb ers of th at Hous e for th e t ime b eing b elonging to th at polit i c al p a rt y in accord an ce with th e s aid provis ions; ( c) "orig inal poli ti c al p ar t y" , in r e lation to a me mb er of a Hous e, mean s th e politi cal p art y to wh i ch h e b elongs fo r th e purposes o f subp ar agr aph (1) of p ar agr aph 2; (d) "par agr aph" mean s a p ar agr aph of this S ch edul e. 2. Disqualification on ground of defection.(1) Subject to the provisions of paragraphs 4 and 5, a member of a House belonging to any political party shall be disqualified for being a member of the House ( a) i f h e h as volunt aril y giv en up his me mb ership of such polit i c al p art y; or (b) if h e vot es or abst ain s fro m voting in su ch Hous e contr ar y to an y dir ection issu ed b y th e poli ti c al p art y to wh i ch h e b elongs or b y an y p erson or authori t y au thoris ed b y i t in th is b ehalf , withou t obtaining , in eith er cas e , the prior p er mission of su ch poli ti c al p art y, person or author it y and su ch vo ting or abst en tion h as not b e en condoned b y su ch poli ti c al p art y, p erson or au thori t y wi thin fift ee n d a ys fro m the d at e of su ch voting or abst en tion . Explanation.For the purposes of this sub-paragraph, ( a) an el ect ed me mb er of a Hous e sh all b e deemed to b elong to th e poli ti cal p art y, i f an y, b y whi ch h e was s et up as a candid at e for el ect ion as su ch memb er ; ( b ) a n o min at ed me mb e r o f a Ho u s e s h all , (i) where he is a member of any political party on the date of his nomination as such member, be deemed to belong to such political party; (ii) in any other case, be deemed to belong to the political party of which he becomes, or, as the case may be, first becomes, a member before the expiry of six months from the date on which he takes his seat after complying with the requirements of article 99 or, as the case may be, article 188. (2) An elected member of a House who has been elected as such otherwise than as a candidate set up by any political party shall be disqualified for being a member of the House if he joins any political party after such election.
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(3) A nominated member of a House shall be disqualified for being a member of the House if he joins any political party after the expiry of six months from the date on which he takes his seat after complying with the requirements of article 99 or, as the case may be, article 188. (4) Notwithstanding anything contained in the foregoing provisions of this paragraph, a person who, on the commencement of the Constitution (Fifty-second Amendment) Act, 1985, is a member of a House (whether elected or nominated as such) shall, (i) wh er e h e wa s a me mb er o f p o li ti c al p arty i mme d i at el y b efo r e su ch co mmen cemen t , b e d eemed , for th e purpos es of sub-p ar agr aph (1) of th is p ar agr aph , to h av e b een el ect ed as a memb er of su ch Hous e as a candid at e s et up b y su ch po liti cal p art y; (i i) in an y o th er c as e, b e d e eme d to b e an el e ct ed me mb er of th e H o u s e wh o h as b e en el e ct ed as su ch o th er wis e th an as a c an d id a t e s et u p b y an y pol iti cal p ar t y for th e purpos es of sub-p ar agr aph (2) of this p ar ag r ap h o r , as t h e c as e ma y b e , b e d e e med t o b e a n o min at ed me mb e r of th e Hous e for th e purpos es of sub-p ar agr aph (3) of this p ar agraph . * * * * * 4. Disqualification on ground of defection not to apply in case of merger.(1) A member of a House shall not be disqualified under sub-paragraph (1) of paragraph 2 where his original political party merges with another political party and he claims that he and any other members of his original political party ( a) h av e b e co me me mb e rs o f su ch o th er poli tic a l p art y or , a s t h e cas e may b e, of a n ew pol iti cal p art y for med b y su ch merg er; or (b) h av e not accept ed th e me rg er and opt ed to fun ction as a s epar at e group, and fro m t h e ti me of su ch merg er , su ch other po liti cal p art y o r n ew poli ti cal p ar t y or group , as the cas e may b e, sh al l b e d eemed to b e th e poli ti c al p art y to whi ch h e b elongs for th e purpos es of sub-p ar agr aph (1) of p ar agr ap h 2 and to b e hi s origin al pol iti cal p art y fo r th e purpos es of this sub-p ar agr aph . (2) For th e purpos es of sub-p aragr ap h (1) of this p ar agr ap h , the me rg er of th e orig inal poli ti cal p art y of a memb er of a Hous e sh all b e d eemed to h av e t ak en pl ace if , and onl y if, not l ess than two-third s of th e memb er s of th e l egi sl atur e pa rt y con c ern ed h av e agr e ed to su ch me rg er. 5 . Ex empt ion, Not wi thst anding an yth ing cont ain ed in this Sch edul e, a p erson who h as b e en el ect ed to th e o ffi ce of th e Sp eak e r or th e Deput y Sp eak er of th e Hous e of th e P eopl e or th e Deput y Ch air man of th e Coun cil of St at es o r the Ch air man or th e Deput y Ch air man of th e Legisl at iv e Coun cil of a Stat e or th e Sp eaker or th e Deputy Sp eak er of the Legisl ativ e A s s e mb l y o f a S t at e , s h all n o t b e d i s q u al if i ed u n d er t h i s S ch ed u l e , ( a) i f h e, b y r eason of h is el ection to su ch office, volunt ari l y giv es up th e me mb ership of th e poli ti c al p art y to wh i ch h e b elong ed i mmed i at el y b efor e su ch el ection and do es not , so long as h e continu es

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to hold such offi ce th er eaft er, r ejo in th at politi cal p art y or beco me a memb er of anoth er poli ti cal p art y; or (b) if h e, h aving giv en up b y reason of h is el ec tion to su ch offi ce his me mb er ship of th e poli ti c al part y to wh i ch h e b e long ed i mme d i at el y b efor e su ch election , r ejoin s su ch polit i c al p art y aft er h e ceas es to hold su ch offi ce. 6 . Decision on qu estions as to disqua lifi cat ion on ground of d ef e ction . (1) If an y qu es tion aris es as to wh eth er a memb er of a Hous e h as b e co me s ubj ect to di squ alifi cation und er thi s S ch edul e, th e qu es tion sh al l b e r ef err ed for th e d ecision of th e Ch ai rman o r, as th e cas e ma y b e , th e Sp e ak er o f su ch Ho u s e an d h is d e cis io n sh all b e fin al : Provided that where the question which has arisen is as to whether the Chairman or the Speaker of a House has become subject to such disqualification, the question shall be referred for the decision of such member of the House as the House may elect in this behalf and his decision shall be final. (2) All proceedings under sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph in relation to any question as to disqualification of a member of a House under this Schedule shall be deemed to be proceedings in Parliament within the meaning of article 122 or, as the case may be, proceedings in the Legislature of a State within the meaning of article 212. *7. Bar of jurisdiction of courts.Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, no court shall have any jurisdiction in respect of any matter connected with the disqualification of a member of a House under this Schedule. 8. Rules.(1) Subject to the provisions of sub-paragraph (2) of this paragraph, the Chairman or the Speaker of a House may make rules for giving effect to the provisions of this Schedule, and in particular, and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, such rules may provide for ( a) th e ma in t en a n c e o f r eg ist ers o r o th er r e co rd s as to th e p o lit i c al p art i es, i f an y, to whi ch d iff er ent memb er s o f th e Hou s e b elong; (b) th e r epor t whi ch th e l e ad er of a l egis l atur e p art y in r e l ation t o a me mb er of a Hous e sh all furn ish with r eg ard to an y condon ation of th e n atu r e r ef err ed to in cl au s e (b ) o f su b -p ar ag r ap h (1 ) o f p ar ag r ap h 2 in r esp ect of su ch me mb er , th e ti me with in which and th e authori t y to w h o m su ch r ep o rt sh al l b e fu rn ish ed ; ( c) th e r eports whi ch a pol iti ca l p art y sh all furnish with r egard to ad mission to such poli ti c al p arty of an y me mb ers of th e Hous e and th e offi c e r of th e Hous e to who m su ch r eports sh all b e furnish ed ; and (d) th e p rocedur e for d e cid ing an y qu estion r ef err ed to in subp ar agr aph (1) of p ar agr aph 6 in cluding th e pro c edur e for an y inquir y whi ch may b e mad e for th e purpos e of d eciding su ch qu estion . (2) The rules made by the Chairman or the Speaker of a House under sub-paragraph (1) of this paragraph shall be laid as soon as may be after they are made before the House for a total period of thirty days which may be comprised in one session or in two or more successive sessions and shall take effect upon the expiry of the said period of thirty days unless they are sooner approved with or without modifications or disapproved by the House and where they

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* Paragraph 7 declared invalid for want of ratification in accordance with the proviso to clause (2) of article 368 as per majority opinion in Kihoto Hollohon Vs. Zachilhu and others (1992) 1 S.C.C . 309.

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are so approved, they shall take effect on such approval in the form in which they were laid or in such modified form, as the case may be, and where they are so disapproved, they shall be of no effect. (3) The Chairman or the Speaker of a House may, without prejudice to the provisions of article 105 or, as the case may be, article 194, and to any other power which he may have under this Constitution direct that any wilful contravention by any person of the rules made under this paragraph may be dealt with in the same manner as a breach of privilege of the House.

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ELEVENTH SCHEDULE
(Article 243 G)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. Agriculture, including agricultural extension. Land improvement, implementation of land reforms, land consolidation and soil conservation. Minor irrigation, water management and watershed development. Animal husbandry, dairying and poultry. Fisheries. Social forestry and farm forestry. Minor forest produce. Small scale industries, including food processing industries. Khadi, village and cottage industries. Rural housing. Drinking water. Fuel and fodder. Roads, culverts, bridges, ferries, waterways and other means of communication. Rural electrification, including distribution of electricity. Non-conventional energy sources. Poverty alleviation programme. Education, including primary and secondary schools. Technical training and vocational education. Adult and non-formal education. Libraries. Cultural activities. Markets and fairs. Health and sanitation, including hospitals, primary health centres and dispensaries. Family welfare. Women and child development. Social welfare, including welfare of the handicapped and mentally retarded. Welfare of the weaker sections, and in particular, of the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Public distribution system. Maintenance of community assets.

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TWELFTH SCHEDULE
(Article 243 W)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Urban planning including town planning. Regulation of land-use and construction of buildings. Planning for economic and social development. Roads and bridges. Water supply for domestic, industrial and commercial purposes. Public health, sanitation conservancy and solid waste management. Fire services. Urban forestry, protection of the environment and promotion of ecological aspects. Safeguarding the interests of weaker sections of society, including the handicapped and mentally retarded. Slum improvement and upgradation. Urban poverty alleviation. Provision of urban amenities and facilities such as parks, gardens, playgrounds. Promotion of cultural, educational and aesthetic aspects. Burials and burial grounds; cremations, cremation grounds; and electric crematoriums. Cattle pounds; prevention of cruelty to animals. Vital statistics including registration of births and deaths. Public amenities including street lighting, parking lots, bus stops and public conveniences. Regulation of slaughter houses and tanneries.

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APPENDIX I THE CONSTITUTION (APPLICATION TO JAMMU AND KASHMIR) ORDER, 1954 C.O. 48
In exercise of the powers conferred by clause (1) of article 370 of the Constitution, the President, with the concurrence of the Government of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, is pleased to make the following Order: 1. (1) This Order may be called the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954. (2) It shall come into force on the fourteenth day of May, 1954, and shall thereupon supersede the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1950. 2. The provisions of the Constitution as in force on the 20th day of June, 1964 and as amended by the Constitution (Nineteenth Amendment) Act, 1966, the Constitution (Twentyfirst Amendment) Act, 1967, section 5 of the Constitution (Twenty-third Amendment) Act, 1969, the Constitution (Twenty-fourth Amendment) Act, 1971, section 2 of the Constitution (Twenty-fifth Amendment) Act, 1971, the Constitution (Twenty-sixth Amendment) Act, 1971, the Constitution (Thirtieth Amendment) Act, 1972, section 2 of the Constitution (Thirty-first Amendment) Act, 1973, section 2 of the Constitution (Thirty-third Amendment) Act, 1974, sections 2, 5, 6 and 7 of the Constitution (Thirty-eighth Amendment) Act, 1975, the Constitution (Thirty-ninth Amendment) Act, 1975, the Constitution (Fortieth Amendment) Act, 1976, sections 2, 3 and 6 of the Constitution (Fifty-second Amendment) Act, 1985 and the Constitution (Sixty-first Amendment) Act, 1988 which, in addition to article 1 and article 370, shall apply in relation to the State of Jammu and Kashmir and the exceptions and modifications subject to which they shall so apply shall be as follows: (1) THE PREAMBLE. (2) PART I. To article 3, there shall be added the following further proviso, namely: "Provid ed fur th er th at no Bil l providing f or in cr eas ing or di mini shing th e ar ea o f the Stat e of J ammu and Kash mir or alt e ring th e n a me or bound ar y of th at St at e sh al l b e introdu ced in P arl i a ment without th e cons ent of th e Legisl atur e o f that St at e.". (3) PART II. ( a) Th is P art sh a ll b e d e e med to h av e b e en ap p li c ab l e in r el a tio n to th e St at e of J ammu and Kash mir as fro m th e 26 th d ay o f J anu ary, 1950 . (b) To article 7, there shall be added the following further proviso, namely: "Provided further that nothing in this article shall apply to a permanent resident of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, who, after having so migrated to the territory now included in Pakistan, returns to the territory of that State under a permit for resettlement in that State or permanent return issued by or under the authority of any law made by the Legislature of that State, and every such person shall be deemed to be a citizen of India.".

