Francisco Angulo Antonio J.
Eco-fuel-FA Eco-combustible-Fa (ECOFA)
A viable solution (for the problem generated from fossil fuels and the accumulation of organic waste)
From mess it`s extracted simplicity. Apart from discord it`s found harmony. In the middle of dificulty it is the opportunity. Imagination it`s more important than the knowledge. Albert Einstein The man is the first animal who has created his own enviroment, but ironically, he is the first animal who is destroying himself. Ernesto Sàbato We don`t inherit the Earth from our parents, we borrow it from our children. Massai Proverb
Introduction The contact key turns and... the engine starts! Francisco, the mechanic and I exchanged satisfated looks that until that moment there have been a mixture among certain incredulity and some scepticism. The only one who seemed have been quiet and self- confident was Francisco Angulo. Some instants ago, we have appeared in the workshop carrying a viscous and yellowish liquid, full of clots, in a plastic decanter. - Hi, Nice. Here, we bring you a fuel for the future! - And are you telling that this fuelt has been produced from Lorenzo`s bar`s rubbish? - As you hear... although it can look a joke, he is here to corroborate it. We have made it in his nave a week ago and yesterday he phoned to explain us that in the upper part of the beaker there was a layer similar to oil. We have just arrived from Madrid to pick up it. Have a look! We haven`t filtred it because we were in a hurry... - But, it`s the first step because any clot can obstruct the pipes or spoil the motor... Listen? Antonio. Are you sure this loom is trustworthy? - Look, Nice. The security is given us by Francisco. This is the first time I am going to verify it. That`s right! I confirm that I have seen personally how it has been elaborated without any trick. If this loom marks properly, I will be able to propose a monument is built in his honour in Soto de la Vega`s square
because he has done the most important discovery in the XXI Century. Francisco, who had simply smiled, without saying any word, took off a handkerchief from his pockel and put it on an empty receptacle, which Nice`s wife had given us, very gently, after having washed it carefully. Then, he started to drop the liquid and filter it. - I am going to put into the motor with these rubbers. It will be prepared within five minutes – explained us Nice very kindly. At that moment, we could only listen to a sepulchral silence while he started and stopped the motor again and again. At the same time that, the viscous liquid was filling the transparent rubber conduit that began in the beaker to the, for me, complicated inner matters of the vehicle. Suddenly, the motor didn`t start, although Nice continued turning the contact key insistently because, as he explained us, the diesel oil which there was in the injection bomb had been left. When the loom comes into the motor, inform me because this means that it has to be started again at that moment. If this doesn`t happen, there will be some problems... - It is going to enter. Don`t worry! At the next contact it will be inside. Francisco, who hasn`t nearly spoken since he had arrived – except at the initial greetings – shouted as he hds been possessed.
Those instants seemed the last scene of a science-fiction film, with a happy ending; we started to smile and congratulate ourselves, while Nice stepped, firmly and whithout any fear. the accelerator until getting a deafening noise. We were liberating the acumulated tension. Unexpectedly, my thoughts moved me to the remembers of the last months... 17 th March, 2007 Antonio, I want every CiÑe members to bring something original to the ‘eÑe Celebration’ we are going to celebrate it next Saturday at María Pandora´s Champagne bar. As your novel is tittled Españ@.es, we can take advantage of
the occassion to make a short biographical sketch and start to prepare the official presentation. Javier Tusalle was who had invited me to that party, which would be much more a single friends´ and colleagues’ meeting, as it happened finally. - Hello. My name is Francisco Angulo. I have written a sciencie-fiction novel called ‘La Reliquia’ (The Relic). - Nice to meet you: My name is Antonio J. Nevado. Is this your first novel? - Yes. I decided to write it because it was my last chance... - Don`t think everybody resolves his life with his first novel. It´s only possible if you are a real genious. - No, no it isn`t my case. Well, yes... although. I have written my novel to offer it as a visiting card. Well... Perhaps it`s a bit difficult to explain it. I was atonished, and I wasn`t totally sure he wasn`t Kidding. (it was the first time I met Francisco and so I didn´t know him very well) Maybe, it was a surrealistic scene provoked by the third champagne cup that I was tasting in the funny party, the same as the sparks that jumped naughtily dancing among unceasing bubbling. - How?... Well. Tell me it more slowly - But I don`t know if you are going to be interested in it, it`s a bit difficult to understand. - Try it. I am also a novelist. I mean, I think I have enough imagination to assum any planning in spite of it was histrionic, whenever you aren`t making a joke.
- No, no. Don`t think I`m trying to lie anyone; although people don`t take me seriously. - Good gracious! People don`t usually write novels to hand them like as cards... but, thinKing about it more quietly, our novels are really our presentation cards. Yes, I think I`m beginning to be interested in your plannings. The truth is that I hadn`t considered this aspect and, certainly, it can be a good alternative to be read and Known. In the end, every writer is looking forward to being known. Francisco, recovered a bit to continue talking, after my last words. - I cheered up to write the novel to advertise a discovery that I have been searching into for several years and I have been perfecting it. Now I have got the patent. I have been trying to present it to different entities, as official as privates, all over the world, but nobody has already taken notice of it. All the recourses, strengths and desires to continue with this issue are decreasing. The novel, I have already explained you, is my last try. Unless I get my fuel will be successful, I`ll give up it and dedicate my time to another fruitful thing.I have invested my youngth and saves in it. - Well! You look quite desillusionated. But, after thinking of it, I remember in my novel I talked about a motor which works with air, it`s a French invention. The subject impressed me so that I decided to mention in it, because I think it`s necessary everybody knows
inventions like that, because although they can look things from other worlds, I have got the impression there are a lot of interests to keep them unknown for most of people. Explain me your invention and if I can, I will help you. Rely on me. - The mine can also look from another world. That`s the problem. - Is still stranger than a motor works with air and, because of that, it doesn`t consume gasoline? - I know this projet. The problem is that a motor needs to consume energy that supplies that pressure, and we would be in the same case, or nearly... With my fuel it isn`t necessary to design special motors, it works after some minor substitutions of the pipes which transport it, although in some vehicles they aren`t necessary. But the most interesing is how do you obtain it, that, as the air, is abundant, free and can be obtained in every place in the world. - Is that true? And why aren`t you taken seriously as you told me? Where do you obtain your fuel from? - It`s a biological fuel - Francisco. Are you joking? Where is the trick? - Antonio, I`m telling you the truth but if you prefer I`ll leave the subject. I can recognize these questions when my interlocutors start to have doubts of me. Come on Fran! Can I call you is this way? Because I don`t want to call you CISCO (1). You know FRANCISCO...
It`s a Spanish joke. In English is said ‘to be a wreck’. - Ja, ja, ja. Francisco laughed loudy that dispersed the atmosphere of ambiguity which was starting to have the conversation. - You say that you have got a patent with the dosh and the effort that this means, and besides, you have got it accepted with the difficulty that there is to get it, if only it was a trinket or something ludicrus; and do you thinK I am to be surprised if you inform me how and where you obtain your fuel, especially when you have done the big effort of writing a novel to advertise you patent? This is what I don`t understand totally... - It`s a new fuel which is elaborated from ...from... - From? From? Tell me! Bloody hell! I want to know if I can really help you, but before I need to know what is. I promise you I am going to take it seriously. - It`s a fuel which I get from domestic rubbish.
Francisco couldn`t continue; the fatality provoked I was drinking champagne from my cup, just in that moment. My mouth looked a sprinker which specked his face and a part of his jacket. He picked up a handkerchief from is pocket slowly and without looking at me, started to clean carefully his face. He had got an expression very difficult to explain, perhaps sorrowful or maybe unexpressive. I kept staring him very attentive and at that moment I understood, with deep sadness; the loneliness and the incomprehension that Francisco must be suffering. I had got in front of me a young person with a big project, the project of his life, which paradoxically, looked to be mining his self-esteem before the incredulity of his
congeners, who blinded by the huge magnitude of this, didn`t believe what he told, perhaps because he wasn`t a judicious mature and foreign scientist who, securely, would have already been in the altars of the ortodoxy brinful of congratulations, cajoleries, honours and excelencies. In this instant I felt moving, Francisco would find in me, since then, the most enthusiastic wonderer of his work and when I knew him more deeply, of his human quality. To avoid forgetting it later, I would like to explain now that this great investigator and excellent person, has informed in public that he is disposed to cede freely his patent`s rights to the poorest countries. After that, I think it isn`t necessary to explain anything else of his person. During the party, Pedro Martínez (Almiar director), Javier de Tusalle (CiÑe president), Francisco and myself intervened. We anticipated several aspects about our novels which would be presented officially in posterior dates. When the party was finished and we were talking leaving I promised Francisco that, in spite of my novel has already dummied, I would include some lines about his biological fuel, with the short data that he had given me. Then, it was the only thing I could do. So, in the page 60 I wrote: ‘But apart from that, I would like to explain you that I have read a novel, lately, titled ‘La Reliquia’ (The Relic) by Francisco Angulo, where it`s spoken about a motor which uses biological fuel obtained by the action of
bateria which are produced in organic wastes, I mean, in rubbish. The same rubbish that everyday provokes so many logistical problems. I put in contact with the author thanks to his web page (www.lareliquia.es) which offered me plenty of details. Francisco is a young person but he is very dynamic and he has got some patented inventions. In concret, he has proved this one driving 100.000 Km., without any problems, a car with a diesel motor which only had slightest rectifications in the injectors and the carburettor adjusted. As an anecdote, he told me thatn when his car was being revised in the ITV (Spanish revision of vehicles) the mechanics and experts were very surprised because the contamination index were practically null. Besides, the small amount that is produced it is eliminated within 72 hours.’ - And is he Spanish? - Both of them are Spanish. He and, of course, his invention. He lives in Fuenlabrada, near Madrid. I mean, it hasn’t already carried to the United States... 10th April, 2007 Irene Álvarez, the director of the Sunday programme CONSULTAS in the COPE Madrid 2 (a broadcasting station), assisted to the ‘eÑe’ party which had been organized by CiÑe (a Writer Indepent Circle), met Francisco and learnt about his invention. She was so impressed and moving by his humankind, that invited him to her programme to make him an interview. Javier de Tusalle and me accompanied him. Since, we had a close friendship with Irene. She has got a lot of benevolence and
she is an excellent professional too. In fact, she would be the report maker in the event that it would take place in Soto de la Vega later. May of 2007 . The casualty (however my admired friend Irene Álvarez says that is the causality what it exists really) made the municipal elections in March of 2007 and my novela Españ@.es, joined for a good cause; politics and literature together, what a surprise! But I`m going to explain it: Lorenzo Callejo, councillor after these elections and, at the same time lieutenant mayor of Soto de la Vega, a small village in the province of León, read Españ@.es and proposed me to start, so far he could do it, what I set up in my book. - By next July we could sponsor an event about my friend Francisco Angulo`s biological fuel. As at this time, a lot of holiday- makers come to our village we could celebrate a ludic act and at the same time interesting to make people conscious of the necessity of respecting the enviroment. What do you think? - But, does that fuel work really? - I have seen myself, and Francisco has been using it for several years without any problems in his own vehicle. - Antonio, we can`t risk. It may be a failure; don`t forget we are a Town Hall, an official institution... - Well, I can call Francisco and we will make the biological fuel, following his instructions, with a transparency which will avoid any doubt. And after
cheking it, if works properly you make a decision. Do you agree? June of 2007 We were in Soto de la Vega with the lieutenant mayor of the Town Hall, Lorenzo Callejo. In his own nave and using organic wastes from domestic rubbish and other organic residues we started the unusual elaboration of Francisco Angulo`s fuel.
Apart from the organic residues, we have got a receptacle and a drill with an adaptation to beat and grind the mixture. This is enough! You must add water to the mixture to make casier the trituration of the residues. Finally, the product of bacteria and yeast is added to the mixture to conclude the process and the content is left to settle in beakers. The result was that in fact it worked. Not only in Nice`s vehicle but also was proved in a tractor with identical
results. The governement equipment prepared the act and convoked the media: The purpose of this communication is to invite him personally to the event that will take place next Saturday 28th of July at 18:00 hours in the Culture House of this Town Hall in Soto de la Vega. It`s a reaffirmation act against the enviromental contamination produced by fossil fuels. As we know, several interventions have been done and we want to contribute, from the Town Hall, doing one`s bit. Through our recent created New Technologies Council we want to promote I+D+i projects developing plans to get it and promoting initiatives that we consider interesting. By this reason, we sponsor the presentation of the novel ‘The Relic’ written by Francisco Angulo Lafuente, where he exposes his patent to the extration of ecological fuel from organic residues obtained from domestic rubbish. We would be before an alternative that, besides contributing to the enviromental non-contamination, would mean a first step to the solution to the problems derived of the accumulation of the waste that are produced in our villages and towns. The original complement that we have prepared for the presentation of ‘The Relic’ is a practical demostration of the patent, by means of an usual diesel vehicle and a tractor in which some small modifications have been done for its correct working with the said ecological fuel.
The act celebrated in Soto de la Vega was very successful because of its participation and publicity. Apart from meaning two different moments: before and after the culmination of the ups and downs of life, that have been making uneasy Francisco his life for several years. On the one hand, this understable: and anonymus young man who turns up before institutions and enterprises to expose in a very little time a project which, at first sight, can be considered as a sciencie-fiction one, and obviously these weren`t the most propicious circumstances. The fact that an official organitation, as a town hall, supported the public demostration of the viability and working of ECOFA, and the large echo that it had in all media, as provincial as in other communities, like Castilla-La Mancha television, or even National tv stations like the report made by España Directo, was the starting signal for the short race that had started several months ago, since a lot of companies are showing that are interested, and certainly there will be one which decides to implicate economically in the project and develop the suitable line
of investigations to optimize process in order to get its future world commercialization. However, it hasn`t been easy because to land in the scientifit ortodoxya against the heuristics that this discovery supposes and in the stormy one of investors, mediators and finantial brokers. Where there are a big ‘faune’ of characters with unknown interest and intentions, sincerely it has propitiated to write this novel which from this moment will be a binnacle of adventures. 29th and 31st of July The news have arrived in Castilla-La Mancha, homeland of Francisco`s parents, native of Los Cortijos, a small village in the province of Ciudad Real. The TV Station of Castilla-La Mancha convokes us to make a report for its programme CLM en Vivo, on 31st of July. On 29th July Fran is in Madrid, I am in León. On 30th I arrive in Madrid and pick up him. Next day we are in Los Cortijos, to make ready the tv programme. The reporter Teresa Rodríguez and her cameraman do a wonderful work. After that, Castilla-La Mancha television make us a second report for a news programme. When we were coming back Madrid, we were very surprised to receive another telephone call from TV-CLM informative services again.They were very interesting in
doing us another report to include it in that day`s news. So we come back Los Cortijos. This report is shorter and it`s focused mainly on the novel character of the ecological fuel (known in Spain as Eco-combustible-FA from that moment).
We come back the Spanish Capital again. During this trip, more relaxed after the pressure provoked by the interviews, started a cheerful talk. - Francisco. How did you come to mind the idea that from organic residues of rubbish could be obtained this product? – I ask kim with a curiosity that until that moment I hadn`t had. - It happened precisely in Los Cortijos, during my youth. I had got a motorbike and the nearest petrolstation wasn`t near enough to arrive at it with fuel in
the motorbike deposit. Perhaps by this reason, unconsciously, I intented to find a home made fuel to solve my problem. - And, what did you do? Because, wouldn`t you think that the same as food is our carburant you could made a kind of pap for you motorbike? – I asked him ironically, using an easy joke. - No, no. I was only a boy but I wasn`t silly. I think some important discoveries for the humankind have appeared by chance or simple mistakes. The truth is that when I was walking by the river, I had often seen a light layer whitch seemed a strange kind of oil that was produced in backwaters and immobilized waters. I meditated about it and came to a conclusion of it could be caused by the descomposition of the organic matter which there was in waters, and, so, after a single deduction I understood it must be produced by the micro organisms action. I got down to work and in the garage of my own house; where the reports have been done today, I reproduced in a handmade way a smilar scene. The nearest organic residues were my home rubbish so I grinded them until I got a pap and added some components of bacteria that I made mixing them with yeast and other components. One day, after a lot of proofs, I checked that on the surface of one of the receptacles floated a sort of oil... I filtered by decantation, after that, I put it in the tank of an old familiar car, and until now. - And did it work without any problems? - Without any problems. I couldn`t believe in it. I proved and proved. I drove more and more
kilometres. I brought my car to check in ITV, but my car only had usual breakdowns, the same as if I had been using conventional diesel oil. I am talking of many years ago. Then I was twenty years old. It`s incredible? And haven`t you ever had any chance to give an account of your discovery? After many yesars and a lot of experiments and tries, I didn`t dare to announce it. It was only known by my family and relatives, and not even all of them believed in my project, except Javito my close friend. He helped me to make a lot of litres and, practically, it was our secret. Three years ago, when I convinced myself of the possibilities of my fuel, when people started to take seriously the commercial production of biodiesel and bioethanol all over the world. I made the decision of giving rise in order to commercialize my discovery. Firtsly, I patented it. I had to do a big economical invesment, but it was essential. Besides, I had to work very hard to get my memory patent was accepted. I was very lucky because the agency technician helped me to take steps to get it. When did it happen? The patent was admitted in 2005. At first, I thought everything was solved and there wouldn`t be any problems, but I was wrong. From this moment it began a continuous going and coming, strolling from one company to another one and from an official organism to another one too. When in Spain they slammed the door in my face in everyplace where I went, I start to try it in other countries. I wrote hundred of letters in Spanish and English to a lot of companies, institutions, universities and official organisms that appeared in an international directory.
Nobody paid attention to me, at best I received a single, although polite answer, thanking me for the information I had given them. - I imagine you would get depressed little by little. Now I am beginning to understand your attitude in our first meeting. - These last years had been for me a real suffering. In some places I was considered as a lunatic, even some members of my family insinuated it to me clearly... - Hell! Well... Don`t take it to heart; you have to understand that on the one hand it`s logical: a young man like you; who is practically unknown, goes telling that uses a fuel which obtains from rubbish... But, wait a moment! My mobile phone is ringing: Who is it?... Yes, I am... of course, there isn`t any problem,... delighted and grateful... It`s España Directo, which wants to make a report on Monday 6th of August. How different is everything...! Do you see? Now sweeter moments will arrive... 1st August An American consultant office located in Madrid puts in contact with us. They are very interesting in getting information about ECO-fuel-FA (in Spanish ECO-combustible-FA) whose short name is ECOFA – as it will known. We sent them the whole information by Internet and made a personal appoinment in September.
6th August We are at Los Cortijos again, in the familiar Fran`s parents’ garage. Now it`s España Directo which is making us a report. In this occasion there a spectacular amount of media: a vehicle equipped with radioconnection by satellite, machinery to assemble ‘in situ’, two cameramen, the manager, the producer and Roberto, the popular reporter of this programme. 7th August Disturbing news start arriving from other countries; from the event in Soto and the mediatic publicity, has the feeling some people want to claim the credit for his work and appropiate of the idea and, if they can, even the patent: ‘Gasoline made from bacteria’, is an article of Technology Review magazine published by the Spanish newspaper El País on 7th of August of 2007: ‘According an article published in Technology Review magazine, a biotechnological enterprise created recently explains the gasoline could be the biological fuel for the future. The enterprise LS9, of San Carlos, California, founded by the geneticist George Chuch, from the Medicine Faculty in Harvard, and the biologist Chris Somerville from Stanford University, has made a description how is inducing a kind of bacteria to get similar fuels to the elaborated from petroleum.
The enterprise had announced, previously, that was working in what they are called ‘renewable petroleum’, but it has happened in the congress of the Society for Industrial Microbiology which took place last Monday, where the company has communicated openly its achievements: they have modified by engineering several bacteria, included E. Coli, to produce chains of hydrocarbons to a great extent. For this reason, the company is using a set of tools from the synthetic biology field to modify the genetic mechanisms used by bacteria, plants and animal to elaborate fatty acids, one of the main ways of keeping energy of organisms. The fatty acids are chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms joined with a group of carboxilic acid made up by carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. When the acid is eliminated, the result is a hydrocarbon which can become in fuel. In some cases, the investigators of LS9 used standard techniques of DNA recombinant to insert gens into microbes, in other cases, they redesigned known gens with a computer and synthesized them. The resultant bacteria produce and excrete hydrocarbon molecules with the length and molecular structure wished by the company. According to Stephen del Cardayne, biochemist and vice president of investigation an development of LS9, the company can produce hundred of molecules of different hydrocarbons. The process can give rise to crude petroleum without the pollutant sulphur which contains a big part of the petroleum extracted from the soil. After
that, the crude would be carried to a standard refinery to process it and obtain fuels for cars, airplanes, etc.; or any other products derived from petroleum. Next year, LS9 will build a factory in California to prove and improve the process. The company hopes to be able to sell improved biodiesel and synthetic biocrudes to the refineries to be later processed within three-five years, Howewer, LS9 isn`t the only company to do it. Amrys Biotechnologies, in Emerville, California, is also using plants and animals gens to provoke some microbes to produce fuels, and according to Neil Renninger, senior vice president of development and one of the founders of this enterprise, Armys has also created some bacteria which are capable of producing fuels based on renewable hydrocarbons. The difference is that, as long as the LS9 biocrude must be processed in a refinery later, Amrys is working in the direct obtaining of fuels. And because of that, it`s developing a pilot factory that they hope to complete by the end of next year, and they want to start commercializing their products within three or four years. Besides, both companies are trying to improve their bacteria to increase their effectiviness and declare to be working in the optimization of their respective global production processes.
10th September The news about the great expectation that with ECOFA opens up for underdeveloped countries, comes to public notice to organizations as UNAFRICA, which arises its interest and asks for a demostration, in Soto de la Vega again. The goverment team with its attitude to collaborate, is preparing a mini-collaboration and fêtes the representative of this organization to move to Madrid with Fran and me.
12th September Meeting at its office in Madrid with the American mediators: There are certain people who have taken interest in this project, they are from universities in California who had informed about ECOFA, from the data which Francisco had sent them in August. They ask for the sign of a debut previous contract. At last, it will not be signed because we aren`t interested in the contractual terms. Nevertheless, they informs us that, without any obligation, they will try to promote the patent among their circle of contacts, because they have got a huge interest in this subject. They look like serious people.
15th September Interview with a some Swiss and Italian investor mediators. They are very interested in our project and arrange in sending us a document with a draft agreement proposal. Our hope increases, but this one would be only the beginning of a series of fiascos which reveales this complex world of ‘sharks’, in some cases with occult intentions and interests. The offer, which was directly rejected after reading it, was a real aggression to Fran`s dignity, in a clear attempt of taking advantage of circumstances. 20th of September A foundation, whose name I won`t mention it, is clearly interested in ECOFA. Several meetings were held to settle on details for a joint enterprise. Finally, the situation would be the next one: the foundation will contribute on the necessary money for the total investigation and development of the process and Fran his patent; besides, as a trustworthy person of the Foundation president as myself on the part of Fran, will create a mercantile society of immediate setting-up. - It looks like to be at last we are in the correct direction – I mentioned after this last meeting. - I don`t still believe in it. When everything was signed... - Well, Fran! The president looks like to be a serius person. What I don`t agree with totally, is he takes
over 51% of society. I think it a bit outrageous if we consider his contribuitons are additional, but yours is indispensable. I`m going to explain you my reasoning. A lot of people have got money, but the patent and the knowledge are yours. I mean, he will not have any chance without you, but on the contrary it doesn`t happen the same; he isn`t indispensable for you, because you can find the capital you need with any other investor, circumstance or event. Well, You are right. But we have already come to an arrengement for it and I only want to start as soon as I can check the results. They are going to be well. Don`t worry. Apart from, among the purposes of the Foundation are the altruist help to the enviroment. Yes. But I want to tell you something. I know, they don`t understand totally our project... Why do you say that? Explain me, please. I don`t understand you. Look, Antonio, the question is very simple, but if you don`t have, as me, the experience of a lot of years working in it, you don`t understand it properly from where the problems come and how solve them. I`m going to explain you: from the time we are connecting with possible investors. How many of them have been interested in investing initially to set up a proper laboratory to optimize the process, or even give cause for discovering a new micro organism which improves the final product efficiency? None, as you can see, all of them firstly want to know the prize, how long it lasts the process, and this one, is the same as others although it can
seem that, at last, he is going to be the first in making a decision and putting the money on the table. - It`s also logical that the person who is going to expose his ‘dough’ want to be sure. - Yes, Antonio, but they have to have a management point of view further than the simple and quick benefit.. It isn`t the same a tree as a table. Firstly, the tree must be planted, then it must grow and finally, thanks to its wood it will be possible to make a table. Now we have got simply, the seed from the tree and these, who call themselves investors, businessmen o enterprising already want to make the table... It`s impossible to run before learning how to walk, and if we quicken one`s pace and bad headed the only we can do is to stumble. - Then we will have to plan... Fortunately, this Fundation wasn’t eiher the investor. Two days before the appointment for the constitution the mercantile society in the presence of a notary, and e-mail surmounts the compromise: ‘After thinking about it carefully... I wish you luck and success...’ This person never will know how grateful we are with him. 9th October www. biodiesselspain.com: Mercedes Ballesteros, investigator of the biomass unit from Technological and Enviromental Energetic Investigations (CIEMAT) affirms that producting ethanol is possible from solid urban residues, I mean, from organic domestic rubbish. ‘We have looked for other material than
don’t complete with the food and we have opted for the residues’ she commented. The economy needs fuel to move, but the petroleum is running out and its natural alternative, the biological fuel is starting to worry the producers of bassic food. Apart from the problem of the drought in Argentina and the increase of the consum of cereals in China, the biological fuel is influencing in the increasing of prices of milk or bread. Now, an investigation has been opened about other materia that can become in the new green gasoline: the rubbish. Nowadays, the organic residues of every house are destined to the rubbish dumps, to treat or burn, or perhaps to use them as compost which is destined to biomass to the production or energy or fertilizer. A new alternative is that these domestic rubbish can be carried to a specific plant to produce ethanol, Ballesteros explains that, to obtain this alcohol first it’s necessary to separate plastics, metals, glass and inerts that are mixed with the rest of organic rubbish. December of 2007 The year finishes in a good way, a Russian broker fallen in love with the project, advances 5,000 € non-recoverable to have the exclusive of being the middleman for a month. Some months later, when the management project finally thickened he was paid back his money.
