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Ni dung bo co gm: Phn A: Bo co mch n p. 1. Gii thiu: 2. S nguyn l: 3. S lp rp: 4. Gi tr cc linh kin 5. Tc dng cc linh kin: 6. Nguyn l lm vic.

c. 7. Cc gi tr ca U, R trong qu trnh iu chnh. Phn B: Tr li cu hi

PHN A:

BO CO MCH N P
I. Gii thiu: Thit k mch n in p mt chiu s dng cc linh kin c bn nh transistor, in tr, diode, t in vv. n p lm vic ch tuyn tnh. S nguyn l:
(8)

II.
Ec 14-31V

(8)
T1 R1
560

R3
1

R2
100k

(7)
T3

R4
100k

R5
1M

T2

(6) (5)
R6
560

(4)
4

T4
1 VI GND

7812 VO 3 7 3 2

(1) (2)
DZ

(3)
R7
100k

C1

RT
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III.

S lp rp: Yu cu thit k mch: a. R1,R2,,R5: 2 khuyt nm dc thng hng nhau.


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b. T1,T2,T3 : 3 khuyt nm dc thng hng ngang. c. R6 : 2 khuyt nm dc thng hng dc R3. d. T4 : 3 khuyt nm ngang. e. Dz,C1,R7,C2,Rt : 2 khuyt nm dc thng hng ngang. T yu cu ta a n s nh sau:
S lp mch:

S i dy mt di:

IV.

Gi tr ca tng linh kin: IC: HA17741. T1: n khuch i cng sut H1061. T2, T3: D468. T4: IC n p 7812. C1 = C2 = 100 F/35V R1 = 560 R2 = R4 = 100 k R3 = 1/1W R5 1 M R6 560 R7 100 k Rt = 100 /5W a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h.
i.

V.

Tc dng ca tng linh kin: T C1 lc in p u vo. T C2 lc in p u ra. T4 l IC n p 7812 c nhim v cung cp in p n nh +12 V cho chn s 7 ca IC HA17741. Dz c nhim v to nn U chun a vo chn 3 ca IC. R1 c nhim v phn p. R2 c nhim v hn ch dng vo T2. R3 c nhim v bo v qu ti. R6 hn ch dng. R5 R7 phn p to so snh vo chn 2 ca IC.

Cc chn ca IC: j. Chn 2 ca IC l u vo o. k. Chn 3 ca IC l u vo thun to in p so snh chun. l. Chn 4 l m ngun. m. Chn 6 l tn hiu ra ca IC. n. Ngun nui IC (+12V) VI. Nguyn l lm vic: Mch n p c hi tip hot ng theo 1 nguyn tc chung c th biu din theo s khi sau:

in p a vo chiu cha n nh

Khuch i cng sut

Ura

Hn ch dng ti Khuch i Tn hiu iu khin

Ly mu

in p chun

So snh

Ngun 1 chiu a vo l ngun mt chiu bin i t 14V n 32V. IC HA17741 l mt b so snh. Chn 3 c a vo in p chun c ly t diode n p Dz. Mt phn ca in p ra c a v chn s 2 ca IC so snh vi U chun. chnh l in p trn in tr R7. R6 c dng hn ch dng vo cc base ca T2. Gi s in p ra gim xung dn n in p trn R7 gim xung cho n khi UD = U3 U2 > 0 th in p trn chn s 6 ca IC tng, khin cho in p trn cc base ca T2 tng ln, dn n in p Ura tng ln. Mch hot ng tng t vi trng hp Ura tng ln.
VII.