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(4) PART III. ( a) In arti cl e 13, r ef er en ces to th e comme n cemen t of th e Consti tution shall b e constru ed as ref er en ces to th e co mmencemen t of thi s Ord er . * * * * * ( c) In cl aus e (3) of art i cl e 16 , t h e r ef er en ce to th e St at e sh all b e constru ed as not in cluding a r ef er en c e to th e St at e of J ammu and Kash mir . (d) In arti cl e 19 , for a p eriod of t w en t y-fiv e years fro m t h e co mme n cement of this Ord er: (i) in clauses (3) and (4), after the words "in the interests of", the words "the security of the State or" shall be inserted; (ii) in clause (5), for the words "or for the protection of the interests of any Scheduled Tribes", the words "or in the interests of the security of the State" shall be substituted; and (iii) the following new clause shall be added, namely: '(7) The words "reasonable restrictions" occurring in clauses (2), (3), (4) and (5) shall be construed as meaning such restrictions as the appropriate Legislature deems reasonable.'. ( e) In cl au s es (4 ) an d (7 ) o f arti c l e 2 2 , fo r th e w o rd "P arli ame n t" , th e wo rds "th e Legisl atur e o f th e St at e" sh all b e substi tut ed . (f) In ar ti cl e 31 , cl au s es (3) , (4) an d (6) sh all b e o mitt ed ; an d for cl aus e (5) , th er e sh all b e subst itut ed th e follo wing cl aus e, n amel y: "(5) Nothing in clause (2) shall affect ( a) the provisions of any existing law; or (b) the provisions of any law which the State may hereafter make (i) for the purpose of imposing or levying any tax or penalty; or (ii) for the promotion of public health or the prevention of danger to life or property; or (iii) with respect to property declared by law to be evacuee property.". (g ) In art ic l e 3 1 A , th e p ro v iso to cl au s e (1 ) sh all b e o mitt ed ; an d fo r su b - cl au s e ( a) o f cl au s e (2 ) , th e fo llo win g su b - c l au s e sh al l b e subs titut ed , n ame l y: '(a) "estate" shall mean land which is occupied or has been let for agricultural purposes or for purposes subservient to agriculture, or for pasture, and includes (i) sites of buildings and other structures on such land; (ii) trees standing on such land; (iii) forest land and wooded waste; (iv) area covered by or fields floating over water; (v) sites of jandars and gharats;

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(vi) any jagir, inam, muafi or mukarrari or other similar grant, but does not include (i) the site of any building in any town, or town area or village abadi or any land appurtenant to any such building or site; (ii) any land which is occupied as the site of a town or village; or (iii) any land reserved for building purposes in a municipality or notified area or cantonment or town area or any area for which a town planning scheme is sanctioned.'. (h) In arti c l e 32, c l aus e (3) sh all b e o mitt ed . (i) In art i cl e 35 (i) references to the commencement of the Constitution shall be construed as references to the commencement of this Order; (ii) in clause (a) (i), the words, brackets and figures "clause (3) of article 16, clause (3) of article 32" shall be omitted; and (iii) after clause (b), the following clause shall be added, namely: "(c) no law with respect to preventive detention made by the Legislature of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, whether before or after the commencement of the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954, shall be void on the ground that it is inconsistent with any of the provisions of this part, but any such law shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, cease to have effect on the expiration of twenty-five years from the commencement of the said Order, except as respects things done or omitted to be done before the expiration thereof.". (j) Af t er arti cle 35 , th e follo wing n e w arti cl e sh all b e add ed , n a me l y: "35A. Saving of laws with respect to permanent residents and their rights. Notwithstanding anything contained in this Constitution, no existing law in force in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, and no law hereafter enacted by the Legislature of the State, (a) defining the classes of persons who are, or shall be, permanent residents of the State of Jammu and Kashmir; or (b) conferring on such permanent residents any special rights and privileges or imposing upon other persons any restrictions as respects (i) employment under the State Government; (ii) acquisition of immovable property in the State; (iii) settlement in the State; or (iv) right to scholarships and such other forms of aid as the State Government may provide, sh all b e void on th e ground that it is inconsis t ent with or t ak es away or abr idg es an y rights conf err ed on the oth er citi zen s of Indi a b y an y provis ion o f this P art .".

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(5) PART V. ( a) For th e purpos es o f arti cle 55 , th e popul at ion of th e St at e o f J a mmu an d K ash mir sh all b e d ee me d to b e six t y-th r e e l ak h s. (b) In art icl e 81, for cl au s es (2) and (3) , th e fo llo wing cl au s es sh all b e subs titut ed , n a me l y: " ( 2 ) F o r t h e p u r p o s es o f s u b - cl au s e ( a) o f cl au s e ( 1 ) , (a) there shall be allotted to the State six seats in the House of the People; (b) the State shall be divided into single member territorial constituencies by the Delimitation Commission constituted under the Delimitation Act, 1972, in accordance with such procedure as the Commission may deem fit; (c) the constituencies shall, as far as practicable, be geographically compact areas, and in delimiting them regard shall be had to physical features, existing boundaries of administrative units, facilities of communication and public convenience; and (d) the constituencies into which the State is divided shall not comprise the area under the occupation of Pakistan. (3) Nothing in clause (2) shall affect the representation of the State in the House of the People until the dissolution of the House existing on the date of publication in the Gazette of India of the final order or orders of the Delimitation Commission relating to the delimitation of parliamentary constituencies under the Delimitation Act, 1972. (4) (a) The Delimitation Commission shall associate with itself for the purpose of assisting it in its duties in respect of the State, five persons who shall be members of the House of the People representing the State. (b) The persons to be so associated from the State shall be nominated by the Speaker of the House of the People having due regard to the composition of the House. (c) The first nominations to be made under sub-clause (b) shall be made by the Speaker of the House of the People within two months from the commencement of the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Second Amendment Order, 1974. (d) None of the associate members shall have a right to vote or to sign any decision of the Delimitation Commission. (e) If owing to death or resignation, the office of an associate member falls vacant, it shall be filled as soon as may be practicable by the Speaker of the House of the People and in accordance with the provisions of sub-clauses (a) and (b).". ( c) In art i cl e 133, aft er cl aus e (1) , th e follo wing cl aus e sh all b e ins er t ed , n a mely: (1A) The provisions of section 3 of the Constitution (Thirtieth Amendment) Act, 1972, shall apply in relation to the State of Jammu and Kashmir subject to the modification that references therein to "this Act", "the commencement of this Act", "this Act had not been passed" and "as amended by this Act" shall be construed respectively as references to "the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir)

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Second Amendment Order, 1974", "the commencement of the said Order", "the said Order had not been made" and "as it stands after the commencement of the said Order.. (d ) In ar ti cl e 1 3 4 , cl au s e (2 ), a ft er th e wo rd s "P arli a me n t ma y " , th e words "on th e requ est of th e Legis l atur e of th e St at e" sh all b e ins ert ed . ( e) Art i cl es 135 and 139 sh all b e o mi tt ed . * * * * * (5 A) P AR T VI . ( a) Art i cl es 153 to 217 , ar ti cl e 219 , art i cl e 221 , arti cl es 223 , 224 , 224 A and 225 and arti cles 227 to 237 sh all b e omi tt ed . (b) In arti cl e 220, r ef er en ces to th e comme n cemen t of th e Consti tution shall b e constru ed as ref er en ces to th e co mmencemen t of th e Cons titut ion ( Appl i cation to J a mmu and Kash mir) Amen d men t O r d er , 1 9 6 0 . ( c) In arti cl e 222 , aft er clau s e (1) , th e fo llo wing n ew cl aus e shall b e ins er t ed , n a mely: "(1A) Every such transfer from the High Court of Jammu and Kashmir or to that High Court shall be made after consultation with the Governor.". (6) PART XI. ( a) I n a r t i cle 2 4 6 , f o r t h e w o r d s , b r a ck et s a n d f i g u r es " cl au s es ( 2 ) and (3)" o ccurring in cl aus e (1) , th e word , br ack ets and figure "cl au se (2 ) " sh all b e su b sti tu t ed , a n d th e wo rd s , b r a ck ets an d fig u r e "No twithst anding an ything in claus e (3) ," o ccurring in cl aus e (2) and th e w h o l e o f cl au s es (3 ) an d (4 ) sh a ll b e o mitt ed . (b) For arti cl e 248 , th e fol lowing ar ti cl e sh al l b e subst itut ed , n a me l y: "248. Residuary powers of legislation. Parliament has exclusive power to make any law with respect to (a) prevention of activities involving terrorist acts directed towards overawing the Government as by law established or striking terror in the people or any section of the people or alienating any section of the people or adversely affecting the harmony amongst different sections of the people; (aa) prevention of other activities directed towards disclaiming, questioning or disrupting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of India or bringing about cession of a part of the territory of India or secession of a part of the territory of India from the Union or causing insult to the Indian National Flag, the Indian National Anthem and this Constitution; and (b) taxes on (i) foreign travel by sea or air; (ii) inland air travel; (iii) postal articles, including money orders, phonograms and telegrams.".

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Explanation.In this article, "terrorist act" means any act or thing by using bombs, dynamite or other explosive substances or inflammable substances or firearms or other lethal weapons or poisons or noxious gases or other chemicals or any other substances (whether biological or otherwise) of a hazardous nature. (bb) In ar ti cl e 249 , in cl aus e (1) , for th e words "an y matt er enu mer at ed in th e S t at e Lis t specif i ed in th e r esolu tion" , th e words " an y mat t er sp ecif i ed in th e r esolut ion, b eing a mat t er whi ch is not enu mer at ed in th e Union List or in th e Co n curr ent List " sh all b e subs titut ed . ( c) In arti cl e 250 , fo r th e words "to an y of th e mat t ers enu mer at ed in th e S t at e List ", th e words "also to matt ers no t enu mer at ed in th e Un ion List" sh all b e subst ituted . * * * * * ( e) To art i cl e 253 , th e follo wing proviso sh al l b e add ed , n a me l y: "Provided that after the commencement of the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954, no decision affecting the disposition of the State of Jammu and Kashmir shall be made by the Government of India without the consent of the Government of that State.". * * * * * (f) Arti cl e 255 sh all b e o mitt ed . (g ) Arti cl e 2 5 6 sh al l b e r e-n u mb e r ed as cl au se (1 ) o f th at arti cl e , an d th e fol low ing n ew cl aus e sh al l b e add ed th er eto , n amel y: "(2) The State of Jammu and Kashmir shall so execise its executive power as to facilitate the discharge by the Union of its duties and responsibilities under the Constitution in relation to that State; and in particular, the said State shall, if so required by the Union, acquire or requisition property on behalf and at the expense of the Union, or if the property belongs to the State, transfer it to the Union on such terms as may be agreed, or in default of agreement, as may be determined by an arbitrator appointed by the Chief Justice of India.". * * * * * ( h ) I n c l au s e ( 2 ) o f ar t i cl e 2 6 1 , t h e wo r d s " ma d e b y P ar l i a me n t" sh al l b e o mitt ed. (7) PART XII. * * * * * ( a) Cl aus e (2) of ar ti cl e 267 , arti c le 273 , c l aus e (2 ) of art i cl e 283 and arti cl e 290 sh all b e o mit t ed. ( b ) I n a r t i cl es 2 6 6 , 2 8 2 , 2 8 4 , 2 9 8 , 2 9 9 an d 3 0 0 , r e f er en c e s t o th e S t at e or S t ates sh all b e constru ed as not in cluding r ef er en c es to th e St at e of J a mmu and K ash mir. ( c) In arti cles 277 and 295 , r ef er en ces to th e co mmen cement of th e Cons titution sh al l b e const ru ed as r ef er en ces to th e co mme n cement of this ord er .

