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CNC machine system works with several different systems. The Constructional features Of CNC machines are:1. Slide ways 2. Spindle 3. Feed



4. Position Measuring Device

5. Automatic Tool clamping and Work Clamping 6. Tool Magazine & automatic tool Changers
7. Automatic work changers 8. Lubrication 9. Coolant Systems 10. Chip handling System 11. Special features.


When the CNC machine casting started,The first thing caste is column &

bed.These are the main horizontal &vertical structure of CNC machine.Various components & system are placed on that column & bed.


In case of CNC machine,we can see,there are 2,3 or more than 3 axis in

CNC machine.Mainly the CNC lathes are of 2 axis CNC machine.We know that x and y are two mutually perpendicular axis.The another axis is Z axis,which is a vertical axis.If we draw a diagram,We can see that

Z axis is perpendicular to both x& y axis.There is also a rotary axis called a,b or c axis,mainly pallet or job movement is controlled on rotary axis.In modern days 5 axis CNC are produced.


pallet is a part of AWC (Automatic Work Changers),CNC machine are equipped with

AWC/APC to facilitate rapid of work piece to reduce idle time of machine & increase productivity.It can be defined as a rotary tray over which work pieces are hold with fixtures.we can see that there are 4 directions of pallet,jobs are fixed on the pallet in all 4 directions for some machines.

Ball Screw :
guide way.

ball screw is assembly of screw,nut & ball.It is used for the movement of axis over

Same thread is cut in nut and screw & highly polished chromium plated ball is placed between the thread of screw & nut.

ATC & tool magazine:

ATC means Automatic Tool Changer.It is the assembly of ATC arm, Tool

magazine,ATC door.ATC arm is not compulsory for every CNC machine. Arm gripped tool by both end or one

end,old edge CNC machine used single ended tool gripper ATC arm.

Spindle: Spindle is the part which holds the tool and rotates at high rpm,this highly rotating tool cuts the job.spindles are made of stainless steel(416),low carbon steel(1018),medium carbon stress proof(1144), chrome molybdenum carbon alloy(c4140),nickel added chrome molybdenum carbon alloy(c4340). spindles are rotated by motor,power is transmitted from motor to spindle through belt drive or gear drive