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v. 2nd A long (1 m), slender cylindrical tube is completely fixed at one end (i.e. all six degrees of freedom are fixed). A 1000 N compressive load is applied to the opposite end of the constraint along the axial direction of the tube. The end where the load is applied is not restricted in motion in any direction. The cylindrical tube is to be fabricated from steel with the following material properties. (Note that these properties are approximately those from 1010 steel in SolidWorks but you will have to create a customer material for the slight variations. All other material parameters not listed can remain at the 1010 steel values.) Density = 7827.08 kg/m^3 Youngs modulus (E) = 199.948 GPa Yield strength = 180 MPa Poissons ratio ( ) = 0.27

Step 1. Create an Excel spreadsheet that will determine the optimum outer diameter (D) and thickness (t) to minimize the mass of the tube while being subjected to the following constraints (with the appropriate safety factor applied): The stress in the tube must be the yield strength of the material. The stress in the tube must be the critical stress which would initiate buckling according to Eulers buckling formula. (Be sure to use the correct effective length for this situation.) The stress in the tube must be the critical stress which would initiate shell buckling which is given by:

s =

2 Et D 3(1 2 )

For all of these constraints, a safety factor of 2.5 should be applied (and be a separate cell within Excel so that it can be varied if desired). Also include constraints such that: The diameter (D) is the thickness (t). The thickness is 0.5 mm (to assure that an unrealistic value is not obtained).

As initial guesses for the diameter and thickness, use 10 mm and 1 mm respectively. (Note that I am providing some dimensions in mm and some in m, as well as some stresses in MPa and some in GPa. Be sure to convert the dimensions correctly in Excel.) Also, within your Excel spreadsheet, determine the Buckling Load Factor (BLF) with respect to Eulers buckling formula. The BLF is the ratio of the critical Euler buckling stress to the applied stress (i.e. the factor of safety against this form of buckling). If the 0 < BLF < 1, buckling will occur. If the BLF > 1, buckling will not occur. As part of your report, be sure to include hand written equations for all of the equations you used in your calculations so I can check them. Also report the follow values for both the initial and optimized designs: (Note that the mass actually increases to achieve the design criteria.) Mass Critical Euler buckling stress Moment of inertia Critical shell buckling stress Applied stress BLF Finally, include in the Appendix of your report a print out of your Excel spreadsheet with values well labeled. B. Kinsey, Fall 2012 Page 1

Step 2. Create a SolidWorks model to evaluate the buckling condition for BOTH the initial geometry and the final optimized geometry (i.e., diameter and thickness). For the SolidWorks model, you can either create a solid cylinder with the outer diameter and the thickness specified, or you can create a surface and thus use shell elements with a specified thickness. Simulations with solid elements take longer to run, but the computation time for this problem is not excessive so can be solved with either. I will leave it up to you to determine a mesh density that is appropriate. I will describe in not too much detail how to create the surface/shell element model. In Lesson 8 in the Simulation tutorial, a shell element model was created by producing a midplane. Alternatively, a surface can be created by using Insert>Surface>Extrude after creating a circular sketch. For a shell element model, remember to Exclude in Analysis the solid body when running the simulation. Finally, when applying the load to the shell element edge, you will need to use a Selected direction. To verify the accuracy of your model, use the displacement and stress results from a static analysis. Be sure to include this verification in your report to justify the model you are using. You will NOT need to create fringe plots of the buckling results for your report. The value of interest out of the buckling analysis is the Buckling Load Factor (BLF), which can be obtained by right clicking on Results. Report these BLF values in your report for BOTH the initial and optimized dimensions and compare the values from your Excel spreadsheet and SolidWorks. Step 3. Write an engineering report summarizing the process and your findings. Include information from each step of the analysis process including the theoretical equations used in Step 1 and the equation used to verify your static analysis model in Step 2. Again, fringe plots from SolidWorks are not necessary for this report. I will leave it up to you to determine the exact information you want to include, but do include an introduction and conclusion/recommendation section and create a professional looking report. Be sure to be concise but complete. You will be partially graded on providing enough information for your boss to base his/her decision while not burdening him/her with a long report with tons of unnecessary figures and plots.

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