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(8) PART XIII. I n cl au s e ( 1 ) o f a r t i cl e 3 0 3 , t h e wo r d s " b y v i r t u e o f a n y en t r y r el a ting to tr ad e and co mmer ce i n an y of th e Li sts in th e Sev enth S ch edul e " sh all b e o mitt ed . * * * * * (9) PART XIV. In article 312, after the words "the States", the brackets and words "(including the State of Jammu and Kashmir)" shall be inserted. (10) PART XV. ( a) In cl aus e (1) of art i cl e 324 , th e r ef er en ce t o th e Constitution sh al l, in r el a tion to el ections to eith er Hous e of th e Leg isl atur e of J a mmu and Kash mir , b e constru ed as a ref er en ce to th e Consti tution of J ammu and Kash mir . (b) In arti cl es 325 , 326, 327 and 329 , th e r ef er en ce to a St at e sh all b e cons tru ed as not in cluding a r ef e ren ce to th e S t at e of Jammu an d Kash mir . ( c) Arti cl e 328 sh al l b e o mitt ed. (d) In arti cl e 329 , th e words and figu r es "or art i cl e 328" sh all b e o mitt ed . ( e) In arti c l e 3 2 9 A , cl au s es (4 ) a n d (5 ) sh all b e o mitt ed . (11) PART XVI. * * * * * ( a) Arti cl es 331, 332 , 333 , 336 and 337 sh all b e o mitt ed . (b) In arti cl es 334 and 335 , ref er en ces to the St at e or th e St at es sh al l b e cons trued as not in cluding r ef er en ces to th e St at e of J ammu and Kash mir . ( c) In cl au s e (1) of ar ti cl e 339 , t h e wo rds "th e ad minis tr ation of th e S ch edul ed Ar eas and" sh al l b e o mitt ed . (12) PART XVII. Th e provisions of th e P art sh all appl y onl y in so f ar as th ey r elat e to (i) the official language of the Union; (ii) the official language for communication between one State and another, or between a State and the Union; and (iii) the language of the proceedings in the Supreme Court. (13) PART XVIII. ( a) To arti cl e 352, th e follo wing new cl aus e sh all b e add ed , n a me l y: "(6) No Proclamation of Emergency made on grounds only of internal disturbance or imminent danger thereof shall have effect in relation to the State of Jammu and Kashmir (except as respects article 354) unless

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(a) it is made at the request or with the concurrence of the Government of that State, or (b) where it has not been so made, it is applied subsequently by the President to that State at the request or with the concurrence of the Government of that State."; (b) In cl aus e (1) of art i cl e 356 , r ef er en ces to provis ions or provis ion of thi s Con stitution sh all , in r el at ion to the St at e of J ammu and Kash mir , b e constru ed as in cluding r ef er en c es to prov isions o r provis ion of th e Consti tution of J a mmu an d Kash mir. (bb) In cl aus e (4) of th e arti cle 356 , aft er th e s econd provi so, th e fol lowing prov iso sh all b e ins ert ed , n amel y: "Provided also that in the case of the Proclamation issued under clause (1) on the 18th day of July, 1990 with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir, the reference in the first proviso to this clause to "three years" shall be construed as a reference to seven years". ( c) Ar t i cl e 3 6 0 s h all b e o mi t t ed . (14) PART XIX. * * * * * ( a) Arti cl e 365 sh al l b e o mitt ed. * * * * * (b) To ar ti cl e 367, th er e shall b e ad d ed th e follo wing cl au s e , n a me l y: "(4) For the purposes of this Constitution as it applies in relation to the State of Jammu and Kashmir (a) references to this Constitution or to the provisions thereof shall be construed as references to the Constitution or the provisions thereof as applied in relation to the said State; (aa) references to the person for the time being recognised by the President on the recommendation of the Legislative Assembly of the State as the Sadar-i-Riyasat of Jammu and Kashmir, acting on the advice of the Council of Ministers of the State for the time being in office, shall be construed as references to the Governor of Jammu and Kashmir; (b) references to the Government of the said State shall be construed as including references to the Governor of Jammu and Kashmir acting on the advice of his Council of Ministers: Provided that in respect of any period prior to the 10th day of April, 1965, such references shall be construed as including references to the Sadar-i-Riyasat acting on the advice of his Council of Ministers; (c) references to a High Court shall include references to the High Court of Jammu and Kashmir; * * * * *

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(d) references to the permanent residents of the said State shall be construed as meaning persons who, before the commencement of the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954 were recognised as State subjects under the laws in force in the State or who are recognised by any law made by the Legislature of the State as permanent residents of the State; and (e) references to a Governor shall include references to the Governor of Jammu and Kashmir: Provided that in respect of any period prior to the 10th day of April, 1965, such references shall be construed as references to the person recognised by the President as the Sadar-i-Riyasat of Jammu and Kashmir and as including references to any person recognised by the President as being competent to exercise the powers of the Sadar-i-Riyasat.". (15) PART XX. ( a) To cl aus e (2) of art i cl e 368 , th e follo wing proviso shall b e a dd ed , n a me l y: "Provided further that no such amendment shall have effect in relation to the State of Jammu and Kashmir unless applied by order of the President under clause (1) of article 370.". (b) Aft er cl ause (3) of arti cl e 368 , the fo llow ing cl aus e sha ll b e a dd ed , n a me l y: "(4) No law made by the Legislature of the State of Jammu and Kashmir seeking to make any change in or in the effect of any provision of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir relating to (a) appointment, powers, functions, duties, emoluments, allowances, privileges or immunities of the Governor; or (b) superintendence, direction and control of elections by the Election Commission of India, eligibility for inclusion in the electoral rolls without discrimination, adult suffrage and composition of the Legislative Council, being matters specified in sections 138, 139, 140 and 50 of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir, shall have any effect unless such law has, after having been reserved for the consideration of the President, received his assent.". (16) PART XXI. ( a) Art i cl es 3 6 9 , 3 7 1 , 3 7 1 A , 3 7 2 A , 3 7 3 , cl au s es ( 1 ) , ( 2 ) , ( 3 ) an d ( 5 ) of arti cl e 374 and arti cles 376 to 378 A and 392 sh al l b e o mitt ed. (b) In arti cl e 372 (i) clauses (2) and (3) shall be omitted; (ii) references to the laws in force in the territory of India shall include references to hidayats, ailans, ishtihars, circulars, robkars, irshads, yadashts, State Council Resolutions, Resolutions of the Constituent Assembly, and other instruments having the force of law in the territory of the State of Jammu and Kashmir; and

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(iii) references to the commencement of the Constitution shall be construed as references to the commencement of this Order. ( c) In cl au s e (4 ) o f art i cl e 3 7 4 , th e r ef er en c e to th e au th o ri t y fun ct ioning as th e P riv y Council of a S t at e sh al l b e const ru ed as a r ef er en ce to the Advisor y Board cons titut ed und er th e J ammu an d Kash mir Consti tution Act , 1996 and r ef er en c es to th e co mme n cemen t of th e Con stitut ion sh all b e constru ed as r ef er en ces to th e co mmen cement of this Ord er . (17) PART XXII. Arti cl es 394 and 395 sh all b e omi tt ed . (18) FIRST SCHEDULE. (19) SECOND SCHEDULE. * * * * * (20) THIRD SCHEDULE. F o r ms V , VI, VII an d V III sh all b e o mi tt ed . (21) FOURTH SCHEDULE. (22) SEVENTH SCHEDULE. ( a) In th e Union L ist (i) for entry 3, the entry "3. Administration of cantonments." shall be substituted; (ii) entries 8, 9 and 34, entry 79, and the words "Inter-State migration" in entry 81 shall be omitted; * * * * * (iii) in entry 72, the reference to the States shall be construed, (a) in relation to appeals to the Supreme Court from any decision or order of the High Court of the State of Jammu and Kashmir made in an election petition whereby an election to either House of the Legislature of that State has been called in question, as including a reference to the State of Jammu and Kashmir; (b) in relation to other matters, as not including a reference to that State; and (iv) for entry 97, the following entry shall be substituted, namely: "97. Prevention of activities (a) involving terrorist acts directed towards overawing the Government as by law established or striking terror in the people or any section of the people or alienating any section of the people or adversely affecting the harmony amongst different sections of the people; (b) directed towards disclaiming, questioning or disrupting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of India or bringing about cession of a part of the territory of India or secession of a part of the territory of India from the Union or causing insult to the

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(b) ( c)

Indian National Flag, the Indian National Anthem and this Constitution; taxes on foreign travel by sea or air, on inland air travel and on postal articles, including money orders, phonograms and telegrams. Explanation.In this entry, "terrorist act" has the same meaning as in the Explanation to article 248.". Th e St at e List sh al l b e o mit ted . In th e Co n cu rr en t Lis t (i) for entry 1, the following entry shall be substituted, namely: "1. Criminal law (excluding offences against laws with respect to any of the matters specified in List I and excluding the use of naval, military or air forces or any other armed forces of the Union in aid of the civil power) in so far as such criminal law relates to offences against laws with respect to any of the matters specified in this List."; (ia) for entry 2, the following entry shall be substituted, namely: "2. Criminal procedure (including prevention of offences and constitution and organisation of criminal courts, except the Supreme Court and the High Court) in so far as it relates to, (i) offences against laws with respect to any matters being matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws; and (ii) administration of oaths and taking of affidavits by diplomatic and consular officers in any foreign country."; (ib) for entry 12, the following entry shall be substituted, namely: "12. Evidence and oaths in so far as they relate to, (i) administration of oaths and taking of affidavits by diplomatic and consular officers in any foreign country; and (ii) any other matters being matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws."; (ic) for entry 13, the entry "13. Civil procedure in so far as it relates to administration of oaths and taking of affidavits by diplomatic and consular officers in any foreign country." shall be substituted; * * * * (ii) for entry 30, the entry 30. Vital statistics in so far as they relate to births and deaths including registration of births and deaths." shall be substituted; * * * * (iii) entry 3, entries 5 to 10 (both inclusive), entries 14, 15, 17, 20, 21, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 37, 38, 41 and 44 shall be omitted; (iiia) for entry 42, the entry "42. Acquisition and requisitioning of property, so far as regards acquisition of any property covered by entry 67 of List I or entry 40 of List III or of any human work of art which has artistic or aesthetic value." shall be substituted; and

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(iv) in entry 45, for the words and figures "List II or List III", the words "this List" shall be substituted. (23) EIGHTH SCHEDULE. (24) NINTH SCHEDULE. ( a) Aft er entr y 64 , th e follo wing entri es sh all be add ed, n a mel y: 64A. The Jammu and Kashmir State Kuth Act (No. I of Svt. 1978). 64B. The Jammu and Kashmir Tenancy Act (No. II of Svt. 1980). 64C. The Jammu and Kashmir Alienation of Land Act (No. V of Svt. 1995). * * * * * 64D. The Jammu and Kashmir Big Landed Estates Abolition Act (No. XVII of Svt. 2007). 64E. Order No. 6-H of 1951, dated the 10th March, 1951, regarding Resumption of Jagirs and other assignments of land revenue, etc. 64F. The Jammu and Kashmir Restitution of Mortgaged Properties Act, 1976 (Act XIV of 1976). 64G. The Jammu and Kashmir Debtors' Relief Act, 1976 (Act XV of 1976). (b) Ent ri es 87 to 124 , in sert ed b y th e Cons titu tion ( Thir t y-ninth Amend ment ) Act , 1975 , sh all be r enu mb er ed as entr i es 65 to 102 r esp ect iv el y. ( c) Entri es 125 to 188 sh all be r enu mb er ed as entri e s 103 to 166 r esp ect iv el y. (25) TENTH SCHEDULE. ( a) for th e brack ets , words and figur es "Art i cl es 102(2) and 191(2) ", th e brack ets , word and figur es "[ Arti cl e 102(2) ]" sh all b e subs titut ed; (b) in cl aus e ( a) o f p ar agr aph 1 , th e word s "or th e L egisl ative Ass embl y or , as th e cas e may be, eith er Hous e of th e Legis latur e of a St at e" sh all b e o mitt ed ; ( c) i n p ar ag r ap h 2 , (i) in sub-paragraph (1), in sub-clause (ii) of clause (b) of the Explanation, the words and figures "or, as the case may be, article 188" shall be omitted; (ii) in sub-paragraph (3), the words and figures "or, as the case may be, article 188" shall be omitted; (iii) in sub-paragraph (4), the reference to the commencement of the Constitution (Fifty-second Amendment) Act, 1985 shall be construed as a reference to the commencement of the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Amendment Order, 1989; (d) in p ar agr aph 5 , the words " or th e Ch airman or th e Deput y Ch air man of the Legi sl ativ e Coun cil of a St ate o r th e Sp eak er or th e Deput y Sp eak er of th e Legis lativ e Ass e mbl y of a St at e" sh all be o mitt ed ;

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( e) in sub-p ar agr aph (2) o f p aragr aph 6, th e words and f igur es "or, as th e case may b e, p ro ceedings in th e Legisl atur e of a S t ate within th e meaning of arti cl e 212 sh al l b e o mitt ed ; (f) in sub-p ar agr aph (3) of p ara gr aph 8 , th e words and figu r es " o r, as th e c as e ma y b e , arti c l e 1 9 4 ," sh al l b e o mi tt ed .