24th January 2008 This is the last straw, in El Mundo newspaper appears the following news in which Craig Venter says textually that ‘... it`s possible to design bacteria in order to make biological fuel...’ Is it a chance? In short, It`s said by this scientist and everything is a praise and it`s a piece of news in every news programme on 25th of January on Spanish television. But when Francisco said it ten years ago (in 1998), was nearly sent to a mental hospital. 25th January 2008 Before this series of news, Fran and me decide to make the decision of designing together a way of action; the project ECOFA is born: Antecedents: - The beginning are Francisco Angulo Lafuente`s patents which protect biotechnological process to get a fuel from the residues and organic wastes (domestic rubbish, fecal waters, animal wastes, etc.). - The final purpose is the industrial obtaining and world commercialization in a rentable way of the product (the ecological fuel) ECOFA, through a limited society as first purpose, apart from other plans that will be financed as a consequence of the application of a part of the possible benefits that generate the said limited society, like:
· ECOFA Foundation which will project particular investigators and inventors, without personal economical means in their projects. President: Francisco Angulo. · ECOFA movement which will promote the rational use of the natural resources in the planet, the non enviromental contamination and will foment different forum and apolitical plattforms against the change in weather, from the art and the culture. President: without designing. It also contributes the novelty of carrying out a cycle in the RSU (urban solid residues) that as far as present time is necessarily interrupted, to reach a peak, being recycled or carried to incinerator plants, instead of returning to the nature converted in something no useful and interesting, enviromental and commercially speaking. · ECOFA, as its own name indicates it isn`t an usual biological fuel (biodeisel or bioethanol) but also the first ecological biological fuel (which is only suitable for diesel oil motors), because in spite of having an organical beginning, it doesn`t affect to the crops traditionally destined to human consumption, and so, protects the ecosystem. · The process runs into checked when it`s elaborated in a handmade way.
· The Town Hall of Soto de la Vega (León) offers the institutional guarantee that its patronage was promoted an enviromental protection act in which was verified the productive process, having been obtained the product under the control of chargers and staff from the Town Hall. Later, using this same fuel, a saloon car and a tractor were tried, and all the proofs were successful. Campaigns ECOFA project is based on two individual campaigns, but at the same time complementary or even joined: the spreading and the comercial which will be developed from this date. - Spreading campaign, developed from conferences in which we explain in basic lines, the history, the beginning, the evolution and the present moment of ECOFA. These conferences coordinate with a contract to that end and it`s possible to include a demostration ‘in situ’ for the elaboration and working on the product, in the same way was done in Soto de la Vega. In June of 2008, we included the publication of an essay edited by Mandala&Làpicero tittled ‘ECO-fuelFA- ECOFA’ under the auspice of writers Ñ Independent Circle: CiÑe This work is a summary of three essays written by Francisco Angulo, Antonio J. Nevado (ECOFA project Coordinator) and Javier Tusalle (CiÑe President).
- Commercial Campaign. – If the purpose of the previous campaign was to make aware and inform to the politician class, the enterprises, the media, the investigation and culture centers and the public opinion of ECOFA project, the purpose of this campaign is to inform privately of the economical conditions which are required to participate in it., So, it is necessary a previous specific request of this information on the part of the interested person or company. I will be designed as the general coordinator of ECOFA project. - Antonio, I want to clear up to any investor that investigation guidelines are going to be pointed and led directly by me. This one will be my work in the enterprise. - Can be known? - Yes, definitively they are been mentioned: first, the biological study of the kind of bacteria which appear in the patent. So we would already have a scientist certification. Secondly, it could start to make a preliminary sketch. But, if we want to do it properly we will need the derived data of the investigation. Finally, it would take place the development and official recognition phase, certifyng all the study and contrasting the laboratories and universities data with the ones we obtain in our laborarory.
24th February, 2008
Conference at the Culture House in Tomelloso (Ciudad Real) at seven o`clock in the evening. Title: Change in Climate.
15th April, 2008
Conference at the Culture House in Gandia – Marchioness` House – at half past seven in the evening. Title: Second generation fuels, promoted by Fresh Movement.
5th June, 2008 Owing to the presentation of ECOFA essay, a viable solution, in Progress and Cultura Foundation in Madrid I finish my speech with the following words: To conclude, I would like to mention a disturbing fact: the petroleum price is increasing alarmingly, after having created a world opinion movement against biological fuels, by their effects on the rising prices and the shortage basic foods, that are being destined to their production now. The ecological organizations are already manifested clearly against and their use is being questioned so among
public opinion, that finally they will stop producing, arguing a posible social alarm. The reality is that petroleum companies and nuclear centrals will be the only benefited ones. And doesn`t this situation provoke us to be nasty-minded people? If we eliminate the usual biological fuels as competence, it would be only left the ECOFA, whose production, as we have informed widely, wouldn`t have influence on the crops to human nourishment, and on the contrary, it would solve the urban solid residues problem. ECOFA is unquestionable, unless extraordinary or strange events happen, as the ones are producing in electric vehicles. It`s only necessary to get information briefly to discover that the power of these vehicles is counsciusly developed very underneath who have made their own electric vehicles made-to-measure with an authonomy of 400 km., thanks to the development of the technology of the batteries of portable computers. What ECOFA needs is to start a guideline, which clears up simply in a scientific way and ratifies what it has been proved enough, and start its industrial development and later commercial production. If there isn`t an institutional and/or private impulse it will be necessary to obligue citizens to get their claim to take part in an affair to our politicians and governors.
For the publicity of the first presentation of the essay ‘ECOFA, a viable solution’ Fran and me prepared the following note: ‘The petroleum isn`t renovable and its reserves are run out. So, its price will increase exaggeratedly and influenced by it, the same will happen with most of the indispensable products. A huge world economical crisis will approach if we don`t look for immediate solutions. · Tradicional biological fuel are renewable but they aren`t permanent (there is more demand than production capacity and they are being a problem more than a solution). The anxiety of a quick benefit gives rise to the crops and oleaginous plantations are replaced for other essential one to human nourisment, but less rentable. This provokes huge increasing in foodstuffs and apart from the world crisis, another one is approaching. · The logistics of the domestic rubbish sometimes causes huge drawbacks, as the recent situation in the city of Nápoles, without forgetting what is happening in other Spanish town halls or hospitals. · The climatic change can destroy our civilitation but the First Worls Society continues dauntless without reducing its consumption. Citizens are watching this piece of nonsense although some of us don`t accept the situation continues in the same way. CiÑe – Writers Ñ Independent Circle – promotes the essay ‘ECOFA, a viable solution’, which compiles articles and documents of three of its members and authors; Francisco Angulo (investigator,
who has discovered and patented this ecological fuel), Antonio J. Nevado (coordinator of ECOFA project) and Javier de Tusalle (president of CiÑe and the impeller of his campaigns). · ECOFA is an ecological fuel which brings a novel and viable solution. It`s multi-renewable, multi-supportable, and it`s the solution for the USR problem – Urban Solid Residues -. · CiÑe invites you to the presentation of ‘ECOFA, a viable solution’, next 5th June, in the place of the Culture and Progress Foundation at 20:30 hours. The event will finish with the demostration of ECOFA in an usual diesel car, in which has been equipped with a transparent tank of fuel to check the correct employment and working out.
A moment of the presentation of the essay ECOFA, a viable solution in the Culture and Progress Foundation. From left to right: Francisco Angulo, Javier de Tusalle and Antonio J. Nevado Photography: Ana Sevilla Another moment of the presentation in which appears the singer-songwriter Joaquín Lera, who has composed the song ‘ECO’ especially for this event. Photography: Ana Sevilla
13th June, 2008 On 13th June of, 2008 ‘ECOFA project’, finally closes the agreement in writing with an investor partner emitting the following press note: Estimated Mr./Mrs./Ms., Some time ago, we were interested in ECOFA Project. By this reason, we would like to inform you last 13th of June was formalized an intention agreement with an investor partner, thanks to who begins its complete development. The biofuel, the ecological-fuel-fa (ECOFA) and the climatic change Antonio J. Nevado, January-February 2008 Technician TIC municipal in Soto de la Vega (León). Mobile phone: 654 745 967 – Town Hall: 987 654 001 TIM@aytosotodelavega.info. The biological fuels, the biodiesel replaced by diesel and the bioethanol used in instead of gasoline are stoping to be, in a little time, an emergent solution which seems to become in a good real alternative to the fossil fuels, to set it up as the centre of nonsenses, mainly by the increase of basic food which is attributed to them. Perhaps, a lot of readers won`t know that always a diesel motor has worked on with a vegetable oil, and a gasoline motor has been able to do it with alcohol. In fact, the
motor which Rudolf Diesel showed in the World Exibition of Paris in 1900 worked on with peanut oil and Henry Ford used the ethanol (ethtylic alcohol) as a fuel to the motor of his first car ‘model T’ in 1908. I mean, if we fill our diesel car tank with some oil from the supermarket would work on without big problems the same as if we put into a gasoline vehicle the distilled ‘orujo’* in any still of Villacé (León). Then, why haven`t we used both of them as fuels during the serious petroleum crisis happened several years ago...?, In principle, while the price of the litre of fossil fuels doesn`t reach the levels of these products, it doesn`t have to be in this way, financially speaking. And if this happened so, I don`t think that the states and governments would like the idea of receiving less taxes than the ones which burden fuels and gasolines. If one day the prices made equal, the governments would have serious problems to discern the tax to apply depending if we use a litre of oil to fry eggs or to drive our diesel car. But the subject has got more guase, because this same oil which we have used to cook several times, I mean, when it has been taken advantaged of it totally, it could be still used as a fuel. This is non science-fiction; some biodiesel producers are already using recycled cookery, oil from hotel industry and because of that there have been created collection circuits to optimize the process. *N.T. Orujo: It`s a strong alcoholic liquor distilled from grape or herbs pressings Nowadays, there are new determining factors which implicate the enterprises, countries and the whole mankind. On the one hand, the petroleum enterprises
know their reservation of raw materials are run out. On the orther hand, the countries don`t want to miss the train of renewable energies to the energetic sector, which is the key for its development. Finally, the society is more conscius with the change in climate associated with the CO2 emissions that follow from the combustion or the fossil fuels. In this scene, the denominated biological fuels are shown as an excellent solution for those problems and are starting energetic plans based on the industrial obtaining and explotation of biodiesel and bioethanol. The USA Council established tax deductions and measures to protect them, and this year has been planted the biggest crops since the Second World War. The Institutions from the EC members have developed regularized settings through guidelines (203/30/CE,2003/96/CE and 2003/17/CE) through which were established, among other aspects to substitute gradually the fossil fuels by these products. In 1992, it began the industrial production at a industrial scale and the use of biodiesel, and nowadays they are produced more than one million tons a year. In countries such as Germany and Austria there are more than a thousand petrol stations which incorporate a petrol. Some governements have started to legalize the exemption of taxes, as for example in Spain where, at first, it has been fixed the 31st of December, of 2012 as the limit date to the zero tax rate (law 53/2002) and so, in this way to foment the use of biological fuels in of self-propulsion motors. They are new petrols in the market and the European Comission will propose the modify of the rule EN-14214
which establishes the composition required by a biodiesel (except the index of iodine which is pointed out in the 140), to, so, make easier the use of a bigger variety of vegetable oils, as raw material, to its obtaining. The Ministers Council which was celebrated last 20th July approved a complete packet of plans and rules with the promise of introducing them by the end of year, allowing our country to bring up to date in the struggle against the change in clmate. Among these measures, it`s the ecological labelled of vehicles. It also stands out the modification of the Mechanic Traction Vehicles Tax (MTVT) with the purpose of taxing the most pollutant vehicles. So, the vehicles which emit less than 120 grammes of CO2 per kilometre will be exempt of paying the MTVT, meanwhile to the ones which emit among 120 and 160 grammes will be applied a type of 4.75%, and to the ones between 160 and 200 grammes the 9.75%. But the most pollutant, water motorbikes and quads included will have to pay 14.75% At first sight it looks like everything is right: - Energetic independence from the non-producing petroleum countries. It would be established a reduction in the crude importations which would make lighter possible deficits in the balance of payments in foreign trades of the countries which are importers... - End of the ‘black gold’ dictatorship related to the arbitrary decission wich can cause world economic recessions. Sweden has already stated openly its intention of being energetically independent in 2020.
- Non dependence from producing countries, politically unstable. With a more global vision, the biological fuels, contribute to overcome the petroleum dependence, mainly located in countries that, historically, have social and politics conflicts. - It`s renewable, I mean, its production is potencially inexhaustible, on the contrary of the petroleum. - A bigger energetic diversification with regard to the productive origins. It can be obtained from more than 300 vegetable species, depending which one is more plentiful in the origin country. - Increasing of the security in the energy supply, because production plants are more diversified respect to their location than oil wells. - Energetic saving, very important in its logistics and transportation by the regional energetic selfsufficiency said in the previous section. - Opportunity for the rural zones where it`s estimated there are more than 70% of the most underprivileged population in the planet. - Incalculable ecological value. Biological fuel are biodegradable. So, if an accident happens during their transport, there won`t be produced disasters by crude spilling in the sea such as ‘El Prestige’ or the most recent happened on south Korean coast. - Less risk of a non-suiable manipulation, accidents or natural catastrophes. - Logistic advantages. Far from other renewable energies such as eolic and solar, the biofuel can be stored easily. - Enviromental advantages. The net emission of CO2 , other Greenhouse Effect Gases (GEG) and the formation of CO are reduced, because they have got a
bigger oxigen proportion which improves its combustion (Later I`ll give you more details about it). There is less contamination and so the risks, to citizens` health are reduced. Pollution is a detrimental to the architectural heritage. Having a big oxygen proportion increases the octano index avoiding the use of compounds, whith these same hopes, such as MTBE (ether methylterbulitic), and additive promoted by petroleoum companies, which is thought to be cancirogenic. Big possibilities because of the decrease of petroleum prices.. Creation of new jobs and industrial development.
The obtaining of bioethanol and biodiesel is produced by different processes. The first one it`s through the fermentation of sugar using yeast (this datum is very important) and later distilling it to separate the water from the alcohol, the same as it has been done to get ethylic alcohol from immemorial times. When cereals and starch are used, it`s necessary to convert the starch into sugar from the intervention of enzymes (saccharization). In case of sugar cane, this process isn`t necessary because it contains a high percentage in itself. To obtain biodiesel, it`s employed as raw material any vegetable oil, or vegetable or animal fat which are undergone to a process called transesterification from which is got a product known as ester. This one can be used as biological fuel in motors with diesel cycle, combined with diesel oil of without mixing it. In R.D. 61/2006 (31th January) it´s regulated the use of some
biological carbons. The specification EN-590 (diesel oil A) establishes that diesel oil doesn`t have to contain more than 5% of mixture with diesel. The pure biodiesel, I mean, without any mixture has got the generic name of methylic ester and it´s considered suitable as a fuel when it adheres to the rule EN-14214, previously mentioned. According to the origin of the used raw material, we have got the following types of esteres: - RME (Rape Methyl Ester). - SME (Soyasunflower Methyl Ester) - PME (Pal Methyl Ester) - FAEE (Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester) which makes up other sorts of oils and/or vegetable fats and/or animals and/or their mixtures. - FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester). The same as the previous one but with Methylic instead of Ethylic. Source: Industry Ministry ‘Main aspects of biocarbons in Spanish Market’ 28.02.2007: http://www.bio-oil.es/54 files /11.50-12.pdf. There is a practic drawback because all the guarantees of the vehicles are iussed on the basis of EN-590 specificarion, previously said. So, it`s mentioned by AOP (Petroleum Products Operators Spanish Association) in an inform titled ‘Efficiency, security and support: request for the introduction of biocarbons’ in last November. http://www.aop.es/pdf/dossier%20AOP%20biocombustibl es%20version%20final.pdf. If we could choose, the best solution would be the biodiesel because the bioethanol isn`t so ecologic (in spite
of being a biological fuel), since it needs, depending on the crop nearly so much or even more energy than the produced on, including the one used in the beginning and at the end of the process and the one finally obtained (energetic balance). The countings start from the sowing, the harvest (corn, wheat, barley, sugar cane, etc.), the transport and finally the high temperatures needed to get the distillation. During the process are liberated enormous quantities of CO2. In case of sugar cane (whose balance is positive: 8 litres of fuel are got from each litre used); on the contrary, the sugar cane must be burnt previously, to kill snakes and make easier its cut, made by hand and which means a very hard work for labourer, apart from the emission of methane and nitrous oxide, gases which also produce greenhouse effect. The energetic balance of biosiesel has always been positive since the process doesn`t recquire so much energy. The advantages in relation to diesel oil are the previously mentioned for biological fuels (biodiesel and bioethanol) besides other more specific which can be summarized in: - More lubricity what favours the life of motor and reduces its noise. - More dissolvent power that avoids coal dust and the obstruction of conduits, keeping the motor clean. - More diversification in the beginning of the production for biodiesel (ever more than for bioethanol). - It doesn`t contain sulphur. - It isn`t toxic - Its emission`s levels are lower.
Comparisson of levels of emission between biodiesel and diesel oil. Comparisson of levels of emission between biodiesel and diesel oil. Biodiesel Biodiesel Diesel oil Emission 100% 30% (Kg/100km) (Kg/100km) (Kg/100km) 0,37 0,43 0,46 CO 0,03 0,04 0,04 HC 2,73 3,37 3,64 NOx 0,62 1,48 1,85 Particles 0,87 3,53 4,67 CO2 0 1,14 1,62 SO2
And when everything is setting off, and since some years is raising enormously the yearly production index, which beat new records in 2006: the USA, which more than 18 millions of bioethanol of corn; Brazil, with 20 million of bioethanol of sugar cane and Germany with more than million of biological diesel, by making a mention of three of the most significant, it results that it makes ecclosion convincingly spoiling a lots of expectatives, that Francisco Angulo, who had cried out as voice in the desert, had already sensed and predicted successfully some time ago. .
1.- The production of biological fuels doesn`t have to be only based on cereals or oleaginous, which by its essence are subdued to reproductive and external agents like the climatology which can spoil the crop. 2.- Products which constitute one of pillars of human nourisment don`t have to be destined to fuels, because it will provoke famines and a disproportionate increase of prices. 3.- Although a big part of world surface is devoted to culture, it won`t be sufficient to provide all the universal comsuption which industry and society demand. 4.- It`s necessary to look for diverse and alternative sources, since only one can be the integral solution. The team of all possibilities would be the suitable way.
Francisco Angulo Lafuente in a recent photography. With these four premises so clear he started to investigate a decade ago, on his own and assuming all risks, without any external help, in something that by intuition, and mainly by his ability of observation, he thought it couldt be a great discovery for humankind: obtaining fuel from organic wastes. I would suppose to close a renewable cycle and at the same time a solution to another problem every day more emergent.
Besides of being a visionary, he has been the precursor of a different system of obtaining a biological fuel, like it`s to apply biotechnologic guidelines in an unique process. He is really ahead to his time, like it has already been proved.
The programme of United Nations for the Development defines biotechnlogy like ‘every technological application which use biological system and alive organisms or their derived, to the creation or modifiction or products or processes for specific uses’. Using micro organisms to certain uses is having wonderful results in fields such as health, the enviroment, the pharmaceutical products, the farming and, therefore, the food. The genomics, pharmacogenics, tisular engineering, genetic therapy cellular, monomedicine, bioremediation, among other technics, are having a summit exponential from those years during the First World War in which Chaim Weizmann, a Jewesh ashkenazí whose origin was Russian-polish and who was nationalized British, investigating as the director of laboratories of British
Admiralty, dicovered the process of synthetization of acetone and butanol by the action of the anaerobic bacterium ‘clostridium acetobutylicum’ which ferments the glucose. The industrial production of acetone was essential to the process of manufacturating ‘cordite’ an explosive used in the canyons of British Army and so, very important during the First World War. There are enterprises which already offer industrial solutions like biomineralization, which allows protecting and repairing building in a cleanert and more ecologic way. This technology, also known as ‘bacterial carcinogenesis’, consists in cropping inside a watery solution bacteria capable of creating calvin of carbonate of calcium and silica. When the food is taken away, bacteria die, keeping the calvin which could be later atomized in the damaged stone. The first time it was used this system was in 1993 in the French Church of Saint-Médard de Thomars thanks to the bacterium ‘Bacillus cereus’. In Spain, Art works Conservation and Restauration Analysis Laboratory at Alfonso X University and the Enviromental Studies Group applied to the Natural and Cultural heritage of Santiago University. At present time, the biotechnologic studies aimed to biological fuels have been devoted to investigate the production of genetically transformed which can be cropped in lands whose climate conditions are adverse, but which would continue without solving the previously said problems: obliged cycles to harvest and the surface of acting which, obviously, isn`t unlimited, to satisfy the real demand.
Now, I`m going to expose the added advantages which ECOFA has got with regard to the current biodiesel: - Solution, practically integral of problem which exist in munipalities with the treatment and storage of domestic rubbish. Besides, during the process it`s produced gas methane, and remains an organic waste which could be used as manure for the field. - It wouldn`t be necessary to assign specific plantations to grow corn, wheat barley, beetroot, etc., which would continue keeping to human consumption without provoking distortions or famine of unexpected consequences. - So, it would be possible that farmers used less the plough in order to the fields recover its natural form, the lost carbon (conservative farming). - Products from mono culture are always much more propitious to the plagues, because as they don`t spread out (they are exclusively destined to biodiesel) that risk is reduced. - The town halls have the possibility to treat autonomously in their own plants which, undoubtly, would generate and bring richness to rural localities. The production would be done practically in the localities of consumption, so there wouldn`t be necessary either pipelines or ships sailing with load which could be poured into the sea; because producer plants aren`t either technically very complex or too expensive and they can be installed in any village in the last corner of planet without too many difficulties. - The use of USR to produce energy, will present forseeably some added advantages, with regard to
enviroment, to the own advantages from biological fuels. Mainly concerning to swells, the improvement of landscape and the reduction of pollution in air, water and soil. - Finally, this microbial technique can be spread out to other organic wastes, vegetable or animals, such as the content in urban fecal waters. Even it can be experimented with other materials, and this offers enormous new chances; it`s only necessary to work with the suitable bacteria and force them to work like a big army of workers, without any pay, eating tiredlessly those wastes, at the same time they are reproduced from clonation, and so, supplying more and more quantity of ‘biological fuel’. I`m going to make a further detailed explanation with regard to this new possibility. These is a series of characteristics which all micro organisms share; the most essential one is its microscopic size This makes easier the quick transport of nutrients to the inside of cell and permits, therefore, a high metabolic rate. So, the rate of production of proteins is very high in yeasts. This speed of microbial synthesis provokes some micro organisms reproduce in only twenty minutes, as it`s the case of Escherichia coli, one of the most abundant bacteria in the digestive track of mammals. Precisely, an investigator at A&M University of Texas has choosen this bacterium and has modified it genetically to produce important amount of hydrogen. The enviroments capable to shelter microbial life are very varied. Species which live at temperatures included among
the point of freezing of water and its point of boiling, have been found, in salty and sweet water, in the presence and absence of air. Some of them include a phase of latency in answer to the lack of nutrients: they stay motionless as spores for years until a more favourable enviroment permits the development of cells. The micro organisms are capable of undertaking an extense range of metabolic reactions and so adapting themselves to a lot of sources of nourishmend. This versatility makes possible that industrial fermentations are based on cheap nutrients. A micro organisms to industrial use of ECOFA must be disposal in pure culture, it must be genetically stable, it must grow in cultivation at a big scale and quickly, apart from doing it in a cheap enviroment. Also, obviously, an industrial micro organism hasn`t to be pathogenic for men, animals or plants. The micro organisms which synthetize useful products for man represent, as maximum, a few hundred of species, from among the most of 100,000 existent in nature. The few ones have been found with industrial use are worthful for working out some substance which can`t be obtained easily or cheaply in other ways. Yeasts. The yeasts have been using for thousands of years to make bread and alcoholic drinks. The yeast, which undoubtly was the first one and still today it has been used by man, is Saccharomyces cerevisiae, of wich are employed different prunes to the manufacture of beer, wine, sake, bread and industrial alcohols.
