1
2.2. Steady – state conduction – One dimension with heat generation
Several different physical shapes fall in the category of onedimensional systems:
cylindrical and spherical systems are 1D when the temperature in the body is a function
only of radial distance and is independent of angle and axial distance. In some 2D
problems the effect of a secondspace coordinate may be so small as to justify its neglect,
and the multi dimensional heatflow problem may be approximated with a 1D analysis.
In these cases the differential equations are simplified, and we are led to a much easier
solution as a result of this simplification.
2.1The plane wall with Heat –generation systems
figure21
Plane wall with heat sources
Consider the plane wall with uniformly distributed heat sources shown in figure 21. The
thickness of the wall in the x direction is 2L, and it is assumed that the dimensions in the
other directions are sufficiently large that the heat flow may be considered as one
dimensional. The heat generated per unit volume is
•
q, and we assume that the thermal
conductivity does not vary with temperature. Hence, the differential equation that
governs the heat flow is
d
2
T
dx
2
+
• •• •
q
k
= 0 (2.1)
For the boundary conditions we specify the temperatures on either side of the wall, i.e.,
T = T
w
at x = ± L
The general solution to equation (2.11) is
EME4016 Heat Transfer
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T = –
• •• •
q
2k
x
2
+ C
1
x + C
2
(2.2)
Because the temperature must be the same on each side of the wall, C
1
must be zero. The
temperature at the midplane(x = 0) is denoted by T
o
and from equation (2.2)
T
0
= C
2
The temperature distribution is therefore
T – T
o
= –
• •• •
q
2k
x
2
(2.3a)
or
T  T
o
T
w
 T
o
=
\

¹


x
L
2
(2.3b)
a parabolic distribution. An expression for the midplane temperature T
o
may be obtained
through an energy balance. At steady state conditions, the total heat generated must be
equal the heat lost at the faces. Thus
2
\

¹


kA
dT
dx
x = L
=
• •• •
q A 2L
where A is the crosssectional area of the plate. The temperature gradient at the wall is
obtained by differentiating equation 2.3b:
dT
dx
x = L
= (T
w
– T
o
)
\

¹


2x
L
2
x = L
= (T
w
– T
o
)
2
L
Then
–k (T
w
– T
o
)
2
L
=
• •• •
q L
and
T
o
=
• •• •
qL
2
2k
+ T
w
This same result could be obtained by substituting T = T
w
at x = L into equation (2.3a).
The equation for the temperature distribution could also be written in the alternative form
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T  T
w
T
o
 T
w
= 1 –
\

¹


x
2
L
2
Cylinder with heat sources
Consider a cylinder of radius R with uniformly distributed heat sources and constant
thermal conductivity. If the cylinder is sufficiently long that the temperature may be
considered a function of radius only, the appropriate differential equation may be
obtained by neglecting the axial, azimuth and time dependent terms
d
2
T
dr
2
+
1
r
dT
dr
+
• •• •
q
k
= 0 (2.4)
The boundary conditions are T = T
w
at r = R and the heat generated equals heat lost at
the surface:
\

¹


k2π ππ πRL
dT
dr
r = R
=
• •• •
q π ππ πR
2
L
Rewrite equation (2.4)
r
d
2
T
dr
2
+
dT
dr
= –
• •• •
qr
k
and note that
r
d
2
T
dr
2
+
dT
dr
=
d
dr
\

¹


r
dT
dr
Then integration yields
r
dT
dr
= –
• •• •
qr
2
2k
+ C
1
and
T = –
• •• •
qr
2
4k
+ C
1
ln r + C
2
From the second boundary condition above
dT
dr
r = R
= –
• •• •
qR
2k
= –
• •• •
qR
2k
+
C
1
R
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Thus C
1
= 0
From the first boundary condition,
T = T
w
= –
• •• •
qR
2
4k
+ C
2
at r = R
So that
C
2
= T
w
+
• •• •
qR
2
4k
The final solution for the temperature distribution is then
T  T
w
=
• •• •
q
4k
(R
2
 r
2
)
or in dimensionless form,
T  T
w
T
o
 T
w
= 1 –
\

¹


r
2
R
2
(2.5)
where T
0
is the temperature at r = 0 and is given by
T
0
=
• •• •
qR
2
4k
+ T
w
For a hollow cylinder with uniformly distributed heat sources the appropriate boubdary
conditions would be
T = T
i
at r = r
i
(inside surface)
T = T
o
at r = r
o
(outside surface)
The general solution is still
T = –
• •• •
qr
2
4k
+ C
1
ln r + C
2
Application of the new boundary conditions yields
T – T
o
=
• •• •
q
4k
(r
o
2
 r
2
) + C
1
ln
r
r
o
(2.6)
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where the constant C
1
is given by
C
1
=
T
i
 T
o
+
• •• •
q (r
i
2
 r
o
2
) /4k
ln(r
i
/r
o
)
Temperature distribution for a spherical solid with heat generation is given in the
Appendices.
Example On Chapter 2.1 Thermal Resistance
Example 3.5 in the text book.
What is the critical thickness of the insulation to a tube of radius r
i
? The tube transports a
lowtemperature refrigerant at T
i
that is less than the ambient air temperature T
∞
Comment on Page: 5
Critical thickness of insulation. The maximum of heat transfer achieved at dq/dr = 0. It is found out that the
outer radius for this maximum transfer would be r = k/h. For
smaller than this value, then increasing in insulation radius(thickness) will increase heat transfer rate, while
for r greater than this value, increase in insulation thickness will reduce heat transfer. Other word, for small
value of h, increase in insulation thickness will somehow increase heat transfer rate!!!. as due to the
increase surface area.
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Appendices:
References:
1. F. P. Incropera, D. P. DeWitt, T. L. Bergman and A. S. Lavine, Introduction to Heat Transfer, 5
th
Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 2007.
2. J. P. Holman, Heat Transfer, 9
th
Edition, McGrawHill, 2002.