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APPENDIX II
RE-STATEMENT, WITH REFERENCE TO THE PRESENT TEXT OF THE CONSTITUTION, OF THE EXCEPTIONS AND MODIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO WHICH THE CONSTITUTION APPLIES TO THE STATE OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR
[Note. The exceptions and modifications subject to which the Constitution applies to the `State of Jammu and Kashmir are either those provided in the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954 or those consequential to the non-application to the State of Jammu and Kashmir of certain amendments to the Constitution. All the exceptions and modifications which have a practical significance are included in the re-statement which is only for facility of quick reference. For ascertaining the exact position, reference will have to be made to the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954 and to the text of the Constitution on the 20th June, 1964, as amended by the subsequent amendments to the Constitution mentioned in clause 2 of the said Order.] (1) THE PREAMBLE. ( a) In th e firs t par agr aph , o mit "S O CI AL IST S EC U L A R "; (b) in th e p enulti mat e p ar agr aph, o mi t "and int egri t y". (2) PART I. Article 3. (a) Add the following further proviso, namely: "Provided further that no Bill providing for increasing or diminishing the area of the State of Jammu and Kashmir or altering the name or boundary of that State shall be introduced in Parliament without the consent of the Legislature of that State."; (b) omit Explanation I and Explanation II. (3) PART II. (a ) T h is P ar t sha ll b e d e e me d to h av e b e en appli c ab l e in r el ation to th e St at e of J ammu and Kash mir as fro m th e 26 th d ay o f J anu ary, 1950 . (b ) Ar ti cl e 7 . Add th e follo wing furth er proviso , n amel y: "Provided further that nothing in this article shall apply to a permanent resident of the State of Jammu and Kashmir who, after having so migrated to the territory now included in Pakistan, returns to that territory of that State under a permit for resettlement in that State or permanent return issued by or under the authority of any law made by the Legislature of that State, and every such person shall be deemed to be a citizen of India.". (4) PART III. (a ) A r ti cl e 13 . Ref er en c es to th e co mmen cemen t of th e Consti tution sh all b e constru ed as r ef er en c es to th e co mmen c emen t of

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th e Cons titut ion ( Appl i cation to J ammu and Kash mir) Ord er, 1954 ( C . O. 4 8 ) , i . e. , t h e 1 4 t h d a y o f M a y , 1 9 5 4 . * * * * * (c ) A r ti cl e 16 . In cl au s e (3) , r ef e ren ce to th e St at e shall b e constru ed as not in clud ing a r ef er en ce to th e St at e of J ammu and Kash mir . (d ) A r ti cl e 19 . (A) In clause (1), (i) in sub-clause (e), omit "and" at the end; (ii) after sub-clause (e), insert the following clause, namely: "(f) to acquire, hold and dispose of property; and"; (B) in clause (5), for "sub-clauses (d) and (e)", substitute "sub-clauses (d), (e) and (f). (e ) Ar ti cl e 22 . In cl au s es (4) an d (7) , for "P arl i a ment ", subst itut e " th e L eg isl atur e of th e St at e ". (f ) A r t i cl e 3 0 . O mi t cl au s e (1 A) . (g ) Af t er art icl e 30, in s ert th e follo wing , n a mely: " Right to Prop ert y 3 1 . Co mpulsor y a cqui sition of p rop ert y.(1) No p erson sh al l b e d epriv ed of his prop ert y s av e by authori t y of l aw. (2) No prop ert y sh all b e co mpulsor il y acqu ired or r equ isition ed s av e for a publi c purpos e and s av e b y au thorit y of a l aw whi ch provid es for acquis ition or requis itioning of th e prop er t y for an amount wh i ch may b e fix ed b y su ch la w or wh i ch ma y b e d et er mine d in a c cord an ce w i th su ch prin cipl es and giv en in su ch mann er as may b e sp ecif i ed in su ch l aw; and no su ch l aw shall b e call ed in qu est ion in an y court on th e ground th at th e amo unt so fix ed or d et er min ed is not ad equ at e or th at th e whol e or an y p art of su ch amoun t is to b e giv en oth er wis e th an in cash: Provid ed th at in making an y l a w prov iding for th e co mpulsor y acquis ition of an y prop ert y of an ed u c ation al ins titution es tabli sh ed an d ad minis ter ed b y a minori t y, r ef err ed to in cl aus e (1) of art i cl e 30 , the St at e sh al l en sur e th at th e amount fixed b y or d et er min ed und er su ch l a w for th e acquis ition of su ch prop ert y i s s u ch as would not r estri ct or ab rog at e th e rig h t g u ar an t e ed u n d er th at cl au s e . (2A) Wh er e a l a w do es not provid e for th e t ransf er of th e o wn ership or righ t to poss ession of an y propert y to th e S t ate or to a Co rpor at ion o wn ed or con troll ed by t h e St at e, it sh all not b e d eemed to provid e for th e co mpulsor y acquis ition or requis itioning of prop ert y , not withst an d ing th at it d epr iv es an y p erson of his prop ert y. (2 B ) No th in g in su b - cl au s e (f) o f c l au s e (1 ) o f ar ti cl e 1 9 sh a ll a ff e ct a n y su ch l a w as is r ef er r ed to in c l aus e (2) . * * * * *

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(5) Nothing in clause 2 shall affect (a ) t h e provis ions of an y ex isting l aw; or (b ) t h e p r o v i s io n s o f an y l aw wh i ch t h e S t at e ma y h er e aft er ma k e (i) for the purpose of imposing or levying any tax or penalty; or (ii) for the promotion of public health or the prevention of danger to life or property; or (iii) with respect to property declared by law to be evacuee property.". * * * * * (h ) Af t er art icl e 31, o mit th e follo wing sub-h e ading , n a mel y: Sa ving of C ertain La ws (i ) A r t i cl e 3 1 A . (A) In clause (1), (i) for "article 14 or article 19", substitute "article 14, article 19 or article 31"; (ii) omit the first proviso to clause (1); (iii) in the second proviso omit "further"; (B) in clause (2), for sub-clause (a), substitute the following sub-clause, namely: '(a) "estate" shall mean land which is occupied or has been let for agricultural purposes or for purposes subservient to agriculture, or for pasture, and includes (i) sites of buildings and other structures on such land; (ii) trees standing on such land; (iii) forest land and wooded waste; (iv) area covered by or fields floating over water; (v) sites of jandars and gharats; (vi) any jagir, inam, muafi or mukarrari or other similar grant, but does not include (i) the site of any building in any town, or town area or village abadi or any land appurtenant to any such building or site; (ii) any land which is occupied as the site of a town or village; or (iii) any land reserved for building purposes in a municipality or notified area or cantonment or town area or any area for which a town planning scheme is sanctioned;'. (j ) A r t i cl e 31 C. Th is arti cl e is no t appli c ab le to th e S t at e of J a mmu a n d K a s h mir . (k ) A r ti cl e 3 2 . O mi t c l aus e ( 3 ) . (l ) A r t i cl e 35. (A) References to the commencement of the Constitution shall be construed as references to the commencement of the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954 (C.O. 48), i.e., the 14th day of May, 1954; (B) in clause (a) (i), omit "clause (3) of article 16, clause (3) of article 32";

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(C) after clause ( ), add the following clause, namely: "(c) no law with respect to preventive detention made by the Legislature of the State of Jammu and Kashmir, whether before or after the commencement of the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954, shall be void on the ground that it is inconsistent with any of the provisions of this Part, but any such law shall, to the extent of such inconsistency, cease to have effect on the expiration of twenty-five years from the commencement of the said Order, except as respects things done or omitted to be done before the expiration thereof.". (m ) A f t er arti cle 35, add th e follo wing art icl e, n amel y: "35A. Saving of laws with respect to permanent residents and their rights. Notwithstanding anything contained in this Constitution, no existing law in force in the State of Jammu and Kashmir, and no law hereafter enacted by the Legislature of the State, (a) defining the classes of persons who are, or shall be, permanent residents of the State of Jammu and Kashmir; or (b) conferring on such permanent residents any special rights and privileges or imposing upon other persons any restrictions as respects (i) employment under the State Government; (ii) acquisition of immovable property in the State; (iii) settlement in the State; or (iv) right to scholarships and such other forms of aid as the State Government may provide, shall be void on the ground that it is inconsistent with or takes away or abridges any rights conferred on the other citizens of India by any provision of this Part.". (5) PART IV.This part is not applicable to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. (6) PART IVA.This part is not applicable to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. (7) PART V. (a ) Art i cl e 5 5 . (A) For the purposes of this article, the population of the State of Jammu and Kashmir shall be deemed to be sixty-three lakhs; (B) in the Explanation omit the proviso. (b ) A r t i cl e 81 .For cl au s es ( 2 ) an d (3), subs titut e th e fol lowing c l au s es , n a me l y: " ( 2 ) F o r t h e p u r p o s es o f s u b - cl au s e (a) of cl aus e (1) , (a) there shall be allotted to the State six seats in the House of the People; (b) the State shall be divided into single-member territorial constituencies by the Delimitation Commission constituted under the Delimitation Act, 1972, in accordance with such procedure as the Commission may deem fit; (c) the constituencies shall, as far as practicable, be geographically compact areas, and in delimiting them regard shall be had to physical features, existing boundaries of administrative units, facilities of communication and public convenience; and

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(d) the constituencies into which the State is divided shall not comprise the area under the occupation of Pakistan. (3) Nothing in clause (2) shall affect the representation of the State in the House of the People until the dissolution of the House existing on the date of publication in the Gazette of India of the final order or orders of the Delimitation Commission relating to the delimitation of parliamentary constituencies under the Delimitation Act, 1972. (4) (a) The Delimitation Commission shall associate with itself for the purpose of assisting it in its duties in respect of the State, five persons who shall be members of the House of the People representing the State. (b) The persons to be so associated from the State shall be nominated by the Speaker of the House of the People having due regard to the composition of the House. (c) The first nominations to be made under sub-clause (b) shall be made by the Speaker of the House of the People within two months from the commencement of the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Second Amendment Order, 1974. (d) None of the associate members shall have a right to vote or to sign any decision of the Delimitation Commission. (e) If owing to death or resignation, the office of an associate member falls vacant, it shall be filled as soon as may be practicable by the Speaker of the House of the People and in accordance with the provisions of sub-clauses (a) and (b).". (c ) A r t i c l e 82 . Omi t th e s econd and third proviso s. (d ) A r t i cl e 105 . In cl aus e (3), for "sh al l b e thos e of th at Hous e and of it s me mb e rs an d co mmit t e es imme d i a t el y b efo r e th e co min g in to fo r c e o f s e ct ion 15 of th e Constitu tion (Fort y-four th Amend ment) Act , 1978 " subs titut e "sh all b e thos e of the Hous e of Co mmo n s of th e Parl i a ment of th e Unit ed Kingdo m, and of i ts me mb ers and co mmi ttees , at th e co mmen cement of this Const itution ". (e ) F or arti cl e 132 , substitu t e the follo wing art icl e, n amel y: '132. Appellate jurisdiction of Supreme Court in appeals from High Courts in certain cases.(1) An appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court from any judgment, decree or final order of a High Court in the territory of India, whether in a civil, criminal or other proceeding, if the High Court certifies that the case involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution. (2) Where the High Court has refused to give such a certificate, the Supreme Court may, if it is satisfied that the case involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution, grant special leave to appeal from such judgment, decree or final order. (3) Where such a certificate is given, or such leave is granted, any party in the case may appeal to the Supreme Court on the ground that any such question as aforesaid has been wrongly decided and, with the leave of the Supreme Court, on any other ground.

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Explanation.For the purposes of this article, the expression "final order" includes an order deciding an issue which, if decided in favour of the appellant, would be sufficient for the final disposal of the case.'. (f ) A r t i cl e 1 3 3 . (A) In clause (1), omit "under article 134A"; (B) after clause (1), insert the following clause, namely: ' (1A) Th e provisions of s e ction 3 of th e Constitu tion ( Thir ti eth Amend ment ) Ac t , 1972 , sh all appl y in r el a tion to th e S t ate of J ammu and Kash mir subj ect to th e mod ifi cation th at r ef er en ces th er ein to "this Act" , "th e co mmen cemen t of this Act ", "this Act h ad n o t b e en p ass ed " an d " as a me n d ed b y th i s A c t" sh al l b e constru ed r espectiv el y as ref er en c es to "th e Consti tution ( Appli cation to J ammu and Kash mir) S econd Amen d men t Ord er , 1974 ", "th e co mme n cemen t of th e s aid Ord er ", "th e s a id Ord er h ad not b een mad e" and "as i t st ands aft er the commen cemen t of th e s ai d Ord er ".' . (g ) A r t i c l e 134 . (A) In clause (1), in sub-clause (c), omit "under article 134A"; (B) in clause (2), after "Parliament may" insert "on the request of the Legislature of the State". (h ) A r t i c l es 134 A, 135 , 139 and 139 A. Th es e ar ti cl es ar e not a p p l i c ab l e t o t h e S t at e o f J a mmu an d K as h mir . (i ) A r t i cl e 1 4 5 . I n cl au s e ( 1 ) , o mi t s u b - cl au s e (c c) . (j ) A r t i cl e 150. For "as the Pr esid ent may, on th e adv ice of the Co mptroll er and Auditor- Gen er al of Indi a, pr es cr ib e" subst itut e "as th e Co mptroll er and Audito r-Gen er al of Indi a ma y, with th e approv al o f th e P r esid en t p r es crib e ". (8) PART VI. (a ) Omit arti cl es 153 to 217, arti cl e 219 , art icle 221 , ar ti cl es 223 , 224, 224 A and 225 , art i cl es 227 to 233 , arti cl e 233 A and arti cl es 234 to 237. (b ) Ar t i cl e 220 . Ref er en c es to th e co mmen c emen t of th e Const itution sh al l b e construed as r ef er en ces to th e co mmen cement of th e Consti tution ( Appli cation to J ammu and Kash mir) Amendmen t Ord er, 1960 , i.e., th e 2 6 t h J an u ar y , 1 9 6 0 . (c ) Ar ti cl e 222 . Aft er claus e (1) , ins er t t h e fol lowing cl aus e, n a me l y: "(1A) Every such transfer from the High Court of Jammu and Kashmir or to that High Court shall be made after consultation with the Governor.". (d ) A r ti cl e 226 . (A) Renumber clause (2) as clause (1A); (B) omit clause (3);