Kluyveromyces fragilis is a species which ferments lactose, which is exploited at a small scale to produce alcohol from serum of milk. Yarrowia lipolytica is an industrial source of citric acid. Thrichosporum cutaneum carries out an important role in systems of aerobic digestion of residual, owed to its huge capacity of oxidation of organic compounds, included some that are toxic for other yeasts and mushrooms, such as the phelonic derived. Mushrooms The mushrooms have got a big economic importance, not only by their utility, but also for the damage they can cause. The mushroomss are responsible of degradation of a big part of organic materia of Earth. An enourmously benefit activity because it permits the recycling of raw material. On the one hand, the mushrooms cause a big amount of illness in animals and plants, and can destroy food and materials of which depend human beings. The harmful effects of mushrooms are counteracted by their industrial use. They are the source of a lot of commercial enzimes, organic acids (citric, lactic), antibiotic (penicillum), special cheeses and, evidently, from toadstools.
Bacteria Among bacterial species of industrial interest are the bacteria of acetic acid. Gluconobacter and Acetobacter which can transform the ethanol into acetic acid. The gender Bacillus is producer of antibiotics, proteases and insecticides. Nowadays, in the USA, it has been produced ethanol from cellulose and other rest of biomass from the fermentation of sugars. The process, called hydrolisis enzimatic, is expensive because to obtain this sugar, first it`s necessary to separate the molecules of cellulose of the lignine, and after that it`s necessary to dissociate the cellulose, using high technology enzimes. If American people (from the USA) didn`t have the urgent necessity of obtaining bioethanol because most of their vehicles worked on with gasoline, could apply that biomass to the adecuated bacterium and obtain directly biodiesel. Of course, at that moment they would pay in Francisco`s ‘ticket office’. In Spain, a similar project with the economical support of a lot of officials organisms is being set off. The responsibles of this, enthusiasted by the initial sucess, have made some public declaration (dated two months after the event in Soto de la Vega) alluding to domestic rubbish as a source of raw material. Be careful! When I mentioned in the initial paragraphs the fermentation of sugars from the contribution of yeasts and wrote between
brackets ‘pay attention to this datum’, I did it precisely to clarify an important aspect: the fermentation is a process in which micro organisms participate, but that evidently, can’t be pattented because it belongs to humankind. Although the alcoholic fermentation was discovered by Pasteur in the second half of nineteen century, it had been doing it from immemorial times. In Francisco`s patent is described clearly that the bacterian action is over any organic waste (mentioning specially domestic rubbish), animal or biomass. Other patents which he has presented lately are still more complete than in the specifications and in the object, because he also provides for the manufacture of alcohol, from bacteria, for gasoline cars. I`m going to finish with a brief explanation of some concepts which are totally in fashion, related to the change in weather and which, in general, aren`t understood properly by people, according to my own experience. Carbonic gas, carbon dioxide or carbon bioxide, all is the same: CO2. It isn`t a toxic gas, in spite of what a lot people think; it`s a gas of greenhouse effect, which is different, because the CO2 doesn`t poisson; at the most, and in very high concentrations in badly ventilated places, can cause a headache, sickness, somnolence and breath problems depending on the concentration and time of exposition. Apart from being imprescindible for the development and growth of plants, it`s also essential to avoid the temperature on our planet isn´t measured in several
freezen grades under zero. Finally it wouldn`t be necessary to add anything else about its non-exist toxicity. There is only a thing which undoubtedly: we (and all the terrestrial vertebrates) when exhale air which we inhale when we breath, expell carbon dioxide to the exterior enviroment. Definitely, we do the same as motors of cars. The European Commission has decided to penalize in the future the manufacturers of cars which exceed the scale of 160 gr. of CO2 per Km. In view of this, will the wise popular collecting of sayings be right of ‘will we have to pay until to breath?’ Monoxide of carbon (CO): It`s an uncoloured gas, oudorless or tasteless whose inhalation in closed places can be letal according to the amount and the time of inhalation of this gas. An example, which infortunately it`s already given, is the death of people while they are using braziers of carbon, which badly burnt producing the called ‘sweet death’ because the affected people make uncounscius and can`t recover. It`s produced in the noncomplete combustion because there isn`t enough oxygen. In cars, their emanations come from exhaust pipes, owed to there isn`t a perfect combustion, but are well mixed in the air and so aren`t dangerous. However, the fact ot staying with the motor started in a closed place has provoked more than a decease and this has confussed, in some occasions to public opinion that, without the necessary information, think CO and CO2 are identical gases which, at the same time, are poisonoing the air we breath in and producing the greenhouse effect. The reality is, as I have already explained, that the monoxide of carbon, simply, doesn`t produce greenhouse effect and it`s
pollutant in open spaces, although, effectivelly, can be mortal in closed spaces. Greenhouse effect-. If CO2, the current publicly insulted gas, didn`t exist, we would be frozen, because its presence together with the water vapour (clouds) and the methane (all of them can be found in a natural way in the atmosphere) provoke the hot emanated of earth surface as infrared radiations, when they arrive at low atmosphere layers, heating it (the atmosphere) and restoring the hot to earth surface. So, with this ‘greenhouse effect’, the air and by extension the average temperature on Earth, has maintained among 13,9 and 14,9 grades centigrades during last century. Change in climate: There are two problems, this increase of 0,6º C has been only produced in the last thirty years, because it`s had the suspect that the cause is the anthropogenic action, I mean, the current way of living of a big part of society in the most developed countries. On the other hand, the increase of a few grades (among three and five) in the future, would have catastrophical effects and could provoke big cataclysms. It seems that most of scientists think that the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere from two hundred and eighty parts per million (before of Industrial Revolution) to the three hundred and eighty current, are the responsible of this heating together with the increase of other gases of greenhouse effect that I have already mentioned. The methane is found in a smaller proportion in relation to CO2, but, however, one of its molecules catches twenty61
three times more hot than a molecule of carbon dioxide, because some people consider it still more active to the greenhouse effect than any other. For example, a report of FAO (and organization from United Nations for the Farming and Food) affirms that farming generates more gases of greenhouse effect, specially of nitrous, which comes from dung, and it`s two hundred and ninety-six times more active than the CO2; and the methane, twentythree times more active than the CO2 which is originated in his bigger part in the digestion system of ruminants. This has provoked than scientists of Aberystwyth Enviromental Investigation Institute in Walles, suggest changing the diet of bovine cattle in order to avoid their stomaches don`t transform the food into gas, which is finally evacuee, mainly through the mouth. They aren`t the only ones, since scientists from Hohenheim University (Germany) have created a pill that, together with a special diet, also reduces these emissions. With regard to the water vapour (the clouds), there are also interesting and strange theories. One of them was developed by Vladimir Shaidurou, from Science Russian Academy (United Kingdom) as the concentration of ice crystals in big altitudes could damage the thin layer of clouds which are found in the mesophera and whose mission is to filter and reduce the solar radiation which reaches the surface of Earth. Shaidurov used a detailed analysis of the change of average temperature per year since the last one hundred and forty years, and explains that is was producing a light colding of the temperature until the begining of twentieth
century. On these dates the planet began to heat, but not by greenhouse effect gases, but also because something very different, that he attributes to the event of Tunguska, which happened in an isolated place in Siberia, in the nortwest of Baikal Lake, on 30th June of 1908, where the blowing of an asteroid or commet which crossed through the Earth atmosphere, liberated an energy comparable to the fifteen atomic bombs of one megaton. The enormeous quantity of dust emitted to the atmosphere cause effects in its high layers, which changed its structure and was the detonating to bring about the present increase of global temperatures, because clouds are the most powerful gas of greenhouse effect, according to Shaidurov, so much, that they exceed a lot the effects of carbon dioxide and other gases launched by human activities. Hardly an increase of 1% of water vapour could raise the global average temperature on Earth surface in more than four grades centigrades. The Irish scientist Jhon Tyndall told something similar one hundred and fifteen years ago. He explained the reason of the blue colour of sky. He affirmed with regard to clouds: ‘It`s the strongest and most absorbent radiant of hot, is the most important controller of temperature on Earth. Without water vapour, the surface of Earth would suffer, quickly, from intense cold’. SMOG: It`s the combination of two English words smoke and fog. So, smog can be transformated as ‘fog of smoke’, and exactly that this big great cloud that sometimes appears over big cities and it`s also called ‘pollution’.
Industrial: It`s produced by the soot and sulphur coming from carbon combustion. If the sulphur is mixed with drops of water provokes the ‘acid rain’. Photochemical: Newly, the emissions of motor from vehicles are to blame. In this case they are the nitrous oxide and the volatil organic compunds (COV) which react in presence of solar light producing ozone tropospheric and other products that can be highly toxic; it can be letal. When the soil gets colder, the nearby air behaves in the same way and, as it weighs more, it can`t go up and doesn`t mix with the layer placed over it, which is hotter. In London, the ozone, oxide of sulphur and monoxide of carbon inhaled by its inhabitants because of this phenomenum, provoked several incidents with hundreds, and even thousands of deaths, in 1948, 1952, 1956 and 1962 in Ruhr Valley, Germany. Holes in ozone layer. The ozone of Earth stratosphere is created from ultraviolet light. Mainly, it acts as a filter of the nocive radiation which arrives in Earth. Its disappearance surely would provoke the increase of cases of melanomas (Skin cancer), of catarats in eyes, would eliminate the inmunitary system in human and other species, and even it would affect the crops sensitive to ultraviolet radiations. Really, it doesn`t exist physically an ‘ozone layer’ as such. Metaphorically we allude it to indicate the zone of atmosphere where it`s a bigger concentration of ozone. There are gases, such as the chlorofluorocarbonated (CFC), wich are used like refrigerant. When they are expelled to the atmosphere they provoke the
disappearance of ozone molecules (O3); the called ‘holes of ozone layer’ through which penetrate those dangerous radiations mentioned before. The international commnunity reacted against the threat and by this reason, the United Nations General Assembly met on 16th of September, 1987 to sign the Montreal Protocol which establishes and rules the use of substances which provoke the destruction of the current ‘ozone layer’. This treaty has been revised in several occasions, being the last updating the one of Pekin (1999). Energetic balance: It`s the relation among the energy that is needed in a complete process and the one finally is obtained as usable for its posterior use. This is fruit of this same complete process, called in this way because in it all the parameters suceptible of representing energetic consumption in any case for its recount are taken into account. So, and taking into acount the energy which is employed in the own sowing and finishes in the necessary for the final storage of the obtained product, diverse results are produced; when it`s more consumed than the produced it`s said than the balance is negative, and positive otherwise. In Albacete it has been investigated about the energetic balance of two cultures used in the production of biological fuels: The corn for the bioethanol and the colza to obtain biodiesel. In both cases, it has been done the complete process of technical itinerary of culture (sowing, farm work, harvest, etc., etc.) and also the energy used in
the industrial process; all of it expressed in litres of diesel per hectare. The production per hectare of corn was of twelve tons and of colza of three tons. The result can`t be more conclusive: - to produce one litre of bioethanol are necessary 1,2 litres of diesel (deficit of 21,3%) - to produce one litre of biodiesel are necessary 0,64 litres of diesel (superavit of 56,1%). For every strategic alternative to the dependence of petroleum, the energetic balance is the key. Net tase of CO2: I would like to make clear this concept specially, because it`s sometimes understood with difficulty. Firstly: the concentration of CO2 that exists in the atmosphere and its ‘greenhouse effect’ made this one maintained an average temperature of fourteen grades centigrades since there are trustworthy measurings until that in twentieth century,that concentration begins to increase significantly raising the temperature until 14,5º C, an effect that experts, in general, attribute to greenhouse effect gases, of which the most frecuent is, precisely, the CO2. Why does the concentration of this gas increase? Because of, mainly, its emanations in the combustion of fossil fuels in transport; in industry; in the generation of electricity, in heatings, etc. Perhaps you are wondering why aren`t these also emanations of CO2 when biological fuels are burnt. The answer is clearly affirmative. The difference is that biological fuels pick up again that CO2 when plants and vegetables that, finally, are going to produce more
biological fuel grow. I mean, its tase of CO2 is net. The fuels whose origin is fossil (petoleum, carbon and natural gas), as are renewable (don`t reproduce again) emit a CO2 which aren`t going to pick up from atmosphere later; so, its tase of CO2 is positive (acummulative) and so harmful for provoking the global overheating of planet. Solutions to climate change: The most pessimistic previsions foretell unforeseeable effects on ecosystems and sow fields, masive extinction of species (because of damaged ecosystems), increase in dryness with more deserts, change in ocean currents, a bigger season of hurricanes, taws in polar icecaps which will raise the sea level and other pernicious effects or consequences. The change in weather is considered the first enviromental danger on a worldwide scale. If greenhouse effects gases were really the main responsible, the solution would consist on applicating several measures to counteract and decrease this level of concentration: - Reforestation: with massive plantation of forest, trees and plants, because during their growth absorbe CO2 from atmosphere. - A bigger use of biological fuel in which emissions of CO2 are much smaller and its tase of contribution is net, being, so, redeemable. - Using renewable alternative energies but also sustainable ones. I mean, the consumption isn`t more quickly than the necessary capacity of forest, ground and biomass in general, to regenerate itself. The ideal situation will be that the organic material would be able to keep during its growth more CO2 than the liberated in its combustion.
- In ECOFA (the ecological fuel FA) the carbon liberated during its combustion, which has got organic origin, doesn`t contribute to the greenhouse effect because it comes from the own atmosphere and not from suboil like fossil fuels. - Energetic efficiency: the consumption optimizes in building, transport and industry with measures to rehabilitate the thermic solation of buildings which reduce the loss of hot in winter and avoid that it penetrates in summer; decreasing the consumption of heating and conditionated air, or with more efficient vehicles. With regard to the industrial activity, is suitable oprtimize and recycle as the machinery and installations as the raw materials. - Give the suitable information to pubic opinion: the firts activities about greenhouse effects, based on data from Envisat satellite. http://www.esa.int/esaCP/SEMB8XQ082E/spaino.ht ml - The world citizen movement has to oblige the states, governments and politicians to give up particular interest to get stable and efficient compromises for the joint of planet. The results of Kioto agreement or the recent Bali conference, aren`t the best examples, although in this last the European Union seems to assume and exerts convincingly the role of ‘enviromental Pepito Grillo’* in the world.
N.T.: It`s the conscious in a famous Disney film.
CONCLUSIONS The ECOFA, by its origins, would represent ‘per se’ a first relief for three current problems which today are suffering from: - urban solid residues that for its extension would be a benefit, mainly for town halls which have to suffer from the logistic prloblems which make off - contribution of its quote-part to the solution for the problem of change in climate. But there are also other connotations so or more important: - its production wouldn`t provoke famine, on the contrary, it would generate richness in the own fields of production. Newly the town halls woul be benefited - as the biotechnology takes part, and the bacteria and yeats are the ones that produce the process, this doesn`t recquire of energy of contribution of hot that other need, so it`s also highly rentable with redard to its energetic balance. The bacteria don`t consume alien energy in its work. - as the biotechnology is the responsible, this can act in any scene with the suitable bacterium: fecal waters, rests and stubbles from farming, wastes from slaughterhouses and, in general, any other waste or organic rest. - not only it is renovable but also it`s multirenewable because the CO2 which emanates of its combustion, gives rises to growth of any kind of plants that,
doesn`t have to be used necessarily to manufacture biological fuels, because it can also serve to a food cycle and/or biological which ends up in organic wastes of any nature. it is also multisustainable. Evidently, because of the varied origen of organic wastes, the logistic of raw material of ECOFA, can come from any rest and from everywhere in the planet. to develope and promote favourable natural situations, such as the importance of bacteria that nowadays avoid the methane caught in the bottom of the sea comes to surface. definetely to assume practics of sustainable development in all the activities done by human beings. And all of this without putting never in risk basic supplies in the human food that would provoke famine and that would prejudice again, to the weakest part, the most undeveloped countries, the poorest people. So, ECOFA is a solution of first magnitude, although on itself, it wouldn`t be sufficient for all the current demand. However, simply the fact that its production doesn`t affect to human consumption is already an important milestone.
Team of España Directo to film the report that was made in the garage of Francisco`s parents` house in Los Barrios (Ciudad Real) where he made the first proofs about the future of ECOFA. The team of TV of Castilla-La Mancha made us two reports, one for one of its news programme and other for ‘CLM en Vivo’. ECOFA and Francisco Angulo are a piece of news in news programmes. Apart from that, we receive the request of information about the project and Angulo`s patent, through some American middlemen whose office is in Madrid.
They were from several universities. After sending their information, this one appears nearly immediately in their national press. I have picked up some news came from the USA very related to this subject: ‘Gasoline made from bacteria’ article from the magazine Technology Review published by ‘El País’: http://www.euroresidentes.com/blogs/avancestecnologicos /2007/08/gasolina-hecha-de-bacterias.html. Another article appears in ‘El Mundo’: http://www.elmundo.es/elmundo/2008/01/24/ciencia/1201 194350.html, in it Craig Venter says textually that ‘... it is possible to design bacteria which permit to manufacture biological fuel...’ By chance? Anyway, when it`s said by this scientist all are praises and it`s news in every news programme on 25th of January, 2008 on TVE. But... this had been said by Francisco ten years ago and nearly was sent to a mental hospital. Later, he tried it again in 2005 when he presented his patent and sent letters in Spanish and English to the enterprises, institutions, universities and institutional organisms which appeared in an inernational directory. Result=ZERO. I have been talking, writing and publishing since I met Francisco. I did immediately in my novel Españ@.es and in my personal web, although the first proof in an alien medium was through an article published in the written magazine Energetica XXI, in its number dated on September of 2007: http://www.energetica21.com/articulos/1C/2007/SotoVega .pdf
It maybe that it is moment to do something more than simple eassys or documents. So, we start working and now we are writing ‘our story’ in a novel which we have already announced, but that, until this moment it hasn`t taken on definetely. This one will be the following delivery. To finish I want to mention an strange event. The price of petroleum has increased alarmingly, after having created a movement of world opinion against the biological fuel, because it`s said that they will provoke an increase in prices and the scarce of basic food, that now, are destined to its production. The ecologists organizations are now declaring themselves clearly against it and its use is being questioned among the public opinion and will finish giving up its production arguing a possible social alarm. The reality is that the only ones will obtain benefits are the petroleum companies and nuclear centrals. This situation is very suspectuous, isn`t it? Rejected the usual biological fuels as a competence, it would be only ECOFA, whose manufacture, how it has been deeply explained, wouldn`t influence in harvest to human nourishemt and in adition it would salve the problem of residues. The ECOFA is unquestionable.
Antonio J. Nevado. Municipal technician TIC of Soto de la Vega (León). TTM@aytosotodelavega.info Mobil Phone: 654715967 – Town Hall: 987654001 Note: It`s possible to mention this essay in part or totally, mentioning in this case, its original source of procedence and its author (Antonio J. Nevado).
Chronicle of an announced death Our planet is dying, but who is in real danger are us, the human species. The emissions of CO2 produced by man are so high as it`s very difficult to predict the magnitude of the problem which is approading us. Without any doubt the global warming has got an anthropogenic origin, provoked by the anxious consumption of energy of the most developed countries, which is desired by the rest of countries. Of course, firstly, the bringing up is failing, because, for example in the USA, students go to the high school by huge vans and their parents use lorries from army to go to the office: ‘too much cinema and little literature’. The problem is that the rest of the world admires these overfed human. So Chinese and Indian citizens are giving up their bicycles to adquire cars. ‘The car is, pòssibly, the less efficient vehicle which has been invented, because to carry one person from one place to other it`s necessary to move 1,000 or 2,000 Kg. of scrap iron. Today, all scientists agree with the event of the increasing of CO2 in the atmosphere is directly related with the increasing of global temperature. This increase in temperatures doesn`t mean sun and nice weather, as some people think; on the contrary, this warming provokes that the weather oscilates suddenly to extreme conditions: drought, snow and ice storms, hurricanes, floods...
While Poles are melted, Africa is drying, South America is drowned, North America is beaten by hurricanes and Asia is freezing. Nobody seems to look anything and in this global problem the governements have to be the first ones to react. Unfortunately, the history shows the leaders have always been the last in rectifying, the last ones in acting. If we listem to their speeches will see they aren`t reacting: on the one hand, they tell us if we reduce the CO2 emissions, we will also reduce the productivity of our countries, provoking an economical recession. They continue basing on the old model of petroleum and aren´t capable of betting for the new energies with the strength is required. On the other hand, it`s told about reducing the consumption; this idea has got a positive focus, always it`s consummed less for applicating more efficient technologies, but we can`t think it`s possible to put into reverse, leaving cities and towns and returning to villages. Today it isn`t possible to live from traditional agriculture; the world population goes on with its growth and it isn`t already possible to come back. As the man has begun to make changes into nature, he will have to continue making them. We can`t burn all the fossil fuel reservations in only two centuries and after that sitting down to wait for the nature is able, by itself, to solve the problem. We have caused the bad and we`ll have to repair it if we want to continue living in this planet. Francisco Angulo
New climates. New consciences These lines are the beginning of an adventure. One of those epic adventures which you can find in any bookshop to tell your children. Because, it`s about one of the biggest exploits which the man has to do in the mankind`s history. It doesn`t consist in saving himself, or other men, but also in saving ‘Gaia’, our planet. Gaia was born in the NASA. Rather it was baptized there, because it`s supposed to be 4500 million years old. It was James Lovelock who started with this mess. After a request from NASA, he has to do an atmospherical analysis to contribute to the study of the detection of life on other planets, specifically on Mars. James Lovelock can be considered as the father of the modern ecology, among other things, for defending the nuclear energy as the only realistic measure to avoid the global warming. Certainly, the scepticism of Lovelock with regard to saving the Earth from this phenomenon is so difficult, that he affirms: To try stopping the global warming with alternative energies, is the same as trying to cure a patient of terminal cancer with only a non-smoking treatment. As I said before, Lovelock`s discoveries about CFC in the weather estimulated the birth of Montreal Protocol; the first international treaty destined to the protection of the ozono layer through the erradication of the chemical substances in the industry. It put into effect on January of 1989.
So, it could be demonstrated that we were able to change complex process of the Earth. It was here where it started this epic adventure which is facing up men with Gaia, Gaia with men, and finally men against themselves. The first part of the fight, in bigger or less extent is known by all of us. It turns out that, in the last one hundred years and coinciding with the second Industrial Revolution, the man has increased exponentially his emissions of CO2, unbalanced climatic self-regulation system very complex that was supposed to be guaranteed for thousands of years. This fact can be considered as the first involuntary human agression to Gaia. Our planet, for its part, has been answering as it has been able. Climate alteration here, tornado there... but at planetary scale these small skirmishes don`t seem have caused effect in who, today is its main agressor: the man who consumes energy per excellence. This was in this way until the moment Al Gore presented for first time the documentary ‘An uncomfortable truth’ in 2006 and was awarded with Peace Nobel and Asturias Prince Prize, because of the great diffusion of his message. Here, it started the third and last confrotation: the man again himself. About Al Gore a lot of things have been said. Good and bad ones. I, personally, remember, more or less, his words: ‘It`s for me a privilege, to live in an epoch in which our decissions can change the world and leave a better legacy for the future generations.
The president of the USA, George Bush, said ‘It`s necessary to choose between economy and enviroment’. But this is a false dichotomy, because if we haven`t got a planet, we won`t have got economy. But, in any case, the most important part of this story isn`t Al Gore or George Bush. It`s necessary to put to the test the human capacity to go out of climatic wrong. It exists a non-return point, and we are approaching it every day, and we know the solution isn`t to live in caves. And, besides how do we explain the emergent countries that they don`t have to use natural resources? This is, probably, the last battle, where the audacity, the conscience and the human talent are going to be confronted with the necessity, the distrust and the economical interests of a lot of countries. Maya people spoke of the end of the mandkind, just as know it, on 21st December of 2012. We tend to be apocalyptic or fictional with these subjects, but we can`t deny they come from an ancestral undeniable legacy. Although this Maya Calendar isn`t right we have to wonder at, if deep down, there isn`t a conscious reality in this kind of prophecy. Precisely, in these years, we have the opportunity of changing and redirecting the history of the mankind to worthier, more responsible, more faising horizons. Storms, floodings, thaws, drinkable water, pollution, droughts, wars, famine... everything is related. As we can see, the change in the climate ins`t an isolated
phenomenum. It exits a complex process of interconnections that affects to all the alive species of animals and plants, including the man. If before that we look for shelter in the scarce probabilities of these phenomena can repeat nowadays. On the contrary, we have to get used to. They are usual predictions and the only one we can try to know, exactly, when and where they are going to happen. I could continue with examples of disastrous effects of global warming, but it would be better to be centred in the bottom of the problem. What is happening? The planet is getting hot more and more. Well, is this all? Yes, it can seem easy, because there is a world scientist consensus of 95% but however some people don`t admit it. And why don`t we react? Here is the crux of the matter Firstly, economic interest gives preference to any global perspective. Besides, the media, mainly Internet, continue offering plenty of nonscientist information. Information of ‘third people’, partial opinions or non update studies that already attribute the change in the climate to causes without a scientific basis. Before so extreme situations, we only can shelter, in the scientist conclusions, and for second time, and in a squashed way, the IPCC has agreed in a document, 7500 scientists all over the world.
