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# 9/19/2012

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Resistors in series:
current is the same through all
voltage drop is proportional to resistance: V
i
=IR
i

total voltage drop is the sum of all of the drops
total (equivalent) resistance is simply the sum of all of the
resistances: R
eq
=R
1
+ R
2
+ …
total resistance is always larger than the largest resistor

Resistors in parallel:
voltage is the same across all
current is inversely proportional to resistance: I
i
=V/R
i

total current is the sum of all of the currents
total (equivalent) resistance is the reciprocal of the sum of
reciprocals of all of the resistances: 1/R
eq
=1/R
1
+ 1/R
2
+ …
total resistance is always smaller than the smallest resistor
Resistor Combinations
The combination rules for any number of resistors in series or parallel can be
derived with the use of Ohm's Law, the voltage law, and the current law.
2 1
R R R
eq
+ =
2 1
2 1
1 1 1
G G G
R R R
eq
eq
+ =
+ =
When R
1
and R
2
are in series:
When R1 and R2 are in parallel:
Example 1.2.2
Maximum Power Transfer:
The power absorbed by the load is,

The load current is given by,
L L L
R i P
2
=
L S
L
R R
v
i
+
=
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Therefore,

Foe a given value of v and R
S,
in order to find the value of R
L
that maximize the power
absorbed by load, set the first derivative dP
L
/dR
L
= 0. The solution,
R
L
= R
S
Example:
( )
L
L S
L
R
R R
v
P
2
2
+
=
S
L
L
R
v
i i i i ÷ = ÷ =
int
S L L
R i v v v v ÷ = ÷ =
int
Capacitance
Capacitance (C) is a property of the shape and position of the conductors
Definition: C = Q/V
Electrical symbol: 
store charge
can be used slow things down, because it takes time to
charge/discharge
can also be used to deliver short-duration large currents (e.g.
camera flash)

Exercise:
An 80-nF capacitor is charged to a potential of 500 V. How much
charge accumulates on each plate of the capacitor?
Applications:
Capacitance
Power:
dt
t dv
t Cv t i t v t p
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( = =
The energy stored in the capacitor:
) ( ) (
) (
) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
1 2
2
1
÷· ÷ = = =
í í
· ÷ · ÷
Cv t Cv
d
dv
v C d p t w
t t
t
t
t t t
) ( ) (
2
2
1
t Cv t w = At t = -·, v=0
For open circuit,
2
2
1
0 CV W ; ; t
v
Q
C = = =
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Example: An electronic flash works by storing
energy in a capacitor and releasing the energy
very quickly. Suppose an electronic flash has a
750 mF capacitor and a potential of 330V.
(a) What is the energy stored?
E = (1/2)CV
2

= 1/2(750×10
-6
)(330)
2

= (C/volt)(volt)
2
= 41 Joules.

(b) Assuming the flash lasts for 5×10
-3
seconds,
what is the power used?
P = E/t = (41 J)/(5×10
-3
) = 8200 watts.
Combination of Capacitors
Exercise: Determine the equivalent capacitance in terms of C
0
.
Example 1.2.3
Example
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u v cos BdA A d B d = - =
 
Magnetic Flux (v)
units: Tm
2
= Wb (“Webers”)
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Experimental observation: a magnetic field can
sometimes be used to create an electrical current:
changing the strength of a magnetic field through
a coil
moving a coil in or out of a magnetic field
moving a magnet near a coil
rotating a coil in a magnetic field
etc.
Magnetic Field >>>> Electric Current
dt

v(t) ÷ =
Conventions for directions in Faraday’s law:
right hand rule
important minus sign
also use “Lenz’s Law”
Lenz’s law: induced emf always opposes the direction of
change in current.
( ) 0 emf 0 < ¬ > - A B
dt
d
 
The induced emf in a coil is equal to the negative of the rate of
change of magnetic flux times the number of turns in the coil.
emf (around loop) = -rate of change of magnetic flux(thru loop)
units: Volts = Tm
2
/s = [Ns/Cm] [m
2
]/[s]= J/C
Self Inductance
 Changing current in a coil will also induce an emf in the coil itself:

 where,
 ì is the magnetic-flux linkage in weber-turns (Wb.t)
 N is the number of turns of the coil
 v is the magnetic flux in Webers (Wb)
 units: Henrys (H) = [V][s]/[A]=[Wb]/[A]=[O][s]
emf
i
a
b
- -
dt
di
L
dt
Li d
dt
d
N
dt
d
t v = = = = =
) (
dt
) d(N
) (
v v ì
i
N
i
L
v ì
= =
Inductance
 The instantaneous power delivered to the inductor:

 The energy stored in an inductor at a particular time:

 The energy stored in an inductor at some time t:

 If the current following through the coil does not change:

dt
t di
t Li t i t v t p
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( = =
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
1 2
2
1
÷· ÷ = =
í
· ÷
Li t Li d p t w
t
t t
) ( ) (
2
2
1
t Li t w =
2
2
1
W 0; V ; LI
I
L = = =
ì
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Inductors in series and parallel:
2 1
L L L
eq
+ =
2 1
1 1 1
L L L
eq
+ =
Do Example 1.2.4
Example 1.2.4
Example 1.2.4