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Product design Process plan Physical entity (product) Process planning consists of preparing a set of instructions that describe how to fabricate a part or build an assembly, which will satisfy engineering design specifications Decisions and details usually included within the scope of process planning are: Interpretation of design drawings Process and sequence Equipment selection Tools, dies, moulds, fixtures and gauges Method analysis Work standards Cutting tools and cutting conditions

Process planning for parts

The process sequence is documented on a form called a route sheet (operation sheet) A typical route sheet includes the following information All operations to be performed on the workpart, listed in which they should be performed A brief description of each operation with reference to dimensions and tolerances on the part drawing The specific machines on which the work is to be done Any special tooling, such as dies, moulds, cutting tools, jigs or fixtures and gauges Cycle time standards, setup times and other data Typical Guidelines in Preparing a Route Sheet Operation numbers for consecutive processing steps should be listed as 10, 20, 30, etc A new operation and number should be specified when a workpart leaves one workstation and is transferred to another station A new operation and number should be specified if a part is transferred to another workholder (eg:- jig or fixture), even if it is on the same machine tool A new operation and number should be specified if the workpart is transferred from one worker to another as on a production line

Decision on processes to be used to fabricate a given part based largely on the starting material The product designer selects this starting material A typical processing sequence to fabricate an individual part consists of: (1) a basic process, (2) secondary processes, (3) operations to enhance physical properties, and (4) finishing operations

Starting raw material

Basic process

Secondary processes

Property-enhancing processes

Finishing operations

Finished part

Fig. Typical sequence of processes required in part fabrication Near net shape processes Operations that require some but not much secondary processing Net shape processes Operations that require no subsequent secondary processing Manual Process Planning A former machinist uses his knowledge, skill and experience A planner with a very good memory retrieves and modifies a process plan for similar part Process plans developed for the same part by different planners will usually differ unless the part is simple to make subjective judgment, preferences and experience The same planner may develop a different process plan for the same part if there is a long time lag between analyses for the part Certain process plan (part in the aerospace industry) task involves documentation labour intensive, time-consuming and tedious Manual approach is preferred for small firms that have a few process plans to prepare Computerised system is preferred when volume of plans to be prepared is high Generative Process Planning A process planning system which includes a data base and decision logic, that will automatically generate a process plan from engineering specification (graphical and textual) of the finished part The generative CAPP belongs to the field of expert system a computer program that is capable of solving complex problems that normally require a human with years of education and experience