And, now. What can we do? I wouldn`t wait for another person solved. None is allien of what is happening. We have got a conscience, a gift and opportunity, the knowlegde and the obligation. They are new climates for new consciences. It`s our choose. Ignacio Bernabeu.
The beginning Before having to join to the compulsary military service I decided to give up my work and spend the whole summer in holidays. It`s always necessary to choose between having time or money, in this occasion I decided to have free time, but of course, I hardly had money. I didn`t go to the beach and travelled to Los Cortijos, a small village in Ciudad Real where my father was born. When I was there, it happened the same as other times, a lot of free time but very little to do. But I am an anxious person, I always find something to do, and, luckly my close friend Javier lives at the village. He had got an old cross motorbike in his garage. The old motorbike was full of web-spiders, dust and excrements of swalow. It hadn`t a good appearance, certainly, but working to try functioning it looked like an interesantent project. I love this kind of projects. To take a case in point some months ago I got, through a relative, a dismantled helicopter, I carried to the village to try, to rebuild, it in the garage. I have always liked this sort of plans, because, getting to put into gear something which is dismantled and out or order implies to learn step by step, since zero, how each piece works on. And when the construction advances, an inert object, a pile of pieces starts to recover life, transforming in something joined to his constructor, I suppose that is a feeling very similar to the one a designer has got when his outline becomes in something real.
Introduction to ECOFA The hydrogen is the basic brick of which all the elements are made, and it`s also the most plentiful in our universe. From it, it was created the periodical table, Owed to our universe is built in this way, first human beings had to learn to interact with it. It has been so since the beginning of the times. Skillfully, the first organisms learnt to use the energy of hydrogen. The hydrogen is a wonderful fuel in contact with oxygen, but, at first it was necessary to fill the Earth with oxidizing to be able to use this fuel. Plants take charge of doing this work, specializing in producting oxygen. But, soon living beings noticed it was very difficult to find pure hydrogen and they had to get it from water. They noticed that, for moments of necessity, it was better to keep certain amount of fuel, but they had to keep it in a way easy to accumulate to use it when they needed it. The carbon let do it; it`s a natural container; the hydrogen can join easily with the carbon and can be used when it is needed. The first living beings learnt how to accumulate reserves of hyddrogen sugar-shaped, alcohol and fat. But this provoked a very hard fight to survive, since some living beings especialized in feeding from the hydrogen that other ones had accumulated.; so, they had to work less and grew quickly. It can be said that the hydrogen is the vital energy and it`s used by most of living beings. This
hydrogen mixes with oxygen and it causes a chemical reaction, the oxidation which transforms it into energy. Most of the fuels work on the same way. The motor of our car carries out artificially the same as we do naturally. It uses the hydrogen which is present in fuel. Carbon and hydrogen form hydrocarbons. Perhaps now, we start to think the petroleum isn`t any special thing. We have always thought that gasoline was very important, even petroleum is known as black gold. But, as we are seeing, there is no much difference between a bucket filled whith petroleum and another with fat. As all of us know, the petroleum didn`t appear as if by magic; it has got an organic origin in the past. It`s the accumulated hydrogen by a multitude of living beings in a remote past. Now, as we know the fuels are composed by carbon and hydrogen, and all the living beings accumulate it inside, we won`t surprised if we see our diesel motor working on with vegetable oil; on fact, in spite of this, it has been practically occult that the diesel motor was invented to use vegetable oils and was proved with peanut oil the first time. If we can learn more about the fuel world, the following is to know that, how much amount of hydrogen has got a fuel, it will work on better. The octane rate in the patrol station, would be, in a natural way the following one: if we has got carbon with a little hydrogen, this fuel could be called wood; if it has a little amount more it could be called fat; with a bit more of hydrogen it would become
oil; with still a bit more, alcohol until becoming, finally, pure hydrogen. Well, now we can build our own refinery in our head. As any investor with a bit of intelligence, we would use the cheapest and most abundant raw material, we can`t use a material which took million of years to grow and which doesn`t turn a cycle, we can`t wait for so much time to make our fuel. So, we have to think about somehing easier, for example, to extract the oxygen accumulated by vegetables. We can obtain alcohol distilling the sugars and carbohydrates which are in the betroot, sugar cane and cereals. This alcohol is know as bioethanol and can be used in internal-combustion engines by ignition, type gasoline. It`s a good fuel, but we need a lot of energy for its distillation. We can use vegetable oils directly in a diesel motor and we won`t need any distillation; the main drawbacks are the following: in most of the countries it`s only possible to get a yearly crop and, for this, people need fertil lands, sun, water, ferlizers, pesticides, etc., what besides of being difficult it is expensive. It can be harmful if we use big extensions of cultivation. In addition, this raw material is the basic food for most of human beings, so we can`t use the food of people for our cars. But the approach looks like good. Then, let`s continue advancing. As we know, all the living beings accumulate hydrogen, and this hydrogen is what we need in order to our vehicles work on. We can use animal fats; in fact, in the past, people used whale fat, but the results were really bad; however the approach wasn`t totally bad;
they didn`t take into account was the time of obtaining: the same as the time one whale takes to grow up. But, curiously the smallest is an organism the less time it takes to breed. We can think in sucking pigs but I, personally, consider it`s a pity to convert the bacon and ham into fuel. If we go down in the scale, we find the mice; they eat nearly anything and breed so easily that create plagues; but I think they aren`t too beatiful to be converted into gasoline. If we continue going down in the living beings` scale the productive rythm will increase. We could use worms and eartworms; they nearly need be looked after, they feed from wastes and don`t need light nor drinkable water; they breed so quickly that if a fly was let put eggs in the suitable conditions, within a year all the planet would be full of worms. But, continue with this subject, because athough some people will already be in agreement using fat of worms as a fuel in their vehicles we can still descend a bit in the scale and go down to the microscopes animals; if, beings so small that can’t be seen without a microscope and with such an amazing capacity of breeding that they can fill the planet in few days. These tireless workers are the ants of microscopic world and are known as bacteria; they don`t need any light, they can survival in nearly any condition and can feed of nearly anything we can imagine. For our fuel, the ecological-fuel (ECO-conbustible-FA) we have made a cultivation of bacteria, and for feeding them, give them what nobody wants and even we pay to get rid of it: the organic residues, what we usually call rubbish. Bacteria descompose the organic residues, separating the fatty acids and lipids from the rest of
components. It is known that bacteria accumulate energy inside, accumulate its own hydrogen in the form of fatty acids and lipids. All these fats form a paraffin which we extract, refine and transform into ECO-fuel-FA. Contaminants gases Finally, we have to speak about contaminant gases, and it`s here where it`s necessary to clear up a lot of things. Million years ago, the Earth was full of life, the forest were enormeus and covered it totally; in this period, the CO2 in the atmosphere was many times superior to the current one. There wasn`t acid rain, and we don`t have to forget the gases emitted with the burnt of fossil fuels, aren`t composed of clean molecules of CO2, because they have got a complex molecular composition: heavy metals such as mercury and lead, apart from sulphur and other highly toxic elements. These form complex molecular chains, which aren`t assimilated by the vegetation ant take a lot of time in be dissolved in the atmosphere. A simple example, that I don`t recommend to anybody, is, putting firewood in a fireplace. The wood burns and produces CO2 but a natural CO2 which plants need to continue living, a simple CO2. This gas will be harmful for us if the quantities are huge. But, if we put a tyre into the fire the CO2 , the quantities are more or less the same, but these moleculas are more complex than the ones are produced by fossil fuels, and no living being is capable to assimilate them. If we remain next to the fire, our life would be in real danger, and if we
put a plant, this plant wouldn`t be able to assimilate these moleculas and would dry. Don`t forget that the planet behaves as a living being and that if the CO2 is natural, it turns a cycle; if it increases lightly the amount of the vegetation will also increase. The planet isn`t prepared is for the accumulations of gases which don`t turn a cycle or whose cycles are so long as the fossil fuels are. These gases non-assimilated spend a lot of time to turn the cycle, and although the planet has got time to asimilate it, we can`t say the same. When we say that pollution is killing our planet, we aren`t telling the truth, because the planet isn`t in danger. We are the ones are in real danger; the planet existed a lot of time before we arrived in it and it will be here after we have disappeared, and although I believe in the chances of human beings, the truth is that we aren`t doing well enough, and perhaps we disappear before we imagine it. Breakdowns on roads Whenever I am driving I am thinking about in the big amount of breakdowns I have had., and, of course, so it isn`t possible to drive comfortably. The first thing I do when I go into my car is checking the four wheels; perhaps you consider it a nonsense, but I remember once, when my car doesn`t stop moving on one side and I had to hold the steering wheel very hard to maintain the car on the road. It was raining a lot, perhaps this is the reason that didn’t allow me listening to any strange noise, but when I arrived at my destination all my friends looked at me very surprised and after going out of the car I discovered I have a wheed left.
The truth is that, when my car has got a punched wheel I don`t notice it and go on driving unworried. In some ocassions, the people who were with me in the car have been the ones have noticed the car wasn`t driving properly and have told me about it. Other times drivers from other vehicles have wistled at me to take my attention in order to I noticed one of my wheels was punctured. What I learnt about this, is to fill the wheels with sprays to avoid punctures; It`s supposed this is not have to be done if it isn`t totally necessary and that, after using them the wheel has to be replaced, but I fill the wheels totally with liquid and when everything is solved, there aren`t more punctures. They are a lot of obstacles that come up when we use a fuel made in a craft way, mainly when someone is in a hurry and doesn`t achieve the process correctly, forgetting to achieve a good filtration. One of the biggest odysseys happened in August, when I was trying to come back home with the tank full of bad filtred fuel. The car stopped each few minutes and it seemed not be able to start again. But if a tank is full of sediments is very difficult to eliminate them and there are more and more problems. In this ocassion, I spent nearly hours to cover 50 Kms. In these situations, you wonder a lot of questions, maintaining intense mental conversations with yourself, having arguments and even insulting you when, you find in a land track lost in middle of a desertic landscape, with a bright sun in the sky. Then, you only think in abandoning, leaving everything and going away; but, on the other hand you want to continue, you don`t want to
be beaten and think ‘what a good experience to tell it some day to my grandchildren! Biodiesel I have spent more than ten years making alternative experiments. I have made proofs for a long time in diverse vehicles, and, nowadays my car works on with the biological fuel I make by myself, My car has droven 240,000 Km. and works perfectly. Advance tests, in bench of proofs, indicate us that the motor of the vehicle generate the same horsepower as with a traditional fuel. 1º.- The energy is produced, mainly, by the reactions between hydrogen and oxygen. 2º.- The fuel, in the same way we know them, doesn`t exist. 3º.- Nearly all fuels are formed by hydrogen, and the carbon is a natural container where keeps them. 4º.- When we add hydrogen to carbon we convert it in a paraffin that can be used as a fuel in diesel motors. If we add it more hydrogen it becomes in an alcohol then can be used in internal-combustion engines, type gasoline. If we add it more hydrogen I will transform it in methane, the same as the natural gas.
5º.- We can extract oxygen directly from water using electrolysis, but it´s an expensive process, and after that, it`s a problem to keep that hydrogen. Nobody wants to carry an hydrogen bomb in the boot of his car. 6º.- If we add carbon to the water and heat it, when it boils, the hydrogen adheres to the carbon and forms and ethanol by distillation. But, this process is also expensive. 7º.- We can eliminate the oxygen, from water to keep the hydrogen; we can add micro organisms to water and wait for they consume the oxygen; this is produced during the fermentation and we obtain ethanol. 8º.- As we can`t make wine, we`ll look for more expensive components to make the fuel; we need water, and also carbon to retain the oxygen. The cheapest carbon, from my point of view, is the organic rubbish: ‘food wastes, material from forest prunes and even residues with rests of cellulose.‘ The microorganism, non-dangerous bacteria, yeast and bacteria to produce compost or gardening – will extract the hydrogen from water.’ Bacteria also create fuel inside, in the same way we obtain bacon from pork pig, we can obtain fat from bacteria. 9.- All this process is achieved in every pool by nature: the held up water is full of micro organisms than consume the oxygen, liberating the hydrogen, by this reason there is so bad scent in held up waters. It is produced liberation of methane in the air where it forms an oil layer on its surface.
La Reliquia (The Relic) Two dry whistes emitted by the small electronic appliance indicated that some person had come into the shop. I always left connected this small device while I was working in the back room. I abandoned what I was doing and went out to see who was there. I found a quite old man, who held the tower of a computer between his hands. I approached him, meanwhile I greeted and helped him to put the computer on the floor. After speaking for a while about how heavy was to carry the CPU, because although at first it can seem light, after carrying it for some minutes it becomes heavier and heavier, asked: - Well, what`s the problem? - I don`t know, the computer worked on correctly, it turned off and now when. I tried to turn on it didn`t work it. I asked for him his data and I told him that I would look at for it as soon as I could. He answered me that I needed it urgently and the most important thing was not to lose the information that was in the hard disk, because there were some important works. Then, I asked him what his occupation was and he explained me that he was a ortotypographical corrector, apart from a writter, and he had been a teacher, but at present he dedicated all his time to the scripture. Immediately, I remembered all my manuscripts which I sent to a multitude of publishing houses, without getting more than insubstancial answers: ‘It isn`t in the line of our publising house’ they told me.
I commented him I liked writing and he proposed me that lent him one of my manuscripts to have a look. Then, I agreed to give a first draft when he came to pick up his computer. I had got some complete novels, but after so many years I didn`t consider them good enough. Besides, I thought I could write a science-fiction novel and make the most of this one to make known my patents and investigation about fuels. I have written some passages of a novel, that treated about daily characters, and it had been written in different parts, the same as different stories that intermingled constantly; so I thought in using this structure and part of a outline for a novel which was about the beginning of life in the universe, in it, the time passed in a untidy way. It was called the spiral of time by me. Some weeks later I gave the first draft to Armando – the name of this man – and after reading it, he confessed me he belonged to a writters` circle called CiÑe (writers independent circle) which has his own publishing house and that, if I wanted it he could put me in touch with the president, so by pure chance and in great haste ‘The Relic’was born. It was a science-fiction novel which would serve me as a presentation lefter where I could tell about my patents. And, how many things change in life! Today I am a member of CiÑe, and his president, Javier de Tusalle, also editor of Mandala&Lapizcero editted ‘The Relic’ for me and offered to publish this new work, that my dearest reader you have in your hands. - Your determination in providing solutions to the enviromental problem looks like me very important,
Fran; a lot of people speaks a lot but do very little things. We are going to edit a book explaining all the process and demostrating is perfectly viable and suitable. We hope a financier or politician are concious, not only of the possibility of business but also of the important and necessary that is to make a success of this process. And we are in this situation... Dearest Francisco: After reading all what you explain about the ecological diesel from residues of rubbish, I would like you answer me a question, if you don`t mind: Why hasn`t been the production of fuel developed worldly according to his patent? I`m very grateful for your work, and I hope can help you if you consider it suitable. I`m very grateful in advance Yours faithfully Vicente In films, people who have got the capital invest it or help innovatory ideas like this one; but this doesn`t happen in real life. It can be thought in the subsidies of I+D; but, at least in Spain, all this money is destined to develop a new cap cork for wine bottles. If you wonder the reason, you must think about I`m working in this project for more than twelve years, investing all my time and money.
A team of archeologists found some written small board, the oldest have never been found – more or less 4,000 years old -, and then it can be read: ‘Look wherever you look, you `ll see all men are idiot’. A lof ot years have passed but it seems nothing has changed. Yours faithfully Francisco Angulo
Science fiction or a vision of future How can we speak about which the fuels of the future will be, and that people take your words seriously when they aren`t able to see the things are happening in this moment; whenever all the scientists agree in that the polluted emissions which men are throwing into the atmosphere are affecting the climate and in spite of it, politizians and a big amount of people still doubt that a change in the weather will be a reality? Then, how can we explain which fuel will be using in the future, and what energetic solutions we can use to stop the change in the weather without being considered a lunatic? But, sincerily, I think the only solution is to expose it as science-fiction although, it`s really a vision of future very far from science-fiction. After these scarce justifications, and clearing up there are people who think one Kg. iron weighs more than one Kg. of straw, and it`s useless to explain them than one Kg. is always one Kg., it doesn`t mind the kind of matter of this Kg.. Then, it is the moment of explain which, from my point of view, will be the fuels for the future. In next years, the biological fuel will start to reinforce in the market, gaining ground little by little to fossil fuels. Ar first, we will continue with the biological fuels extracted from vegetable cultivation; after that, we will start to use cultivation of seaweed and bacteria; rubbish will be used as raw material to obtain biological fuels.
After that, the hydrogen obtained from electrolysis, using electric energy from solar plates, wind mills, tidal power and geothermic energy, is mixed with carbon to be transported easily, becoming in an alcohol and sinthetic oil wich could be used in the internal-combustion engines. The catalysts will be improved, getting to extract the carbon of fuel before burning it, the result will be that only the hydrogen will be burnt, eliminating totally the emissions of CO2. In fifteen years, finally, we will start to abandon the little efficient internal-combustion engines, which harly ever profit from a 50% of the energy of fuel and we will use electric motors, electric cars with batteries of fuel. The batteries of fuel will work on with all sorts of fuel: alcohols, oils, sugar, transforming the hydrogen into electric energy. After twentt-five years, at last, the vehicles will use electric batteries, being totally electric, because of the batteries will be more efficient, light and compact, and on the other hand, they will be changed easily. The batteries will be in an accessible place, and when they are finished, will be changed by other newcharged, leaving the old ones in stations of refill. So, we`ll obtain the energy taking advantage of all the possibilities that the sun offers us; surely we will use biotechnology, since plants have the advantage over us million years in their experience of getting energy from sun.
CO2 It`s certain that CO2 is always CO2, exactly; at the same way H2O is always H2O, but if you drink H2O with mercury you will be poisoned. It happens equally with CO2. CO2 isn`t bad for human beings, they are needed very high doses in order to be damaged; on the contrary, a low dose of CO2 with mercury, lead and sulphur can be mortal. The mixture of different chemical elements that compose the fossil fuels forms some complex molechulars chains, that aren`t assimilative by nature. This seems difficult of understanding to a big amount of people; they repeat again and again: ‘CO2 is CO2’. And this is true; but, depending on the elements which are incorporated, it will be a simple or complex molecular chain. I`ll try give other examples: We suppose we are a tree: We breath oxygen; we need it to live and we have specialized in using it; our lungs assimilate it easily. If we breath O2 we haven`t got any problem; but, if we add another element, for example, the hydrogen, it will make a molecula, a short and simple one: H2O, for example (pure water); I supppose nobody ignores what happens if we try to breath under water. Adding an only element we have changed its properties completly. As we told, if we were a tree, and instead of receiving CO2 we are given Carbon + Oxygen + Sulphur + Mercury + Lead + Nitrogen, we couldn`t assimilate it. So, in spite of CO2 is CO2, the moleculas produced during the
combustion of wood aren`t the same as the ones a are produced when we burn fossil fuel. Old cars In some moment it can seem funny; even I laugh at myself; but, the truth is that is too hard to invest all the money you have got in an old car to make proofs. It supposes to make the risk of being stopped by the police and receive a fine or even that you car is immobilized. ‘Yes, things can surely be done in other way, getting suitable permissions; but if I spent my time in tidying up these red tapes instead of employing all my capacity in resolving the problems which are produced everyday to improve the product it wouldn`t be an inventor any more. Most of people can`t understad it, but there is a reason for one most of inventors are considered as crazy people; but, if you give all of you (the 100% of your capacity), it supposes that even where you are sleeping you are improving your ideas: From all of it, it happens that when you are walking on the street you are colliding whith the streetlamps, in the best of cases, other times you eat some food with wrapper and you don`t sleep properly, because a good idea can come your mind unexpectacly and you have to get up to write it or even prove it. It`s very hard to go against the tide. Your friends, your family use their new car and the traditional fuel, meanwhile you drive an old car with a lot of settlement which you have made by yourself, and you use a fuel which you are produced too. Then, when a problem appears, well, when you have a problem you know whom they laugh at.
The truth is that in this point it`s important what they have to tell you, because most of them will try to save you, taking you on the right way. Fortunately, there are sometimes other people with a better vision for the future who clap your initiative and encourage you. Interview at Localia TV Localia – We are here at one room of Marchoness`House. They are Antonio Nevado, technician (TIC) of Town Hall in Soto de la Vega, and Francisco Angulo, who is are of the speakers and who, apart from this, has written a book which is going to help us to be more conscious about the subject of enviroment, that is so important. And, besides, he has made several patents about this subject, always related with sustainability. So, today we are talking about biological fuels. Francisco – Mainly, I have developed different process to obtain fuels from organic residues. Localia – You explained in your documentary videos and in your book that the most abundant atoms in the universe are hydrogen and carbon, and from them it`s possible to make fuels. Francisco – They are principally the components of most of fuels. The carbon behaves as a container, which carries the hydrogen and it`s the hydrogen which reacts with the oxygen in the air producing the combustion.
Localia – And is it certain, talking amongs friends, that some important patents thanks to which cars can work on with water are kept in secret by the biggest multinational companies? Antonio – Well, I feel this true. Besides, I remember, not much time ago, it`s told about there was a motor which worked on with water and whose inventor was a Spanish man. It was discussed for several months, and then invention and inventor disappeared. It isn`t a joke. As far as I am concerned, I would like to tell that town halls have got a very important role, and as you said before, it`s not fair that this kind of things remain kept in a drawer, and people as Francisco can publish their works, with an official support. Localia – And are there already in the market fuels similar to the ones you are talking about? Francisco – The fuels which we produce are thought to be used in diesel motors. Localia – Conventional diesel motors? Francisco – Yes, it`s as the fuel you can find in a patrol station. Localia – Then, can we use them? Francisco – I would add another thing taking advantage of that this is an uninihibited interview, if you take a litre of vegetable oil, the same as it`s sold in a supermarket and put into the tank of your diesel car and it will work on.
Localia – With oil? Francisco – Yes, yes. Localia – Well, there will be to make the proof, although I am a bit frightened because it could spoil my car. Localia (to Antonio) - Has you checked it? Antonio – Well, this was showed in the universal fair where it was exhibited the first diesel motor which, in fact, it worked on with peanut oil. Localia – And in this conference, apart from talking about biological fuels, are you going to talk about about your novel ‘The Relic’? Because, in it we find a very funny plot and some peculiar characters. Francisco – Well, the reality is that ‘The Relic’ is a science- fiction novel which iI used to include some of my patents. Localia – And now we are talking about your new book very related with fuels and enviroments subject, ECOFA which treats it with very fun and interesant anecdotes. Because this subject awakes a lot of picaresque. Since a lot of people say ‘I can done it my own house. They phone me to tell that they have got I don`t know how many tons of rubbish behind their house, that they can send it to me in order to I transform them in gasoline and the bussiness will be for both of us’.
Francisco – Of course! This isn`t a bad idea, but how Antonio Nevado has explained, town halls can take change of all these subjects. Localia – As individual, what can we do for enviroment? Francisco – Well, we can do plenty of things; firstly, saving energy with simple habits, such as saving water, using low-consumption bulbs, buying cars with low.consumption instead of buying the fastest in the market, because with all of them will arrive at the same place. Localia – Apart from this, they are being reduced the contaminant emissions that a car can emits. Francisco – Yes, now we look to be in the right way, because there is no sense in going to the high school by all-terrain vehicle or by van, as it usually happens in the United States. It`s a nonsense to move several tons of scrap iron to carry a person of 70-80 Kgs. more or less. Localia – That`s right, because very powerful motors are needed to move all this scrap iron of vehicle, and it`s used a lot of fuel. Francisco – Yes, it`s certain. Localia – Well then ‘lads’, two weeks ago Cristina told about recycling and now we are talking about making
conscius, saving energy, and mainly, as useful things are invented, try to use them. The biological fuel isn`t already the future but also it`s the present. Isn`t it? Francisco – I think so, it`s one of the fuels for present. Localia – Have you got any message to young people in order to continue working for the envirment? Antonio – They have to plant lots of trees because they absorb the CO2 which precisely is reabsorbed again when we use biological fuels, achieving a cycle which can save the planet. Localia – And this is only in a little scale. I mean. If was a little plant put in house, would I also get cleaner air? Antonio – Any plant usually absorbs CO2, so we are capturing that CO2 which is in the atmosphere. Localia – Well ‘lads’, I promise you next day I`ll bring a small plant. Well, we are going to be a bit more serious, telling totally the truth because we are going to listen to the conference that they are going to give us, they are two expert and involved men with the enviroment.