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(C) renumber clause (4) as clause (2); and in clause (2) as so renumbered, for "this article" substitute "clause (1) or clause (1A)". (9) PART VIII. This part is not applicable to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. (10) PART X. This part is not applicable to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. (11) PART XI. (a ) A r ti cl e 246 . (A) in clause (1), for "clauses (2) and (3)" substitute "clause (2)"; (B) in clause (2), omit "Notwithstanding anything in clause (3),"; (C) omit clauses (3) and (4). (b ) F or arti cl e 248 , substitu t e the follo wing art icl e, n amel y: '248. Residuary powers of legislation.Parliament has exclusive power to make any law with respect to (a) prevention of activities involving terrorist acts directed towards overawing the Government as by law established or striking terror in the people or any section of the people or alienating any section of the people or adversely affecting the harmony amongst different sections of the people; (aa) prevention of other activities directed towards disclaiming, questioning or disrupting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of India or bringing about cession of a part of the territory of India or secession of a part of the territory of India from the Union or causing insult to the Indian National Flag, the Indian National Anthem and this Constitution; and (b) taxes on (i) foreign travel by sea or air; (ii) inland air travel; (iii) postal articles, including money orders, phonograms and telegrams. Explanation. In this article, "terrorist act" means any act or thing by using bombs, dynamite or other explosive substances or inflammable substances or firearms or other lethal weapons or poisons or noxious gases or other chemicals or any other substances (whether biological or otherwise) of a hazardous nature.'. (b b ) A rt i cl e 249, in cl aus e (1) , for "an y matt er enu mer at ed in th e St at e List sp ecifi ed in th e r esolution" , sub stitut e " an y matt er sp ecifi ed in th e r esolu tion , b eing a matt er wh i ch is not en u merat ed in th e Union Lis t or in th e Con curr ent List " . (c ) A r t i c l e 250 . For "to an y of th e matt ers enu mer at ed in the St at e List " substi tut e " also to matt ers not enu merat ed in th e Un ion List " . (d ) O mi t cl aus e (d) . (e ) A r t i c l e 253 . Add th e following proviso , namel y: "Provided that after the commencement of the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954, no decision affecting the disposition of the State of Jammu and Kashmir shall be made by the Government of India without the consent of the Government of that State.".

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(f ) O mi t art icl e 2 5 5 . (g ) A r t i cl e 256.Renu mb er this arti cl e as cl aus e (1) th er eof, and add th e follo wing n ew cl au s e ther eto , n amel y: "(2) The State of Jammu and Kashmir shall so exercise its executive power as to facilitate the discharge by the Union of its duties and responsibilities under the Constitution in relation to that State; and in particular, the said State shall, if so required by the Union, acquire or requisition property on behalf and at the expense of the Union, or if the property belongs to the State, transfer it to the Union on such terms as may be agreed, or in default of agreement, as may be determined by an arbitrator appointed by the Chief Justice of India.". (h ) A r ti cl e 261 .In cl aus e (2), o mit "mad e b y P arl i ament ". (12) PART XII. (a ) A r t i c l es 266 , 282 , 284 , 298 , 299 and 300 . In th es e arti cl es r ef er en c es to th e St at e or Stat es sh al l b e constru ed as not in cluding r ef er en ces to the St at e of J ammu and K ash mir ; (b ) o mi t cl aus e (2) of arti cl e 267 , arti cl e 273 , cl aus e (2) of articl e 283 and arti cl e 290; (c ) A r ti cl es 277 and 295 .In th es e ar ti cle s r ef er en c es to th e co mmen cement of th e Constitu tion sh all b e constru ed as r ef er en ces to th e co mmen cement of th e Constitu tion ( Appli c at ion to J a mmu and Kash mir) O r d er , 1 9 5 4 , i . e. , t h e 1 4 t h d a y o f Ma y , 1 9 5 4 . (d ) O mi t th e sub-h e ad ing " C H A P T E R I V. R I G H T T O P R O P E R T Y " and a rt i cl e 300 A . (13) PART XIII. In art i cl e 303, in cl au s e (1) , omi t "b y virtu e of an y en tr y r e lating to tr ad e and co mmer ce in an y of th e Lists in th e Sev enth S ch edul e" . (14) PART XIV. Ex cep t in ar ti cl e 312 , r ef er en ce to "St at e" in this P art do es not in clud e th e St at e of J a mmu and K ash mir. (15) PART XIVA. This Part is not applicable to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. (16) PART XV. (a ) A r t i cl e 324. In cl aus e (1), th e r ef er en ce to th e Consti tution sh all , in r el at ion to election s to eith er Hous e of th e Legisl atur e of Jammu and Kash mir , b e constru ed as a r efer en ce to th e Const itution of Jammu an d Kash mir . (b ) A r ti cl es 325 , 326 and 327 . In th es e arti cl es th e r ef er en c es to a St at e sh all b e constru ed as not in cluding a r ef er en ce to the S t at e of J a mmu an d K ash mir . (c ) O mi t art i cl e 3 2 8 . (d ) A r t i cl e 3 2 9 .

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(A) Reference to a State shall be construed as not including a reference to the State of Jammu and Kashmir; (B) omit "or article 328". (17) PART XVI. Original clause (a) omitted and clauses (b) and (c) relettered as clauses (a) and (b). (a) Omit articles 331, 332, 333, 336 and 337. (b) Articles 334 and 335.References to the State or the States shall be construed as not including references to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. (c) Article 339, in clause (1), omit the administration of the Scheduled Areas and. (18) PART XVII. The provisions of this Part shall apply to the State of Jammu and Kashmir only in so far as they relate to (i) The official language of the Union; (ii) the official language for communication between one State and another, or between a State and the Union; and (iii) The language of the proceedings in the Supreme Court. (19) PART XVIII. (a) For article 352, substitute the following article, namely : 352. Proclamation of Emergency.(1) If the President is satisfied that a grave emergency exists whereby the security of India or of any part of the territory thereof is threatened, whether by war or external aggression or internal disturbance, he may, by Proclamation, make a declaration to that effect. (2) A proclamation issued under clause (1) (a) may be revoked by a subsequent Proclamation; (b) shall be laid before each House of Parliament; (c) shall cease to operate at the expiration of two months unless before the expiration of that period it has been approved by resolutions of both Houses of Parliament: Provided that if any such Proclamation is issued at a time when the House of the People has been dissolved or the dissolution of the House of the People takes place during the period of two months referred to in sub-clause (c), and if a resolution approving the Proclamation has been passed by the Council of States but no resolution with respect to such Proclamation has been passed by the House of the People before the expiration of that period, the Proclamation shall cease to operate at the expiration of thirty days from the date on which the House of the People first sits after its reconstitution unless before the expiration of the said period of thirty days a resolution approving the Proclamation has been also passed by the House of the people. (3) A Proclamation of Emergency declaring that the security of India or of any part of the territory thereof is threatened by war or by external aggression or by internal disturbance may be made before the actual occurrence of war or of any such aggression or disturbance if the President is satisfied that there is imminent danger thereof. (4) The power conferred on the President by this article shall include the power to issue different Proclamations on different grounds, being war or external aggression or

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internal disturbance or imminent danger of war or external aggression or internal disturbance, whether or not there is a Proclamation already issued by the President under clause (1) and such Proclamation is in operation. (5) Notwithstanding anything in the Constitution, (a) the satisfaction of the President mentioned in clause (1) and clause (3) shall be final and conclusive and shall not be questioned in any court on any ground; (b) subject to the provisions of clause (2), neither the Supreme Court nor any other Court shall have jurisdiction to entertain any question, on any ground, regarding the validity of (i) a declaration made by Proclamation by the President to the effect stated in clause (1); or (ii) the continued operation of such Proclamation. (6) No Proclamation of Emergency made on grounds only of internal disturbance or imminent danger thereof shall have effect in relation to the State of Jammu and Kashmir (except as respects article 354) unless (a) it is made at the request or with the concurrence of the Government of that State; or (b) where it has not been so made, it is applied subsequently by the President to that State at the request or with the concurrence of the Government of that State.. (b) Article 353. Omit the proviso. (c) Article 356. (A) In clause (1), reference to provisions or provisions of this Constitution shall, in relation to the State of Jammu and Kashmir, be construed as including references to provisions or provision of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir; (B) in clause (4), (i) for the opening portion, substitute the following, namely: A Proclamation so approved shall, unless revoked, cease to operate on the expiration of a period of six months from the date of the passing of the second of the resolutions approving the Proclamation under clause (3); (ii) after the second proviso, the following proviso shall be inserted, namely : Provided also that in the case of the Proclamation issued under clause (1) on the 18th day of July, 1990 with respect to the State of Jammu and Kashmir, the reference in the fist proviso to this clause to three years shall be construed as a reference to seven years.. (C) for clause (5), substitute the following clause, namely : (5) Notwithstanding anything in this Constitution, the satisfaction of the President mentioned in clause (1) shall be final and conclusive and shall not be questioned in any court on any ground.. (d) Article 357. For clause (2), substitute the following clause, namely :

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(2) Any law made in exercise of the power of the Legislature of the State by Parliament or the President or other authority referred to in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) which Parliament or the President or such other authority would not, but for the issue of a Proclamation under article 356, have been competent to make shall, to the extent of the incompetency, cease to have effect on the expiration of a period of one year after the Proclamation has ceased to operate except as respects things done or omitted to be done before the expiration of the said period, unless the provisions which shall so cease to have effect are sooner repealed or re-enacted with or without modification by Act of the appropriate Legislature.. (e) For article 358, substitute the following article, namely : 358. Suspension of provisions of article 19 during emergencies. While a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, nothing in article 19 shall restrict the power of the State as defined in Part III to make any law or to take any executive action which the State would but for the provisions contained in that Part be competent to make or to take, but any law so made shall, to the extent of the incompetency, cease to have effect as soon as the Proclamation ceases to operate, except as respects things done or omitted to be done before the law so ceases to have effect.. (f) Article 359, (A) in clause (1) omit (except articles 20 and 21); (B) in clause (1A), (i) omit (except articles 20 and 21); (ii) omit the proviso; (C) omit clause (1B); (D) in clause (2), omit the proviso. (g) omit article 360. (20) PART XIX. (a) Article 361A. This article is not applicable to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. (b) Omit article 365. (c) Article 367. After clause (3), add the following clause, namely : (4) For the purposes of this Constitution as it applies in relation to the State of Jammu and Kashmir (a) references to this Constitution or to the provisions thereof shall be construed as references to the Constitution or the provisions thereof as applied in relation to the said State; (aa) references to the person for the time being recognised by the President on the recommendation of the Legislative Assembly of the State as the Sadar-i-Riyasat of Jammu and Kashmir, acting on the advice of the Council of Ministers of the State for the time being in office, shall be construed as references to the Governor of Jammu and Kashmir;

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(b) references to the Government of the said State shall be construed as including references to the Governor of Jammu and Kashmir acting on the advice of his Council of Ministers: Provided that in respect of any period prior to the 10th day of April, 1965, such references shall be construed as including references to the Sadar-iRiyasat acting on the advice of his Council of Ministers; (c) references to a High Court shall include references to the High Court of Jammu and Kashmir; (d) references to the permanent residents of the said State shall be construed as meaning persons who, before the commencement of the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954, were recognised as State subjects under the laws in force in the State or who are recognised by any law made by the Legislature of the State as permanent residents of the State; and (e) references to a Governor shall include references to the Governor of Jammu and Kashmir : Provided that in respect of any period prior to the 10th day of April, 1965, such references shall be construed as references to the person recognised by the President as the Sadar-i-Riyasat of Jammu and Kashmir and as including references to any person recognised by the President as being competent to exercise the powers of the Sadar-I-Riyasat. (21) PART XX. Article 368. (a) in clause (2), add the following further proviso, namely: Provided further that no such amendment shall have effect in relation to the State of Jammu and Kashmir unless applied by order of the President under clause (1) of article 370.; (b) omit clauses (4) and (5) and after clause (3) add the following clause, namely : (4) No law made by the Legislature of the State of Jammu and Kashmir seeking to make any change in or in the effect of any provision of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir relating to: (a) appointment, powers, functions, duties, emoluments, allowances, privileges or immunities of the Governor; or (b) superintendence, direction and control of elections by the Election Commission of India, eligibility for inclusion in the electoral rolls without discrimination, adult suffrage and composition of the Legislative Council, being matters specified in sections 138, 139, 140 and 50 of the Constitution of Jammu and Kashmir, shall have any effect unless such law has, after having been reserved for the consideration of the President, received his assent..

