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Exam 2 Sample Questions

1) If DNA was a single-stranded molecule, how would this have affected Erwin Chargaffs discovery regarding the structure of DNA? Ratio A will not be equal to T, G to C 2) If you were a scientist trying to prove that proteins are the genetic material, how would you design an experiment to prove that this is the case? Design your experiment similar to the one that Avery, McLeod and McCarty performed in 1944.

Put heat killed smooth + protease + rough -> both = not genetic material 3) Re-write the following sentence so that it is correct: Beta pleated sheet domains are usually formed by electrostatic bonds between atoms of neighboring peptide bonds. Hydrogen bonds between neighboring polypeptide backbone 4) Which of the following is NOT a function of protein binding sites? a) Allows self-assembly of protein structures b) Allow for interaction of a membrane receptor with its ligand c) Allows an enzyme to interact with its substrate d) Allows proteins to undergo thermodynamically unstable conformations e) Allows antibodies to interact with antigen

5) How is metabolism responsible for the reversibility of the second law of thermodynamics? Anabolism - using energy from catabolism or sun energy 6) Based on what you know about allosteric regulation, an enzyme with an allosteric site that catalyzes the production of a protein that becomes misfolded might be expected to do which of the following? a) Slow down or stop production of the misfolded protein. b) Dimerize with a second enzyme in order to increase efficiency. c) Continue catalyzing the production of the protein at maximum rate. no negative feedback d) Participate in digestion of the misfolded protein molecules. e) Work with a chaperone protein to refold the protein molecules correctly.

7) All of the following statements about antibodies are true EXCEPT: a) They have a heavy chain b) They have a light chain c) They are produced by B-lymphocytes d) They will bind to any antigen e) They come in many different forms 8) Which of the following is found in the genetic material of prokaryotes ONLY? a) Operator sequences repressor binds no transcription 4tob poprostu ne tratit b) Promoter sequences. c) Enhancer sequences. d) Introns.

e) Exons. 9) Which of the following amino acids is most likely to be modified to bring about heritable epigenetic changes that would affect gene expression? a) Leucine b) Cysteine c) Aspartic Acid d) Glutamine e) Lysine ch5 189. Positively charged, when bind to negative acetylase -> dna (-) is opened Arginine Histidine 10) Once the origin of replication is opened, several proteins are attracted to the site. Which of the following proteins would most likely NOT be a part of this group? a) DNA ligase b) DNA polymerase c) DNA helicase d) DNA primase e) Sliding clamp ch6 209

11) A laboratory strain of cells was observed to have shorter and shorter DNA genomes with each new generation. It was discovered that the reason for this is that the DNA replication machinery cannot proceed through DNA strands that have become ultra-twisted at the ends and so replication stops at this point. This is most likely a result of a mutation in which of the following proteins? a) DNA primase b) Single-stranded DNA binding protein c) DNA polymerase d) DNA ligase e) DNA gyrase

12) Just before the end of a DNA replication cycle, cells are treated with a drug that that destroys all RNA that is not in double-stranded form. The result of this action is that the ends of the DNA were not fully replicated and therefore the lagging DNA strand was not fully copied. What is the likely reason for this? Telomerase RNA is destroyed no end of lagging strand 13) What is the primary defense against DNA mutations? (Be specific!)

Proofreading by DNA polymerase 14) Cells that had just completed DNA replication were treated with a drug that inhibits mismatch repair. After 24 hours, the drug was removed so that repairs could finally take place. However, when the DNA from the cells was analyzed, far more mutations than expected were discovered. What is the most likely reason for this finding? a) DNA ligase in the cells was defective. b) Too many thymine dimers which could not be repaired formed during replication. c) Too many DNA adducts which could not be repaired formed during replication. d) The DNA repair machinery was defective. e) Gaps in the strand containing incorrect bases were repaired by DNA ligase during the 24 hour incubation.

15) Is a double-stranded break in DNA ever beneficial? Explain your answer. Yes, DNA gyrase, homologous replication 16) A difference between replicative transposition and non-replicative transposition with respect to a jumping gene is which of the following? a) Non-replicative transposition results in one modified piece of DNA, but replicative transposition results in two modified DNA pieces. b) Both types of transposition result in one modified piece of DNA. c) Both types of transposition result in two modified pieces of DNA. d) Neither type of transposition results in modified pieces of DNA e) Replicative transposition results in one modified piece of DNA, but non-replicative transposition results in two modified DNA pieces.