A modern Leonardo Da Vinci Five hundred years ago, a robust young with talent, was born in the toscan town of Vinci. Thanks to his big curiosity and the observation of the nature, besides his big talent, he caught a glimpse a very advanced technological world for his epoch that a lot of years later would consolidate in a real way in the modern science and its ups and downs. Some centuries later, the story would repeat in other anonymous and talented young who liked to contemplate and learn of it, the same as Leonardo: Francisco Angulo. This young man, very worried by the enviroment, started to investigate and make experiments with some processes which emerged spontaneusly in nature as far as he found a system to obtain fuel from organic residues, using a process of fermentation with bacteria which he patented several years ago: ECOFA. But trying his project was succesful and the authentic recognition, he faced up powerful international enterprises with the economical interest that this involves, although for Francisco, this isn`t an obstacle to continue fightingh with the weapons of constancy, resolution and illusion. In 2006, he published ‘The Relic’ a science-fiction novel which includes several of his patents, and in 2007 he is supported by the town hall of Soto de laVega (León) where he exhibis the working out of the biological fuel generated with his process, but the battle continues. I hope
this article is useful to help him and his cause that, when all`s said and done is the cause of all of us. (Published by Stel March) Letters sent to public institutions During a lot years, I sent letters to any institution which could support and collaborate to developed my investigation. I want to tell it and insist on it, because most of people, when the project is presented to them, the first they say is. ‘Why don`t you put in touch with a university or institution?’ As I was explaining, I have written letters in different languages to a big amount countries, starting in Spain, its institutions, universities and banks which announce its image as defenders of investigation and innovation. There are only a few people who have made the effort to answer my letters, and most of them only used vague words, to give me vain hopes. But I`m not disappointed. Every morning I get up renewed and prepared to continue my battle; now, instead of senging letters, I visit them to talk personally. Although, for the moment, the result continues being equal. They are the same words but instead of being written they are heard. In some occasions it looks like funny, because if you look at the letters they are as a tennis match in which ones throw the ball to others. Not much time ago, I spoke with the responsible of enviroment in the Community of Madrid, and their words were the usual ones, that he liked the project very much,
but unfortunately in Enviroment they couldn`t do anything and I had to put in contact with the responsible of Industry or any university; and it looks like very gracious because, in Industry they had sent me to Enviroment and I had also sent information to universities. Next, I enclose the sample of some letters which I received as answer: And a pair of articles from ‘El diario de León’ and ‘El Mundo’ N.T.: ‘ Diario de León’ and ‘El Mundo’ are two Spanish newspapers.
Second Vice Presicende of Government And Economy and Treasure Ministery
Madrid, 19 October, 2005. Mr. Francisco Angulo Lafuente Dear sir, I acknowledge receipt of the document you have addressed to the Second Vice Presicent of Government and Economy and Treasure Department Minister and inform you, the matter you suggest is outside my area of responsability and it`s competence of Tourism and Commerce Industry Ministery, so we remit them your document on this date. Sincerely yours,
Eulogio González Torrecillas Programme Director
Study Area and Programs Councilor 20 September, 2005. Mr. Francisco Angulo Lafuente
Dear friend, As our mayor suggested, I would like to thank you sincerely for the kind letter you remitted him. I expect you will be pleased to know that, this one has been transferred to the City Services and Enviroment Government Area City Councilor at Madrid Town Hall. Yours faithfully,
Economy Ministery and Energetic Politics
Mines General Direction General Subdirector of Energetic Planification Madrid, 5 October, 2000.
Mr. Francisco Angulo Lafuente Dear Mr Angulo, We were delighted to receive your letter dated on 27 September where you exposed your considerations about the viability of using patrol stations to fill up batteries from electric cars. The improvement of our enviroment requires obligatorily the decrease of emissions generated by transport. Electric vehicles apport a solution to this problem, since approaching like the one you make us to facilitate the viability of this kind of transport. Don`t doubt it will be taken into account. Sincerely yours, Luis Carlos Mas García General subdirector
Article EL MUNDO – Crónica de León (THE WORLD – Chronicle of León) Headline: The neighbours attend to the presentation of a fuel manufacturated from waste. Francisco Angulo Lafuente is the inventor who has patented this biological fuel. Alvaro I. Sutil – Correspondent SOTO The computer expert and inventor from Madrid, Francisco Angulo Lafuente, presented in the Culture House in Soto de la Vega yesterday, an ecological fuel manufacturated from organic materials, which can the substitute of fossil fuels currently used. Besides, he made the best to present the novel ‘The Relic’, where he explains his own experience in creating this ecological solution. The major of this locality and at the same time the impeller of this project, the journalist and technician of the town council, Antonio J. Nevado, apart from some media of Madrid attend to the act. According to Angulo, the climate has been always changing. However the problem of the change in the weather is that, in the last century, the rythm of this
variations has been accelerated in an anomalous way. If we look for the reason of this acceleration, some scientists found that it exists a direct relation between the global warming and the increasing of gases of greenhouse effect, provoked by the industrialized societies. The magnitude that it is adcquiring this problem provokes that thousands of people are looking for solutions to finish with the global warming. One of these people is Lafuente, who has created a biological fuel from organic waste, I mean, domestic rubbish which substitutes perfectly the fossil fuels currently in use. After more than ten years with proofs, yesterday it could see the first official contact, without any lies, people who attended to the appointment checked as the car and the farming vehicle worked on with this fuel because they had been prepared with a special transparent tank. This thirty years-old man, seeing the good answer of institutions, made the option to include his invention is his novel ‘The Relic’ which has also presented. Angulo told ‘El Mundo – La Crónica de León’ that we has spent more than four years showing his project from one place to another: ‘At this moment, the biggest enterprises aren`t interested in it because they have got some more lucrative views, but it`s necessary to try an ecological conscience in the population. The inventor who was made proofs with ecological fuel in his car, confirms that the change in motors is minimum, and the output of the engine, in power and speed, is the same as the other ones which work on with usual diesel oil or gasoline, except, and this`s clair by the level of
pollution which is nearly 0% since the motor doesn`t give off nor lead nor sulphur.
Francisco Angulo Lafuente poses with his novel after the presentation
Diario de León (Leon`s Diary) Soto de la Vega Headline: Next Saturday manufacturated from rubbish. is presenting a fuel
Andrés Cubillos.- The climate has been always varying. However, the problem of a change in the weather is that, in last century the rythm of these changes has been accelerated anomalously. Looking for the cause of this acceleration, some scientists found that there is a direct relation between the global warming and the emissions of greenhouse effect, provoked by industrialized societes. The big magnitude that is adquicring this problem, has provoked that thousands people are looking for solutions to stop the global warming. One of them is the expert in computer from Madrid, Francisco Angulo, who has manufacturated an ecological fuel from organic residues, I mean, domestic rubbish, which substitutes perfectly the current usual fossil fuels. After more than thirty years making proofs, next Saturday 28th of July at 18:00 hours everybody who wants to come to Soto de la Vega could see the first official proofs of this fuel. Without any trick, the audience could check as the car works on using this fuel, because the vehicle has prepared with a transparent tank. This man, who is only thirty years old, after the good answer of institutions decided to include his invention in his novel ‘The Relic’ which will be presentated on the same date.
This presentation wants to inform the citizens and institutions. This is an interesting initiative to resolve both problems: firstly the storage or rubbish and mainly to avoid the global warming.
Sunday, 29th July, 2007 – Leon`s Diary Tierras de La Bañeza The ecological fuel is manufacturated from organic waste, such as the lettuce. Tittle: A very ecological fuel. Francisco Angulo, his creator, affirms that in this way poluttion and recycling tasks are reduced.
V. Cañueto La Bañeza Yesterday the town hall celebrated in the Culture House of the locality an act to make conscious of problems generated by global warming, the greenhouse effect and a change in the climate. The act started with the view of several videos about the elaboration of the ecological fuel from organic materials and the presentation of the novel ‘The Relic’ whose author is Francisco Angulo, in which he describes the features of this patent, which is able to transform the organic wastes into an ecological fuel which substitutes in a effective way the combustion of fossils used nowadays. The organizers prepared a car and a tractor installing a specific tank for the ecological fuel and complementary to the tanks ot these vehicles; so, after the presentation the audience checked directly the correct working on of the fuel. Organic residues. This edological fuel is obtained in an craft way from organic residues that, after several chemical processes and bacteria which provoke the fermentation in question of wastes, produce the liquid. The rubbish which they used to manufacturate the ecological fuel is the one is usually thrown away in houses, although as Francisco Angulo, creator of the ecological fuel and owner of its patent, affirmed: ‘There are organic wastes more difficult to ferment, because bacteria can be fed with plastic or glass’
and pointed out as fit materials ‘the lettuce or wood, in spite of the bacteria spend more time to ferment the wood. Francisco Angulo, creator of this eclogical fuel and owner of his patent affirmed that ‘people is trying to be more conscious of the fact that there are alternatives to gasoline’ and that ‘with this fuel is eliminated the problem of recycling rubbish’. Francisco Angulo has spent ten years making proofs to get the best possible result, and two years ago he presented the patent of this product. Today he is expecting any institution wants to put it in market but there are diverse economic factors related with the exploitation of petroleum which make difficult its outlet to the market. Angulo pointed out as a main advantage the fact of it doesn`t pollute the enviroment because it doesn`t contain either sulphur or lead, or mercury, besides helping to recycle organic wastes without a reduction in the original power of the vehicle. The reward After ten years working and making efforts, a Swiss enterprise has put in touch with his creator to invest in this discovery which offers a viable alternative economically to the whole of fossil fuels.
In detail: Pollution · The ecological fuel doesn`t contaminate the enviroment because it doesn`t contain either sulphur, or lead or mercury and the carbon dioxide which emits comes from vegetable materials. Vehicles · A saloon car and a farming tractor were the vehicles used in this demostration. This article includes a photograph Niceto Álvarez and Francisco Angulo pose opposite to one of the vehicles.
Kioto Protocol. The Kioto Protocol is an agreement among the nations to try to reduce the emissions of contaminant gases, which are the responsable of a change in the weather. They are the following ones: Carbon dioxide , Methane Gas, Nitrous Oxid and industrial fluorine gases, as well as, hydrofluocarbons, perfluocarbons and sulphur hexaflouride, in some quantities nearby to 5% from 2008 to 2012, comparing them with the levels produced in 1990. The reduction of 5% has to be in the total emissions, the ones produces wordly, what means that every country will have to reduce some percentages, having to adjust so, to some highest quotes in the product of certain gases. This protocol finds inside the setting of United Nations about the change in climate (CM.NUCC) endorsed in 1992 in the Earth Summit in Rio de Jaieniro. In Kioto, on 11th Semptember of 1997, the industrialized countries met, because in these countries it is produced the biggest amount of emission of gases of greenhouse effect. The most developed countries made the compromise of starting up some measures to reduce the emission of contaminant gases. The present nations agreed to reduce in 5% the average of these emissions among 2008 and 2012, taking as a reference the levels emitted in 1990.
‘The very little road’ (El carreterín) It was a very long day, since we spent it refining the fuel, preparing enough amount to drive for a thousand kilometres. Finally, I filled the tank of the van to the limit, carried with a pair of overflowing carafes in the hack of the van and I was ready to start my trip to Madrid. The van hadn`t been prepared previously and it was the first time we used pure fuel, without mixing it. The density of the fuel was quite thick, but I thought the hot of August it would become it into more liquid. I sat in front of my wheel steer and turned on key, the start motor began to move the oil diesel motor of the van, and meanwhile this hapened I held my breath for some instants; it started quickly allowing me to listen to its deep purring. Although I have made a big amount of proofs, when a new vehicle is checked it`s never known which will be the final result. As all the process is made in a craft way, all the possible variables can`t be taken account: density, acidity, efectiveness of fuel, etc. It was already so late, and among so many preparationg it was nearly one o`clock in the morning, and I has still to travel through a very narrow road in the mountain which goes across mountains to Toledo. It`s a road which I know it perfectly and that, in usual conditions, it doesn`t offer any difficulty. The van looked like to work on perfectly and I started the trip, entering deep in the very narrow road that in Spanish I call colloquially ‘el carreterín’.
It`s a narrow road, with very little surface, it hasn`t got ditchs because they have been invaded by the leafy vegetation of holm oaks, straberry trees... At night, it is necessary to put the five senses on the road, because the asphalt is very antique, it`s very patched with the foliage, so, if you aren`t really concentrated on driving you can consider the road follows through imaginary places, meanwhile the real road continues on another direction. I have driven it all kind of circumstances and whith all kind of vehicles; well, with all of them except with a vehicle in real good conditions. So, if you have got an accident or a breakdown, you`ll have real problems because there isn`t telephone cover and you have to solve the problem on yourself. Apart from that, in this place there are wild animals, deers and wild boars; I don`t mind of deers but the wild boars are very dangerous by their sharpened tusks, and because of that, it`s much better being far from them. The good thing was, that the van had got lights quite powerful and allowed a good vision at night. This reminds me another car which I had, and whose lights turned off after passing a pothole and only turned on after another pothole. Crossing this road between mountains it`s usually nice, and you could enjoy your trip if you didn`t have the uncertainly of driving and old car whose fuel is experimental. In summer, when the night falls on the mountains the air brings a fragant freshness. Then I like driving with the windows put down to breath deeply. I cleared successfully the first quarter part of the narrow way and the slopes started, some slopes which are known
as the small pass*. The van, even unloaded, was quite heavy and had problems to go up slopes; so, I noticed the motor had lost part of its power; it looked like more problems then the usual ones, but I didn`t mind it. I closed the window, because, even in August, in this part of the mountain it was very cold. But I didn`t take it into account. The cold entered from the ‘snout’, cooling down the radiator and motor; the temperature descended and all the van was cooling down. The fuel, formed by greases and paraffins, strarted to solidify and the bomb had more and more problems to carry it to the motor. The vehicle began to give tugs and it began to have a very bad aspect, but I had only to drive a few kilometres to leave the narrow road and enter into the National road. T.N.: in Spanish ‘El Puertecillo’. The last section of the winding road was straight on and downhill, so the motor didn`t have to contribute too much energy to complete it. I felt very alleviated when at last, I arrived at the crossing with the national road. I looked in both directions and incorporated into it. The motor continued making small stops because it lacked of supply, but as the van was moving, this started again, with the movement which the wheels transmitted to the motor. After driving eight kilometres more, the cold air continued descending the temperature of fuel, solidifying it still more. The road started to increase the gradient and confrontred with the first slope. The motor continued stopping, and starting after a second, thanks to the inertia of the van. I was sure I didn`t arrive in Madrid and, mainly, it would be
a big problem that the van stopped in the middle of the motorway. I stopped next to one side of the road and, with a hose , I started to extract the fuel from the tank to fill it again with the fuel of another carafe trying to be luckier. The process was very hard and I spent several hours to get it. When it had been completed, I thought that the best choice was to come back to the village, although this meant I had to go through the narrow road again, and, now it was much later. If I was going to have problems – I thought – and the most probable was spending the whole night, in the van until that, in the morning somebody could help me. Effectively, it happened as I had been afraid: while the fuel maintained in a good temperature, it was liquid; but, with the cold nocturnal air it was becoming denser, and the bomb of fuel couldn`t absorb it. After a very closer curve on the night it started again the gradient, and there, precisely the motor stopped. With the motor stopped it began the silence and I, in order not to waste battery I turned off the lights. Everything remained in silence, and the darkness of night was so dense as the bottom of a well. In that moment, a big amount of thoughts crossed my mind, such as in any moment another car could smash into my van, since I was in the middle of the narrow road. I wanted to quit the van and go out of it, but I had a feeling that somerbody was keeping an eye on me, possibly as the result of having seen so many horror films. This idea provoked me to try to start the motor again. The motor opposed resistence during some seconds and I thought the battery will run down, but finally it started and I put my foot on accelerator to keep the motor revolutionized to avoid it stalled again. I turned on the lights and put it into first; the motor hadn`t got enough power and the van moved very slowly; it couldn`t pass of
the second gear and the van moved forward at only ten kilometres per hour. It was a very hard long journey, but, when, finally I arrived at the village, I felt myself the same as the one had won the marathon.
Who killed the electric car? When I was a child I enjoyed reading magazines of scientist popularization; in most of them it was told about of the electric car as the car for the future, the vehicle for the year 2000. But now we are in the first years ot the twenty-first century and its manufacturate hasn`t been developed. The principal problems of electric cars have always been their expensive batteries and all the time they need to be charged. Really, all these improvements were responsability of manufacturaters of cars, but they were never done. However, it seems something escaped from their hands: mobile phones weren`t so mobile if they used batteries of lead, so they developed storage batteries with different components, getting to reduce their size incredibily, at the same time their duration was increased, by this reason nowadays, we have batteries with high perfomance, but light and cheap, and, the most important they can be charged in only a few minutes.
After all, I made a proposal ten years ago, it consisted in using the batteries from electric cars as if they were batteries. In an accessible place, the storage batteries could be changed easily when they were finished, as if it was a butane cylinder, leaving them in the patrol station where they would be charged again while we would continue our trip with other new batteries. This single technology which it has already been applicable in taxis in Spain in the early forties, would allow private and public transport of long distance covered in electric vehicles. But, it seems somebody is frightened of electric cars: ‘the old giants’. Who could control an user who could charge his car in a plug? And what would happen if he charged himself at home and the electricity was got with solar plates? It seems that so, somebody could lose a fortune. But how much will other people lose if we don`t do it? It`s money for ones and cancer for all. Some people haven`t put their scale of values in the right place; it looks like in their scale of values the first place is for money and after that, very far from it, they are the rest of things. The money ahead of the health, the money ahead of the ecology, the money ahead of the the survival. Now, they want to convince us that the best choice is buying a hybrid car, a car which has got two motors and that, although it has got and electric part, it doesn`t have a plug. ‘Is anybody frightened of plugs? So, to charge the batteries we would need to follow burning gasoline.
The road motel I took the keys in my hand and was walking through the dark corridor to my bedroom`s door; the old wooden floor didn`t stop to moan, letting out chasks such as the back of an old person. The door was badly painted and it was of type of ‘stone-paper’, which can be crossed with a finger. Inside the small room the ceiling was very low. On the right there was an old wardrobe, two bedside tables and a double-bed and, on the bed, dry flakes of painting which coincided with the which ones weren`t on the ceiling. I put my bag on the bed and got ready to turn on the television set which was on a quite high platform. To turn on it and operate it was necessary to go up on the bed. There wasn’t remote control. There weren`t any batteries. I lied on the bed, a bit uncomfortably thinking about the big amount of people would have lied there. How many of them will be already dead, and what kind of illness they had suffered from. Suddenly, I lost track of time and then I noticed the bedroom was as a hermetic house; at that moment I could realize in the enviroment it could breath a strong smell because of the dust. I looked at to the window and stared at the courtains which were very thick, a kind of plastic canvas. I got up and after a bit effort drew them; then I felt as an agression, because at only scarce metres it was a bright bill of a patrol station; the canopy could nearly be touched from the window. What an ironic situation!
I was preparing a conference about biological fuels and there was a bright billboard of a famous petroleum company nearly in front of my nose; and the worst was that the patrol station was open 24 hours. During the whole night the light from the bill entered to my bedroom and I could listen to people filling up their cars at any hour. The scene was an authentic script taken from an Alfred Hitchcock`s fim. With a door so thing as a smoking paper I thought in any moment the bad of the film could come to my bedroom. ‘Surely, thought, I see too many films’. So, I put one of the bedside table in front of the door to bar it, and on it my suitcase. I looked into the room and the little bathroom very carefully. I also looked at into the wardrobe, and the inside of its drawers. There, I found some magazines for adult people. After that, I looked at on the wardrobe, going up on the bed, and found more magazines; I continued looking into, in the drawers of bedside tables. Yes! You are right! There were more magazines. Everything looked to indicate I was in an authentic road motel, devised for lorry drivers; in fact, I could see that opposite the patrol station and during the whole night several lorries were parking; and from time to time I could also listen to the moans of the floor in the corridor until dawn.
Me, the rubbish; you, the gasoline. One of the question which I wonder more frequently is if nobody is interested in my project. There are plenty of people who are interested by the process of obtaining fuel from waste. But, not in the way all suppose, not in the rational one, as the ones of a man who phoned me very interested in my investigation. This person spoke with euphoria using, apart from the words as we are going to make a fortune, etc. Couriously, sentences like this, are the first ones I listen to many people. After a brief conversation, we began to go into details and it`s here when it starts the ‘good’, because in this moment came out with their idea to become rich because he had got huge quantities of rubbish of his propierty, tons and tons. The plan was to send a sack of ‘shit’ to my flat, more or less 50 Kg. to see how many litres of gasoline could be obtained from this rubbish; then, we could begin with our deal: the man, would send me tons of rubbish which I should transform into gasoline, after that, sell it and we would divide the benefits in two equal parts. It could seem a bit exaggerated, but I guarantee that it`s the pure truth and it isn`t an isolated case. It´s incredible that all kind of people, as a shepherd from a small village in León as a big businessman who charges for hundred of millions of euros.
All of them follow the same line. Unfortunately I haven`t studied in Hogwarts as Harry Potter and haven`t a magic wand which transforms the rubbish into gasoline as if by magic. As it`s possible that some shepherd wants to know how the nuclear energy works on and how an atom can be broken provoking a chain reaction of what to extract energy. That doesn`t mean that you have to break atoms with your own hands, it`s clear that it`s needed a nuclear reactor... When I say shepherd I don`t mean to the ancestral job of taking the cattle to pasture, or the parish priest of any church, I mean a ‘city`s shepherd’ who doesn`t make any difference between one goat and one sheep.
What we know as a fuel What we know as a fuel it is usually a compound of hydrogen and carbon; the carbon works on like a way of transport, like a container for the atoms of hydrogen. When the hydrogen is put in touch with the oxygen of the air we only need a small contribution of energy in order to produce the combustion. The hydrogen is difficult of finding in a pure way in the nature, but it`s very common forming molecules with carbon and oxygen. On the one hand, we have got water, but the molecule is so stable that it requires a lot of energy to extract the said hydrogen. On
the other hand, we find the following: all the living beings of our planet have evolved to use this same energy; so, all accumulate atoms of hydrogen in some molecular compounds ready to be used. Plants usually accumulate this hydrogen in some determined hydrogen and carbon chains which we usually know as sugar. ‘They are also as alcohols and oils, in fact, it`s easy to transform the sugar into alcohol’. Animals keep that hydrogen ‘energy’ like fat. All these compounds of carbon and hydrogen are, by themselves, fuels and can be easily transformed for motors of our cars, ‘the known, nowadays, as biological fuels, biethanol through distillation and biodiesel through transesterification.’ Now we are in the next step. We can grow sugar cane to obtain sugar and transforming it in bioethanol; we can also grow beetroot, cereal, etc..., because in general, we can obtain sugar from all plants in more or less quantity. On the other hand, we can grow corn, sunflower, etc. to obtain oils, since lots of plants accumulate these oils as a source of energy for their seeds. These oils can be transformed into biodiesel ‘in general it is possible to obtain the same derived as the ones got from petroleum, fuels, plastics and derived.’. So, there is greasy from animals; with little differences we can transform these fats into biodiesel. And this is the mistake and the solution. The mistake consists in these giant monocultures which impoverish the people and there aren`t sustainable, because, although we will sow the whole country of sunflowers, we couldn`t face up to the demand of fuel. These giant monocultures affect directly in the soil, in the economy, and in people. If we cultivate a plant or breed an animal the bigger is its size, the more time will spend in growing, because of that we
can wait for a long time to get whale fat. This provokes a cycle so slow that isn`t viable. In the past, people used to utilize whale fat as a fuel for lamps, and we know the ecological impact that it had got. But the same fat that a whale accumulates, it`s also accumulated by a worm. In ideal conditions, a fly can cover the surface of Earth with larvas in only a year, but this fat can also be accumulated by a bacterium. In ideal conditions from a bacterium, it can be created a cultivation able to cover the extention of the Earth in some days. In conclusion, we can obtain sugar from the plants, oils and alcohols; we can obtain fat of bacteria and micro organisms; all of them can be transformed easily into conventional biological fuels for our cars, I have spent more than twelve years making proofs with organic wastes, ferments and bacteria. It`s a free raw material, with periods of cultivation of seven days. A cultivation of cereal, sunflower or beetroot needs a lot of soil, lots of cares and one year to cultivate it. A cultivation of rubbish only needs rubbish, and in only a few days, it will be ready to be used. Our car doesn`t distinguish among biological fuels from tasty fruits, necessary in non-developed countries and the biological fuel obtained from organic wastes, like the domestic rubbish which so many logistics and ecologic problems are generating us.