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(22) PART XXI. (a) Omit articles 369, 371, 371A, 372A, 373 and articles 376 to 378A and 392. (b) Article 372. (A) Omit clauses (2) and (3) ; (B) references to the laws in force in the territory of India shall include references to hidayats, ailans, ishtihars, circulars, robkars, irshads, yadashts, State Council Resolutions, Resolutions of the Constituent Assembly, and other instruments having the force of law in the territory of the State of Jammu and Kashmir; (C) references to the commencement of the Constitution shall be construed as references to the commencement of the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954 (C.O.48), i.e., the 14th day of May, 1954. (c) Article 374. (A) Omit clauses (1), (2), (3) and (5); (B) in clause (4), the reference to the authority functioning as the Privy Council of a State shall be construed as a reference to the Advisory Board constituted under the Jammu and Kashmir Constitution Act, Svt. 1996, and references to the commencement of the Constitution shall be construed as references to the commencement of the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954, i.e., the 14th day of May, 1954. (23) PART XXII.Omit articles 394 and 395. (24) THIRD SCHEDULE.Omit forms V,VI,VII and VIII. (25) FIFTH SCHEDULE.This Schedule is not applicable to the State of Jammu and Kashmir, (26) SIXTH SCHEDULE.This Schedule is not applicable to the State of Jammu and Kashmir. (27) SEVENTH SCHEDULE. (a) List I Union List: (A) Omit entry 2A; (B) for entry 3, substitute the following entry, namely : 3. Administration of cantonments.: (C) omit entries 8, 9, 34 and 79; (D) in entry 72, the reference to the States shall be construed. (i) in relation to appeals to the Supreme Court from any decision or order of the High Court of the State of Jammu and Kashmir made in an election petition whereby an election to either House of the Legislature of that State has been called in question, as including a reference to the State of Jammu and Kashmir; (ii) in relation to other matters, as not including a reference to that State; (E) in entry 81, omit Inter-State migration;

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(F) for entry 97, substitute the following entry, namely : 97. Prevention of activities (a) involving terrorist acts directed towards overawing the Government as by law established or striking terror in the people or any section of the people or alienating any section of the people or adversely affecting the harmony amongst different sections of the people; (b) directed towards disclaiming, questioning or disrupting the sovereignty and territorial integrity of India or bringing about cession of a part of the territory of India or secession of a part of the territory of India from the Union or causing insult to the Indian National flag, the Indian National Anthem and this Constitution; taxes on foreign travel by sea or air, on inland air travel and on postal articles, including money orders, phonograms and telegrams. Explanation. In this entry, terrorist act has the same meaning as in the Explanation to article 248.. (b) Omit List IIState List. (c) List III Concurrent List. (A) For entry 1, substitute the following entry, namely : 1. Criminal law (excluding offences against laws with respect to any of the matters specified in List I and excluding the use of naval, military or air forces or any other armed forces of the Union in aid of the civil power) in so far as such criminal law relates to offences against laws with respect to any of the matters specified in this List.; (B) for entry 2, substitute the following entry, namely: 2. Criminal procedure (including prevention of offences and constitution and organisation of criminal courts, except the Supreme Court and the High Court) in so far as it relates to, (i) offences against laws with respect to any matters being matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws; and (ii) administration of oaths and taking of affidavits by diplomatic and consular officers in any foreign country.; (C) omit entry 3, entries 5 to 10 (both inclusive), entries 14, 15, 17, 20, 24, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 37, 38, 41 and 44; (D) entries 11A, 17A, 17B, 20A and 33A are not applicable to the State of Jammu and Kashmir; ( E) for entry 12, substitute the following entry, namely : 12. Evidence and oaths in so far as they relate to, (i) administration of oaths and taking of affidavits by diplomatic and consular officers in any foreign country; and (ii) any other matter being matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws.; (F) for entry 13, substitute the following entry, namely :

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13. Civil procedure in so far as it relates to administration of oaths and taking of affidavits by diplomatic and consular officers in any foreign country.; (G) for entry 25, substitute the following entry, namely : 25. Vocational and technical training of labour.; (H) for entry 30, substitute the following entry, namely: 30. Vital statistics in so far as they relate to births and deaths including registration of births and deaths.; (I) for entry 42, substitute the following entry, namely: 42 Acquisition and requisitioning of property, so far as regards acquisition of any property covered by entry 67 of List I or entry 40 of List III or of any human work of art which has artistic or aesthetic value.; (J) in entry 45, for List II or List III substitute this List. (28) NINTH SCHEDULE. (a) After entry 64, add the following entries, namely : 64A. The Jammu and Kashmir State Kuth Act (No. 1 of Svt.1978). 64B. The Jammu and Kashmir Tenancy Act (No. II of Svt. 1980). 64C. The Jammu and Kashmir Alienation of Land Act (No. V of Svt. 1995). 64D. The Jammu and Kashmir Big Landed Estates Abolition Act (No. XVII of Svt. 2007). 64E. Order No. 6-H of 1951, dated the 10th March, 1951, regarding Resumption of Jagirs and other assignments of land revenue, etc. 64F. The Jammu and Kashmir Restitution of Mortgaged Properties Act, 1976 (Act XIV of 1976). 64G. The Jammu and Kashmir Debtors Relief Act, 1976 (Act XV of 1976).. (b) entries 65 to 86 are not applicable to the State of Jammu and Kashmir; (c) after entry 86, insert the following entry, namely: 87. The Representation of the People Act, 1951 (Central Act 43 of 1951), the Representation of the People (Amendment) Act, 1974 (Central Act 58 of 1974) and the Election Laws (Amendment) Act, 1975 (Central Act 40 of 1975).; (d) after entry 91, insert the following entry, namely: 92. The maintenance of Internal Security Act, 1971 (Central Act 26 of 1971).; (e) after entry 129, insert the following entry, namely : 130. The Prevention of Publication of Objectionable Matter Act, 1976 (Central Act 27 of 1976).; (f) after insertion of the entries 87, 92 and 130 as indicated above, renumber entries 87 to 188 as entries 65 to 166 respectively. (29) TENTH SCHEDULE. (a) for the brackets, words and figures [Articles 102(2) and 191(2)], the brackets, word and figures [Article 102(2)] shall be substituted;

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(b) in clause (a) of paragraph 1, the words or the Legislative Assembly or, as the case may be, either House of the Legislature of a State shall be omitted; (c) in paragraph 2, (i) in sub-paragraph (1), in sub-clause (ii) of clause (b) of the Explanation, the words and figures or, as the case may be, article 188 shall be omitted; (ii) in sub-paragraph (3), the words and figures or, as the case may be, article 188 shall be omitted; (iii) in sub-paragraph (4), the reference to the commencement of the Constitution (Fifty-second Amendment) Act, 1985 shall be construed as a reference to the commencement of the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Amendment Order, 1989; (d) in paragraph 5, the words or the Chairman or the Deputy Chairman of the Legislative Council of a State or the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of a State shall be omitted; (e) in sub-paragraph (2) of paragraph 6, the words and figures or, as the case may be, proceedings in the Legislature of a State within the meaning of article 212 shall be omitted; (f) in sub-paragraph (3) of paragraph 8, the words and figures or, as the case may be, article 194, shall be omitted.

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APPENDIX-III
EXTRACTS FROM THE CONSTITUTION (FORTY-FOURTH AMENDMENT) ACT, 1978
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*

1. Short title and commencement. (1)

(2) It shall come into force on such date as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint and different dates may be appointed for different provisions of this Act. * * * * * *

3. Amendment of article 22. In article 22 of the Constitution, (a) for clause (4), the following clause shall be substituted, namely: (4) No law providing for preventive detention shall authorise the detention of a person for a longer period than two months unless an Advisory Board constituted in accordance with the recommendations of the Chief Justice of the appropriate High Court has reported before the expiration of the said period of two months that there is in its opinion sufficient cause for such detention: Provided that an Advisory Board shall consist of a Chairman and not less than two other members, and the Chairman shall be a serving Judge of the appropriate High Court and the other members shall be serving or retired Judges of any High Court: Provided further that nothing in this clause shall authorise the detention of any person beyond the maximum period prescribed by any law made by Parliament under sub-clause (a) of clause (7). Explanation. In this clause, appropriate High Court means, (i) in the case of the detention of a person in pursuance of an order of detention made by the Government of India or an officer or authority subordinate to that Government, the High Court for the Union territory of Delhi; (ii) in the case of the detention of a person in pursuance of an order of detention made by the Government of any State (other than a Union territory), the High Court for that State; and (iii) in the case of the detention of a person in pursuance of an order of detention made by the administrator of a Union territory or an officer or authority subordinate to such administrator, such High Court as may be specified by or under any law made by Parliament in this behalf.; (b) in clause (7), (i) sub-clause (a) shall be omitted; (ii) sub-clause (b) shall be re-lettered as sub-clause (a); and (iii) sub-clause (c) shall be re-lettered as sub-clause (b) and in the sub-clause as so relettered, for the words, brackets, letter and figure sub-clause (a) of clause (4) , the word, brackets and figure clause (4) shall be substituted. * * * * *

278

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

APPENDIX-IV
THE CONSTITUTION (EIGHTY-SIXTH AMENDMENT) ACT, 2002
[12th December, 2002] An Act further to amend the Constitution of India. BE it enacted by Parliament in the Fifty-third year of the Republic of India as follows:1. Short title and commencement.(1) This Act may be called the Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002. (2) I t sh all c o me into for c e on su ch d a t e* as th e C e n tr al Gov ern ment may, b y not ifi cation in th e Offi ci al Gazett e, appo int . 2. Insertion of new article 21A.After article 21 of the Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely:-21A. Right to education.The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years in such manner as the State may, by law, determine.. 3. Substitution of new article for article 45.For article 45 of the Constitution, the following article shall be substituted, namely:-45. Provision for early childhood care and education to children below the age of six years.The State shall endeavour to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of six years.. 4. Amendment of article 51A.In article 51A of the Constitution, after clause (j), the following clause shall be added, namely:-(k) who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or, as the case may be, ward between the ago of six and fourteen years..

___________________________________________________________________
*Date yet to be notified.

279

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APPENDIX-V THE CONSTITUTION (EIGHTY-EIGHTH AMENDMENT) ACT, 2003


[15th January, 2004.] An Act further to amend the Constitution of India. BE it enacted by Parliament in the Fifty-fourth Year of the Republic of India as follows:-1. Short title and Commencement.(1) This Act may be called the Constitution (Eighty-eighth Amendment) Act, 2003. (2) It shall come into force on such date* as the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint. 2. Insertion of new article 268A.After article 268 of the Constitution, the following article shall be inserted, namely:-268A. Service tax levied by Union and collected and appropriated by the Union and the States.(1) Taxes on services shall be levied by the Government of India and such tax shall be collected and appropriated by the Government of India and the States in the manner provided in clause (2). (2) The proceeds in any financial year of any such tax levied in accordance with the provisions of clause (1) shall be (a) collected by the Government of India and the States; (b) appropriated by the Government of India and the States, in accordance with such principles of collection and appropriation as may be formulated by Parliament by law.. 3. Amendment of article 270.In article 270 of the Constitution, in clause (1), for the words and figures articles 268 and 269, the words, figures and letter articles 268, 268A and 269 shall be substituted. 4. Amendment of Seventh Schedule.In the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution, in List IUnion List, after entry 92B, the following entry shall be inserted, namely:-92C. Taxes on services..

_________________________________
*Date yet to be notified.

280

281

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA ARTICLE/SCHEDULE

INDEX
ARTICLE/SCHEDULE A ABOLITION of privy purses .....................................................................................363A. ACCOUNTS Form ofof the Union and States...................................................... 150. ACQUISITION of estates, etc., saving of laws providing for .................................... 31A. of property, compulsory Sch. VII, List III-42. amount forof any property of an educational institution established and administered by a minority.................................... 30(1A). ACTS Validation of certainand Regulations ........................................... 31B, Sch. IX. ADAPTATION OF LAWSSee PRESIDENT. ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE ..................................................... Sch. VII, List III-11A. ADMINISTRATIVE RELATIONS between the Union and States ................................................................................... 256262. ADMINISTRATOR appointment offor Union territory ................................................ 239(1). power ofof Union territory to promulgate Ordinances................. 239B. ADMINISTRATOR-GENERAL ......................................................... Sch. VII, List III-11. ADMIRALTY jurisdiction VII, List I-95. ADOPTION Sch. VII, List III-5. ADULTERATION OF FOODSTUFFS, ETC. .................................... Sch. VII, List III-18. ADULT SUFFRAGESee ELECTIONS. ADVISORY BOARDSee PREVENTIVE DETENTION. ADVOCATE-GENERAL appointment of .................................................................................. 165(1). duties of............................................................................................. 165(2). qualifications for appointment of ..................................................... 165(1). remuneration, etc., of ........................................................................ 165(3). right ofto take part in proceedings of State Legislature................ 177. term of office of ................................................................................ 165(3). AERODROMES ................................................................................... Sch. VII, List I-29. definition of....................................................................................... 364(2). regulation and organisation of air traffic and of ............................... Sch. VII, List I-29. special provision as to extension of laws to...................................... 364(1). AERONAUTICAL EDUCATION, ETC. ............................................ Sch. VII, List I-29. AGRICULTURAL INCOME, definition of......................................... 366(1). AGRICULTURAL INDEBTEDNESS, relief of.................................. Sch. VII, List II-30. AGRICULTURE .................................................................................. Sch. VII, List II-14. AGRICULTURE AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY, organisation of .................................................................................. 48. ALIENS ................................................................................................ Sch. VII, List I-17. ALL-INDIA SERVICESSee SERVICES. AMMUNITIONSee ARMS. 281

282

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA ARTICLE/SCHEDULE

ANCIENT AND HISTORICAL MONUMENTS AND RECORDS ......................................................................................... ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS, territory of ...................... ANDHRA PRADESH allocation of seats in the Council of States to................................... establishment of Central University in ............................................. special provision for the Legislative Assembly of ........................... special provisions with respect to the State of.................................. State of .............................................................................................. ANGLO-INDIANS definition of....................................................................................... educational grants for benefit of ....................................................... special provisions re: appointment ofto certain services ................................................. nomination ofto the House of the People ..................................... representation ofin State Legislative Assembly ........................... special representation ofto cease after 60 years............................ ANIMALS prevention of cruelty to..................................................................... protection of wildand birds ........................................................... ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT before Parliament .............................................................................. before State Legislature .................................................................... ARBITRATION ................................................................................... ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES AND REMAINS of national importance ...................................................................... Others ................................................................................................ ARMED FORCES court or tribunal constituted under law relating toHigh Court has no power of superintendence over ................................ deployment of armed forces or other forces of, in any State in aid of the civil power ................................................................ Fundamental Rights : Parliament may restrict or abrogate, in their application to ........................................................................ Judgment, determination, sentence or order of court or tribunal constituted under law relating toSupreme Court has no power to interfere ............................................................ of Union ......................................................................................... ARMS, FIREARMS, AMMUNITION AND EXPLOSIVES.............. ARTICLE, definition of........................................................................ ARUNACHAL PRADESH allocation of seats in the Council of States to................................... special provision with respect to the State of ................................... territory of ......................................................................................... ASSAM allocation of seats in the Council of States to................................... formation of an autonomous State in................................................ special provision with respect to the State of ...................................