Cc gi tr ca U, R trong qu trnh iu chnh. iu chnh mc in p ra 9V: Khi ta chn: R6 = 560 R5 = 1M R7 = 100k T1 T2 T3 Dz UCE 4.5V 0 2.14V 9.3V UBE 0.64V 0.71V 0.5V UCE 21.4 0 1.9V 9.5V UBE 0.5 0.6V 0.5V
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Uvo 14V 31V

Ura 9.5V 9.5V

1. Khi Uvo = 14V

in th ti cc im: (1) 12V (2) 9.2V (3) 8.8V (4) 11V (5) 11V (6) 10.2V (7) 10V (8) 9.8V Ut = 8.5V
2. Khi Uvo = 32V

in th cc im: (1) 12V (2) 9.2V (3) 9V (4) 11.2V (5) 11V (6) 10V (7) 10V (8) 9.5V Ut = 9.2V

PHN B:

TR LI CU HI
Cu 1: V v trnh by nguyn l lm vic, tc dng linh kin ca mch c b ngun (dng bin p h p). Ngun c Ura = 2UV. Ngun phn p. Thit k b ngun n gin nht c c 2 mc in p ra. Tr li:
Ur

2 2 0 V
+

Bin p: Ura = 2UV N2 = 2N1

Chnh lu mt na chu k. Bin in p xoay chiu thnh in p mt chiu.


+

T lc: in p ra c lc phng.
78xx

79xx

78xx: bin p ra +xV 79xx: bin p ra xV Cu 2: Trong mch ngun dng bin p h p v ngun xung, ngi ta s dng my loi t lc? Cho thng s k thut v cch mc? Tr li: - Ngi ta dng chung 1 loi t lc l t ha. Ty mc n nh ca in p ra m ta c th s dng cc t c in dung khc nhau vi cc cp in p ph hp. - Cch mc: Vi mch ngun dng bin p h p: C1: T lc sau khi chnh lu 1000 - 2000F 25V mc sau chnh lu ni t. C2: T lc sau n p: 470 F 16V mc sau cng ni t. Vi mch ngun xung: C5: t lc th ngay sau chnh lu. Mc sau chnh lu ni t. C6: lc in p ti, mc sau ti ni t. Cu 3: Trong mch n p, mc darlington l mc kiu g? Tc dng ca mch? Mch darlington c my cch mc? V tng cch. Tr li: Trong mch n p, darlington l cch mc ghp ni cc transistor. Tc dng: gia tng h s khuch i. C 3 cch mc darlington: Cch 1:

Ec OUTPUT

R
INPUT

T1 T2

Cch 2:
Ec

RC

OUTPUT INPUT

T1 RB T2

Cch 3:

Ec

RB T1
INPUT

T2

OUTPUT

RC

Cu 4: Trong mch n p, ngoi n p, ngi ta cn c th s dng linh kin no n p trc tip cho tng mch c th? Tr li: Dng IC n p. Cu 5: Trong mch ngun xung, c bao nhiu cch mc mch lc? V mch c th? Tr li C 2 cch mc l:
Ucl Ur