Motors of aeroplane modelling I have always liked planes and, of course, I loved model aeroplanes; but it`s a hobby too expensive and because of that it isn`t at my reach. Since I was a little child I used to visit a specialized shop and ask for the prices of all the planes which hanged on the ceiling; but, of course!, all were too expensive until the day the owner of a shop looked for one which adjusted exactly to the amount of money I had got. I was over eight years old and went running to my house with my first authentic scale model of aeroplane modelling. I was a kit to build a trainer plane of circular flight, made in balsa wood. The planes were very complicated, and studied for a long time the way of building it. Several years later I could understand that the owner of the shop had sold me a very attractive box with a plane and a pile of pieces of remaining wood of other planes, and which didn`t correspond to the plane I had been trying to assemble for several years. When I was sixteen years old and had been working for more then one year, I suffered from a strain in my ankle, so I found myself with a bit amount of money, at home, and, finally, with some free time. So, I decided to go to the model aeroplanes shop to buy an electric motor with the idea of buying an experimental prototype of propeller. But things didn`t happen as I had thought them. When I went to the shop the owner was
from Argentina, and. I have a real problem with this subject: if an Angertinian shop assistant comes to my door, I think he`ll get to sell me everything he proposes himself. And, finally, I came back home walking with a pile of packets: internal-combustion engine 2T for model aeroplane, model in balsa wood radio station, etc. I also remember, at first, my vision clouded and nearly fell down on the floor when the shop assistant gave me the bill. I only wanted to buy an electric motor for which I hardly would pay a pair of euros; but it resulted that I bought the whole equipment that; in some years was really expensive. As the fuel for the motors of models was very expensive, I started to make proofs with the things I had got handy, as alcohols, oils,... Finally, and thanks to that small motor, I learned a lot about the working out of and internal-combustion engine and fuels which can be used in it.
Nightmares and ghosts Many times I wonder ‘why do I do everything I do? Wouldn`t it be better to forget everything and so sleep quietly at nights?’ I don`t konw the reason, but I can`t stop doing the things I do; because, I suppose, if this happened I wouldn`t be myself. When you discover something, after
a lot of effort, study and work, you want to share it with the others, in order to everybody can be benefited by it. But what you, receive are in some cases critics and, usually in other, only laughs. People, generally, don`t accept well new things, and, at first, you are questioned continuosly; after a lot of time, when it becomes into a common thing, an usual one, it`s when everybody talks about it as if they had taken part in the discovery. The same people who discredited you are now the own who claim the credit for their work. In this book I didn`t want to be pessimistic, I only wanted to talk about my experiences in a positive way; but I suppose, these days I don`t have enough courage to do it. I would like to explain you the reasons of my low state of mind, because, perhaps so I get to forget everything keeping it in the past. Once, I listen to one writer saying that, when one person writes he faces up his nightmares, and these become into ghosts, and ghosts are something who keep you company. From the antiquity, it is well known the method of obtaining alcohol from cereals and fruits, in general from any food which contains sugar. The sugar transfoms thanks to micro organisms of the some type of yeast, alcohols, carbon and hydrogen chains. What happens is that nobody pays attention to obtaining this alcohol from domestic organic residues. Yes, there have been developed methods of gasification, procedures in which the separation of hydrogen and later recombination whith carbon is achieved thanks to a treatmant of high temperatures and pressures. As it isn`t
used a biological treatment, it`s necessary to contribute an outside energy which achieves the whole process, and so the output is very low. In some ocassions, we employ more energy than the one is going to be produced by the said fuel. To put in another way, in some current stations of production of bioethanol, it used over 1’5 litres of fossil oil diesel to obtain one litre of bioethanol. To solve this problem, I have always looked for simple procedures in which, it is lost the less possible amount of energy. Nowadays, the best ones are the biological processes, because in them the biggest part is made freely by micro organisms. As I said previously, when these things are explained they seem to be obvious and it results that now all of us think that the most common is using a raw material which everybody wants to throw away, such as rubbish, and we applied it a biological treatment to transform it into hydrocarbures. Well, because after more that ten years working about this idea, now it looks like everydody has accepted it. ‘Will it be thanks to the big effort I have made to spread it?’ .Now, we are in the second phase where the idea has passed from being imposible, a totally crazy idea, to be the wonderful one that, as it is so obvius, it can`t belong to anybody. It`s one of these ideas which are in the air, everybody knew it but nobody wanted to carry out it; really the idea wasn`t mine. This is so frustating, because it happens something similar, you can do another thing different from staying without doing anything. In the processes which I have worked for so many years, I have found the way of obtaining different fuels, among all of them a paraffin, an organic oil whose origin is bacterial
and can be transformed into biodiesel, the known like ecological-fuel-FA (ECOFA). Well, I`m still in this phase in which most of people still have doubts. I have driven thousands of kilometres with this fuel extracted and manufacturated from rubbish. I am not a magician but I can imagine what will happen within some years. This process of obtaining oil with bacteria will seem so obvious that everybody will talk about it as if it was a popular invention, an idea in which everybody will have taken part. I`d like to be wrong in my predictions, but, just in case although I can look a mad man, I want to write it in order to put in on record. Now that I have written about all of these thoughts that lately didn`t allow me sleeping properly, I hope definitely these nickmares become into ghosts, old ghosts and, at last, they become friends.
One wonders himself One wonders himself which could be the invention of this century, and very surely you will agree with me and this will be to find the solution to our energetic problem, getting energy in a easy, cheap and ecological way and without any danger. I have found something very nearby to this dream: obtaining paraffins which will be treated to use them as biological oil diesel, and at the same way a fuel to motors of gasoline from the most economic abundant and easy to obtain materia; that is the organic
rubbish, solving at the some time the problem of its elimination. Somene can think that, when after achieving something so important will be awarded, perhaps not economically, but at least getting the part-deserved recognition; even, thinking a little in the cinema, he would believe that when the patent is sent to petroleum enterprises, these ones would try to put in touch with you. But the reality is much more simple, because after knocking the doors of half world, absolutely nobody is interested in it. Nobody wants to stop polluting, nobody wants cheap energy, nobody wants a better future. So, tired of trying to find solutions, now I`m trying to make people more conscius of that if our world is darker everyday is because, nobody usually does anything to avoid it, but we also make efforts to follow the same stupid way.
The theory of a paranoic I have got a small theory, perhaps I`m becoming a paranoic with all the things are happening to me, but I find a bit strange that in Spain the biggest sponsor of biodiesel is a famous petroleum company. The oil diesel motor, was invented to use vegetables oils and was proved with peanut oil at first time. Thinkers of the beginning of twentieth century had already predicted the problems that would cause the fossil fuels, and all of them bet by the hydrocarbons, cleaner and which fulfill a natural cycle. Henry Ford was great defender of the use of bioethanol in motors; his cars included carburattors which admited as gasoline as alcohol, and this happened at the beginning of the century. But it happens the following: Imagine current cars could work on directly with alcohol, and the oil diesel motors directly with oil. Why were we going to buy the gasoline to petroleum enterprises? Well, I`ll finish my theory because I`m getting sidetracked and I could spend several hours giving explanations. It`s very possible that the companies which commercialize the biodiesel aren`t interested in that, this is successful and stops being used it, have been able to plot the following plan: 1) Make complicated the process in order not do be limitated.
2) To put up the price of the final product in order not to be competitive. 3) Using food raw material to create a chaos in the market. If we can use rubbish, why are we going to use cereals, which are food of first-rate. 4) Since they want to continue selling their products, because they have get a return on their big investments in petroleum plattforms, etc. they will continue selling us the idea that the petroleum is magic and nothing can substitute it. 5) At the same time, we complicate this process to avoid nobody can manufacturate it at home and put out the price of it in order not to be competitive with the fossil fuels, we add it chemical products such as the caustic soda, and so, in long time, the vehicles which use it brokedown ‘principally the bombs of fuel and the injectors’. So, people stop using it and, without anymore, the product dissapears from the market and nobody questions again that the petoleum is magic. The vision of a paranoic!
The battery of fuel I love batteries of fuel; they are a fantastic invention although lots of people get carried away with the imagination and think it`s the absolute solution to the energetic and pollution problems. The truth is that, although the battery only emits water vapour, to obtain hydrogen, at the present time it recquires a big amount of energy which is obtained from the burning of fossil fuels, and so, the only one we get is hiding the problem, moving it from our streets to outskirts, where the power station are. The ideal, according to some opinions, is using renewable energy to the clean obtaining of hydrogen. In California people is proving this idea; one family uses a car which works on with batteries of fuel and, for its refill, was installed a station equipped with solat plates. The inconvenient is that a big amount of solar plates are needed and, even in this way, aren`t able to produce more than the half of the fuel that vehicle needs. Another thing that I dislike is carrying a huge tank of gas in the boot: although this tank is very safe, it always exists the possibility of it can explode in an accident. I want to reflect about this wonderful invention that they are selling us like the panacea. We use a fuel to produce electric energy; then, whith this energy, we separate the hydrogen of the water; after that, we put this hydrogen into a battery of fuel to transform it again in electricity, and so, finally, move the electric motor of the car. ‘Every time we transform the fuel we are wasting a big amount of energy’. We could jump over several steps if, directly we used an electric vehicle, but, How can we use a car of battery in a
long distance way? Most people make daily lower than 50 Kms. distances. Nowaday an electric vehicle has an average autonomy of more or less 200 Kms. And there are some of them that surpass 400 Km. They are electric vehicles with all the comforts which have got the current ones of internal combustion. In any case, I think nobody, when he is going to buy a car, asks for how many litres of gasoline can be put in the tank: what does it mind if it has got an autonomy of 200 or 400 Km. of there is a patrol station to fill in each twenty Km.? But electric cars spend a lot of time in charging their batteries. For people who have got this opinion I`ll tell them that in Madrid during postwar period, taxis worked on with batteries, and when these batteries were finished they were exchanged in only seconds by other charged ones, leaving the old batteries in patrol stations to be charged meanwhile the car continued its way. Nowadays, the batteries have improved a lot. They are much smaller and lighter, and could be charged easily; they can be charged more easily than a butane cylinder. I love batteries of fuel, they are a wonderful invention, but if instead of using pure hydrogen we use compounds rich in hydrogen that can be found in nature, we sould use the hydrogen that it`s present in sugar, in alcohol and fat.
Conference with Jeremy Rifkin I was in a conference with Jeremy Rifkin and, on the one hand, I was gratefully surprised when I saw he used the same words that I use in my documentary New biodiesel in Youtube. He explained exactly with the same words and made reference to this said web page. Internet is showing us which is the way we must follow in the energetic sector, at the same way that descentralizes the form of interacting with the information, being ourselves the ones can, in real time, talk to the authors and even share our own ideas with others. So, in the future, everyone will produce his own energy, without having to be dependent of oil giants ‘the great multinationals’ and being able to sell our energetic excesses to the web. I want also emphasize that I haven`t liked other part of the conference, since Rifkin proposes as an alternative to the consumption of fossil fuels the use of hydrogen; it is a very usual mistake among scientists; to quote the hydrogen as a source of energy; but the hydrogen isn`t a source of energy, it`s only energetic vector ‘an accumulator, it`s like a battery’, because to obtain it we have to use energy. The typical mistake that characterizes us as human beings is that we think we can obtain hydrogen in an artificial way; in a more efficient way than the nature does; but the nature has been making this process for million of years. The plants accumulate the energy as hydrogen and carbon, ‘sugar’, and the animals as fats.
We can superate the nature using solar plates to produce hydrogen from electrolysis, but for filling the tank of fuel of a vehicle we need the space of a football stadium full of solar plates, ‘that is possible if it`s sunny’; it is neither told that it exits another problem that the nature has resolved easily: How can we accumulate this hydrogen? If all the energy used by a building was produced by a battery of hydrogen, it would be needed a tank of fuel nearly as big as the said building. As I said, the nature found the solution to this problem keeping the hydrogen in atoms of carbon, in sugar, alcohol and oil shaped. We should also think in how dangerous is having near us a container with hydrogen at high pressure and how harmless is having it with sugar or oil. To sum up, as I always say, why is it necessary use our energy to produce hydrogen? Let other people to work for us, and, in the nature, the most efficient organisms are usually the smallest ones; so, we can use the micro organisms which extract the hydrogen on themselves. Today I have listened to my own words in to another speaker: It looks like that a Internet is really the world information web. ‘The physics Vandana Shiva told nutritious crops can`t be used, as cereals, soya, sunflower, beetroot, etc. to feed our cars, meanwhile the biggest part of world population suffers from shortage of food.
I want to give my point of view .It`s the following: There aren`t the perfect solutions: besides, we need solutions which can be applicable at the moment. I have always believed in the atomic fussion as a solution to our energetic problem, but this happened thirty years ago when it would be already missing forty years in order to this was possible. Nowadays, the scientists, with the best expectations, talk about at least forty year more. It`s also told about the use of pure hydrogen, but as we have been able to see, the hydrogen isn`t an energy, the hydrogen is an energetic vector, is the same as an electric drums: to get it, it`s necessary to supply more energy than the one we are going to be able to use, because one part is lost during the process. The pure hydrogen gives rise to a lot of inconvenients: Its extraction, its acumulation, its transport, and this is without talking of the vehicles that use this technology aren`t still in the market. In any case, I prefer carrying my organic hydrogen in the form of oil in the tank of my car, before carrying a bomb of hydrogen in the boot.
Francisco Angulo 2005-2009
ECOFA – Informative monthly bulletin number 1 First reports, analysis and results which guarantee the total scientific viability of ECOFA. It`s verified the scientific basis of ECOFA as a biological fuel ‘Report about viability of the use of biogenerator bacteria of fatty acids to the production of biodiesel from the U.S.R. and other wastes made by I+D+i departament of Biotit Scientific Biotechnology Laboratory’. 1- The product ECOFA is defined as ‘biological fuel of subgroup of biological fuels obtained from fatty acids synthetized by microbes. 2- It`s based on the bionatural principle of metabolism from which every living being, bacteria included, produce fatty acids. The great contribution of Francisco Angulo – and because of that its incalculable economic value – is that, precisely this principle sets aside to the biological fuel production with origin in every organic waste. 3- In the first transparency our handmade process to obtain ECOFA is described and compared by means of graphics with the equivalent scientistbiotechnological process: a) It`s choosen a source of carbon: USR, waste of fruits and vegetables, industrialized or fecal waters, even cotton (toilet residues). b) It`s prepared the culture medium: water + source of carbon + temperature + bustle. c) It`s produced the aerobic fermentation.
d) It`s separated by decanting of the organic and watery phase containing the mycellium (it`s very interesting this concepts which explains us why the bacteria absorb the nutrients and reproduce at the same time). It`s necessary to stand out that in the bacteria biosynthesis of fatty acids take part five variables: Kinds of bacteria, temperature, fermentation time and grade of ventilation and agitation. 4- In the final evaluation some FOR and AGAINST are indicated. With regard to the advantages I would like to point of the possible application of enzymatic catalysis which means that the patented procedure by Francisco admits the possibily of jumping over intermediate steps such as the transesterification, and so, the ECOFA sould be obtained directly in a easier way than the other known biological fuels. With resgard to the disadvantages, I emphasize the reference which the report does about the necessity of an homogeneity in the origin of rubbish (however we have resolved it partially, since we have offers of industrial enterprises which treat USR and which would supply the organic wastes in pallets by sacks, in bulk, etc., etc.
Report of viability about the use of biogenerator bacteria of fatty acids for the manufacture of biodiesel from urban solid residues. Presentation · The current report has been done by the Departament I+D+i of BIOTIT enterprise S.C. (Seville). · The document consists on a rigurous and deep report that proves the solid scientific basis which owns the use of bacteria for the fermentation of Urban Solid Residues with the purpose of obtaining fatty acids which serve as a basis to the production of biological fuels.
· In order to carry out, it it has been made an exhaustive biographical search through data base, international scientific magazines and on line books such as Chemical Abstracts SciFinder Scholar, CSIC Library, ISI Web of knowledge, Oxford Refeence Online Premium ERIC...
Introduction (Includes a photograph of wind mills with Don Quixote and Sancho Panza) The explotation by man of sources of renovable energy, for example the solar one, wind or hydraulic is very antique. Its employment continued until the arrival of Industrial Revolution, in which, owed to the low price of petroleum, they were abandoned.
During last years, thanks to the increase of cost of fossil fuels and the enviromental problems derived of its exploitation, we are attending to a reviving of renewable energies. The renewable energies are inexhaustible, clean and can be used in a self-managed way (because in can be well used in the same place where they are produced). General and regulator setting. · Among the sectors of activity which have got a bigger final consupmtion of energy, the sector of transport is the one is presented as the most problematic in the nearly future, because it`s the most dependent of petroleum. · The fuels which come from the petroleum mean the 98% of the global demand of energy in the sector of transport. · The total dependence of these fuels isn`t the most suitable, taking into account the limited reserves of petroleum and that lots of these are in politically unstable places. · By this reason there have been produced distortions in the price of petroleum (exceeding the figure of 125 $ per barrel brent in August of 2008) with grave repercussions in the world economy.
Twentiteth Century A big popularity of products obtained from petroleum owed to propierties such as: durability, efficiency. AT PRESENT The diversification of primary sources of energy in considered as an obligation, being the renewable sources of energy and particulary the biological fuels of special interest What are the biological fuels? The biological fuels are those fuels produced apart from the biomass and which are considered, so, a renovable energy: For example: bioalcohols, biodiesel and biogas. · Inside the group of fuels, the biofuels cover the subgroup characterized by the possibility of its aplication to the current motors of internal combustion (motor diesel and Otto). · Nowadays, there are two types of more developed biological fuels: - The biodiesel. - The bioethanol (eter EtBE) · The liquid biological fuels meant in 2004 (in the twentyfive countries of European Union) 2040 ktep-thousands of equivalent tons of petroleum – what means the 0`7 % in the market
Production of biological fuels in UE since 1993 (2004:UE25) The guideline 2003/30/CE of European Parliement of May of 2003 fixed the production of 5,75% of biological fuels in transport for 2010 and 10% for 2020.
Production of biological fuels in UE since 1993 (2004:UE25)
Biodiesel The American Society for Testing and Material Standard (ASTM) defines the biodiesel like monoalkilics esteres of fatty acids of long chain. The characteristics of biodiesel will depend on the group alkil of ester (methyl-, ethyl-,...) of fatty acid (number of carbons, insaturations...) The propierties of biodiesel are practically the same as the ones has got the motor oil diesel respect its density and number of cethane. Besides, it presents one point of ignition superior.
By all of this, the biodiesel can be mixed with the oil diesel for its use in motors and even be substituted totally if they are adapted properly.
Hydrocarbon ·Atom of carbon ·Atom of hydrogen ·Atom of oxygen Oleic Acid *Principal straw materials to manufacturate biodiesel: ·Conventional vegetables oils ·Alternative vegetable oils Used oil (after frying) Sunflower oil Brassica carinata oil Colza oil Cynara curdunculus oil Soya oil Camelina sativa oil Coconut oil Drambae abyssinica oil Palm oil Pogianus oil Jatropha curcas ·Animal fats seeds Fat of cow Fat of buffalo ·Oils from genetically modified Sunflower oil of high oleic ·Oils from other sources Fatty acids biosynthetized by microbes Oils of micro seaweed Composition of fats.
The vegetable oils and animal fats are composed principally by triacyglerols (triglycerides) which are esteres of fatty acids with glycerol.
Composition in fatty acids of different oils
Oil:palm, sunflower,coconut Proportion satured/ unsatured Saturated: lauric oil, myristic oil, palmitic oil, stearic oil Mono unsatured : oleic oil
Lauric acid – Palmitry acid –Linolenic acid. Direct use of fatty acids in diesel motors Sunflower Propierty ester oil Colza Diesel Colza oil methil ester Sunflower oil methil
Density (15ºC) (Kg/l) Point of ignition (ºC) Kinematic viscosity (37,8ºC) (mm2/s) Number of cethane Gross hot of combustion (mj/Kg) Point of stiring up (ºC)
Sulphur (% weight) Residue of carbon (% wheight) Differences among the propierties of diesel oil, vegetables oils and biodiesel. Source: Panoramaenergetico.com. Adaptation of diesel motor to the use of oils Specific motors to the use of oils (Motor Elsbett). Mixtures of diesel oil with oil. Mixtures of diesel oil with methylic esteres. Mixtures of diesel oil with alcohol.
The biggest grade of implantation and developtment is present in the mixtures of oil diesel with esteres mainly methylic and with alcohol, which we presented as the most viable options commercially.
Reactions in the production of biodiesel
Reaction of transesterification Reaction of esterification. Microbial metabolism · All living beings carry out the procedure of nutrients which maintain them alive. This group of processes is known as metabolism and consists in a big number of chemical reactions destined to transform the nutritious molecules in elements with later will be used for the synthesis of the structural components (Primary Metabolism) or in bioactive motabolits (Secondary Metabolism).
·Another important part of metabolism, is to transform and keep the energy which is contained in a chemical reaction in some process which recquires energy.
- Source or carbon (carbohydrates, polysacarides,...) Urban solid residues, residues of prunes, residues of fruit and vegetables, residues of paper and cotton, industrial waters rich in organic residues... - Culture medium for micro organisms (Water + Source of carbon + Temperature + Agitation) - Aerobia fermentation - Separation by decantation of organic and watery phase containing the mycelium
Bacterial biosynthesis of fatty acids
Variables - kind of bacteria (enzymes) - temperature - time of fermentation - grade of ventilation (oxidation) - agitation Final evaluation
Alternative source Homogeneity It isn`t subject to prices fluctuation Evaluation of energetic capacity Urbans residues gestion Optime conditions Possible Enzimatic Catalysis Possible toxines and impurity Kalscheuer et al. 2006
Glucose etilo Oleic Acid (biodiesel)
E. Coli genetically modified
Steps to follow (laboratory phase) 1. Choice of suitable micro organisms 2. Optimization of the production 3. Kinetic Study
a) Controlled Gasification b) Controlled agitation (r.p.m.) c) Artificial Culture medium d) Controlled esterility e) Controlled temperature 4. Evolution from carbon source to real source 5. Study of homogeneity Texto fotos: f) Controlled Gasification g) Controlled agitation (r.p.m.) h) Artificial culture medium i) Controlled esterility j) Controlled temperature
Steps to follow (field phase)
6. Design of fermenter 7. Rise of process
8. Homologation to its adaptation as a fuel
Limits Propierty Essay Method Content in ester Density at 15ºC Viscosity ar 40ºC Point of ignition Content of sulphur Residue of carbon (in 10% of distillited residue Index of cethane Content of sulphated ashes Content in water Total pollution Corrosion of the strip of copher (3 hours at 50ºC) Stability to the oxidation 110ºC Index of acidd Index of iodine Ester of metyl of linoleyc acid Esteres of metyl polyunsaturated (>- ar four doubles bonds) Content of methanol Content in monoglycerides Content in diglycerides Content in triglycerides Free glycerol Total glycerol
Historic Evolution in number of international scientific publications. ·Concept of searching: Biological fuel
Historic Evolution in number of international scientific publications. ·Concept of searching: Microbial fuel After the first analysis carried out by SGS about a sample of ECOFA, is confirmed, according those results, that in the final product don`t appear toxic substances or micro organism of toxines.