Sch. VII, List I-67. Sch. I. Sch. IV. 371E. 378A. 371D. Sch. I. 366(2). 337. 336. 331. 333. 334. Sch. VII, List III-17. Sch. VII, List III-17B. 112. 202. Sch. VII, List III-13. Sch. VII, List I-67. Sch. VII, List III-40.

227(4). Sch. VII, List I-2A. 33.

136(2). Sch. VII, List I-2. Sch. VII, List I-5. 366(3). Sch. IV. 371 H. Sch. I. Sch. IV. 244A. 371B.

283

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA ARTICLE/SCHEDULE Sch. I. Sch. VII, List II-32. Sch. VII, List I-6. 76(1). 76(2). 76(3). 88. 76(4). Sch. VII, List I-76.

State of .............................................................................................. ASSOCIATIONS, literary, scientific and religious ............................. ATOMIC ENERGY.............................................................................. ATTORNEY-GENERAL appointment of .................................................................................. duties of............................................................................................. right of audience in all courts of ....................................................... right ofto take part in proceedings in Parliament.......................... salary and allowances, etc., of .......................................................... AUDIT OF UNION AND STATE ACCOUNTS ................................ AUDITOR-GENERALSee COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR-GENERAL B BACKWARD CLASSES Commission to investigate the conditions of.................................. making of special provisions for the advancement of ................... reservation of appointments, etc., for ............................................ BANKING ............................................................................................ BANKING CORPORATIONS ............................................................ BANKRUPTCY AND INSOLVENCY ............................................... BEACONS ............................................................................................ BETTING AND GAMBLING ............................................................. BHARATSee INDIA. BIHAR allocation of seats in the Council of States to................................... Legislative Council for ..................................................................... State of .............................................................................................. BILLS affecting taxation in which States are interested, prior recommendation of President ...................................................... appropriation in Parliament ................................................................................ in State Legislature ...................................................................... assent to by Governor ................................................................................. by President.................................................................................. financial special provisions as to in Parliament ................................................................................ in State Legislature ...................................................................... introduction, passing and lapsing of in joint sitting ............................................................................. in Parliament .............................................................................. in State Legislature .................................................................... Moneyin Parliament definition of................................................................................ procedure in respect of.............................................................. Moneyin State Legislature

340. 15(4). 16(4). Sch. VII, List I-45. Sch. VII, List I-43. Sch. VII, List III-9. Sch. VII, List I-26. Sch. VII, List II-34.

Sch. IV. 168. Sch. I.

274. 114. 204. 200. 111.

117. 207. 100 & 108. 107. 196. 110 109.

284

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA ARTICLE/SCHEDULE

BILLScontd.. definition of............................................................................. procedure in respect of............................................................ reservation ofby Governor for President ............................ BILLS OF EXCHANGEcheques, promissory notes, etc. ................ BIRTHS AND DEATHS...................................................................... BOILERS .............................................................................................. BONA VACANTIA, right to property accruing as ................................ BOOKS ................................................................................................. BORROWING, definition of ................................................................ See also FINANCE BORSTAL INSTITUTIONS ................................................................ BRIDGES AND FERRIES................................................................... BROADCASTING ............................................................................... BURIALS AND BURIAL GROUNDS ............................................... C CANALS............................................................................................... CANTONMENTS ................................................................................ CARRIAGE OF PASSENGERS AND GOODS by air, rail or sea................................................................................ on inland waterways ......................................................................... CASES, TRANSFER OF relating to same question of law ....................................................... CENSUS ............................................................................................... CERTIORARI power of High Court to issue........................................................... CHANDIGARH, territory of ................................................................ CHARITIES.......................................................................................... CHHATTISGARH allocation of seats in the Council of States to . State of . CHIEF JUSTICE of High CourtSee HIGH COURT. of Supreme CourtSee SUPREME COURT. CHIEF MINISTER appointment of .................................................................................. Council of Ministers,is head of..................................................... duty ofto furnish information, etc., to Governor .......................... CHILDREN employment ofSee FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS. free and compulsory education forState to provide..................... CINEMAS............................................................................................. CINEMATOGRAPH FILMS sanction offor exhibition ............................................................... CITIZENS OF INDIA, persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State, not to be ...................................................... CITIZENSHIP ...................................................................................... at the commencement of the Constitution ........................................

199. 198. 201. Sch. VII, List I-46. Sch. VII, List III-30. Sch. VII, List III-37. 296. Sch. VII, List III-39. 366(4). Sch. VII, List II-4. Sch. VII, List II-13. Sch. VII, List I-31. Sch. VII, List II-10. Sch. VII, List II-17. Sch. VII, List I-3. Sch. VII, List I-30. Sch. VII, List III-32. 139A. Sch. VII, List I-69. 226. Sch. I. Sch. VII, List III-28. Sch. IV Sch. I.

164. 163. 167.

45. Sch. VII, List II-33. Sch. VII, List I-60. 9. Sch. VII, List I-17. 5.

285

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA ARTICLE/SCHEDULE

CITIZENSHIPcontd. Parliament to regulateby law ........................................................ right of continuance of............................................................................... of migrants from Pakistan............................................................. of migrants to Pakistan................................................................. of persons of Indian origin residing outside India....................... CIVIL CODE, uniform for all citizens ................................................. CIVIL PROCEDURE ........................................................................... CLAUSE, definition of ......................................................................... COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY..................................................... COLONIZATION................................................................................. COMMERCESee TRADE, COMMERCE, ETC. COMMERCIAL MONOPOLIES, combines and trusts....................... COMMUNICATIONS posts and telegraphs, etc. .................................................................. roads, municipal tramways, etc......................................................... COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR-GENERAL ................................ administrative expenses ofto be charged on the Consolidated Fund of India.................................................................................. appointment of .................................................................................. audit reports by ................................................................................. conditions of service, etc., of ............................................................ duties and powers of ......................................................................... ineligibility for future appointment of .............................................. oath of office by ............................................................................... power ofto give direction re: manner of keeping accounts ......... removal from office of ..................................................................... salary, etc., of .................................................................................... transitional period, special provisions as to...................................... CONCURRENT LIST .......................................................................... CONSOLIDATED FUND of IndiaSee FINANCE. of StatesSee FINANCE. CONSTITUTION OF INDIA, the amendment ofpower of Parliament to amend and procedure therefor ........................................................................ authoritative text of, in the Hindi language ................................. commencement of ............................................................................ interpretation of, provisions of General Clauses Act to apply to........................................................................................... Short title.......................................................................................... CONSULAR REPRESENTATION ..................................................... CONTEMPT OF COURT of courts other than the Supreme Court ........................................... power of State to make laws relating to........................................... See also HIGH COURT and SUPREME COURT.

11. 10. 6. 7. 8. 44. Sch. VII, List III-13. 366(5). 75(3). Sch. VII, List II-18. Sch. VII, List III-21. Sch. VII, List I-31. Sch. VII, List II-13. Sch. VII, List I-75. 148(6). 148(1). 151. 148(5). 149. 148(4). 148(2). 150. 148(1). 148(3), Sch. II, Pt. E. 377. Sch. VII, List III.

368. 394A. 394. 367. 393. Sch. VII, List I-11. Sch. VII, List III-14. 19(2).

286

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA ARTICLE/SCHEDULE

CONTINENTAL SHELF things lying in territorial waters orvest in the Union.................... CONTINGENCY FUNDSee FINANCE. CONTRACTS by the Union or States to be made in the name of the President or Governor .................................................................................... other than those relating to agricultural land ................................... CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETIES ............................................................ CO-ORDINATION between States...................................................... COPYRIGHT........................................................................................ CORPORATIONS incorporation, regulation and winding up of trading, including banking, insurance and financial ............. of, whether trading or not, with objects not confined to one State......................................................................................... of, other than above, and universities ...................................... municipal.......................................................................................... CORPORATION TAX, definition of................................................... See also FINANCE. CORRESPONDING Province, Indian State, State, etc., definition of ............................. COTTAGE INDUSTRIES, State to promote....................................... COUNCIL OF MINISTERS for States advice to Governor by. No court to enquire into .................... Chief MinisterSee CHIEF MINISTER. collective responsibility of................................................................ functions of ....................................................................................... Ministers appointment of ............................................................................ oath of office and secrecy by ...................................................... right ofto take part in the proceedings of either House .......... salaries, etc., of ........................................................................... for the Union advice to President by. No court to enquire into .................... collective responsibility of ......................................................... functions of ................................................................................. Ministers appointment of ............................................................................. oath of office and secrecy by ....................................................... qualifications for the office of ..................................................... right ofto take part in proceedings of either House .................. salaries, etc., of............................................................................................................................................................ Prime MinisterSee PRIME MINISTER. COUNCIL OF STATES allocation of seats in.........................................................................

297.

299. Sch. VII, List III-7. Sch. VII, List II-32. 263. Sch. VII, List I-49.

Sch. VII, List I-43. Sch. VII, List I-44. Sch. VII, List II-32. Sch. VII, List II-5. 366(6).

366(7). 43.

163(3). 164(2). 163(1). 164(1). 164(3). 177. 164(5), Sch. VII, List II-40. 74(2). 75(3). 74. 75(1). 75(4). 75(5). 88. 75(6), Sch. VII, List I-75.

80(2), Sch. IV.

287

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA ARTICLE/SCHEDULE

Chairman of not to preside while a resolution for his removal is under consideration ............................................................................. 92. salaries, etc., of........................................................................... 97, Sch. II, Part C, Sch. VII, List I-73. Vice-President of India to be ex officio .................................... 64, 89(1). composition of .................................................................................. 80. decision ofby majority .................................................................. 100(1). Deputy Chairman of acts for Chairman .......................................................................... 91. choosing of .................................................................................... 89(2). not to preside while a resolution for his removal is under consideration.................................................................................. 92. removal from office of .................................................................. 90(c). resignation of office by.................................................................. 90(b). salaries, etc., of .............................................................................. 97, Sch. II, Part C, Sch. VII, List I-73. vacation of office by...................................................................... 90(a). vote, casting................................................................................... 100. duration of ..................................................................................... 83(1). quorum for a meeting of................................................................ 100(3) & (4). rules of procedure.......................................................................... 118. secretarial staff of .......................................................................... 98(1). See also PARLIAMENT. COURTS additional, creation of .................................................................. 247. continuance of functions .................................................................. 375. jurisdiction and powers ofin respect of matters in List I Sch. VII, List I-95. Other than High Courts and Supreme Court, constitution and organisation of........................................................................... Sch, VII, List II-3. other than Supreme Court, jurisdiction and powers of in respect of matters in Concurrent List ....................................... Sch. VII, List III-46. in respect of matters in State List.................................................. Sch. VII, List II-65. COURTS OF WARDS for estates of Rulers.......................................................................... Sch. VII, List I-34. for other estates ................................................................................. Sch. VII, List II-22. COWS, SLAUGHTER OF, State to prohibit ....................................... 48. CREMATIONS AND CREMATION GROUNDS.............................. Sch. VII, List II-10. CRIMINAL PROCEDURE. Sch. VII, List III-2. CRIMINAL LAW................................................................................. Sch. VII, List III-1. CURRENCY, COINAGE AND LEGAL TENDER ............................ Sch. VII, List I-36. CUSTOMS duties, See FINANCE. frontiers, etc. ..................................................................................... Sch. VII, List I-41. D DADRA AND NAGAR HAVELI, territory of.................................... Sch. I. DAMAN AND DIU, territory of .......................................................... Sch. I.