Rt

10

Rt1 + E0 C1

Cu 6: Nu u im v nhc im ca ngun xung, ngun dng bin p h p? Tr li: Ngun xung o u im: + mc in p vo di rng t 80V n 240V, c a thng vo b chnh lu cu sau qua mch lc + Khng cn chuyn mch + Kch thc nh gn + Cng sut t vi ot n vi trm ot o Nhc im: + Gi thnh t + Kh sa cha Ngun dng in p h p o Nhc im: - Hn ch u vo ch c s dng 2 mc in p l 110 v 220 V - Cng knh, tn hao in nng ln loi ngun ny ngy nay ch yu c s dng trong lnh vc cng nghip o u im: + Gi thnh r Cu 7: C my cch chnh lu? Mch lc ngun ? i t chnh lu dung loi g? ti sao? Tr li: a. Cc cch chnh lu: + theo pha: chnh lu 1 pha chnh lu 3 pha + Theo chu k - chnh lu c chu k: chnh lu cu, chnh lu hnh tia c chu k - chnh lu na chu k: chnh lu hnh tia c iu kin v chnh lu khng c iu kin
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b. Mch lc ngun C 2 loi mch lc ngun + Mch lc 1 chiu: - S dng t ho. Tu mc n nh ca in p ra m ta c th s dng cc t c in dung khc nhau vi cc in p ph hp + Mch lc nhiu xoay chiu : s dng cc cun cm c. it chnh lu C 2 loi it tip mt v tip im: + Mch chnh lu lm vic tn s thp v dng chy qua tip gip ln, phi s dng loi iot tip mt + it tip im c din tch min tip gip nh nn khng cho c dng ln chy qua Cu 8 : Trong mch hc ta o c Uce(T1) que t vo phn to nhit cn que en t vo chn E vn o c ? Ti sao? Khi thay i Uvao th Uce(T1) c thay i khng? Ti sao? Tr li: Do cu to ca Tranzitor T1 (H1061) th phn to nhit c ni vi chn C ( chn gia) cho nn ta c th o c Uce ca iot ny bng cch cho que vo phn to nhit, que en vo chn E. Khi thay i Uvao th Uce (T1) thay i v Ura khng i, V4 =V5 = 12V nn Ve(T1) =V5 Vbe(T1) Vbe( T2) gn nh khng i. M Uce(T1)= Uvo Ve(T1) nn Uce(T1) s thay i khi Uvo thay i. Cu 9: khi chp min tip gip BC(T1), BC(T3) th Ura= ? Ti sao? Tr li: Khi chp lp tip gip BC th T1 ch cn l 1 iot nn Ve(T1) = Vngun. Do R5>>R3 nn Ura = Vngun Khi chp lp tip gip BC(T3) th lc T3 ch cn li l mt iot nn T3 khng cn tc dng n nh dong na. Khi Uvo khng i th Ura khng i, nhng khi Uvo tng th Ura cng tng theo ch khng n nh. Cu 10: Trong s ngun xung, nhim v ca C5 v C6 l g? Hai t ny c th i ch cho nhau c khng? Ti sao? Mt trong hai t trn b kh th hin tng g sy ra? Tr li: -Trong s ngun xung th nhim v ca hai t C5 v C6 l loc ngun mt chiu + T C5 lc th trc in tr nhit ngay sau chnh lu. + T C6 lc in p ti.
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Hai t ny khng th i ch cho nhau c v: + T C5 lc ngay sau khi chnh lu nn phi chu in p ln. in p nh mc ca t ny ln. + T C6 lc in p ti thp. Nn in p nh mc ca t ny nh hn so vi t C5. Khi mt trong hai t ny b kh th tr s ca t gim xung, do s lm kh nng lc ca t gim xung, in p khng n nh, v lm cc thong s u ra b thay i. Cu 11: Trnh by cch kim tra diode hai ch l ng v tnh? Tr li: Cch kim tra diode: Ch tnh: Do it zen c tc dng n p nn mc d dng in chy qua n thay i nhng in p gia hai u n vn khng i . V vy ch cn dng ng h o thang o mt chiu10VDC o in p ny. Nu in p ny n nh th it lm vic tt Ch ng: D ng h thang o ohm (10 ohm), nu o in tr ca diode phn cc thun m ng h ch mc 0 ohm hoc v cng th diode b hng, cn nu khng th diode vn cn tt

Cu 12: Diode chnh lu l diode tip im hay tip mt? Tr li: Trong mch chnh lu thi diode c dng l diode tip mt, v: Trong mch chnh lu th diode hot ng tn s thp, dng qua lp tip gip ln Diode tip mt c din tch tip xc ln nn cho php dng in ln i qua Cu 13: Trong b ngun xung, nhng linh kin g hng m mt thng nhn bit c? Nu cch kim tra v thay th? Tr li: trong b ngun xung th linh kin khi hng m ta d nhn bit bng mt thng c l cu ch v triac Vi cu ch thy tinh khi hng thi qua lp thy tinh trong sut ta c th quan st c c b t hay khng? Nu b t ta thay th bng ci khc hoc ni trc tip bng 1 si dy( khi ny khng cn tc dng ca cu ch na) Vi triac khi hng s b tch i ra nn ta hon ton quan st c v thay th bng 1 triac mi

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