Pg. 1 of 3 Final Report: BC08-03282.001 (Anex 01) Number of Laboratory: BC08-03282.001 Received: 07/09/2008 Customer Identification: Without any reference Number of Order: BP08-00771 Product: Ecopetroleum Container: One plastic carafe, 1100 ml Description: Ecopetroleum Sampling: Customer Analysis asked for: ECOFA Clean Energy Group Cr Islaplana, s/n 30860 Mazarrón Port Spain Analysis for: ECOFA Clean Energy Group Label of Sample: Sample without a reference
Analysed: The results only make reference to the object or objets presented as a essay. The results contained in the present report make reference to the moment and conditions in which reports were done. This essay report won`t be able reproduced partially without the writting consent of the Laboratory Direction which emits. The laboratory will keep the samples for forty five days Control Spanish SGS, S.A. SGS Pg.2 of 3 Final Report: BC08-03282.001 (Anex 01) Number of Laboratory: BC08-03282.001 Received: 07/09/2008 Customer Identification: Without any reference Number of Order: BP08-00771 Product: Ecopetroleum Container: One plastic carafe, 1100 ml Description: Ecopetroleum Sampling: Customer Analysis asked for: ECOFA Clean Energy Group Cr Islaplana, s/n 30860 Mazarrón Port Spain Analysis for: ECOFA Clean Energy Group Label of Sample: Sample without a reference
Analysed: The results only make reference to the object or objets presented as a essay. The results contained in the present report make reference to the moment and conditions in which reports were done. This essay report won`t be able reproduced partially without the writting consent of the Laboratory Direction which emits. The laboratory will keep the samples for forty five days Control Spanish SGS, S.A. SGS Pg. 3 of 3 Final Report: BC08-03282.001 (Anex 01) Number of Laboratory: BC08-03282.001 Received: 07/09/2008 Customer Identification: Withouth any reference Number of Order: BP08-00771 Product: Ecopetroleum Container: One plastic carafe, 1100 ml Description: Ecopetroleum Sampling: Customer Analysis asked for: ECOFA Clean Energy Group Cr Islaplana, s/n 30860 Mazarrón Port Spain Analysis for: ECOFA Clean Energy Group Label of Sample: Sample without a reference
Analysed: From 11th July to 18th July of 2008 Enric Cural de Nuix Laboratory Director Barcelona 21st of July of 2008 The results only make reference to the object or objets presented as a essay. The results contained in the present report make reference to the moment and conditions in which reports were done. This essay report won`t be able reproduced partially without the writting consent of the Laboratory Direction which emits. The laboratory will keep the samples for forty five days Control Spanish SGS, S.A. SGS
Pg. 1 of 1 Final Report: BC08-03282.001 Number of Laboratory: BC08-03282.001 Received: 07/09/2008 Customer Identification: Withouth any reference Number of Order: BP08-00771
Product: Ecopetroleum Container: One plastic carafe, 1100 ml Description: Ecopetroleum Sampling: Customer Analysis asked for: ECOFA Clean Energy Group Cr Islaplana, s/n 30860 Mazarrón Port Spain Analysis for: ECOFA Clean Energy Group Label of Sample: Sample without a reference Analysis Results Unit Method Total Contamination (*) B981 mg/Kg Cea 1002 Cromatographic Study (*) Anex 01 OCM8D Water 1,9 % v/v ASTM D95-05cl Analysed: From 11th July to 18th July of 2008 Enric Cural de Nuix Laboratory Director Barcelona 21st of July of 2008 Essay laboratory accredited by ENAC with accreditation number LE/249. The laboratory gets ready with stimated uncertainties for each case of accredited essays, which are at the disposal of customer. They aren`t within laboratoty reach the essays marked with (*)
The results only make reference to the object or objets presented as a essay. The results contained in the present report make reference to the moment and conditions in which reports were done. This essay report won`t be able reproduced partially without the writting consent of the Laboratory Direction which emits. The laboratory will keep the samples for forty five days Control Spanish SGS, S.A. Dear Mr: After the revelant internal consults, we authorize you to incorporate in your explanatory dossier the Final Report BC08-03282.001 and the Annexe BC08-03282.001 (Annexe 01) that we enclose in this document and which has to coincide with the one you have got. The limitation of its publishing are the signed in the own document and which now we mention in the points we consider critics. Both parts of report must be reproduced joint and totally, I mean, with all their extension, including the note pages, etc. and with all the pages which compound it. In case of allusions to the results, these ones must be referred to the ones of the sample received in the Laboratory, and aren`t able to be extended to other taking of sample, productions, lots, etc. Yours faithfully Enric Cura i de Nuix – Barcelona Laboratory Director SGS Española de Control, S.A.
REPORT OF THE VIABILITY ABOUT THE USE OF MICRO ORGANISM BIOGENERATORS OF FATTY ACIDS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FROM URBAN SOLID RESIDUES.
Introduction: Energetic Efficiency and Renewable energies. The expression ‘energetic efficiency’ defines a suitable supply of energy and so, its save, as economic as enviromental. Its purpose is to reduce the consume of energy without reducing the use of material and equipments which work on thanks to it, promoting
behaviours, methods of work and technics of production which consume less energy and strenthening renewable sources of energy. The objetive is to get a clean energy and use it in a better way. The increase of energetic efficacy is essential to get the appointed purposes by Kioto Protocol. It favours a more sustainble energetic politics and it constitutes an important element to the security of supplying, a subject which has provoked certain concern in last years, at least in the European Commission. It`s essential that the society starts to reduce its energetic dependence of fossil fuels (petroleum, gas) and recovering the use of alternative and renewable sources of energy. And it`s an urgent task because of the threat of global change in the climate and other enviromental problems and because, at half time, the society can`t continue developing from sources of energy which are run down. Some definitions The biological fuels are these fuels produced from biomass and which are considered, so, a renewalbe energy. They can be presented as in solid shape (vegetable residues, a biodegradable fraction of urban or industrial residues) as liquid (bioalcohols, biodiesel) and gaseous (biogas, hydrogen).
It`s important to stand up the ethyl-tercbutil eter (ETBE) produced from bioethanol, because its utilitation in motors causes less problems that the bioethanol itself. In Spain, for example, all the bioethanol is transformed in ETBE in the refineries of petroleum being used as an aditive of gasolines. Although, we`ll treat further about this subject, the definition of biodiesel proposed by the specifications ASTMS (American Society for Testing and Material Standar) an International Association of Quality Regulations, describes it as monaoalkilic esteres of fatty acids of long chain derived from renewable lipids such as vegetable oils or animal fats, which are employed in compression ignition motors. A fatty acid in an organic molecula formed by a straight long hydrocarbon chain whose number of carbon atoms is pair and with a carboxilo group (acid group) in a extreme. Each carbon atom joins to the following one and the preceding through a simple or double covalent bond. The atom which is in it extreme has got three free bonds which are occupied by hydrogen atoms (H3C). The other atoms have got two free bonds, which are equally occupied by hydrogen atoms (... -CH2 – CH2 – CH2 - ...)
·Atom of carbon ·Atom of hydrogen ·Atom of oxygen Oleic Acid In a carboxilo groups coincide on the same carbon a hidroxilo (-OH) group an a carbonilo (C=O), that can be represented for – COOH or – CO2H. The esteres are a funtional group derived from the acid group consisting of an organic radical joint to the carboxilo group whith the form – COOR. So, a monoalkilic esteres2 of fatty acid consists on a straight long hydrocarbon chain with an ester group in an extreme, with a radical which consists on another hydrocarbon chain generally shorten than the first one.
General and regulator setting. The main compromises for the reduction of greenhouse effect were adopted through the Kyoto Protocol, where UE made the compromise of reducing in a 8% the levels of emissions of greenhouse gases for 2010 with respect to the levels of 1990. So, the European Commission has marked as a priority objective to the next years to reduce the dependence from petrol. In a chronological way, the general and regulator setting which affects to biological fuels is the one is in a general way, presented next: - The European Commission, in its White Book of 1997 (LBC), fixes the first clear objectives for the renewable energies and justly for biological fuels; so, it has been established an objective of 12% of contribution of renewable energies for 2010 (and 7% of these will be biological fuels). - This same year took place the third conference of parts of setting agreement of United Nations in Kyoto, where most of industrilized countries assumed the compromise of reducing the CO2 emissions. - To get these objectives was promulgated the law 54/1977 of electric sector in Spain., [SEG, 1977]. To be fullfilled to them, the Energy Diversification Institute (IDE) elaborated and presented the Renawable Energy Foment Plan (PFER) in Spain. - As a consequence of the said objectives in the White Book and the Kyoto Protocol promulgated the guideline 2003/96/CE and the guideline 2003/30/EC
in which is fixed the grade of sustitution of fossil fuels recquired for the transport sector, and the sustitutions of these for biological fuels. - In view of all of this and to be fullfilled to this objectives the Energy Diversification Institute (IDE) has elaborated a Spanish Renewable Energy Plan (PER) [PERE, 2005, PERER, 2005] which means a revision of Renewable Energies Foment Plan (PFER) [PFER, 2000] in Spain from 2000 to 2010 and so, now in force. With this revision it expects to maintain the compromise of producing with renewable sources, at least the 12% of the energy consumed in 2010, as well as incorporate the other two objectives pointed out which are a 29`4% of electric generation with renewable and 5`75% of biodiesel fuels in transport for that year. So, the objectives of Foment Plan will be overcome. It had fixed 500,000 tep by the end of 2010, originating from a situation of reference of total absence of plants of production of biological fuels in our country. By this reason, assuming the objectives of the guideline 2003/30/CE of European and Deparment, on 8th may of 2003, [DPE, 2003], rises the energetic objective to the biological fuels sector in horizon of 2012 until reaching 2,2 Mtep. With respect to tax rates, the biological fuels we exempt of Hydrocarbons Tax (HT), an indispensable measure for its success. The commercialization of biological fuels, however, it`s submitted to the Hydrocarbons Retailer Sell Tax (IVMH).
Production. According to the European barometer of renewable energies published by EurObservrEr the biomass is the one mades a bigger contribution to the primary energy consumption, with a total of 43 billion of tons equivalent of petroleum in 2003. The most part is employed to the apparatus, urban heating or collective installation, feed by wood briquettes, known as pallets, ground and compact wood to get a bigger effectiveness. The rest is used to produce electricity. In the case of Spain, in 2003 the primary energy coming from biomass meant 3,7 Mtep, with an increasing of 3,6% over the previous year. These indicators point out that itsn’t maintained the rythm of growing necessary to get the fixing objectives (see the previous section) what implies the necessity of intensifying the efforts, as respect the penetration in market as the development of necessary tecnological innovations. The production of thirty-three billion of litres in 2004 is smaller compared with the 1200 million of litres of gasoline produced in the world every year. Brazil has been the first producer and user of ethanol as a source of energy for the last twenty-five years, being the USA the second big producer and user of this fuel. Other countries which produce and consume ethanol, but very far from the previous ones, are Australia, Canada, China, Colombie, Republic Dominicaine, France, Germany, etc. With respect to the biodiesel, the total production in 2004 gets on in two billion of litres, which ones more than the
90% have been produced in the twenty-five countries members of European Union (UE25). The more significant growing has been produced in Germany where the pure biodiesel (B100) has got an exemption of tax of 100%, and it exits a network of more than 1500 patrol stations which distribute B100. Other significant producers and consumers of biodiesel are France, Italy, Austria and Spain. The liquids biological fuel meant 2040 ktep, in the EU25 in 2004; which represents a 0,7& of market. In the graphic can be checked the increase in the production which has been experimented since 1993 as in biodiesel as in bioethanol.
PIE: Production of biological fuel in UE since 1993 (2004:UE25).
A 0,7% of market results insufficient to the forecast that points the European Pairlament, through guidelines, which propose the 5,75% for 2010 and the 10% for 2012. So, we are, talking about of an increase of production of more than ten times the current one.
Biodiesel. The biodiesel is a liquid biologogical fuel produced generally from vegetable oils and fat animals. The propierties of biodiesel are practically the same as the ones have the motoring oil diesel with respect to the density and the number of cethane. Besides, it presents a superior point of ignition and by this reason the road trasport becomes safer. The definition of biodiesel proposed by the specifications ASTM (American Society for Testing and Maerial Standar) describes it as esters monoalkilics of fatty acids of long chain derived of renewable lipids such as vegetable oil or animal fat, and which are employed in internal combustion engines. The most used esters. Are of methanol and ethanol (obtained from the reaction of transesterification which will be explained later), owed to their low cost and their chemical and physics advantages.
The biodiesel needs to dispose of some spcification which number the propierties and guarantee the quality of product. In the following table appear the established specifications for the biodiesel and the method of essay suitable. Besides, the biodiesel has to fulfill the requisites to the motoring mineral fuels and which are included in the European rule EN-590 [ED]. The specific requeriments and the control methods for the commercialization and supply of metylic esteres of fatty acids-FAME-for their use in diesel oil motors with 100% of concentration are found in the rule EN 12412, transferred to Spanish legislation in the RD 398/1996 [RD398,1996] and the 1728/1999 [RD1728/1999] in coordination with the European Guideline concordance 98/70/CE.
The most common raw to the manufacturate of biodiesel are detailed now (Vicente 1998-2001):
·Conventional vegetables oils ·Alternative vegetable oils (after frying) Sunflower oil Brassica carinata oil Colza oil Cynara curdunculus oil Soya oil Camelina sativa oil Coconut oil Drambae abyssinica oil Palm oil Pogianus oil Jatropha curcas ·Animal fats Used oil
·Oils from genetically modified seeds
Fat of cow Fat of buffalo
Sunflower oil of high oleic ·Oils from other sources Fatty acids biosynthetized by microbes Oils of micro seaweed
Conventional vegetable oils the raw material used conventionally in the biodiesel production have been the oils from oleaginous seeds as the sunflower and the rape (Europe), the soya (the United States) and the coconut (Philipines); and the oils of oleaginous fruits as the palm (Malasia and Indonesia). Due to climate reasons, the colza (Brassica napus) is produced mainly in the north of Europe and the sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in the South Mediterranean countries, such as Spain or Italy [Vicente, 2001]. The use of these oils to produce biodiesel in Europe has been associated to the regulations of obliged retirement of lands of Common Farming Politics which permits the culture of oleaginous seeds at reasonable prices. However, to dedicate only lands of retirement to the production of energetic raw materia suposes a risk because these surfaces change whith time, since the system of retirement of lands depends on the offert and demand of food cereals, what implies this is subject to changes. In our country, the use of traditional crops like energetic is conditioned besides by the production per hectare of sunflower oil results little attractive, from the point of view of a farmer, to choose this crop as a source to obtain biological fuels.
Alternative vegetable oils. Appart from the conventional vegetable oils, there are other species more adapted to the conditions of the country where they develop and which are better situated in the space of energetic cultures. In this sense, it`s necessary to point out the use, as raw materials of the production of biodiesel, of oils of Camelina sativa, Cambre abyssinica and Jatropha curcas. There are other crops which adapt in a better way to the conditions of our country and which presents bigger yields of production. Specificatelly, they are the cultures of Brassica carinata is a real alternative to dry and extensive irrigate lands. The Vynara cardunculus is a permanent and for more than a year culture, of about ten years of activity of the lands, and directed mainly to the production of biomass, although its seeds can also be well used to obtaining of oil. They are obtained from 2000 to 3000 Kg. of seeds, whose oil serves as a raw material to the manufacture of biodiesel [Vicente, 1998, 2001]. Vegetables oils genetically modified. The oils with high proportions of unsaturated fatty acids, like the sunflower oil or of Carmelina sativa, improve the efficacy of diesel at low temperatures, but they decrease their stability to the oxidation, which results in a high index of iodine. By this reason, they can be taken into account, as raw materials to produce biodiesel, the oils with high content in unsaturations, which have been modified genetically to reduce this proportion, like the sunflower oil of high oleic content [Vicente, 1998, 2001]. Used oils (after frying some food).- The used oil after frying some food is one of the alternative with better
perspectives in diesel production, because the raw materia is cheaper, and with its use are avoided the cost of treatment as a residue. Spain in a big consumer of vegetable oils, focusing on the consumption of olive and sunflower oil. Besides, used oils have got very few chances to be used again, and so they don`t suffer from big changes and show a good attitude for its exploitation like fuel. The production of used oils in Spain gets on about 750,000 tons/year, according the features from 2004. In addition, as an added merit, the usage of used oil means the good management and use of residue. The report about the regulator setting of fuels proposes to recycle this oil in biodiesel. This is an alternative profitable because, apart from producing fuel, eliminates a pollutant waste as the used oil. This oil provokes problems when water is carefully worked, but, its collection is problematic. Animal fat.- Besides vegetables oils and used oil (after frying), the animals and more exactly, the cow fat can be used as a raw material of the transesterification to obtain biodiesel. The fat has got different grades of quality respect to its use in nourisment, being employed the ones have got less quality to formulation of animal food. The application of animal fat appeared as a result of their use in the production of fodder, like departure of these as a subproduct. However, nowadays, it doesn`t exist a level of industrial application in Spain.
Composition Vegetable oils and animal fat are composed mainly by triglycerols (triglycerides), formed for a molecule of glycerol which has got esterificated its three group hydroxilo (-OH) by three fatty acids.
The characteristic of each oil or fat will depend on the esterificated fatty acid in the molechula of glycerd. In the card it can be observed a comparison among the composition of fatty acids which form the palm, sunflower and coconut oils.
Through the reaction of transesterification, wich will be explained in further details later, an transformed the triglyicerides and free fatty acids in monoalkilic esteres of fatty acids.
Problems All the mentioned raw materials, have got an added problem which makes difficult the total viability to obtain biodiesel, or when it is viable, isn`t specially profitable. For example, using oils which have been previously used to fry offer logistics difficulties, not only for its collection, like it has already been explained, but also for its control and viability caused by being a residue. On the one hand, raw materials based on cultures present the peculiarity of having to take into account the usual characteristics of farming markets as well as the complexity which energetic market present ‘per se’. To assure a continous volume of supply, for example, the raw materials for energetic uses should come from the same lands as the ones devoted to food uses; receive the same supports and not being commercialized in a different way. If a farmer is offered low prices to the devoted ones to food he won`t be interested in cultivating to manufacture fuels, however, if the culture for biological fuels is over incentivated, culture for food will be abandoned and this will provoke uncontrolled increasing in prices of food as basic an corn, sunflower, soya,... In addition, it isn`t necessary to forecast the possible year variations of production caused by climate, etc., and this creates uncertainy with respect to the supply.
Other sources. It results very important to point out the production of lipides through microbial processes. Depending on the raw material which these micro organisms use to manufacturate the said lipids we can find cases specially interesting such as the ECOFA® project which uses yeats and bacteria to, from urban solid residues, farming wastes, etc., obtain fatty acids and triglycerides shaped, whose composition is similar to vegetable oils, which can be used as a biological fuel
Introduction to ECOFA® project.
The metabolism is the team of reactions and physicschemical processes which are produced in a cell. This complex processes interrelated are the basis of life as far as molecular, and allow the diverse activities of cells: growth, reproduction, maintenance of their structures, answer to a stimulous, etc. The metabolism divides into two conjugated processes: catabolism and anamolism. Catabolic reactions release energy; one example is glucolysis, a process of degradations of compounds like the glucose, whose reaction provokes the releasing of the energy restrained in their chemical bonds. The anabolic reactions, on the other hand, use this released energy to mend the chemical bonds and build components of cells such as proteins, nucleic acids or fatty acids. The fatty acids are essential components of phospholipids and sfingolipids, molecules which form the lipid bicape of the membrane and all cells. Some fatty acids are precursors of prostagladins, tromboxanos and leukotriens, molecules with a big biologic activity, which take part in the regulation and control of numerous vital processes, as the inflamatory answer, regulation of corporal temperature, process of blood coagulation, contraction of flat muscles, etc. The catabolism and anabolism are processes adapted which make the metabolism in team, because each other depends on other one.
The economy that the cellular activity imposes on its resources oblige to organize strictly the chemical reactions of metabolism, in metabolic vias or routes,where a chemical compound (substratum) is transformed into another (product), and this works on like a substratum in turn to generate other product, following a sequence of reactions under the intervention of different enzimes (generally one for every substatum- reaction)
Route microbial of fatty acids. One of the most important steps in the biosynthesis of fatty acids is the synthesis of palmytol- ACP (ACP= Acil Carrier Protein), precursor of palmitic, which can be observed in the graphic. The other fatty acid are obtained by changes in this metabolic intermedium.
There are different families of fatty acids: the ones with long chain, hydroxylated, branched, etc. In the following tables can be observed sudied carried out on kinds of fatty acids found in bacteria and yeasts.
Methylic esteres of 22 fatty acids in 44 origins of yeasts Fatty acids Presence of different fatty acid in diverse origins and yeasts
FATTY ACIDS OF BACTERIA Fatty acids of bacteria Fatty acids obtained from bacterial cultivation.
Table 1.- (continued) Fatty acids obtained from bacterial cultvation (II).
Direct use of oils in motors. The nature of vegetable oils has a series of drawbacks to be used directly in motors, because of these ones need a preparation consistent in previous taking off the rubber and filtration. The seeds are pressed separating the oil from the cake, undergoing normally the seeds to a previous heating and the action of a dissolvent to get performance of extracting of oil nearby the 100% . The cake which is obtained as a subproduct, has got a high content in protein because of its possible commercialization to feed animals, getting reduce the prices of the costs of process of extraction. The use of oils without any transformation recquires, either making a series of changes in motors, or using Elsbett motors. This is the produced, basically, by the problems of viscosity of biodiesel. (Look at the following table).
Sunflower Propierty ester oil
Diesel Colza Colza oil methil ester
Sunflower oil methil
Density (15ºC) (Kg/l) Point of ignition (ºC) Kinematic viscosity (37,8ºC) (mm2/s) Number of cethane Gross hot of combustion
(mj/Kg) Point of stiring up (ºC) Sulphur (% weight) Residue of carbon (% wheight) Differences among the propierties of diesel oil, vegetables oils and biodiesel. Source: Panoramaenergetico.com. Fatty acids of vegetable oils vary in their length and in the number of double bonds contained in the chain (reflexed by the index of oidine). The presence of double bonds make possible they are suitable to the consumption having a better working out at low temperatures, although it can suffer easily from oxidation. On the other hand, long molecules with double bonds confers to the oils a viscous character which implies a bigger difficutly of pumping and atomization fuel in injectors, what means a lower yield. Polyunsatured fatty acids have got a high reactivity which become into more capable to the polymerization and formation of rubbers, which form by oxidation during the storage or by a deficient thermic and oxidizing polymerization. So, how bigger is the grade of unsaturation of an oil, better is its working on as a fuel at low temperature conditions, which is essential to a diesel fuel. When it is wanted to use vegetable oils in direct internalcombustion engine it`s necessary to resort to the mixtures
of vegetable oil with oil diesel, which permits, modifying the proportion of the components, to maintain the characteristics of fuel. In any case, these mixtures of vegetable oil and diesel continue having part of the problems associated to vegetable oils, which are: - Polyunsatured fatty acids have got a big reactivity which are able to polymerization and formation of rubbers; - they aren`t completely burnt having as a result carbonatous deposit; - the lubricating oil becomes more thick; - high viscosity. Difficulty for the pumping and formation of drops; - low number of cethane. Defficient ignition in quick engines; - defficient behaviour in cold. Problems of pumping and filtration; - injectors make dirty. Perfomance features of motor dereriorate: A solution for these problems would be through the modification of diesel motor: - a previous heating of fuel; - injection in prechamber. Self-cleaning injectors. - More adiabatics motors: ploughed combustion chamber, less refrigeration; - Starter system whith diesel oil. Although it had been demonstrated that it can be used in diesel motors without any modification mixtures of until 1:2 (biodiesel:diesel oil) in the case of soya oil [Mai 1998].
Another alternative is the imployment of mixtures of gross vegetable oils with gasolines (14%) and alcohol (5%), which can be used as fuel of diesel oil motors in a direct way Elsbett motors As it has been mentioned previously, the use of oils without any transformation recquieres, either making a series of transformations in motors, or using Elsbett motor designed by the German enterprise Elsbett Konstruktion applicable as in monocylinders motors as in motors of until twelve cylinders It`s an adiabatic motor, I mean, which exchanges very little hot with the enviroment and avoids among the 25 and 50% of loss of energy through the refrigeration system. It hasn`t got the conventional system of colding and this permits it to work at a higher temperature and, so, with a bigger thermodynamic performance. Besides, it has got the characteristic of being able to burn the whole fuel and because of that it can be considered a practically clean motor. In adition, the fact of burning vegetable oil doesn`t liberate dioxide of sulphur. It`s a motor ready to the combustion of vegetal oil crude, without refining and without eterificate, which doesn`t carbonize or leaves waste substances, which has got a thermic efficiency superior to 40% (it`s necessary to remember that a conventional gasoline or a diesel motor doesn`t super the 30%). This means that the biggest procedure permits to supply more useful mechanic energy.
The mechanic elements which distinguish it from a conventional diesel oil motor are: - an articulated piston with the upper part isolated thermically and acousticsly situated inside a combustion chamber sphere-shaped - one or two injectors for each cylinder, with an only hole and self-cleaner, which inject the vegetable oil to the combustion chamber tangentially and this permits a perfect nebulization, I mean, that the mixture of air with fuel is very thin and this avoids the formation of carbonous deposits. The cover of cylinders dispones of a small ring-shaped chamber by which the lubricant oil which is employed as a refrigerant passes. Since the refrigeration system doesn`t use water, the cover of cylinder hasn`t got joint. A small oil radiator permits closing the oil lubricant refrigerating circuit. The fact it doesn`t need water to be refrigeration saves pieces, weight and volume to the motor. Another important aspect to point out is the sphere-shaped combustion chamber, which permits an excess of air in the combustion of vegetable oil and stratifies the motor temperature. So, meanwhile the nucleus of combustion can reach 1300º C, on the contrary, the zone of contact of piston doesn`t exceed the usual 650º C of every motor. The final temperature of gases of escape is only a bit superior than the temperature of conventional diesel oil. Besides, the combustion needs less amount of air and, so, it`s reduced the emissions of oxids og nitrogen. The changes of Elsbett motor permit the diesel oil vehicles to work on using
either diesel oil or vegetable oil with a good thermodynamic procedures and without problems which affect the working on of motor. Elsbett motor isn`t the only are of known motors as polyfuels and semiadiabatics. However, it`s the only system that can be applied in any diesel motor with a minimum intervention and with a reasonable cost of more or less 2,500 to 3,200 euros. The invention consists, basically, in annulling the chamber of water of block, changing the cover of the cylinders and the pistons and add a small radiator to the refrigerant oil. The only condition is that the motor doesn`t have ceramic elements. To sum up, an oil can used directly in the following cases: adaptation of diesel motor for the use of oils. Specific motor for the use of oils (Elsbett motor) mixtures of diesel oil with oil mixtures of diesel oil with metylic esteres mixtures of diesel oil with alcohol.