288

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA ARTICLE/SCHEDULE

DEBT definition of...................................................................................... publicof the States........................................................................ publicof the Union ...................................................................... DEFENCE OF INDIA ..................................................................... industries necessary for the purpose of............................................ preventive detention for reasons connected with.................................. DEFINITION OF certain expressions ........................................................................... Consolidated Fund of India ............................................................................................. of the State ....................................................................................... Contingency Fund of India ..................................................................................... of the State................................................................................ Indian State ........................................................................... Money Bill in State Legislature ..................................................................... in Parliament ............................................................................... net proceeds............................................................................. Ruler ........................................................................................ Scheduled Areas...................................................................... State for purposes of Part III ................................................... State for purposes of Part IV................................................... DELHI allocation of seats in the Council of States to................................... territory of ......................................................................................... DEVASWOM FUND annual payments to........................................................................... in the State of Kerala....................................................................... in the State of Tamil Nadu ............................................................... DEVELOPMENT BOARDS establishment of separatefor parts of Maharashtra and Gujarat.......................................................................................... DIPLOMATIC REPRESENTATION................................................. DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY............................... agriculture and animal husbandry, State to organise ....................... application of.................................................................................... assistance in case of unemployment, old age, etc., State, to provide ............................................................................. Civil Code, uniform for all citizens, State to secure........................ cottage industries, State to promote................................................. cows, etc., slaughter of, State to prohibit......................................... education, free and compulsory for children, State to provide ........................................................................................... equal justice and free legal aid......................................................... international peace and security, etc., State to promote ..................

366(8). Sch. VII, List II-43. Sch. VII, List I-35. Sch. VII, List I-1. Sch. VII, List I-7. Sch. VII, List I-9. 366. 266(1). 266(1). 267(1). 267(2). 363(2)(a). 199. 110. 279(1). 363(2)(b). Sch. V, Part C, Para 6. 12. 36. Sch. IV. Sch. I. 290A. 290A. 290A.

371(2). Sch. VII, List I-11. Part IV. 48. 37. 41. 44. 43. 48. 45. 39A. 51.

289

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA ARTICLE/SCHEDULE

DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICYcontd.. judiciary, separation of, from executive, State to take steps for ......................................................................................... just and humane conditions of work, State to secure....................... level of nutrition and standard of living, raising of, State to regard as its primary duty .............................................................. living wage, etc., for workers, State to secure ................................. maternity relief, State to make provision for securing .................... monuments, etc., State to protect..................................................... participation of workers in management of industry....................... principles of policy to be followed by the State .............................. prohibition of intoxicating drinks and drugs, State to bring about ....................................................................................... right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, etc., State to secure................................... saving of laws giving effect to certain ............................................. Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, etc., State to protect from social injustice and exploitation.................................. the State, definition of, for the purposes of Part IV......................... village panchayats, State to organise ............................................... DISEASES AND PESTS prevention of extension offrom one State to another .................. DISPLACED PERSONS, relief and rehabilitation of.......................... DISPUTES industrial and labour .......................................................................... DISQUALIFICATION decision on questions as to disqualifications of members ................. DISTRICT BOARDS ........................................................................... DISTRICT JUDGES appointment of ................................................................................... recruitment of persons other thanto judicial service...................... validation of appointment, etc., of certain ......................................... DOUBLE JEOPARDY......................................................................... DIVORCE............................................................................................. DRUGS ................................................................................................. DUTIES Fundamental...................................................................................... See also under FINANCE. DUTY OF UNION to promote spread of Hindi language................................................. to protect States against aggression and disturbances ....................... E EDUCATION ....................................................................................... free and compulsoryfor children See DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES. See also UNIVERSITY. in mother-tongue in primary stage................................................... institutions for

50. 42. 47. 43. 42. 49. 43A. 39. 47. 41. 31C. 46. 36. 40. Sch. VII, List III-29. Sch. VII, List III-27. Sch. VII, List III-22. 103 & 192. Sch. VII, List II-5. 233. 234. 233A. 20(2). Sch. VII, List III-5. Sch. VII, List III-19. 51A.

351. 355. Sch. VII, List III-25.

350A.

290

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA ARTICLE/SCHEDULE

higher education, co-ordination and determination of standards ........................................................................................ Sch. VII, List I-66. professional, vocational, etc., training........................................... Sch. VII, List I-65. scientific and technical .................................................................. Sch. VII, List I-64. ELECTIONS......................................................................................... Part XV. adult suffrage..................................................................................... 326. Election Commission ............................................................................ 324, Sch. VII, List I-72. Commissioners appointment of Chief Election and other Election........................ 324(2) & (3). conditions of services, etc., of ....................................................... 324(5). Regional......................................................................................... 324(4). removal from office of .................................................................. 324(5) Provisos. constitution of................................................................................ 324(2). Governor to consulton questions of disqualification of a member of State Legislature ...................................................... 192(2). President to consult-on questions of disqualification of a member of Parliament ................................................................ 103(2). staff of .............................................................................................. 324(6). superintendence, direction and control of elections to vest in ........................................................................................... 324(1). elections to Parliament and State Legislatures, power of Parliament to make laws relating to ............................................. 327, Sch. VII, List I-72. elections to State Legislatures, power of State Legislature to make laws relating to ............................................................... 328, Sch. VII, List II-37. electoral matters, bar to interference by courts in............................ 329. electoral roll, to be general............................................................... 325. readjustment of territorial constituencies after each census ............................................................................................. 82. suffrage, adult.................................................................................... 326. ELECTRICITY, taxes on See under FINANCE. EMERGENCY financial directions to StateS in case of ....................................................... 360(3). proclamation in case of.................................................................. 360(1). revocation, etc., of ......................................................................... 360(2). freedom of speech, etc., right to, suspension of provisions re: during .................................................................................... 358. Fundamental rights, suspension of the enforcement of, during......................................................................................... 359. See also under FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS. Proclamation of ................................................................................ 352. definition of...................................................................................... 366(18). duration of ........................................................................................ 352(4) & (5). effect of ............................................................................................ 353. laying ofbefore each House of Parliament................................... 352(4). revocation of ................................................................................... 352(2) & (7). EMERGENCY PROVISIONS Proclamation of, in the case of failure of constitutional

291

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA ARTICLE/SCHEDULE 356. 356(4). 356(3). 357. 356(2). 354. Sch. VII, List III-23. Sch. VII, List III-28. 22(3). Sch. VII, List II-33. 258A. 48A. 16(3). Preamble, 14. 296. Sch. VII, List III-3. 366(9). Sch. VII, List II-48. Sch. VII, List I-87. Sch. VII, List III-41. Sch. VII, List III-12. 297. 298. 53, 154, 298. 298. 366(10). Sch. VII, List I-5. Sch. VII, List I-18. Sch. VII, List III-36.

machinery in a State......................................................................... duration of ........................................................................................ laying ofbefore each House of Parliament................................... legislative powers, exercise of, during............................................. revocation, variation, etc., of ........................................................... provisions re: distribution of revenues, application of, during ............................................................................................. EMPLOYMENT AND UNEMPLOYMENT ...................................... ENDOWMENTS, charitable and religious .......................................... ENEMY ALIEN no protection toagainst arrest and detention ................................ ENTERTAINMENTS AND AMUSEMENTS .................................... ENTRUSTMENT OF STATE FUNCTIONSon Union.................. ENVIRONMENT, protection and improvement of ............................. EQUALITY of opportunity for public employment............................................. of status and opportunity, securing of right to, before law.............. See also FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS ESCHEAT, property accruing by ......................................................... ESSENTIAL SUPPLIES AND SERVICES, preventive detention for maintenance of ............................................................................ ESTATE DUTY definition of....................................................................................... in respect of agricultural land ........................................................... in respect of other property............................................................... EVACUEE PROPERTY, custody, management and disposal of ........................................................................................ EVIDENCE........................................................................................... EXCISE, duties of. See under FINANCE. EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONES .................................................... EXECUTIVE POWERUNIONSTATES ..................................... extent of executive power power to carry on business ............................................................. power to acquire property power to carry on trade .................................................................... EXISTING LAW, definition of ............................................................ EXPLOSIVES....................................................................................... EXTRADITION ................................................................................... F FACTORIES......................................................................................... FAIRSSee MARKETS AND FAIRS. FAMILY PLANNING Population control and ...................................................................... FEDERAL COURT definition of...................................................................................... provisions as to Judges of ................................................................ provisions as to suits, etc., pending in ............................................

Sch. VII, List III-20A. 366(11). 374(1). 374(2).

292

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA ARTICLE/SCHEDULE

FEES in respect of matters in Concurrent List excepting courts fees ........................................................................................ in respect of matters in State List excepting court fees ................... in respect of matters in Union List excepting court fees ................. taken in courts other than Supreme Court ....................................... taken in Supreme Court ................................................................... FINANCE adjustment in respect of certain expenses and pensions between Union and States............................................................. annual financial statement See ANNUAL FINANCIAL STATEMENT. annual payments to Devaswom Funds ............................................ Bill, financial in Parliament ..................................................................................... in State Legislature ........................................................................... Bills, regarding taxation affecting States.......................................... See also BILLLS. Commission constitution of ............................................................................. duty of ......................................................................................... powers of , Parliament to determine ....................................... qualifications for membership of................................................ recommendations ofto be laid before each House of Parliament ................................................................ Consolidated Fund of India ........................................................ borrowing on the security of....................................................... custody, etc., of ........................................................................... definition of................................................................................. expenditure charged on............................................................... not subject to vote of Parliament ................................................ Consolidated Fund of the States ...................................................... borrowing on the security of....................................................... custody, etc., of ........................................................................... definition of ................................................................................ expenditure charged on............................................................... not subject to vote of Legislature................................................ Contingency Fund of India ................................................................ custody, etc., of ............................................................................ Contingency Fund of States............................................................... custody, etc., of ............................................................................ duties collected by Union and may be distributed between Union and States ......................................................................... in respect of succession to agricultural land............................... in respect of succession to property other than agricultural land ......................................................................

Sch. VII, . List III-47. Sch. VII, List II-66. Sch. VII, List I-96. Sch. VII, List II-3. Sch. VII, List I-77.

290.

290A. 117. 207. 274.

280(1). 280(3). 280(4). 280(2). 281. 266. 292. 283(1). 266(1). 112(3). 113(1). 266. 293. 283(2). 266(1). 202(3). 203(1). 267(1) 283(1). 267(2). 283(2).

270. Sch. VII, List II-47. Sch. VII, List I-88.

293

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA ARTICLE/SCHEDULE FINANCEcontd. levied by Union and collected and appropriated by States ...................................................................................... 268. of customs including export duties ............................................. Sch. VII, List I-83. of excise, on alcoholic liquors, opium, Indian hemp, etc. .......... Sch. VII, List II-51. of excise, on tobacco, etc. ........................................................... Sch. VII, List I-84. stamp, other than duties or fees collected by judicial stamp .......................................................................................... stamp, rates of, in respect of bills of exchange, etc. ................... surcharge on certain, for purposes of Union............................... grants by the Union or States for public purposes...................... grants by Union to certain States ................................................ grants to certain States in lieu of export duty on jute and jute products................................................................................ Interpretation of, for the purposes of Part XII, "Finance Commission" .......................................................... "net proceeds", etc., calculation of ........................................ public account of India and the States................................... custody, etc., of money credited to........................................ suitors' deposits and other moneys received by the public servants and courts to be paid into......................................... revenues, distribution of, between the Union and the States levied by the Union and shared with the States.......................... levied by the Union but collected and appropriated by the States ...................................................................................... on export of jute, etc., grant in lieu of, to certain States............ surcharge on, for purposes of Union, Parliament may impose ..................................................................................... sales tax, restriction as to imposition of ..................................... State taxation exemption from-in respect of water or electricity in certain cases ........................................................................................... exemption of Union property from............................................ supplementary grantsSee SUPPLEMENTARY GRANTS. tax capitation ....................................................... corporation .................................................................................. on advertisements in newspapers................................................ on other advertisements .............................................................. on agricultural income ................................................................ on animals and boats................................................................... on capital value of assets, exclusive of agricultural land, of individuals and companies and on capital of companies ................................................................................ on consignment of goods............................................................ on consumption of sale of electricity.......................................... Sch. VII, List III-44. Sch. VII, List I-91. 271. 282. 275. 273. 264. 279. 266(2). 283. 284.

270. 268. 273. 271. 286.

287-288. 285.

S ch . VI I , Li s t I I - 6 1 . Sch. VII, List I-85. Sch. VII, List I-92. Sch. VII, List II-55. Sch. VII, List II-46. Sch. VII, List II-58.

Sch. VII, List I-86. Sch. VII, List I-92B. Sch. VII, List II-53.

294

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA ARTICLE/SCHEDULE

FINANCEcontd. on entry of goods into local areas............................................... on goods and passengers carried by road or on inland waterways ................................................................................... on income, definition of .................................................... on income, other than agricultural income ....................... on lands and buildings .....................................................

Sch. VII, List II-52. Sch. VII, List II-56. 366(29). Sch. VII, List I-82. Sch. VII, List II-49.

on luxuries, including taxes on entertainments, amusements, betting and gambling .............................. Sch. VII, List II-62. on mineral rights .............................................................. Sch. VII, List II-50. on professions, trades, callings and employments ........... 276, Sch VII, List II-60. on railway fares and freights ............................................ Sch. VII, List I-89. on sale or purchase of goods ........................................... Sch. VII, List II-54,286, Sch. VII, List I-92A. on sale or purchase of newspaper ........................