The biggest grade of introduction and development is present in mixtures of diesel oil with esteres (mainly methylic) and with alcohol, which are presented as the most viable options commercially speaking. Obtention of esteres of fatty acid (biological fuel). To avoid introducting the changes in motors recquired to the use of vegetable oils without modifying and develop their characteristics like fuels, it to resorted to tramsform them into their derived metylic and ethilic esteres. So, it is
achieved that the long initial branched chains, with high viscosity and high proportion of carbon become into others of straight chain, with less viscosity and percentage of carbon and physico-chemical and energetic characteristics more similar to the motoring diesel oil. This biodiesel can be used, either pure or mixed in different proportions together with the motoring diesel oil, which is the usual way of using it. With regard to its propierties as motoring diesel oil, the characteristics of esteres are more similar to the ones have the vegetable oils without modifying. So, the viscosity of ester is lightly bigger than the one of diesel oil, unlike the ten-twenty times superior of the raw vegetable oil. The use of biodiesel in motoring, is totally extended in Europe since the last ten-twelve years. In countries like Germany and Austria there are more than one thousand and eight hundred petrol stations which incorporate a petrol pump of biodiesel (it`s the same if it`s 100% or from a mixture of 2% to 30% of biodiesel and the rest diesel oil). The reason of making a mixture with conventional diesel oil (EN590), lies in that the vegetable oils have got, among other things the particularity of dissolving the gum and the rubber. Owed to these vegetable oils are the raw material to the manufacture of biodiesel, the said product also dissolves the gum and the rubber, materials employed in the fabrication of conduits and joints of the system of feed of vehicles (nipples or hoses) for what with the continued use of biodiesel 100%, these conduits could demean,
producing some pore of lose of fuel (the biodiesel is biodegradable in a 98,3% in twenty-one days). From the middle of nineties, every all manufacturater of vehicles (mainly German brands), have already replaced these conduits by other ones manufactured with plastic material or derived, and so the biodiesel doesn`t dissolve it.
Reactions in the production of biodiesel. Reactions of transesterification of tryglicerides. Although the estirification is a possible process, the method used commercially to obtain the biodiesel is the transesterification (it`s also called alcoholysis). It´s based in the reaction of molecules of triglycerides (the number of atoms of chains is included among fifteen and twenty-three, being the most frequent eighteen) with alcohols of low molecular weight (methanol, ethanol, propanol, butanol) to produce esteres and glycerine that can be used in cosmetics, food, chemistry, etc.
The reaction of transesterification presented in the graphic, develops in a molar proportion of alcohol in the methanelysis one mol of triglyiceride with three mols of alcohol (although it`s added an aditional amount of alcohol to replace the reaction to the formation of metylic ester). The triglyceride is the main component of vegetable oil or animal fat. Besides, the formation of the base of glycerine which can’t mixed with the methylic esters, has got an important role in the replacement of the reaction to the right, reading conversions nearby to 100%
Reaction of transesterification. In the following graphics are presented the different reactions which take place in the transesterification, which consists chemically in three reactions reversible and consecutive. The triglyceride is transformed consecutively in diglyceride, monoglyiceride and glycerine. A mol of ester metylic is liberated
Triglyceride Diglyceride Monoglyceride
Methanol Methanol Methanol
Ester Metylic Ester Metylic Ester Metylic
Diglyceride Monoglyceride Glycerine
Reactions implied in the transesterification. In the reaction of transesterification is used a catalyser to improve the speed of reaction and the final procedure, because without it, this reaction wouldn`t be possible. The catalyser can be homogeneous acids (H2SO4, HCI, H3PO4, R-SO3), heterogeneus acids (zeolites, sulphonic resins, SO4/ZrO2, WO3/ZrO2) heterogeneus basics (MgO, CaO, Na/NaOH/Al2O3), homogeneus basics (KOH, NaOH) or enzimatics (lipases: Candida, Penicillium, Pseudomonas); of all of them, the catalysers that are more common at a commercial scale are the homogeneous catalyzers basics because they act much quicker and besides they permit to operate in moderated conditions. In the case of the reaction of transesterification , when it`s used and acid catalyser it`s necessary to have high temperatures and long reaction times, so it`s ususal the use of derived from acid more active.
However, the utilization of alkalis, that it has been explained it`s the most used option at an industrial scale, implies that the glycerides and the alcohol must be anhydrous (<0,06% V/V) to avoid the saponification is produced. In addition, the tryglicerides must have a low proportion of free fatty acids to avoid they neutralize with the catalyser and grow soaps. So, in this way, the secondary reactions that can be produced are the following: - reaction of saporification - reaction of neutralization of free fatty acids. The triglycerid reacts with the basic catalyser, consuming it, in the presence of water provoking the formating of soaps (reaction of saponification) in the same way it can observed in the following graphic.
Reaction of saponification. The saponification is favoured when it used potassium or sodium hydroxide, since its molecules contain the groups OH responsible of this reaction. So, when these catalysers are used, it`s necessary to pay a special attention to the conditions of reaction, specially the temperature and the amount of basic catalyser, to reduce the saporification as much as be possible.
However, the metoxides don`t contain the group OH as a impurity, and therefore its use doesn`t produce practically soaps from saponification. In any case, it`s necessary to use oils and alcohols essentially anhydrous, because the water favours the formation of soaps from saponification. By this reason, water must be eliminated, from evaporation, in oils with high contents in humity before carrying out the transesterification. Reactions of esterification of fatty acids. The process that is used to the manufacture of biodiesel is the transesterification with the purpose to make good use of the subproduct of fatty acids and also produce biodiesel. In view of the importance of esteres have been developed numerous processes to obtain them. The most common is the heating of a mixture of alcohol and the appropieate acid with sulphuric acid, using the most economical reagent in excess to increate the procedure and move the balance to the right (Fischer`s esterification). The sulphuric acid serves in this case as a catalyser as a hygroscopic substance which absorbes the water formed in the reaction. It`s sometimes replaced with concentrated phosphoric acid. In practic, this procedure has got several drawbacks. The alcohol can suffer from reactions of elimination forming oleofines, esterification with the own sulphuric acid or of formation of eter, and the organic acid can suffer from decarboxilation.
This reaction of esterification appears developed in the following graphic:
Catalyser (acid) Fatty acid Ester Metylic
Reaction of Esterification The catalysers used in this kind of reaction, on the contraty to in the process or transesterification which are usually hydroxides, are acid or enzimatic. In the case of esterification, on the contrary to the reaction of transesterification, because when catalisers acid are used isn`t necessary to resort to work with high temperatures and long times of reaction.
ANSWER TO DIVERSE DOUBTS AND QUESTIONS - Can the bacterial process which is developed and which produces fatty acids be produced from eating the excretions from a bacterium to another and so on?
There is no pont in talking about excretions but also about secretions. The difference is that the excretions are useless residues, meanwhile the secretions are useful for the producer organisms in the future. To sum up, ECOFA is produced by the accumulation of the fatty acids secreted by the natural metabolism of all the living beings, bacteria included (just as corroborated the first report which was entrusted to Biotit. These fatty acids could be used laterly with several aims (accumulation of energy, building of celular walls, biological fuel,...). And just in case there would be any doubt, to stand out the micro organisms don`t fatten when they eat fatty acids. The celular mass of a micro organisms grows from a source of carbon, just a Francisco Angulo has always explained. - Is the product ECOFA an alkane? ECOFA is a mixture of fatty acids, or esterificated farming triglycerides, or free just as it makes evident the analysis carried out by SGS. Fatty acids can be considered as hydrocarbons because, really they are long chains of carbon and hydrogen atoms, finishing with an acid group (formed by two atoms of oxygen). The long chain joint to the acid group can be called alkilic rest, and inside this denomination are the alkanes, alkenes and alkines depending on the kind of unsaturation which presents. In fact the fatty acids of ECOFA will present more than one unsaturation being able to be alkanes, alkenes or alkines. - Is the product ECOFA a pentadecan?
To denominate pentadecan to ECOFA presents two mistakes: the first one is that in the name ‘pentadecan’ isn`t indicating the presence of the acid group. I mean, a pentadecan is a hydrocarbon composed by fifteen atoms of carbon and thirty-two of hydrogen, however ECOFA will be formed, among other, by an ester of pentadecanoic acid, including, in this case, the acid group (according to this semantics). The second mistake is that it can be assured with firmness, that the carbonated chain is only of fifteen carbons (in fact in ECOFA there will be a great variety of alkilics chains). - Can it be assured that ECOFA is petroleum? The word petoleum implies its provenance of continental or maritime geologic beds. As ECOFA hasn`t got that origin it isn`t petroleum. ECOFA is a biological fuel or biodiesel. - Is the process anaerobio (in absence of oxygen) the same as the formation of petroleum? That isn`t right. The process of biosynthesis of fatty acid is aerobio (in presence of oxygen).
Some years ago, we started a project called Biotit. That project was the illusion of a Science student which became being real after several years. Since the begininng of our managerial development, we understood our company was a hyghly specialized entity because the great values and qualifications of its staff and our desires of proving that science can help in the most daily situations in life. Our enterprise owns a human team highly qualified, which is our bigger value, and of which we feel prouder. That specialization help us and it`s the indispensable pillar to complete with the maxims which will understand as conditions to serve our customers and which have become ourselves in leaders of market in last years. Quality and independence. Our company bases all its projects and services on these two values. We introduce, some years ago, the more demanding national and international quality rules which have served us of call as a scientist model as in Spain as abroad. Our works are completly independent from any economical or social pressure, because our investigations projects are independent from our usual commercial activity, devoted to the microbiologic control inside the food and agriculture sector mainly, among others. Our illusion, of which we inform you from this same moment, is their illusion, and because of which they entrust and investment and development budget of an idea which is born from some hidden illusion in their heads and hearts. This is the human side of science, I want to
transmit them the illusion for making from their project the ours, and of course convincing them of they have found the best option to archieve it.
Josè Manuel Gonzàlez Petit Biotit General Director
Project 1.- Data ot the project.
The project that we will developed for ECOFA bases on in the use of micro organisms (bacteria and yeasts) which can produce fatty acids in an amount so sufficient and homogeneus as to generate biological fuel using urban solid residues as a raw materia. This project, in spite of there are a lot of studies related to the manufacture of biological fuel, is new as far as investigation is concerned mainly by the technical difficulty that insolves. After our preeliminary studies about the viability of the project, we found a very serious drawback mainly in the obtaining of an homogeneus product to extrapolate as far as industry is concerned to the production of biological fuel. Even so, the obaining of this result is very feasible after studying the possible associated problems that can cause us the urban solid residues as matrix materia. We estimate the extrapolation of investigation as far as industry is concerned within a period of three years and half and four years, being possible to reduce this period according to the project follows developing, and in any case, excepts a properly justified cause will exceed over four years. Among five and twelve people will participate in ECOFA project, depending on the moment in which the investigation is. In this group are included two doctors in Chimistry, two Chemistry Graduates, two Biology Graduates, two
Biochemistry Graduates, one Biotechnology Graduate, one Chemistry Engineer, one Farming Engineer, one Superior Engineer, apart from our technical personnel from laboratory who will help us in daily tasks. The associated director to this project will be Mr. José Luis Reino Moya, director of our department I+D+i, whose extensive experience as an investigator qualifies him widely to coordinate this group of wonderful investigators. Investigation tasks will be done in Biotit Centres of Seville, carrying out the laboratory phase in our laboratory central office in Juan Sebastiànn El Cano Street, and the fermentation process at industrial scale in our office of P.I. La Isla in Dos Hermanas, Sevilla. We will use mobile equipments punctually and make proofs of field in different places of Spanish geography, whose data will be collected by our technicians of Barcelona, Valencia, Granada, Málaga, Badajoz y Huelva. To the carrying out of this project we will use our more developed equipments and among all of them I would like to emphasize the equipment for microbiologic sterelization and the microbiology controlled atmospheres (hoods of vertical laminated flow, hoods of biologic security, heaters of controlled temperature and atmosphere, etc.) gases extractor hood, equipment of RMN (magnetic resonance) fermenters to provoke the process in the bacterial kinetics choosen, reactors HPLC MS to work out the liquid chromotography and ICP GC/MS/MS to work out the chromotography in solid phase, as well as the separation of metabolites, and of course all the necessary equipments as for the elaboration of processes in phase of laboratory as in industrial phase. Aditionally to this project it can
associate the utilization ot technics of genetic modification of micro organisms to optimize the results of studied kinetics in whose studies we`ll use our equipments of amplification de NDA through the reaction in chain of polymerase (PRC). 2.- Chronogramme of delivery of reports and advances of investigation. After the preliminary report and the study of conditionings, we have divided the project into seven phases which we are going to developing now: PHASE 0: Report about the viability of project (already made). All projects that Biotit works out are started after a studio about the possibilty of achievement of their objectives. This report is launched for a commercial presentation of the beginning of investigations. PHASE 1: Choice of micro organisms. The choice of micro organisms for the project ECOFA is one of the most important stages which is going to shorten or lengthen the process of investigation. We start working out a bibliographic research of micro organisms, which we`ll choose among three or five from the previously selected. This bibliographic research isn`t worked out in scientific magazines of general character, but also is worked out from the study of doctorate tesis
(related or no with generator bacteria of fatty acids) and works of investigations from other groups of work, from everywhere in the world as a part of our integration in programmes of exchange of scientific information. After the research will be selected a maximun of three micro organisms, of which will proof their fitness in proofs of perfomance in laboratory. After the choice we`ll start to ferment for fourteeen days (1:1) the micro organisms in an artificial enviroment and on this fermentation will work out the analisys of number of fatty acids generated. After this first phase, we`ll have got a report of conclusions consistenting of: - explaining of processes worked out; - justifying of the choice of micro organisms; - approach to studies of bigger productivity of fatty acids; - approach to studies of bigger quality of fatty acids. The final report of this phase will be presented in the first term of 2009 in written and digital format (ppt) in a public awareness meeting.
PHASE 2: Optimization of production. In this second phase we`ll focus on analysing the possible methods to extract fatty acids.
This phase is intimately joint to the previous one because of its length in time can overlapped to this. In spite of this, we`ll think if it`s appropiate to have a final report of results of extraction as in liquid phase (HPLC) as solid (ICP), within a period among two and four months. The final report of this phase will be presented among the end of second term and the beginning of third term of 2009 in written and digital format (ppt) in a public awareness meeting. PHASE 3: Kinetic Study, We find here the hardest phases of work in the whole project. The kinetic project consists in modifying the life conditions of micro organisms to be able to optimize their performance and at the same time to check its real possibility of application at industrial scale. The variables which we`ll modify will be: - time - temperature - agitation - ventilation - quantity of inocula - any other variable which we consider of interest in the investigation. Every modification of variables entails a fermentation 1:1 of each one of the bacteria, so we are talking about one the longest phases of this project.
We`ll work out aproximately fifteeen-thirthy fermentations with a period of ten days every one and a later study of results that can length among four and five days more. So, when this phase finishes we`ll obtain: - A detailled report of each fermentation (modifying variables); - A report of obtaining of fatty acids and metabolites after each fermentation; - Final report of fit kinetics. The final report of this phase will be presented during the first term of 2010, in written and digital format (ppt) in a public awareness meeting. PHASE 4: Evolution to real source of carbon. This phase is essential to the development of investigation, because we`ll look for the most adecuated source of carbon, the most adecuated matrix to, in this way, see the treatment of urban solid residues. Here, we found a difficulty a priori. The organic solid residues aren`t ‘pure’ carbon sources. After transforming these organic residues we can find thick metal as lead, nickel and others in the generated residues, as toxines. In this phase we will start studying pure carbon residues, like organic residues of micro organisms non homogeneus, to finish with solid residues and urban solid residues.
After these initial studies, with all their associated proofs, will be make fermentations to study the homogeneneization of the different sources of carbon. After this phase, we will have a preliminary profile of the ideal carbon source to the generation of biological fuel. This phase of the project will be presented in two written and digital reports (ppt) during the third term of 2010 and the first term of 2011. PHASE 5: Study of homogeinity. During this short phase, we`ll apply the results of studies obtained in phases three and four. Even so we foresee changes in the kinetic of micro organisms to modify the artificial enviroment by the definitive source of carbon, with which will have to work out a new, but shorter kinetic study, from the new carbon sources and the modification of these one to its entry in the industrial process. The ressults of this phase, will be presented in a written and digital report (ppt) in the second term of 2011.
PHASE 6: Deisgn of fermenter. In this phase enter the arena our engineers.
From our laboratory experiences and using the kinetic of the phase five we will design the most adecuated fermenter to the optimization of the production of biological fuel, taking all the optima variables studied to the design in plane of industry. The reports of this phase, will be presented anesed to a preliminary plane of industrial fermenter and an economic study of this one, in written and digital format (ppt) during the third term of 2011. PHASE 7: Increase of process. According to the established plans, our engineers will present a technical project of installations and his later management of work, as well as the manufacturate of all the certificates of installations of these. When the project is operating will start the tune up of system in the industrial scale, and the training of workers, including a plan of control of quality of the product to fulfill with the official recognition as biological fuels obtained previously. This project won`t depend exclusively of Biotit, so we cant guarantee the final report delivery ‘ready for immediate occupancy’ in a determined time.
Francisco Angulo`s patents. Certificate of Spanish, patent nº P2005 2149: Procedure to the obtaining of fuels from residues of organic nature. Application of international patent PCT by method of treatment of organic materias and obtaining and refining of fuel from the said materias. A patent is a team of exclusive guaranteed rights by a government or authority to the inventor of a new product, material or non material, capable of being exploited industrially to the benefit of the applicant of the said invention during a limited time, which is usually twenty years since the date of its application form. One of the purposes of legislation about patents, is to induce the inventor to reveal this knowledge to advance in society, in return for sheltering him in the cession of the exclusivity about his invention. So, a patent guarantees a monopoly of exploitation, one idea or machinery for a time. The patents are legal privileges which government concede to inventors, with the purpose of for bidding to any other person manufacturate, use or sell the product, procedure or patented method in return for divulge publicly the way of carrying out of the product, procedure or method. The principle on which is based the system of patents is that if an invention is protected against any copy, the government promotes the invention to permit legally to the inventor, to be the only person can sell or explode the
invention. So, his benefit is bigger, and makes profitable the invested resources in the investigation. The patents are one of choices to avoid one person copies one product or machinery without appropiate penalty. At the same time, patents should serve to a more effective and quicker diffusion of new ideas in technology, making easier and develping the access to it. But, on the contrary to it`s usually thought, the information which patents contain is of public nature and at first, everyone can access to it in the appropiate office of brands and Patents, although only the holder can use it with commercial purposes. Application of patent Date of presentation 05.09.2006 Applicant: Francisco Angulo Lafuente Date of publising of this aplication: 01.05.2007 Auditors: Angulo Lafuente, Francisco Date of publising of the aplication form: 01.05.2007 Agent: Sanz-Bermel Martinez, Alejandro Title: Procedures to the obtaining of fuels from residues organic nature. Summary: Procedures to the obtaining of fuels from residues of organic nature.
The present invention consists in one procedure to the obtaining of fuel from residues with organic contents such as domestic rubbish, which include: - A grinding of the mass for treating. - Addition of water, in its case, to obtain a homogeneus paste. - Biological treatment at ambient temperature from yeasts and bacteria. - Evacuation or extraction of the gasseous (methane) and liquid (oils) fractions. - Elimination of solid residues precipitated. - Mantaining or recovery of certain quantity of employed micro organisms. Advance of the bulletin number two correspondent to October 2008: Long journey from Seville of ELECOFASA in October 2008. Bulletin nº 1 September 2008: The crisis of petroleum. Appearance and crisis of biological fuels. Preceding of group ECOFA. ECOFA is a new fuel which for its procedence, obtaining and solution to the inherent problems to every class of organic residues and specially the USR, is denomined ecological fuel. - First reports, analysis and results which guarantee the total scientific viability of ECOFA.
- Chronogramme and budget of the Investigation ECOFA: ‘Utilization of bacteria biogenerators of fatty acids to the producting of biodiesel from urban solid residues.’ - Francisco Angulo`s patents. Long journey from Seville of ELECOFASA in October 2008. Day 16 - Meeting with the general director of Andalusian Agency of Energy, Francisco José Bas Jiménez, accompanied of Amparo Mansó from Renewable Energies Deparment, Field of biomass. - Work lunch with José Manuel-González Petit and José Luis Reino Moya, General Director and Chief of Project of Biotit Scientific Biotechnology Laboratory, respectively. - Public awereness meeting with Andalusian enterprises interested in the product ECOFASA. Day 17 - ELECOFASA offers an explanatory press conference to the Andalusian media at Isla Cartuja Hotel with the scientists of Biotit Scientific Biotechnology Laboratory, who lead us the investigation and have their Central Office in Seville.
Day 18 - Only two hundred attendents were specially invited to the Seville`s meeting: ‘Change in Climate: Conscious and Action’ organized by The Climate Project Spain in collaboration with Biosphera Foundation, lectured and led by the Peace Nobel Prize and ex vice president of the USA, Al Gore, with the participation of Rajendra Pachauri who presides over the intergovernmental group about the Change in Climate (IPCC) of United Nations and other important personalities who support the fight against the Change in weather such as the written Tom Kostingen: Press conference.
From left to right: José Luis Reino Moya and José Manuel González-Petit, director of I+D+i and General director of Biotit Scientific Biotechnology Laboratory espectively, Francisco Angulo, Carmen García and Antonio J. Nevado of Elecofasa.
The attendants represented to fifteen Sevillian media who came to the convocation of press conference, among them Spanish Television and Sur Channel Television (TVE and Canal Sur TV), the agencies Europa Press and EFE, the newspaper El País and several radio stations, as well as other national and local publications.
Antonio J. Nevado Escandón, managing director of Elecofasa, S.A. and Francisco Angulo Lafuente, director of the investigation of the company.
José Luis Reino Moya, and José Manuel González-Petit, of Biotit Scientific Biotechnology Laboratory, with Central Office in Seville, who explained their intervention with a digital exhibition about the initial phase of investigation which they are carrying out.
Newspaper article from El País dated on 18 October, 2008, Headline: Developed a biodiesel fuel obtained from waste.
Juan Méndez. Seville.
It`s defined as ‘biological fuel of the subgroup of biological fuels obtained from biosynthetized fatty acids by microbes to the application of the current internal combustion motor engines diesel oil and Otto’. It`s based on the ‘natural principle of metabolism from which all the living beings, included bacteria, produce fatty acids’. Telling it in single language it`s a fuel to diesel oil motors obtained from the organic materia of urban solid residues (USR), I mean, rubbish. In this way it was presented in Seville the project ECOFA, a second generation fuel whose origin are Francisco Angulo`s patents, a Madrilenian of thirty-one years old, who has registred internationally the biotechnologic process to get a fuel from residues and organic waste (domestic rubbish, fecal waters, animal wastes, etc.) with a procedure of Laboratory of one litre per each 10 Kg. of organic materia.
According to the explanation given yesterday by the responsibles of this project, it has been possible to check the scientist base of ECOFA as a biological fuel and a viability project of the use of biogenerators bacteria. From now, it starts the industrial development phase, that they are supposed to be concluded within half and one year, and for this reason transact helps to Andalucian Council.
Meeting organized by The Climate Project Spain:
Antonio and Francisco in the inside grounds at Cartuja Central Theatre in Seville.
Al Gore poses accompained, from left to right, by Estíbaliz Hernáez, Basque parlamentary, Francisco Angulo, Antonio J. Nevado and Arantza Tapia, deputy ‘foral’ of Guipúzcoa. Estíbaliz and Arantza are responsible of Sostenibility and Innovation area, respectively from the Project ‘Think Gaur Euskadi 2020’ and interested at ECOFA product Basque Pais.
Jorge Brown, Coordinattor of Development of Organization, present us to Juan Verde, its president and to Rajendra Pachauri, president of International Panel about Change in climate (IPCC) of United Nations, as well as to other celebrities.
Nevado and Angulo present dossiers with information about ECOFA product to Juan Verde, Fernando Moraleda, Mª Teresa de Lara Carbó, Eduardo Mestre y Thomas Kostigen, all of them speakers in the event.
Mª Teresa de Lara Carbó (PP) and Fernando Moraleda (PSOE) are representant in the Mixed Commission for the Change in Climate.
Eduardo Mestre is the director of ‘La Tribuna del agua’
T. Kostigen writer of enviromental subjects, had an informal breakfast with Francisco.
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